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Chapter4 Word formation(II)


Word formation(II)

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This unit deals with the major word-building ? to create new words in the English language. By studying this unit, learners are expected to Know the major word-building processes used to create new words in English Be acquainted with commonly used morphemes Be able to use the word formation knowledge to improve vocabulary learning

3kinds of word formation

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Adding :affixation/derivation, compounding, borrowing, imitation, coinage, invention Shorting: abbreviation (clipping, blending, initialization), backformation Neither adding nor shorting: conversion

4.1 Affixation (Derivation)
Definition and its major features Means the formation of new words by adding affixes to other words or morphemes. eg, disagreement is derived from the verb agree by the addition of the dis- and the noun-forming suffix –ment. Affixation falls into two subcategories: prefixationand suffixation
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4.1.1 Prefixation is the formation of new words by
adding prefixes to bases (stems).

1Prefixes which are negative: a-, dis-, in-, non-, un2Reversative (逆向)or privative: de-, dis-, un3Prjorative:mal-,mis-,pseudo4Of degree or size: arch- extra, hyper-,macro-,micro,mini-,out-,over-, sub-,super-,sur-,ultra-,under 5of attitude: anti-,co-,contra-,counter-,pro-, 6locative:extra-,fore-,inter-,intra-,super-, tele-,trans-, 7of time and order: ex-,fore-,pre-,post-,re8of number:semi-, uni-,mono-,bi-,di-,tri-,multi-,poly9of conversion: a-, be-, en-, 10Of a miscellaneous:auto-,neo-,pan- proto-,vice-

4.1.2Suffixation
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Definition and its major feature Suffixation is the formation of new words by adding suffixes to stems. A suffix is a letter of a group of letters placed at the ending of a word to change its class or function. Suffixes can be classified into groups on a grammatical basis.

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Table: the most productive suffixes to know Noun suffixes:-eer,-er,-ette,-let,-ster,-dom,-ery, -hood,ing,-ism,-ship, -ant,-al, -ance,-ation, -ence,-ment,-ity,ness,-ist, -ite,-an, -ese,-ure,or,-cy,-y Adjective suffixes:-ed,-ant,-ful,-ish,-less,-like,-ly,-y,-al,esque,-ic,-ous,-able,-ative,-ive,-ise Verb suffixes;-ate,-en,-ify,-ize,-ise Adverv suffixes:-ly,-ward(s),-wise

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As we can know from the above list, many suffixes are polysemantic, they have more than one meaning.for example, the demorminal suffixes –er has varied meanings,1) something having x, glover 2)inhavitant of x, londoner 3)maker of x, wheeler

4.2 Compounding(composition)
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Definition and its major features New words are sometimes constructed by combining two or more existing words, the is the process of compounding.It can be written solid(lifestyle),hyphenated(full-service),and open(wast paper basket)

4.2.1Characteristics of Compounds
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In English, compounds may be distinguished from phrases on phonological, syntactic, and semantic grounds. 1.In most cased, the compound has one primary stress and no juncture; while the phrase has primary stress on each word and a juncture between the two words (eg,blcck bird) 2.The compound usually cannot be modified by “very ” or “rather”

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3.The compound is a single lexical unit, it behave like a simple words. eg, bottle-necks, bottles-necks is wrong. eg, He bad-mouthed me. 4.the compounds are characterized semantically by the fact that they tend to acquire specialized meanings, thus becoming very derived from that of its constituents', a green hand, red meat, hot dog,

4.4.2 Formation of Compounds
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Noun compounds: any root+noun=noun compouds. The second root would be a noun while the first root may be a noun,a verb, an adjective or an adverb. N+N(modifier-head):ashtray,book review, officehour,safty lamp, shelf life, nameplate, lower shop, brainpower N+Ving: air-conditioning, daylight-saving,papercorrecting, back-slapping,baby-kissing,day-dreaming V+N(verb-object):daredevil,pickpocket, breakwater,makeshift, blowpipe, telltale

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Adj+n(modifier-head):blackbird,blue-collar, hardcover, highway,superpower, quick-silver, direct-current, blacksmith, brown study Adv/prep+n(not syntactic):afterthought, backtalk,offspring, overbalance,underclothes, byproduct,overweight Special noun compounds:v+adv=noun compound V+adv:blast-off,sit-in,feedback,shutdown,standstill,teach-in,wind-down,throwaway,turn-on

Verb compounds
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Verb compounds are not as common as the other two classes.through conversion or backformation N+V: to brainwash, to housekeep,to moonwalk V+V: to dive bomb, to drop kick Adj+V: t dry clean, to safeguard, to sweet talk Adv+V: to overdo, to out-distance,to uplift, to uphold, to outtake, to outsmart

Adjective compounds
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Any root(except verbs)+adj=adj compounds N+adj(not syntactic):earthbound,iron-willed, heart-broken, seasick, airtight, war-weary, color-blind, Adj+adj(co-ordinate):blue-green,bittersweet, southwest,dead-alive, evil-smelled , ashy-pale Adv+adj(modifier-head): nearsighted, overanxious disposition, all-round athlete,

Summary
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Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units that may constitute words or parts of word. Semantically, they fall into root and affix. A form to which a rule of wordformation is applied is called a base. Prefixation is the formation of words with the help of prefixes do not generally change the word class of the base, but change their meanings. Suffixation is the formation of words with the help of suffixes. They are either calls changing or class maintaining. A compound is a unit consisting of two or more bases. In syntax compound words behave like simple words. For grammarians compounds are interesting because they have internal structure. Semantically, compounds usually have

Exercises
1. On the line provided, write the meaning that the prefix adds in each word. Malpractice___renew____ Unfold_____automation____ Circumvent________counterpunch_____ Introvert______respond____________ Intrastate_________extract_________
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1. On the line provided, write the meaning that the prefix adds in each word. Malpractice renew____ Unfold___________automation____ Circumvent________counterpunch_____ Introvert___________respond____________ Intrastate___________extract_________
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2.by adding a suffix, change each word to the word class indicated in parentheses. Honor(adj)______fail(noun)_____ Recent(noun)_______idol(verb)_____ Smoke(adj)______strength(verb)_____ Outrage(adj)______author(verb)______ Confide(adj)_______fatal(noun)_______
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3.Explain the meanings of the following compounds. Pick-pocket after-thought Off-white gas-mask Back-talk highbrow Tenderfoot over-do
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4.3Conversion(zero-derivation)
Conversion may be defined as a process by which a word belonging to one word class is transferred to another word class without any concomitant change of form. This process is also known as functional shit or zero derivation. Eg,a. The lights gleam in the night. b.I can see the gleam in the night. c. dream a dream, drop a drop of water, shop in a big shop, iron the clothes with a hot iron, list a name list
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Conversion is a highly prolific source for the production of new words. It is also a process in language change. New conversions are constantly being created in the following ways: n ?v:to bottle, to commission, to data-bank,to network, to laugh, to oil, to film, to dust, to nurse, to shelter v ?n: a call, a guess, a spy,a walk, a bet, a glance,a coach, an exhibit, smell, wrap

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adj ?v : to better, to dirty, to empty, to wrong, to free, to calm, to soundproof, to clean, to low adj ?n: the greens, a daily, a double, a crazy, a native, sweets, eatables, chemicals a drunk, newborns Many of these word classes can undergo conversion into more than one other word classes. For instance, to go down (a verb particle) to down a beer (v.), to have a down on someone (n.). Finally, it should be noted that even a whole phrase might undergo conversion and act as a noun, (eg, a forget-me-not, a has been, a don’t know, newly-weds, a not-to-be-missed opportunity)

Abbreviation(shortening)
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Abbreviation refers to word formation through clipping, initializes and acronyms and acronyms. These short forms are quicker and more convenient in use and for this reason they are becoming more and more popular especially in web English.

4.4 Blending
Blending is the formation of new words by combining parts of two words or a word plus a part of another word. Blends tend to be more frequent in informal style in the registers of journalism, advertising and technical field. They fall into four major groups: ? 1.head+tail Autocide(automobile+suicide) Motel(motor+hotel) Slurb(slum+suburb) Chunnel(channel+tunnel)
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Blending
2.head+head Sitcom(situation+comedy) Amerind(American+Indian) ? 3.head+word Medicare(medical+care) ? 4.word+tail Workfare(work+welfare)
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Clipping
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Word formation by clipping of a word, leaving only a piece of the old word. The shortening may occur at the beginning of the word , at the end of the word and at both ends of the word. The clopped form is normally regarded as informal. Eg,phone(telephone)copter(helicopter), taxi(taxicab),frige(refrigerator),

Clipping
1.Front clipping Quake (earthquake),scope(telescope) ? 2.Back clipping Memo (memorandum),dorm(dormitory) ? 3.Front and back clipping Flu (influenza),fridge(refrigerator) ? 4.Phrase clipping Pub (public house),zoo(zoological garden),pop(popular music)
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Initialisms
Words formed from the initial letters of words and pronounced as letters. For example,BBC,British Broadcasting Corporation.TV, television ? VIP(very important person),IBM(international business machine) ID(indenty card)TB(tuberculosis)MIT(Massachlusetts Institute of Tchnology)WHO(world health organization)
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Acronyms
Words formed from the initial letters and pronounce as words. ? SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) MorF (male or female)
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Back-formation
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Back formation refers to an abnormal type of word-formation where a short word is derived by deleting an imagined affix from along form already present in the language. This process is considered to be the opposite process of affixation. words created through backformation are mostly verbs.

Back-formation
Verbs derived from nouns ending with “-ion” Legislate<legislation, valuate<valuation Associate<association, mass produce<mass production, self-destruct<self-destruction ? Verbs derived from nouns ending with “-ing” Bookkeeper<bookkeeping, chain-smoke<chain-smoking ? Ending with “”
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