牛津高二模块 5unit3P49-57 单词 profession / pr??fe?n; pr?ˋf???n/ n (a) [C] paid occupation, esp one that requires advanced education and training, eg architecture, law or medicine 职业（尤指须受高深教育及专业训练者,
如建筑师﹑ 律师或 医师之职业）: advising college leavers on their choice of profession 给予院校毕业生以择 业上的指导 * the acting, legal, medical, etc profession 演员﹑ 律师﹑ 医师等职业. (b) the profession [CGp] body of people working in a particular profession （某）职业界; 同 业: The legal profession (ie lawyers) has/have always resisted change. 法律界人士对变革 总是加以抵制. =>Usage at trade1 用法见 trade1. [C] ~ of sth public statement or claim of sth 表示; 表白; 宣言: a profession of belief, faith, loyalty, etc 信念﹑ 信仰﹑ 忠诚等的表白 * His professions of concern did not seem sincere. 他所表示的关心看来并非出自内心. (idm 习语) by profession as one's paid occupation 作为职业: She is a lawyerby profession. 她的职业是律师. * The author of the guidebook is an architect by profession. 该手册的作者任职建筑师. radiation / ?re?d??e??n; ?red?ˋe??n/ n [U] (a) (the sending out of) heat, energy, etc in the form of rays （热﹑ 能等的）放射; 辐射的热﹑ 能等: a combination of radiation and convection, eg in a gas fire 辐射和对流 的结合 （如在煤气炉中） (b) (the sending out of) rays and atomic particles from radioactive . substances（自放射性物质中放射出的） 射线和原子粒子; 放射; 放射现象: a low/high level of radiation 低[高]强度辐射 * [attrib 作定语] Some cancers are treated by radiation therapy. 有些癌症可用放射疗法治疗. [C] thing that is radiated, esp radioactive particles 放射物; （尤指）放射性微粒, 放射 线: radiations emitted by an X-ray machine X 射线机放射出来的放射线. # radi`ation sickness illness caused when the body is exposed to high radiation, eg from radioactive material or X-rays 放射病; 辐射病. breakthrough break·through /?bre?kθru?/ n [C] an important new discovery in something you are studying, especially one made after trying for a long time breakthrough in
Scientists have made a major breakthrough in the treatment of cancer.
original / ??r?d??nl; ?ˋr?d??nl/ adj [attrib 作定语] existing from the beginning; first or earliest 原始的; 最初的; 原先的; 最早的: The Indians were the original inhabitants of North America. 印第安人是北美最早 的居民. * I prefer your original plan to this one. 我认为你原来的计画比这个好. (usu approv 通常作褒义) (a) newly created or formed; fresh 新创的; 新颖的; 创新的:
an original idea 创见 * His designs are highly original.他的设计独树一帜. (b) able to produce new ideas; creative 有创见的; 创造性的: an original thinker, writer, painter, etc 有创见的思想家﹑ 作家﹑ 画家等 * an original mind 有创造力的头脑. painted, written, etc by the artist; not copied 创作的; 非抄袭的; 非模仿的: The original manuscript has been lost; this is a copy. 原稿已失, 这是副本. > original n
1 the original [C] the earliest form of sth (from which copies can be made) 原作; 原稿; 原型; 原物: This painting is a copy; the original is in Madrid. 这幅画是复制品, 原作在马德 里. * This is a translation; the original is in French. 这是译文, 原文是法文的. 2 the original [sing] language in which sth was first written 原文（最初写作时所用的文 字）: read Homer in the original, ie in ancient Greek 读荷马的（古希腊文）原作. 3 (infml esp joc 口, 尤作戏谑语) person who thinks, behaves, dresses, etc unusually; eccentric person （思考﹑ 行为﹑ 衣着等）与众不同的人, 古怪的人: Her Aunt Effie is certainly an original. 她的姨妈埃菲真是个怪人. originality / ??r?d???n?l?t?; ??r?d??ˋn?l?t?/ n [U] state or quality of being original(2) 创 新; 独创性; 创造力; 独特: Her designs have great originality. 她的设计十分新颖. * The work lacks originality, ie is copied or imitated. 那作品缺乏创造性. originally / -n?l?; -nl?/ adv 1 in an original(2) way 独创地; 独特地: speak, think, write,
etc originally 说得﹑ 想得﹑ 写得...富有创见. 2 from or in the beginning 最初; 起先; 本 来: The school was originally quite small. 这所学校原先很小. # o,riginal `sin (religion 宗) (in Christianity) conditionof wickedness thought to be
present in everybody since Adam and Eve first sinned in the garden of Eden （基督教义 中的）原罪（人与生俱来的罪, 始於亚当夏娃在伊甸园中犯的罪）. judgement (also, esp in legal use, judgment 也作 judgment, 尤用於法律条文) / ?d??d?m?nt; ˋd??d?m?nt/n [C] ~ (of/about sth) opinion about sth 意见; 看法: make an unfair judgement of sb's character 对某人的品格做出不公正的评语 * My judgement is that/In my judgement the plan is ill-conceived. 我的意见是[据我看来]该计划考虑不周. [C, U] decision of a lawcourt orjudge; verdict （法庭或法官的）判决; 裁决: The judgementwas given in favour of the accused, ie the accused was declared not guilty. 判 决为被告无罪. * The court has still to pass judgement (ie give a decision) in this case. 法 庭对此案仍需做出判决. (a) [U] ability to come to sensible conclusions and make wise decisions; good sense; discernment 决断力; 判断力; 见识; 眼力: He lacks sound judgement. 他缺乏准确的判断 力. * display/exercise/show excellent judgement 显示出[运用/表现出]卓越的决断力. (b) [U, C] action or process of judging 判断: errors of judgement 判断的错误. [sing] a ~ (on sb) misfortune considered to be a punishment from God for doing sth wrong 报应; 天谴: This failure is a judgement on you for being so lazy. 这次失败是你懒 惰的报应.
(idm 习语) against one's better judgement => better1. an error of judgement => error. reserve judgement => reserve1. sit in judgement => sit. # `Judgement Day (also the Day of `Judgement, the Last `Judgement) the day at the end of the world when God will judge everyone who has ever lived 最後审判日; 世界 末日. burn (itself) out (a) (of a fire) stop burning because there is no more fuel （指火）因 燃料用尽而熄灭: The fire had burnt (itself) out before the fire brigade arrived. 在消防队 赶到以前, 火已（自行）熄灭. (b) (of a rocket) finish its supply of fuel （指火箭）燃料用 尽. burn (sth) out (cause sth to) stop working because of friction or excessive heat （使 某物）因摩擦或过热而不能操作; 烧坏: The clutch has burnt out. 离合器因过热而失灵. * burn out a fuse, motor, transformer 烧坏保险丝﹑ 发动机﹑ 变压器. burn oneself out exhaust oneself or ruin one's health, esp by working too hard 筋疲力尽或损害了自己的健 康（尤指因劳累过度）: If he doesn't stop working so hard, he'll burn himself out. 他继续 这样拚命地工作, 就会累垮的. burn sb out (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) force sb to leave his house by burning it 放火烧某人的房子迫使其离去: The family was burnt out (of house and home) and forced to leave the area. 这家人因为房子被人放火烧了, 不得不离 开这个地区. burn sth out (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) completely destroy sth by burning; gut sth 烧光某物; 烧空某物: The hotel was completely burnt out. 该旅馆毁於大 火. * the burnt-out wreck of a car 汽车焚毁後的残骸. burn out phr v if a fire burns out or burns itself out, it stops burning because there is no coal, wood etc left
He left the fire to burn itself out .
be burnt out if a building or vehicle is burnt out, the inside of it is destroyed by fire
The hotel was completely burnt out. Only the walls remained. We passed several burnt out cars.
burn sth?out to remove something by burning it
The cancer cells are burnt out using a laser beam.
to work so hard over a period of time that you become unable to continue working because you are tired, ill, or unable to think of any new ideas
It's a high-pressure job and you could burn out young.
be/get burnt out
He was almost burnt out by the time he was 21.
burn yourself out
She's in danger of burning herself out.
→ burnout if an engine or electric wire burns out or is burnt out, it stops working because it has been damaged by getting too hot
The plugs are wired so that if one burns out, the others will still start the engine.
I think you've burnt out one of the gaskets.
if a rocket or jet burns out, it stops working because all its fuel has been used
relation / r??le??n; r?ˋle??n/ n [U] ~ (between sth and sth); ~ (to sth) way in which one person or thing is related to another; similarity, contrast or connection between people, things or events （人或事 物与他者的）联系, 关联, 关系: the relation between rainfall and crop production 降雨量 与作物产量之间的关系 * The cost of this project bears/has/shows no relation to the results, ie It does not justify them. 此项目的费用与其成果不相称. (a) [C] person who is related to another; relative 亲戚; 亲属: a close/near/distant relation of mine 我的近亲[较近的亲戚/远亲] * a relation by marriage/law 姻亲. (b) [U] family connection; kinship 亲戚关系; 亲属关系: Is he any relation (to you)? 他（跟你）是 亲戚吗? * He's no relation (to me). 他（跟我）不是亲戚. * What relation are you (to each other)? ie How are you related? 你们（彼此之间）是什麽亲属关系? relations [pl] ~s (between sb/sth and sb/sth); ~s (with sb/sth) links or contacts between people, groups, countries, etc; dealings （人﹑ 团体﹑ 国家等之间的） 关系, 联系; 交往: diplomatic, international, business relations 外交﹑ 国际﹑ 业务关系 * the friendly relations (existing) between our countries 我们国家之间（存在的）友好关系 * Relations are rather strained (ie difficult or awkward) at present. 目前关系有些紧张. * break off (all) relations with one's family 与家庭断绝了（一切）联系. (idm 习语) have (sexual) relations (with sb) have intercourse (with sb) 与（某人） 发生 （性） 关系; 与 （某人） 性交. in/with relation to sb/sth (fml 文) concerning sb/sth; with reference to sb/sth 与某人[某事物]有关; 涉及某人[某事物]. a poor relation => poor. ,public re`lations (abbr 缩写 ,P`R) 1 work ofpresenting a good image of an organization, a commercialfirm, etc to the public, esp by distributing information 公关工作; 公关活动: She works in public relations. 她从事 公关工作. 2 relationship (esp a friendly one) between an organization, etc and the public 公共关系: We support local artistic events; it's good for public relations. 我们赞助本地的艺术活动; 这有利於促进公共关系. ,public re`lations officer (abbr 缩写 ,PR`O) person employed in public relations 公共关系人员. If you follow in someone's footsteps, you do the same things as they did earlier.
My father is extremely proud that I followed in his footsteps and became a doctor.
follow in sb's`footsteps do as sb else does; follow a similar occupation or life-style as sb else 效法他人; 从事与他人同样的职业或采取相同的生活方式: She works in theatre, following in her father's footsteps. 她继承父业, 也从事戏剧工作. conduct
/ ?k?nd?kt; ˋkɑnd?kt/ n [U] person's behaviour (esp its moral aspect) （人的）行为（尤指道德方面）; 品德; 品行:
the rules of conduct 行为准则 * The prisoner was released early because of good conduct.
这罪犯因表现良好提前获释. ~ of sth manner of directing or managing (a business, campaign, etc) （对业务﹑ 作
战等的）指导﹑ 指挥﹑ 管理或经营（的方式）: There was growing criticism of the Government's conduct of the war. 政府领导作战的方式受到越来越多的批评. conduct
/ k?n?d?kt; k?nˋd?kt/ v [Tn.pr, Tn.p] lead or guide (sb/sth) 领导﹑ 指导﹑ 引导或带领 （某人[某事物]） I asked : the attendant to conduct him to the door/conduct him out. 我让服务员领他们到门口[领他 出去]. * A guide conducted the visitors round the museum. 导游带领游客参观博物馆. * We were given a conducted (ie guided) tour of the cathedral. 我们在有人引导下参观了大 教堂. (a) [Tn] direct (sth); control; manage 指挥（某事物）; 控制; 操纵; 管理; 主持; 经营: conduct business, a meeting, negotiations, etc 经营生意﹑ 主持会议﹑ 主持谈判等 * She was appointed to conduct the advertising campaign. 她被委派主持宣传活动. (b) [I, Tn] direct the performance of (an orchestra, a choir, a piece of music, etc) 指挥（管弦乐 队﹑ 合唱团﹑ 乐曲等） 的演出: a concert by the Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Sir Colin Davis 由科林?戴维斯爵士指挥﹑ 爱乐交响乐团演出的音乐会. [Tn.pr] ~ oneself well, badly, etc (fml 文) behave in the specified way （行为）表 现: conduct oneself honourably, with dignity, like a gentleman 行为光明磊落﹑ 端庄高尚 ﹑ 像正人君子 * How did the prisoner conduct himself? 那犯人表现如何? [Tn] (of a substance) allow (heat, electric current, etc) to pass along or through it （指 物质）传导（热﹑ 电流等）: Copper conducts electricity better than other materials do. 铜 的导电性能比其他材料好. > conduction / k?n?d?k?n; k?nˋd?k??n/ n [U] conductingof electric current along wires or of heat by contact （电流或热量的）传导; 导电; 导热. conductive / k?n?d?kt?v; k?nˋd?kt?v/ adj that can conduct heat, electricity, etc 导热的; 导电的; 能传导的. conductivity / ?k?nd?k?t?v?t?; ?kɑnd?kˋt?v?t?/ n [U] property or power of conducting heat, electricity, etc 传导（热﹑ 电等的）性质或能力; 传导性; 传导力. majority / m??d??r?t?; US -?d???r-; m?ˋd??r?t?/ n [Gp] the greater number or part; most 大多数; 大半; 大多: A/The majority of people seem to prefer TV to radio. 大部分人似乎喜欢看电视而不喜欢听收音机. * The majority was/were in favour of the proposal. 多数人赞成这个建议. * [attrib 作定语] majority opinion, rule 多数人的意见﹑ 多数裁定原则. Cf 参看 minority. [C] ~ (over sb) (a) number by which votes for one side exceed those for the other side 超过对方的票数: She was elected by a majority of 3749. 她以超过对方 3749 票当选. * They had a large majority over the other party at the last election. 在上次选举中他们以悬 殊的票数击败了对方. * The government does not have an overall majority, ie a majority over all other parties together. 政府没有获得（超过各党派票数的）总合多数票. (b) (US) number by which votes for one candidate exceed those for all other candidates together
多数票（一候选人的选票超过其他候选人票数的总和）. Cf 参看 plurality 3. [sing] legal age of full adulthood 成年的法定年龄: The age of majority is eighteen. 成 年的法定年龄是 18 岁. * She reaches her majority next month. 她下个月就到成年年龄了. (idm 习语) be in the/a majority form the greater part/the larger number 构成大部分 [大多数]: Among the members of the committee those who favour the proposed changes are in the majority. 委员中赞成提出修改意见的占大多数. the silent majority => silent. # ma,jority `verdict (law 律) verdict of the majority of a jury （陪审团）多数的裁决. summary / ?s?m?r?; ˋs?m?r?/ n brief statement of themain points of sth 总结; 摘要; 概要: a two-page summaryof a government report 共两页的政府报告摘要 * Here is a summary of the news/a news summary. 以下是新闻摘要. (idm 习语) in `summary as a brief statement of the main point(s) 总的说来; 归纳起 来: And so I would say, in summary, that the campaign has been a great success. 因此我 认为, 总的看来, 这场运动成绩很大. > summary adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 (sometimes derog 有时作贬义) done or given immediately, without attention to details or formal procedure 即刻作出或给予的（未顾及细节或正常程序）: summary justice, punishment, methods 即决裁判﹑ 当场的处罚﹑ 简易的方法 * Such an offence will lead to a summary fine. 这类过错要当场予以罚款. 2 giving the main points only; brief 概括的; 扼要的; 简明的: a summary account of a long
debate 对一长时的辩论的概述. summarily / ?s?m?r?l?; US s??mer?l?; s?ˋm?r?l?/ adv: summarily dismissed 立即开除.
summarize, -ise / ?s?m?ra?z; ˋs?m??ra?z/ v [I, Tn] be or make a summary of (sth) 总结, 概括（某事物）: a talk summarizing recent trends in philosophy 概述当前哲学界动态的讲 话. consideration / k?n?s?d??re??n; k?n?s?d?ˋre??n/ n [U] action of considering (consider 1) or thinking about sth 考虑: Please give the matter your careful consideration. 此事请你仔细考虑. * The proposals are still under consideration, ie being considered. 那些提议仍在审议中. [U] ~ (for sb/sth) quality of being sensitive or thoughtful towards others, their feelings, etc （对他人﹑ 他人的情绪等的）顾及, 体贴: He has never shown much consideration for his wife's needs. 他从来不大考虑妻子的需要. * Out of consideration for the bereaved family's feelings the papers did not print the story. 由於考虑到那个家庭失去 亲人的痛苦, 报纸没有刊登那件事. [C] thing that must be thought about or taken into account; reason 要考虑的事; 考虑 到的事; 原因; 因素: Time is an important consideration in this case. 在这种情况下, 时间 是一个要考虑的重要因素. * Several considerations have influenced my decision. 有好几个 因素影响了我的决定.
[C] (fml 文) reward; payment 报酬; 酬金: I will do it for you for a small consideration (of 50). 我愿替你做这件事, 只消给我一点小小的报酬（50 英镑）. (idm 习语) in consideration of sth (fml 文) in return for sth; on account of sth 作为 对...的回报; 考虑到: a small payment in consideration of sb's services 答谢某人服务的微 薄酬金. leave sth out of account/consideration => leave1. take sth into consideration take account of sth; make allowances for sth 考虑某事物; 体谅某事物: I always take fuel consumption into consideration when buying a car. 我买汽车时总要把燃 油消耗量考虑在内. hunger / ?h??g?(r); ˋh??ɡ?/ n [U] (a) state of not having enough to eat; lack of food 饿; 饥饿: He died of hunger. 他 饿死了. (b) desire for food 食慾: satisfy one's hunger 解饿. [sing] ~ for sth (fig 比喻) strong desire for sth 渴望某事物: have a hunger for adventure 渴望冒险. > hunger v 1 [I] (arch 古) feel a lack of or desire for food 饥饿. 2 (phr v) hunger for/after sth/sb have a strong desire for sth/sb; long for sth/sb 渴望 得到某事物[某人]: She hungered for his love. 她渴望得到他的爱. # `hunger march long walk undertaken by unemployed people to make others aware of their sufferings （失业者的）反饥饿游行. `hunger strike refusal to take food, esp by a prisoner, as a form of protest 绝食抗议（尤 指囚犯的）: be/go on (a) hunger strike 进行绝食抗议. `hunger striker. tasty tast·y /?te?sti/ adj comparative tastier superlative tastiest food that is tasty has a good taste, but is not sweet
a simple but tasty meal
informal tasty news, gossip etc is especially interesting and often connected with sex or
surprising behaviour BrE informal sexually attractive nutrition / nju??tr??n; US nu?-; nuˋtr???n/ n [U] (process of giving and receiving) nourishment; food 营养; 滋养; 食物: adequate nutrition of the body 身体需要的充足的营养 * This food provides all the nutrition your dog needs. 本食品含有狗所必需的一切营养. the study of human diet 营养学: a number of books on nutrition 若干本营养学的书. > nutritional / -??nl; -??n?l/ adj: the nutritional value of a food 某种食物的营养价值. nutritionally / -??n?l?;-??n?l?/ adv. nutritionist / -??n?st; -??n?st/ n expert in nutrition 营养学家.
nutritious / nju??tr???s; US nu?-; nuˋtr???s/ adj (fml 文) of (high) value as food; nourishing 有营养价值的; 营养价值高的; 滋养的: a nutritious meal, snack, etc 有营养的饭菜﹑ 小吃 等. nutritive / ?nju?tr?t?v; US ?nu?-; ˋnutr?t?v/ adj (fml 文) 1 serving as food 用作食物的; 有营养的: a nutritive substance 营养物. 2 of nutrition(1) 营养的: the nutritive process 营养作用. ordinary / ???d?nr?; US ???rd?ner?; ˋ?rdn?r?/ adj normal; usual 平常的; 正常的; 通常的; 普通的: an ordinary sort of day 平常的一天 * in the ordinary course of events 按照事情的正常发展 * ordinary people like you and me 你我之类的老百姓 * We were dressed up for the party but she was still in her ordinary clothes. 我们都盛装赴会, 而她却依然日常装束. * (derog 贬) a very ordinary meal, ie nothing special 很平常的饭菜. Cf 参看 extraordinary. (idm 习语) in the `ordinary way if the circumstances were usual 如果情况如常; 就 通常情况而言: In the ordinary way he would have come with us, but he's not feeling well. 在一般情况下他都和我们一起来, 只是他现在身体不太好. out of the `ordinary unusual; exceptional 不正常的; 例外的; 特殊的: Her new house is certainly out of the ordinary. 她 的新居真是不同凡响. * His behaviour is nothing out of the ordinary, ie not unusual. 他举 止没有任何反常之处. > ordinarily / ???d?nr?l?; US ???rdn?er?l?; ??rdnˋ?r?l?/ adv 1 in an ordinary way 平常地; 正常地; 通常地; 普通地: behave quite ordinarily 表现得很 平常. 2 as a general rule; usually 一般地; 如常地; 照例地: Ordinarily, I find this job easy, but today I'm having problems. 平时我认为这工作很容易, 岂知今日却有了问题. # `ordinary level (also O level) (formerly in British education) examination of basic standard in the General Certificate of Education （旧时英国普通教育文凭的）普通级考试. ,ordinary `seaman sailor of the lowest rank on a ship 二等水兵. =>App 9 见附录 9. reliable / r??la??bl; r?ˋla??bl/ adj consistently good inquality or performance, and so deserving trust; dependable 可信赖的; 可靠的: a reliable assistant, witness, report, watch, battery, firm 可 靠的助手﹑ 可信的证人﹑ 合乎事实的报道﹑ 走得准的手表﹑ 耐用的电池﹑ 有信用的公 司 * be a reliable source of information (about sth) 成为（某事物的）可靠信息来源 * My memory's not very reliable these days. 近来我的记性不太好. > reliability / r??la???b?l?t?; r??la??ˋb?l?t?/ n [U] state or quality of being reliable 可靠 （性） ; 可信（性）. reliably / -?bl?; -?bl?/ adv: I am reliably informed that he's about to resign. 我获得可靠消 息说他就要辞职了.
accurate / ??kj?r?t; ˋ?kj?r?t/ adj free from error 正确无误的: an accurate clock, map, weighing machine 准确的钟﹑ 地 图﹑ 衡器 * accurate statistics, measurements, calculations, etc 准确的统计﹑ 测量﹑ 计算等 * His description was accurate. 他的叙述很正确. careful and exact 精确的; 准确的: take accurate aim 瞄得准 * Journalists are not always accurate (in what they write). 新闻工作者（的报道）并非一贯准确. > accurately
/ bri?f; brif/ adj (-er, -est) (a) lasting only a short time; short 时间短暂的; 简短的: a brief conver-sation, discussion, meeting, visit, delay 短暂的谈话﹑ 讨论﹑ 会议﹑ 访问﹑ 耽搁 * Mozart's life was brief. 莫扎特的一生是短暂的. (b) (of speech or writing) using few words; concise （指说话或写作）简短的; 简洁的: a brief account, report, description, etc of the accident 对事故简短的叙述﹑ 报道﹑ 描述 * Please be brief, ie say what you want to say quickly. 请简断截说. (of clothes) short; scanty （指衣着）短的, 刚刚够大的: a brief bikini 短小的比基尼游 泳衣. (idm 习语) in brief in a few words 简言之: In brief, your work is bad. 总之, 你做得不 好. > briefly adv 1 for a short time 短暂地: He paused briefly before continuing. 他停了片刻又继续进行. 2 in a few words 简单地说: Briefly, you're fired! 一句话, 你被解雇了! brief
/ bri?f; brif/ n (a) summary of the facts of a legal case prepared for a barrister （为讼务律师准备的） 案情摘要. (b) case given to a barrister （给讼务律师承办的） 案件: Will you accept this brief? 你接受这个案件吗? instructions and information relating to a particular situation, job, or task （对某情况﹑ 工作或任务的）指示和资料: stick to one's brief, ie only do what one is required to do 照 章办事（仅做分内的事） * It's not part of my brief to train new employees. 训练新雇员 不是我工作范围以内的事. (idm 习语) hold no brief for (sb/sth) not wish to support or be in favour of (sb/sth) 不支持, 不赞成（某人[某事物]）: I hold no brief for those who say that violence can be justified. 我不赞成人们说有时使用暴力是合乎情理的. > brief v 1 [Tn, Tnt] give a brief2(1a) to (sb) 将案件委托（某人）: The company has briefed a top lawyer to defend it. 公司已将案件委托给最好的律师进行辩护. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (on sth) give sb detailed information or instructions in advance (about sth) 事先给某人详细介绍或指示 （某事物） The Prime Minister was fully briefed before the :
meeting. 首相在会议前已掌握了详尽资料. * The Air Commodore briefed the bomber crew on their dangerous mission. 空军准将向轰炸机机组下达执行危险任务的各项指示. Cf 参看 debrief. briefing n [C, U] detailed instructions and information given at a meeting (esp
before a military operation) （会议上作的）详细指示和介绍; （尤指军事行动前的）会议 部署: receive (a) thorough briefing 听取详细指示 * [attrib 作定语] a briefing session 任 务布置会. actual / ??kt?u?l; ˋ?kt???l/ adj existing in fact; real 实在的; 真实的; 实际的; 确实的: What were
his actual words? 他到底是怎麽说的? * The actual cost was much higher than we had expected. 实际成本比我们预料的高得多. * He looks younger than his wife, but in actual fact he's a lot older. 他看上去比他妻子年轻, 可是实际上他大得多. =>Usage at new 用法
见 new. > actually / ??kt?u?l?; ˋ?kt???l?/ adv really; in fact 实际地; 实在地: What did he `actually say? 他实际上说了些什麽? * Actually, I'm busy at the moment can I phone you back? 说实在的, 我现在正忙着--我给你 回电话行吗? * the political party actually in power 实际掌权的政党. though it may seem strange; even 居然; 竟然: He actually expected me to pay for his ticket. 他竟然指望我给他付票钱. * She not only entered the competition she actually won it!她不但参加了竞赛--而且居然获胜了! confirm / k?n?f??m; k?nˋf?m/ v [Tn, Tf] provide evidence for the truth or correctness of (a report, an opinion, etc); establish the truth of 证实, 证明（报告﹑ 意见等）的正确性; 确认: The rumours of an attack were later confirmed. 发动攻击的谣传後来得到了证实. * The announcement confirmed my suspicions. 这项通告证明了我的猜疑属实. * Please write to confirm your reservation, ie send a letter to support a booking made by telephone. 请来信确认一下您 所预订的项目 （来信确认在电话中预订的项目） * When asked, she confirmed that she was . going to retire. 有人问她时, 她肯定了她将要退休. [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.n/a] ~sth; ~ sb (as/in sth) ratify (a treaty, appointment, etc); make definite or establish more firmly (power, a position, etc) 批准（条约﹑ 任命等）; 肯定, 巩 固或加强（权力﹑ 地位等）: The new minister will be confirmed in office by the Queen. 新 的部长将由女王批准任职. * After a six-month probationary period, she was confirmed in her post. 经过六个月的试用期之後, 她获准正式任该职. * The incident confirmed him in (ie established more firmly) his dislike of dogs. 出了这件事之後他就更加不喜欢狗了. [Tn] admit (sb) to full membership of the Christian Church （教会）给（某人）施坚信 礼 （使之成为正式教徒） She was baptized when she was a month old and confirmed when : she was thirteen. 她出生一个月时受洗礼, 十三岁时行坚信礼. > confirmed adj [attrib 作定语] settled in a particular habit or state 习惯的; 根深蒂固的: a confirmed bachelor, ie a single man who is unlikely to marry 抱独身主义的男子 * a confirmed drunkard, gambler, etc 饮酒﹑ 赌博等成癖的人.