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新视野大学英语视听说教程2第三版BOOK3 UNIT4


UNIT

4

What’s the big idea?

Unit 4

What’s the big idea?
Learning objectives

Opening up Listening to the world
Speaking for communication Further practice in listening

Wrapping up
Fun time

Learning objectives
1 2

3
4

talk about inventions and creative ideas predict the theme and relevant vocabulary before you listen propose ideas and comment on ideas while brainstorming present your business idea learn to use voice, body language and visual aids effectively in speech delivery

5

Opening up
Discussion Look at the pictures. Why do you think they are on the “world’s worst inventions” list? Give at least one reason for each. The waste gas emitted by cars is polluting our living environment. Moreover, along with the increasing number of cars, the roads are becoming more and more crowded and there are more traffic accidents.

Opening up
Discussion

Accidents caused by the nuclear power tell us that it is not as safe as it claims. In addition, the economic cost of nuclear power accidents is high, and meltdowns can take decades to clean up. The evacuation of affected populations will also pose serious problems.

Opening up
Discussion Nowadays people come to know more and more about the harmful effects of fast food. Though it can bring us a lot of convenience, it is of little nutritional value and often high in fat, sugar, salt, and calories. Eating too much fast food may cause obesity and other related diseases.

Opening up
Discussion Despite its convenience, the mobile phone has brought us many problems as well. As we all know, this small machine emits radiation all the time, which is harmful to our health. Furthermore, it reduces the intimacy between people and brought about some psychological problems, especially among young people.

Opening up
Discussion The weapon is a device designed or used for nothing but killing people. There are different kinds of weapons, including conventional weapons, chemical weapons, biological weapons, nuclear weapons, etc. They are often used in wars, leading to the death of people and the great loss of property.

Opening up
Discussion The harmful health effects of smoking cigarettes are known to all. Every year hundreds of thousands of people around the world die from diseases caused by smoking. The mixture of nicotine and carbon monoxide in cigarettes can cause heart attacks and strokes. Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of low birth weight, premature birth and abortion.

Listening to the world

Sharing

Listening

Viewing

Listening to the world
1 Watch a podcast for its general idea. The people in the podcast mainly talk about the items they enjoy buying most, the sort of things they buy on impulse, the sort of things they plan to buy, and the recent product or service they think is impressive. They also talk about the business they would like to start, or the product or service they would like to invent.

Listening to the world
2 Then watch Part 1 and match the statements 1-4 to the people A-D. 1 3

2

4

Listening to the world
3 Watch Part 2 and choose the true statements. 2 He buys food on impulse. 3 She doesn’t buy things on impulse because she is self-controlled. 4 She likes buying handbags very much. 5 He travels a lot for his work so he plans to buy train tickets and plane tickets.

Listening to the world
4 Watch Part 3 and fill in the blanks. 1) amazing 2) changed my life 3) mobile phone 4) emails 5) camera 6) taking a picture 7) fantasy 8) cakes 9) arts 10) creativity

Listening to the world
5 Discuss the questions. 1 Do you often buy things on impulse? ?Yes. I can’t resist the temptation of delicious food, fashionable clothes, and latest electronic products. ?No, I am self-controlled and will always think twice before I make a purchase.

Listening to the world
5 Discuss the questions. 2 What recent product or service do you think is impressive? The latest mobile phone I saw on TV impresses me a lot. First, it’s very smart. Second, it has a flexible 3D screen. Finally, it has an in-built projector, which is convenient for you to project pictures or movies on any flat surface.

Listening to the world
5 Discuss the questions. 3 If you could start a business or invent a product or service, what would it be?
I want to invent a kind of chip which can give people knowledge when it is placed in human brains. The traditional ways of teaching and learning cost too much time and energy, however, with limited effect. The invention of this chip will significantly improve human cognitive capability and get them better prepared for the future.

Listening to the world

Sharing

Listening

Viewing

Listening to the world
BEFORE you listen
1 Work in pairs and do the following quiz. 1 How many cans would each machine sell?
Probably each machine would sell more than 100 cans.

2 Should you price your product above or below your competition?
I probably would price my product above my competition.

3 What special ingredients are used to make a hamburger look delicious in advertisements?
Maybe oil, lacquer and cigarette smoke are used in taking the picture of a hamburger.

Listening to the world
BEFORE you listen
1 Work in pairs and do the following quiz. 4 What time does a watch or clock nearly always show in advertisements, and why?
It’s 10 past 10, because it’s a positive image: It looks like either a smile or a tick.

5 Which color is the best?
1) blue; 2) green; 3) red; 4) purple; 5) yellow and orange

6 Why do you rarely see the color blue in a food commercial?
Because it suppresses the appetite. (All the questions are open-ended.)

Listening to the world
Listening skills
Additional Notes Predicting the theme and vocabulary before you listen
Predicting is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge of the world and of the language to understand the listening materials. It can greatly improve the efficiency of your listening. Predicting the theme and vocabulary of a lecture, a talk, an interview, etc. before you listen can help to improve your comprehension, especially of difficult listening materials.
To get yourself ready for the listening and make your prediction more accurate, you are advised to follow the skills introduced in the Student’s Book.

Listening to the world
Listening skills
Additional Notes Example:
Suppose you are going to listen to a lecture about creativity, you probably would think of the following questions and answers (vocabulary) beforehand.

Listening to the world
BEFORE you listen
2 You are going to listen to an interview. Predict what it will be about and what vocabulary will probably appear based on quiz you have just finished. Since the quiz is about marketing strategies, I guess words or phrases like advertisement, commercial competition, price, company, sell better, promotion, market share, profit, consumer, salesperson, complaint, product, etc. will mostly probably appear in the talk.

Listening to the world
WHILE you listen
Additional Notes Coke
also called Coca-Cola, was invented by Doctor John Pemberton, a pharmacist, in 1886. In 1888, Asa Candler, who incorporated the CocaCola Company in 1892, bought the formula for Coca-Cola from John. Today, Coca-Cola is consumed throughout the world and the CocaCola Company is the world’s largest beverage company of soft drinks.

Listening to the world
WHILE you listen
Additional Notes Pepsi
also called Pepsi-Cola, was created by American pharmacist Caleb Bradham. In 1893, Caleb Bradham began to serve his customers from his own soda machine. He registered this drink with the name of Pepsi-Cola in 1903. Then he started his own production and established his own company. Pepsi-Cola is Coca-Cola’s major competitor all over the world.

Listening to the world
WHILE you listen
3 Predict what the expert would say to complete the statements. Then listen and check your answers.

1 cheaper 2 better 3 oil 4 sad 5 safety 6 appetite 7 precision 8 purple

Listening to the world
WHILE you listen
4 Listen again and fill in the blanks.
1) Which soft drink 2) want things 3) how consumers behave 4) above 5) a bigger share 6) small 7) I deserve the best 8) steam 9) cigarette smoke 10) smile 11) tick symbol 12) positive 13) built-in associations 14) sports equipment

Listening to the world
After you listen
5 Discuss the marketing strategies for something you are all interested in. You may employ the strategies mentioned in the interview.
To sell a new toy, first we need to target on our prospective consumers. We should mainly advertise on TV since most kids only watch TV instead of reading newspapers. As to the appearance of our toy, we think purple is preferable because it is said that kids prefer purple to all other colors.

Listening to the world

Sharing

Listening

Viewing

Listening to the world
BEFORE you view
1 Read the program information and predict what therapy Tanya might use in overcoming her fear of sharks. I guess she probably would first ask for help from a psychologist who could give her some suggestions on how to face sharks fearlessly. Then she needs some training to get used to staying with sharks closely. Gradually she might feel easy about coming face to face with sharks without any psychological obstacles any more.

Listening to the world
WHILE you view
2 Watch the video clip and choose the best answers. 1 It’s safer to wear a A. black swimsuit. 2 Tanya uses a B. stick to protect herself from the sharks. 3 At the end of the program, Tanya was C. proud.

Listening to the world
WHILE you view
3 Watch the video clip again and correct the mistakes.
1 At first, it isn’t easy. 2 I didn’t think that they were going to be … quite so … big. 3 I noticed the suit and I think we should change the suit completely. 4 Jim throws fish heads into the water to attract the sharks. 5 Tanya, look behind you over on your left. 6 That was wonderful! Tanya did great. 7 I’ve started to overcome my very real fear.

Listening to the world
AFTER you view
4 Discuss what solutions you can offer to solve the problems in the following situations: 1 There is always one sock left when the other is worn or missing. It is suggested that you buy more than two pairs of socks of the same color and style next time. On the one hand, you can wear them interchangeably, which is good for prolonging the life of those socks. On the other hand, it will not be a problem anymore if one of them is worn or missing.

Listening to the world
AFTER you view
4 Discuss what solutions you can offer to solve the problems in the following situations: 2 You always worry about your flowers and plants when you leave your home since nobody will water them.
To solve this problem, we can design a kind of special device that is able to automatically water flowers and plants on a regular basis. Maybe the machine can even sensibly detect the environmental changes and correspondingly modify the amount of water supplied. With these functions, we won’t need to worry about our flowers and plants anymore.

Speaking for communication
1 Listen to Part 1 and note down ideas to make children like eating vegetables.
The ideas given by speakers in the conversation include: 1 changing the color of vegetables to purple 2 giving a prize to kids who eat two veggies a day 3 carrying out a school gardening program 4 making kids want vegetables by forbidding them to eat vegetables 5 putting vegetarian recipes on cereal boxes or websites 6 launching a viral campaign which features a video with a celebrity

Speaking for communication
2 Listen to Part 2. Which ideas are rejected and why? Which one is chosen in the end? Rejected ideas and reasons:
1 changing the color of vegetables to purple: would need to use chemicals to color the vegetables 2 giving a prize to children who eat two veggies a day: not original enough, too difficult to organize 3 carrying out a school gardening program: too complicated to set up 4 making kids want vegetables by forbidding them to eat vegetables: no reason mentioned

Speaking for communication
2 Listen to Part 2. Which ideas are rejected and why? Which one is chosen in the end? Rejected ideas and reasons:
5 putting vegetarian recipes on cereal boxes or websites: wouldn’t mean anything to kids, maybe only to their parents 6 getting kids into vegetarianism: the point is to get children to eat a more balanced diet, not to make them vegetarians

Chosen idea:
launching a viral campaign which features a video with cartoon characters

Speaking for communication
3 Listen to Part 2 again and complete the sentences.
Suggesting ideas: 1 feel about 2 having a competition 3 consider 4 strike 5 it’d be great 6 Suppose we Responding to ideas: 1 a problem 2 frankly; complicated 3 grab 4 thinking of 5 go with

Speaking for communication
4 Choose one of the topics below and brainstorm at least five ideas.
Some ideas for topic 6 (How to get people to walk work): ? I was thinking of using the Internet to get people to realize the benefits of it. ? what about inviting a celebrity spokesperson to promote the idea? ? How does the idea of putting articles in popular newspapers strike you? ? I think it’d be great if we could get doctors to promote the benefits of walking to work. ? Why don’t we organize a Walk to Work Week?

Speaking for communication
Speaking skills
Additional Notes Brainstorming
To make sure that a group brainstorming is successful, some key principles or rules are to be observed as follows. 1 Initially, the quantity of ideas is more important than quality. So the goal of brainstorming is to produce as long a list as possible. 2 No idea is too predictable or absurd. In fact, sometimes these ideas somehow lead you to the perfect solution. 3 Zero judgment. The worst thing you can do in a brainstorming is to criticize an idea.

Speaking for communication
Speaking skills
Additional Notes Brainstorming 4 Everybody’s equal. You have to spot the shy people and encourage them. It only works if you work as a team. 5 Keep a record. Write the ideas down – each and every one. Have one person as a secretary and they just write whatever anyone says.

Speaking for communication
Get ideas
1 Listen and answer questions.

1 What is the product called?
Yummy Utensils.

2 Why is it such a good idea?
They can be used as the real utensils. And they create no rubbish because when you finish eating, you can simply eat them and they taste good. Or if you throw them away, they dissolve within days. So they’re environmentally friendly.

3 Where will it be sold?
In the supermarket, with picnic supplies or in the snack section.

Speaking for communication
Get ideas
2 Listen again and choose the ones you hear. 1 We would like to introduce you to an idea that … 2 What makes our idea special is that it’s not just practical … 4 We envisage this product being sold in supermarkets … 6 We think that Yummy Utensils will be a hit with families in particular … 8 We’ve done some market testing and it was amazing how much the children enjoyed them. 10 In the future, we are planning to develop a sweetened version …

Speaking for communication
Discuss and organize ideas
3 Think of a business idea of your own and discuss it with the help of the following questions. You may refer to the expressions in Exercise 2.
? What’s the product called? ? How did you come up with this idea? ? What are its major features or functions? ? Who will the product be popular with? ? How to publicize the product? ? Where will it be sold?

4 Plan a talk to share your business idea.

Speaking for communication
Present ideas
5 Present your group’s business idea to the class. Before you begin, refer to the checklist below to see if you are ready. Checklist
?
? ? ?

Provide enough details about my business idea. Introduce my business idea in an organized way. Make use of appropriate expressions.
Use body language and keep eye contact with the audience.

Speaking for communication
Additional Tips Delivering a speech
Good speakers know how to use voice, body language and visual aids to enhance the impact of their presentation, but without distracting the audience. Voice One factor that contributes to successful speech presentation is the use of voice. The speaker needs to control the volume (loudness), rate, pitch as well as pauses. The following are some tips on how to use these voice qualities:

Speaking for communication
Additional Tips
?

Volume: The speaker can use an increased volume to get attention or to stress an idea, but a soft voice to apologize or to express sadness.
Rate: The speaker may speak fast to convey enthusiasm and excitement, but slowly to signal emphasis or caution. Pitch and tone: A high pitch is generally used to ask a question or convey happiness, but a low pitch to give a statement or convey sadness. Pauses: Short pauses can signal the end of a clause or sentence, but longer ones can indicate the transition between two major points. A pause before a key point lets the audience know that something important is to be presented, whereas a pause after that point gives the audience time to reflect on and internalize it.

?

?

?

Speaking for communication
Additional Tips
Body language
A general rule of using body language in speech delivery is not to overuse it and let it distract the audience.

In particular, the speaker should pay attention to the following: ? Avoid having the same gesture or movement over and over. ? Avoid using gestures that reveal anxiety. ? Avoid overdoing eye contact and staring at the audience. ? Avoid random movement.
The body language used in speech presentation should be natural and spontaneous. Public speakers need to make sure their physical behavior is controlled and precise since too much movement will make them appear nervous and unfocussed.

Speaking for communication
Additional Tips
Visual aids Visual aids can be just about anything the audience can see. Presentations which use visual support are often more persuasive than the ones which do not. Clear and concise visual elements provide a stimulating addition to the spoken word. They help keep the audience interested and support the speaker’s argument. This is because the brain remembers visual information better than word information. In short, speech delivery should be natural, clear and interesting. Knowing how to use voice, body language and visual aids effectively is crucial for successful presentation of a speech.

Speaking for communication
2 Work in small groups and take turns to deliver Paras. 1-2. Pay attention to your use of voice and body language.
1) Examples on the use of voice ? A high voice volume at the start of Para. 1 to attract the audience’s attention ? A short pause before the last sentence of Para. 1 to stress the uniqueness of the iPhone ? A slower rate in Para. 2 when the various things modern people do on the iPhone are mentioned so as to give the audience some time to think and reflect on the versatility of the device 2) Examples on the use of body language ? Eye contact with the audience ? Pointing at the photos of the iPhone or Steve Jobs when they are shown

Speaking for communication
3 What visual aids may you use if you deliver the speech in front of your class?
I may use some photos or short videos when I deliver the speech, for example: (a) Photos of one or more models of the iPhone (b) A photo of Apple’s logo (c) A photo of the former Apple’s CEO Steven Jobs (d) Photos of people using the iPhone (e.g. in a coffee store, or on the subway) (e) Photos illustrating the design of the iPhone (e.g. the touch screen) (f) Photos or videos showing how to use the iPhone (g) A table that shows the history of the iPhone

Further practice in listening
1 Q: What does the woman mean? D Ted is not capable of setting up his computer company. 2 Q: What is the man worried about? B He is worried about the price of the tiny engines. 3 Q: What can we infer from the conversation? C The man thinks intelligent cars might be expensive. 4 Q: What are they talking about? A A business idea brought forth by an airline. 5 Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? D She suggests the man edit videos for people online.

Further practice in listening
Q1: What’s the problem with the man? B He has no idea about his new writing assignment. Q2: How does the woman get her ideas before painting? C She draws inspiration by taking long walks in nature. Q3: What is the man’s attitude toward the woman’s way of getting inspiration? D Disapproving. Q4: What does the woman suggest the man do at the train station? B Get creative ideas from real daily life.

Further practice in listening
Q1: Who invented the first toilet according to the passage? B Sir John Harrington. Q2: What was one of the problems with Harrington’s water closet? C The basin had to be emptied and cleaned constantly. Q3: How did inventors improve the original toilet according to the passage? A They improved the pipes that were attached to the bottom. Q4: Which of the following can best summarize the passage? D The development of the toilet.

Further practice in listening
1) vary 2) a large portion of 3) well-being 4) profound 5) accessible 6) ultimately 7) have a harmful effect on 8) went against 9) aviation 10) is not worth pursuing

Wrapping up
Use the following self-assessment checklist to check what you have learned in this unit.
OK Needs work

I can talk about inventions and creative ideas. I can predict the theme and relevant vocabulary of a listening material based on the information given. I can express myself appropriately while brainstorming. I can present a business idea clearly. I know how to use voice, body language and visual aids to deliver a speech effectively.

Fun time


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