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现代大学英语精读4 unit6 groundless beliefs 课件


Groundless Beliefs

ground: (usu. pl.) the foundation / underlying condition for an argument, a belief, or an action; a cause or good reason for sth. What were his grounds for wanting a divorce? Neither statement can be faulted on the grounds that it is inaccurate. (Lesson 3) On the grounds of sth.: 根据。。。、以。。。 为理由 He resigned on the grounds of ill-health. groundless: not based on reason or evidence groundless optimism Our fears proved groundless.

Proposition: view, idea, assertion Their theory is founded on two of their propositions.

In future we are going to follow the practice—until it becomes a habit—of classifying propositions according to their grounds. a base for an argument take this practice as a guide

Classifying propositions according to their grounds is important because people very often base their judgment of propositions according to their popularity, usefulness, source of authority as well as to their personal taste. They do not always accept beliefs because they are true. Often they accept them because their beliefs serve their immediate purpose, or because they sound nice, or because it is easier or safer to accept them.

Come across: to meet , to discover sth. or sb. by chance 偶然遇到、发 现。。。

be astonished at: be very surprised at met with: encountered; experienced class as: classify as similar usage to be astonished at; to be surprised at; to be alarmed at; to be amazed at; to be astounded at to class as; to regard as; to describe as; to accept as; to view as; to conceive as; to recognize as

They rest upon mere tradition, or on sb.’s bare assertion unsupported by even a shadow of proof…
to be based on 基于 the slightest trace of strong statements without the support of proof

They are only based on tradition, or on somebody’s assertion, but are not supported even by the least amount of proof. 这些说法仅仅是基于传统或者是一些人毫无证据 的断言。

bare assertion: strong statements without the support of proof bare: a. naked; not covered with or protected by anything; empty; just efficient, mere… e.g. bare arm/feet walls 没有任何装饰的墙 necessities 最基本的必需品 facts 纯粹的事实 the bare branches of winter trees The fridge was completely bare. 冰箱里一点吃的也没有。

Phrases: with your bare hands: without weapons or tools bare your soul: to tell your deepest and most private feelings bare your teeth: to show your teeth in a fierce and threatening way barefaced: showing that you do not care about offending sb. or about behaving badly 厚颜无耻的、露骨的 e.g. a barefaced lie

a shadow of: the slightest trace of 少许、残余、痕迹 e.g. A shadow of a smile touched his mouth. There is not a shadow of justification for your behavior. She knew beyond a shadow of doubt that he was lying.

It may be a belief which…ever since: 情况很可能是这样的:我们最初仅仅因为 别人的建议而接受了一个观点,而在那以 后就一直持有(坚持)这种观点。 Way: far 远远地、大大地、非常地 Way up north 老远的北方 Way ahead (behind) 远远在前、远远在后

Many of our strongest convictions were established then. firm belief or opinion坚定的 信仰、
Conviction: could also mean the judgment of a jury or judge that a person is guilty of a crime as charged定罪 e.g. He has six previous convictions for theft. They are strong because they have been in our mind for such a long time. They are strong because they were imprinted on our mind when we were little children, before we were able to judge for ourselves. They are strong because they were passed on to us during our most formative years and often by people we trusted and loved.

But if the staunchest Roman Catholic and the

staunchest Presbyterian had been exchanged
when infants, and if they had been brought up with home and all other influences reserved, we can have little doubt what the result would have been.by exchanging all kinds of influence they’ve got from home or other sources

But if they were exchanged when they were infants and brought up in different homes and under different influences, then the staunchest Roman Catholic would be the staunchest Presbyterian, and vice versa. This shows that our beliefs are largely influenced by our surroundings.

Reverse: to change to the opposite 使反向、使倒转、倒转调换 Her father would be thinking exactly the same way were their positions reversed. 如果他父亲与她把位置倒置过来,他 父亲也会与她的想法完全一样。

It is consistent with all our knowledge of psychology to conclude that each would have grown up holding exactly the opposite beliefs to those he holds now…
We can conclude, based on all our knowledge of psychology, that each would have grown up having exactly the opposite beliefs to what they have now. 根据我们所掌握的心理学知识,我们可以得出结论, 两人长大后会持有与现在完全相反的信仰。

to be consistent: be in agreement with 与。。。相一致 The news report is consistent with the facts.

And each would then have felt…of the truth of the opposite opinion: 而且,每个人就像他现在一样,对自己的信仰 的正确性很有把握---其实那是与他相反的信仰。

be true of: can apply to e.g. The proverb " it is never too old to learn" is true of everyone. Possibly the same is true of social work? 社会福利工作可能也是这样的吧? Other than: usually mean ?except?, but here it means ?apart from?. This usage is not considered standard by many people.

If we had grown up in a community where polygamy or head-hunting, or infanticide, or gladiatorial fighting, or dueling, was regarded as the normal and natural thing—then we should have grown up to regard it as “obviously” natural and perfectly moral and proper.

Polygamy, head-hunting, infanticide, gladiatorial fighting and dueling are practiced only in some communities or practiced in certain historical times. They are considered immoral, improper and abnormal elsewhere or in modern times.

Knowledge: awareness The matter was never brought to the knowledge of the minister. They did it without my knowledge. To sb?s knowledge: 据某人所知 He has been there several times to my knowledge. Sentiment: an opinion or feeling you have about sth. 意见、观点、情绪 What are your sentiments on this matter? Public sentiment: 公众情绪

Of course we do not cease, when we cease to be children, to adopt new beliefs on mere suggestions. Of course when we are no longer children, we do not stop adopting new beliefs on mere suggestion. 当然,当我们长大以后,会继续凭着别人的建议来接受 新的观点。 on: 凭。。。, 靠。。。 ,根据。。。 They made their own judgment on his report. 他们根据他的报告做出自己的判断。

We continue doing it: We still adopt new beliefs on mere suggestion.

to take only the most striking examples, the enormous influence of newspapers and the effectiveness of skilful advertising.

Striking: A striking change显著的变化 A striking instance 突出的例子 The girl is striking in face and figure. For example, we are still easy and often willing victims of newspapers and advertising.

Much of what passes as such is not, strictly, thinking at all.

what people take as thinking As such: 1.如所指的人或事那样 A leader as such deserves obedience. He is the author of the article, but he does not want to be known as such. 2. 就其本身而言 Mere good looks, as such, will not take you far. A name as such means nothing. Pass: 被接受 严格说来,许多类似被人们接受的东西完全不是思想。

To fit in with: to say the same thing or follow the same principle; to agree with 适合、符合、与。。。相配 To fit in with sb?s view 与某人的观点相符 Such…as…:像。。。这样的 (as 做关系代词,引导定语从句) I never heard such stories as he tells. (as 在从句中作宾语) He returned to us later in the day with tobacco, matches, and such provisions as were needed. (as 在从句中做主语)

The dogma may not be that that of any particular individual: it may be a dogmatic statement which has been passed from one person to another, from generation to generation. 这种信条可能不是某个特定个人的观 点,可能是一个人传给另一个人,一 代一代传下来的教条性的的观点。

It may be part of the traditional belief of the people or the race. A person’s racial, cultural, national, political, class, gender, generation identity, while enabling him/her to see the world in a unique approach, also tends to limit his/her vision.

But we should fully face the fact that beliefs which are merely inherited from the past must have originated at a time when men knew much less than they know today. So the fact that a belief is “old” is no argument in its favor. 不过我们应该面对这样一个事实:那些仅仅是从过去传 承下来的观点在其起源的时侯,人类对世界的认识远少 于今天。因此,一个观点“由来已久”(因而我们因该 接受它)并不是站得住脚的论点。 The implication: one of our common mistakes is to accept beliefs simply on the merit of their long history.

Inherit a. to receive (property or a title) from an ancestor by legal succession or will b. to receive or take over from a predecessor c. to receive (a characteristic) from one's parents or grandparents by genetic transmission The eldest son will inherit the title. The new administration inherited the economic problems from the previous one. inherit the tradition She inherited her mother’s good looks and her father’s bad temper.

Originate: Many Christmas traditions originated in Germany. in sb’s favor: in sb’s support; to sb’s advantage, to sb’s benefit 受其支持;对某 人有利 All the comments were in your favor.

find oneself doing sth.: to realize that one is unconsciously doing sth. 发现自己在无意 识地做某事 Dick found himself walking in the direction of Mike’s place. Entertain: to consider an idea, etc. or allow yourself to think that sth. Might happen or be true 考虑、 接受思想、观点等 She has never entertained the idea of living in the countryside.

enquire (or: inquire) into: to find out more information about; to investigate调查 The police inquired into her background. Undesirable: 不合意的、令人不快的 The drug has undesirable side effects. 该药又不良的副作用。 He called at the most undesirable moment. 他在最不该来的时候来了。 wicked: morally bad; evil; in Spoken English it can mean mischievous

Tempt: to persuade or attract (someone ) to do sth.; make (someone) want to do sth. I feel tempted to say…: 我想要说。。。 Their unfriendliness tempted me to leave the party. 他们不友好的态度使我很想离开这次 聚会。

break down: to cease to be useful; to fail to function; to stop being acceptable失败、失效 His health has broken down. Negotiations broke down after only two days. (破裂) in the light of: in consideration of; as a result of 鉴于、由于、考虑到 He made his decision in the light of what he had heard.

Examples of such cases (in par 8): We used to regard the following as obvious truth: that the sun moves round the earth; the earth is flat; the air is weightless; there is always a king; men are always stronger than women; etc

Conceive: to imagine a particular situation or to think about sth. in a particular way 构想出、想象、设想、以为 To conceive an idea I can?t conceive why you did so. Shake off: to get rid off I wish I could shake off this disease.

Many modern persons find it very difficult to credit the fact that men can ever have supposed otherwise. Yet—they did. credit the fact: believe the fact otherwise: differently Paraphrase: Many modern people are hard to believe that for some time men had ever thought they were thinking with their hearts. Yet it is true that the ancient people really thought in that way.

Credit: (fml.) to believe that sth. is true 相信 I can credit all that you are telling me. We found his story hard to credit. Otherwise: differently 不同地、以不同方式 The government claims that the economy is improving, but this survey suggests otherwise.

Reference: 引文;提到、论及 His book on history contains many references to George Washington. 他的那部历史论著有很多处论及。。。 Beyond possibility: impossible Beyond doubt: completely certain Demonstrate the contrary: to prove that the contrary is true by means of a demonstration 在伽利略通过事实证明其完全相反之前,没有那 个观点看起来比这个更不可能或更毋容置疑。

Until Galileo actually demonstrated the contrary, nothing could have seemed more beyond possibility or doubt. It would never be questioned or doubted if there was no Galileo who proved that the contrary was true by means of a demonstration.

on the ground of根据。。。、以。。。为理由 on the ground that ground: the foundation for an argument, a belief, or an action; a basis理由、根据 Jane was late on the ground of the heavy traffic. Tom left on the ground that he was ill.

Consist in: to be based on or depend on 主要是、在于 Happiness does not consist in how many possessions you have; it consists in appreciating what you have. Wisdom consists in learning from our own mistakes.

leave no room for doubt: to make it impossible for people to doubt cling to: to be unwilling to get rid of sth., or stop doing sth. e.g. Throughout the trial she had clung to the belief that he was innocent. He had one last hope to cling on to. pay sb to do sth: to bring benefit or advantage to sb to do sth e.g. It pays to tell people the truth. It pays to forgive others. It doesn?t pay to work too hard at the expense of your health.

Concerned: involved in sth. or affected by it 有关的 He urged all the employees concerned to take an active part in the drive. 他敦促所有有关的职工积极参与这项活动。 is about the last person to do sth: is the least possible person to do sth

Indeed, he would probably be highly indignant if told of what anyone familiar with modern psychology can recognize so plainly.
He would surely feel furious if someone told him a plain fact that he had held some beliefs through self-interest, which anyone who is familiar with modern psychology can recognize very easily.

Attribute (to): to relate to a particular cause or source; attribute sth. to 把。。。归因于 David attributed his company's success to the unity of all the staff and their persevering hard work. Potent: effective and powerful 有效地、强 有力的、有说服力的
Potent arguments 有说服力的论据

Livelihood: Earn / gain / get / make one?s livelihood by…

But we may extend the term to cover also his interest in social position; popularity with his fellows; the respect and goodwill of those whose respect and goodwill he values.

extend the meaning of the word 延伸该词的意义,以涵盖… But the meaning of this term might be understood in a broader sense. It may include his concern for position, popularity, fame, respect, love, etc. 这个词的意义还可以引申到包括一个人的社会地位、在同 事中的声望以及来自他所重视的人的尊重和友善。 (interest not only in the material sense

There is many a man who is unconsciously compelled to cling to a belief because he is a “somebody” in some circle—and if he were to abandon that belief, he would find himself nobody at all.

an important person in a certain group of people who know each other There are many people

Many people are forced to hold a belief because he has become an important person in his group. If he gave up that belief, he would turn insignificant at once.

Putting it broadly, we should always suspect any of our opinions when we recognize that our happiness depends, directly or indirectly, upon our continuing to hold them—when we might lose anything, material or otherwise by changing our opinion. If by changing our opinions we might lose something and therefore be unhappy, we must be suspicious about these opinions and try to find out whether we are not being blinded by our self-interest.

Somewhat similar is the acceptance of an opinion through the desire—probably not recognized by the person concerned—to justify his own nature, his own position, or his own behaviour.

Accepting an opinion through the desire is also the same case. The desire of defending our weaknesses, mistakes, vulnerable positions or wrongdoings becomes another factor to accept a groundless opinion easily. Here it is no longer the interest to gain but the interest to avoid losing certain things.

justify a. to prove to be just, right or valid b. to be a good reason for sth. 证明。。。是着正当的、有道理的 为。。。辩护 The course of events fully justifies our views. The fine quality of the cloth justifies its high price. I cannot really justify taking another day off work.

The lazy and bungling person can adopt a set of opinions which prove to his satisfaction that “the grapes are sour”—the “grape” being the rewards that more energetic and competent men can win.

an idiom describing those people who pretend to dislike what one really desires, because it is unobtainable The lazy and stupid person can readily adopt a set of opinions without questioning why, since they clearly know that these opinions are unobtainable to them, only people who have energy and ability can be rewarded with these opinions.

Many groundless opinions are held through sentimental associations. The thought is associated with memories—pleasant or unpleasant as the case may be—of particular persons who held similar opinions.

Very often we like or dislike an opinion because it is held by somebody we like or dislike. 许多毫无根据的观点仅仅是因为情感方面的联系而被人们 坚持 (许多毫无根据的观点起因于与情感的联系)。思想 与记忆——或美好或痛苦——相连,这些记忆涉及某些特 定的人,他们持有类似的观点。

Be prejudiced against: to have an unreasonable dislike of …对。。。有 偏见 Conversely: Chinese consumers prefer chicken wings. Conversely, British consumers prefer chicken breast.

recollection: memory; a thing that you remember from the past e.g. have a vivid/vague recollection of sth. I have no recollection of meeting her before. To the best of my recollection I was not present at that meeting. recollect: v. to remember sth., esp. by making an effort to remember it e.g. I don?t recollect what she said then.

Bitter: 1. 充满怨恨、仇恨、不满情绪的 Bitter foe 仇敌 2. (争论、斗争等)激烈的;仇恨等强烈的 A bitter dispute 激烈的争执 Bitter hatred 刻骨的仇恨 3. 流露心头痛苦、悔恨等的

Bitter smile Bitter tears悔恨的眼泪

What keen satisfaction we find in belittling the opinions, or attacking the opinions, of somebody of whom we are jealous, or of somebody against whom we bear a grudge! strong satisfaction If we dislike or envy a person, we will tend to disregard or attack his opinions, from which we may acquire a strong satisfaction.

keen: eager; enthusiastic about; e.g. He is very keen to help. She is one of the keenest supporters of that team. keen is also often used before noun, it could mean quick to understand, strong or deep, or very sensitive or sharp a keen mind/intellect keen interest/satisfaction keen sense of smell My friend has a keen eye for a bargain.

Dispose: to put in a place; arrange 布置、安排、处理;使愿意, dispose sb to do sth: to make sb more likely to fell or think a particular way about sth 使某人 愿意做某事或有做某事的倾向。 Your words of cheer dispose me to accept the task. 你的一番鼓励使我愿意接受这一任务。 dispose of sb./sth.: to get red of; to destroy; to deal with Can you dispose of all these old newspapers?

To take one example: how largely our opinions on the merits of certain authors, or poets, or composers, are dictated merely by fashion!... We tend very strongly to feel and to believe as others are feeling and believing.

Our opinions of authors, poets and composers are to a large extent determined by fashion. And as fashions come and go, our opinions also change.

Merit: good qualities that make sth / sb deserve praise and admiration优点、价值 Merits and demerits 优缺点 Merits:是非曲直,事情的真相 Decide a case on its merits 根据是非曲直来断案 Dictate: to control or influence; to determine Their past principles dictate their future policy. Set: a group of people with similar interests; crowd

Once an opinion is accepted, whatever be the cause of its acceptance, it has a strong tendency to persist.
This is an adverbial clause of conditionconcession. In such a clause, the subjunctive mood is sometimes used when the verb is “be”. no matter what the cause of its acceptance may be

Persist: to continue to exist持续 Characteristics that persist through generations Cruel weather that has persisted since last winter Persist in doing sth.: persist in one?s efforts “But I am innocent.” he persisted.(坚持说)

It is quite legitimate to speak of “habits” of thought.: 我们完全可以将此称之为“思维习 惯” Legitimate: correct, reasonable A legitimate way of thinking合乎逻辑的思维 Legitimate inference 合理的推断 Legitimate right 合法的权利

The “brain path” becomes so well worn; the pattern of brain-centers becomes so well connected up by continual use, that the nerve current finds a route of practically no resistance, and so it always takes almost exactly the same course. thought habit; the way you always think

nerve centers

“思路”变得十分陈旧,神经中枢的模式由于不断被使 用而相互连接起来,以至神经流找到了一条实际上没有 阻力的路线,因而总是走相同的路线。

well worn: old because it has been used for a long time connect up: join two or more things together e.g. connect up these computers

We all know the person who has a string of stock anecdotes...

stories about your a number of personal experiences that (similar things); you keep telling people a series of whenever you can think of nothing else to tell

A string of: A string of pearls A string of houses A string of attacks A string of proposals Stock: commonly or regularly used 陈旧的、老套的、通常的 a stock example A stock reply

the good old days: happy days in the past Prohibition: the law in force in the U.S. between 1920 and 1933, prohibiting the manufacture, sale and consumption of liquor improvident: too careless to save money or to plan for the future 不节俭的、不考虑未来的、目光短浅的 They have lived an improvident lives. (奢侈的生活) going to the dogs: to get worse; to become ruined This firm has gone to the dogs since the new management took over.

Start off: He started the show off with a lively song. What shall we start off with? 我们从哪儿开始做起呢? until the “record” has run out!: until they have nothing more to tell!

Stamp: 使被牢记,使被铭刻 The horrible scream will be stamped on her memory for all her life. Men have native ideas and original characteristics stamped in (or: on ) their minds in their first being.人们在其成长的初期就在脑海里烙下 了本民族的思想和习性 As it were: as you might say; so to speak

可以说;在某种程度上

He is , as it were, a walking dictionary.
I’m a sort of unpaid adviser, as it were, to the committee.

fit in with: 适合、符合、与。。。一致 Fit in with my view Fit in with the changed international situation Old Fogey (also old fogy): a person who is excessively old-fashioned in attitude, ideas and manners, etc. 守旧者、老保守

Sometimes our thought-patterns set while we are still quite young. In a few rare cases they remain open or alterable even into old age. to become fixed

Sometimes our ideas and thought habits are fixed when we are very young, and therefore we are unable to absorb new ideas. Only in a few rare cases people will still be open or alterable even into old age.

Yet when full allowance has been made for all these non-rational factors in the determination of opinion, there remains—not in all minds, not in most minds, but in some—a desire to discover the facts; to think things out in a clear and rational way; to get at the truth at all costs, whatever it may turn out to be! 然而,充分考虑了决定观点的所有这些非理性因素之后,仍然--并非在所有人思想中,也不是在多数人思想中,而是在某些人思 想中——存在着一种发现事实真相的渴望,希望以清晰而且理性 的方式思考问题,不惜任何代价去探索真理,也不管结果如何! Yet in spite of all these factors which make it difficult for people to form their opinions rationally, there are still some people who have a desire to think in a clear and rational way; and to do everything possible to find the truth, no matter whether the truth is pleasant or unpleasant.

make allowances:to take sth. into consideration 体谅,把。。。考虑在内 I am tired of making allowances for his lack of experiences. Making allowances for bad weather and for my own laziness, I think that the job will be finished before the end of the year. Considerable allowance will be made for special cases. 对特殊情况将给予充分的照顾。

Text Analysis
Theme

? Theme:

The article is meant to serve as a suggestive example of a curious, inquiring mind at work. It encourages us to find out how we came by our beliefs and manage to be bold enough to test our beliefs.

Text Analysis
Text Structure Part 1 (Para. 1) :

The author’s proposition of the general practice of thinking
five non-rational factors in the determination of people’s opinions

Part 2 (Paras. 2— The author’s analysis of 21) :

Part 3 (Paras. 22—25) :

The author’s encouragement on clear, fresh and rational ways of thinking

Text Analysis
Question: According to the author, what are the five sources for many of our groundless beliefs?
1.

Result of early environment

2. Parroting 3. Self-interest 4. Sentimental associations 5. Fashion

Writing Device
Ellipsis

Writing Device
Ellipsis

Ellipsis: a figure of speech characterized by the omission of one or more words that, while essential to the grammatical structure of the sentence, are easily supplied by the reader.

Writing Device
Ellipsis: examples

But if the staunchest Roman Catholic and the staunchest Presbyterian had been exchanged when (they were) infants, and if they had been brought up with home and all other influences reserved, we can have little doubt what the result would have been. (Para. 3) Sometimes it does rain—and (it does rain) hard.

He saw her lying there. Dead.

Quiz
1. I only know the man by ___ but I have never spoken to him. A. chance B. heart C. sight D. experience

2. Being colour-blind, Sally can’t make a _____ between red and green. A. difference B. distinction C. comparison D. division

C

B

3. You must insist that students give a truthful answer ___ with the reality Relevant to Simultaneous: of their world.? A. relevant B. simultaneous 同时 Part with: 放弃、 C. consistent D. practical 花掉、卖掉 4. In order to raise C C money, Aunt Nicola had to ___ with some of her most treasured possessions. A. divide B. separate C. part D. abandon

Quiz
5. The car was in good working ___ when I bought it a few months ago. A. order B. form C. state D. circumstance ? Working order: 运转情况、工作 状态 Distaste for: 不 喜欢、厌恶、反 感 Dissatisfaction 6. The customer expressed her with / at: ___ for that broad hat. Dismay:惊恐 A. disapproval B. distaste A B C. dissatisfaction D. dismay

7. In order to repair barns, build fence, grow crops, and care for animals a farmer must indeed be ___.? A. restless C. strong B. skilled D. versatile 8. His expenditure on holidays and luxuries is rather high in ___ to his income.? A. comparison B. proportion C. Association D. calculation

D

B

Quiz
11. Basically a robot is a machine which moves, manipulates, joins or processes ____ in the same way as human hand or arm. ? A. characters B. components? C. catalogues D. collections? Components: 零部件 B

Quiz
13. Most importantly, such an experience helps ?____ a heightened sensitivity to other cultures and will bring about a greater appreciation of one’s own culture as well.? A. coach B. forsake C. foster D. censor? 14. When Ann broke the dish she tried to put the ____ back together.? A. fragments B. pieces C. bits D. slices?

Forsake: 遗弃 Censor: 审查、检查 CA

Quiz
17. The audience waited in ___ silence while their aged speaker searched among his note for the figures he could not remember.? A. respective B. respect C. respectful D. respectable

Respective: 分别的 Respectful: 表示尊重的

C

?

Quiz
19. When he was asked about the missing briefcase, the man ____ ever seeing it.? A. refused B. denied C. opposed D. resisted 20. Communication between a young couple is a(n) ____ business.? A. sharp B. dreadful C. intense D. delicate?

Intense: 强烈的、剧 烈的、热情 的 delicate: 令人愉快的、 体贴的 BD


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