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英语修辞与写作


英语修辞与写作
Rhetoric and Writing
刘庭华 15938105533 外国语学院

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语言是表达思想的工具, 修辞则是语言表达的艺术。

修辞 与语法、逻辑的关系:
语法研究语言的结构规律; 逻辑研究思维形式和思维规律; 修辞研究如何根据需要有效地使用语言,强化语 言信息、提升语言感染里、增强语言表达效果 的一种艺术,一种说话、写文章得体、优美、 有效的“美言术” 语法管的是“通不通”, 逻辑管的是 ―对不对”, 修辞学管的是“好不好”。

学习目的
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通过比较、对比、赏析英汉修辞,提高跨 文化交际意识、修辞质量意识和言语修养。 掌握英语基本写作方法,提高英语写作水 平。

基本内容
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英汉语修辞简史与现代修辞理论介绍,常用英 汉修辞格(比喻、通感、借代、委婉语、夸张、 双关等修辞格)生成心理机制异同的比较分析, 修辞对人的认知发展的作用,言语交际中的修 辞语用功能以及修辞的文化涵义对跨文化交际 的影响等。 英语文章基本类型,写作方法,常用句型。 英语四六级作文写作。

课时安排
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第一章 概论(1学时) 第二章 修辞对比与谋篇布局 (1学时) 第三章 常用修辞格 (8学时) 1. 比喻 2. 借代和通感 3. 委婉 4. 拟声和拟人 5. 夸张和双关 6. 反复,反语,矛盾修饰,层递等 第四章 英语写作(6学时)

参考书目
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1. 《英汉修辞比较研究》 胡曙中著 上海外语教育出版 2.《修辞学发凡》陈望道 3.《隐喻学研究》束定芳 著 著 上海教育出版社 上海外语教育出版社 上海交通大学出版社 上海外语教育出版社 上海外语教育出版社

4.《英语修辞赏析》 范家材 编著 6.《英语修辞格详论》 李鑫华 著 7.《英语修辞与写作》黄任编

5.《英汉修辞比较与翻译》余立三 编著 商务印书馆

考核形式
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本课程考核形式为闭卷考试。 平时成绩占30% 期末成绩占70%

第一章
什么是修辞

What is Rhetoric
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陈望道在《修辞学发凡》中说:“修当作调整或适用解。辞当作 语词解,修辞就是调整或适用语词。” (陈望道《修辞学发凡》 第3页)作者进一步解释说:这里所说的“语词”包括书面语言和 口头语言。所谓“调整或适用”,指的是在“材料配置定妥之后, 配置定妥和语词定着之间往往还有一个对于语词力加调整、力求 适用的过程;或是随笔冲口一恍就过的,或是添注涂改穷日累月 的。”(陈望道《修辞学发凡》第9页)这里明确指出,“调整或 适用”语词有两种情况,一种是需经过仔细修改润饰的,一种是 “随笔冲口一恍就过”,即时完成的。不论哪种情况,都在于求 得语言的表达适应题旨和情境。所以,修辞就是运用语词以求适 应题旨和情境。

修」是修饰的意思,「辞」的本来意思是辩论 的言词,後引申为一切的言词。 「修辞」就是在使用语言的过程中,利用多种语 言手段以收到尽可能好的表达效果的一种语言 活动。
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修辞”从概念讲,有三重含义: 一指运用语言的方式、方法或技巧规律 (即“修辞手段”); 二指说话写作中积极调整语言的行为活动 (即“修辞活动”); 三指修辞学或修辞著作。

修辞的起源
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亚里士多德的《修辞学》认为 修辞学是研究演说的技巧。 共有三种形式的演说: 法学演说,议政演说,宣德演说。 准备演说的五个阶段构成了修辞学研究的基石: 觅材取材,布局谋篇, 文体风格,记忆,讲演技巧。

汉语修辞来源
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汉语“修辞”这个词语,最早见于《周易 乾 文言》的“修辞立其诚,所以居业也”一语中。 在这句话里,“修辞”是“修理文教”的意思, 与人的修业有关。

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古人非常重视文辞之美,早在春秋时代,教育 家孔子就指出「情欲信,辞欲巧」(《礼记· 表记》),认为语言表情达意要诚实可信,文 辞要灵动巧妙;「言之不文,行之不远」(《 春秋左传· 襄公二十五年》),文辞如果缺少 文采,那么就不会传之久远;又说「文质彬彬, 然后君子」(《论语· 雍也》),文章要写得 文雅朴实,然后才能成为君子。

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刘勰《文心雕龙》

“夫人之立言,因字而生句,积句而成章,积章而成 篇。”
文章各结构构成单位都有一个内部如何组织,外部 如何与相关单位联系的问题,都有一个受更上一层次结 构单位以至全篇制约,如何适应它们需要的问题。组句 成段,组段成篇,不是任意的、杂乱无章的,有一些基 本的要求。
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王构《修辞鉴衡》

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中国传统修辞学成立的标志 南宋陈骙的《文则》,侧重于修辞理论的研究。 书中包括了用词造句,修辞格,风格,和命意 谋篇。

Why Do We Learn Rhetoric?
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To understand the author‘s intention better. To find out the common ways people know the world and ways people express themselves. To appreciate the beauty, explicit or not, of the language. To learn how to achieve an effective communication.

第二章

修辞与布局谋篇

修辞与布局谋篇
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2.1 语段结构 2.2 衔接手段 2.3 开头起首 2.4 结尾收笔

2.1. 语段结构
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最基本的篇章结构是横式和纵式。 横式结构诸层次地位平等,互不从属,是平行 的并列关系。 纵式结构诸层次则是一层紧接一层的连接关系。 第三种联结关系比较特殊:总--分--总。只限 于三个层次。

横式结构
横式结构是从不同角度、侧面、范围选取若干材料或事件,分别进 行叙说或论证的结构形态。它的各层次间的关系一般说是并列的, 记叙文中通过同一时间不同地点或不同时间和地点发生的一些事 情来写,或是表现一种思想感情;议论文中把论证的中心论点分 解成彼此并列的几个分论点分别论证,以求得认识的全面性;说 明文中以事物空间组合关系为依据安排或采取列举说明事物特征 的方式安排。并列式安排并非随便罗列,而是根据性质强弱、地 位主次、时间早晚,有一定顺序。

纵式结构
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保持文章思想一贯性是一条重要原则,为使前面论述 的问题或叙述的事件简洁有力发展下去,并使文气连 贯,按客观事物各发展阶段的先后顺序,或客观事理 各个侧面、层次深入的递进关系来安排文章内容的结 构形态就是纵式结构。记叙文中依据事件发展过程, 人物成长过程,作者观察感受认识过程,人物心理活 动过程等来安排,议论文依据从现象到本质,从原因 到结果,从历史到现实等来说明文依事物发展变化的 时间过程,事物特征形成的历史源流等来安排,都属 于纵式结构。

纵横交错式
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由于文章阐述的道理不单一,在论述了这一方面后还 须论述另一方面才完满,形成纵横交错形式。依据事 物发展本身就具有的多样性和复杂性,以及客观事理 所包含的多侧面、多层次的性质安排文章层次。一种 以纵为主,横为辅,即贯穿全文的大层次是依某种纵 向关系安排的,而在这纵向发展的每一阶段性平台上, 则又依某种横向关系展开。另一种以横为主,以纵为 辅,即贯穿全文的大层次是以某种横向关系展开,而 在这横向展开的每一个并列的结构单元中,则又依据 某种纵向关系来安排。

2.1. 语段结构
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英语语段的典型修辞结构呈线形 汉语语段的典型修辞结构呈螺旋形

2.1.1 线性结构
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英语段落的一个基本特点是,它是按照一条直 线进行展开。 英语段落往往先陈述段落的中心意思,而后分 点说明。分点说明的目的是对主题句的展开, 并为在以后的段落中增加其他意思做好准备。 在展开中心意思的过程中,段落的每一个句子 应该顺其自然的从每一个前面的句子中产生出 来。

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这种段落的发展方法之一是把段落中的细节围 绕主题系统地展开来。 这种段落也按时空的顺序,一般到具体或具体 到一般等顺序展开。 另一种发展方法是通过在段落中加进各种各样 的过渡标记,提醒读者注意到段落的意思是按 哪一个方向在展开着。

2.1.2 螺旋形结构
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以反复而又发展的螺旋形形式对一种意思加以 展开。 在一个汉语段落中间所作出的结论往往又被进 一步展开或者成了一个新的次主题的基础。

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八股文 破题----对主题重要性的宣称 承题,起讲,入手----对主题各方面的开展 起股,中股----对主题的进一步发展 后股,束股----对主题的反复论述

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在古代中国,作文是一种进行道德教育的方式。 通过多种比喻的方式来对中心意思做螺旋式的 重复,这种方法也许由于其所起的说教作用而 得到了重视。在汉语段落里,对重点反复重复 是很重要的。因此对已经表达过的观点进行反 复的论述回事思凡。

2.2.衔接手段
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语义的连贯取决于思维的连贯。 现代英语修辞学认为思维的连贯性主要有逻辑, 时间和空间三种顺序来确定。 现代汉语修辞学则强调,思维的连贯性可以从 与段各个组成部分之间的层次关系所窥见。

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思维的连贯性由衔接和对应手段来完成。 现代英语多用“形合法” 现代汉语多用“意合法”

2.2.1 形合法
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用连接词语将句子衔接起来。

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一个有效的语段不仅必须具有统一性,而且还 必须具有连贯性。 统一性强调相对独立的语段按一个中心意思组 织。 连贯性强调文字间的逻辑性联系

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其他的修辞手段也可以用来达到连贯性的目的: 1.人称照应 2. 有意识的重复 3.对比

2.2.2 意合法
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前后连贯不连贯,意思周到不周到,都要扣紧 思想的路。 ? -----叶圣陶

2.3 开头起首
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英语修辞学和汉语修辞学都具备的基本原则: 精要,得体,生动 现代英语篇章的开头更注意一种心理策略的成 分。 现代汉语篇章则受到了体裁的制约。

2.3.1 心理策略
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现代英语的文章通过向读者提供与文章的目的 和主题有关的信息,使他们相信文章是值得引 起他们的重视的。

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1.引起好奇心 Does history repeat itself?

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2. 提出似是而非的说法 虽然文章试图说明的观点似乎是不可能的,但 他有是可能的,因而必须被接受。The most characteristics English play on the subject of physical love is Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra

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3.提出对某一主题的可纠正性 以这种方法来说明某一主题已被忽视,误解或 扭曲。

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4. 开场白 其目的是为了解释展开某一主题奇特的方 法,或是为了预防读者可能对作者的意图产生 误解,或是为了某些欠缺的地方向读者道歉。

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5. 运用有趣的故事 这是英语修辞史上最古老的也是最有效的 方法之一。

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在许多现代英语篇章的开头部分,即使作者没 有必要可以引起读者的兴趣,也要博得读者对 他的信任。 因此在表明自己在某个问题上具有一定的资格 时,许多英语作家并不是明显的炫耀自己,而 是通过明智高雅的方法。

2.3.2 体裁制约
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首句表其目 开门见山

2.4 结尾收笔
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得体,圆旨,深刻感人 现代英语篇章的结尾较多的重视“重述”和 “感人” 现代汉语篇章则强调因作品而异。

第三章
常用英汉修辞格的 对比与欣赏

3.0 修辞格的种类
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《英语百科全书》中共提到77种figures of speech 日本的《英和比较英语修辞学》讲义共收入50 种 陈望道的《修辞学发凡》中收录38种 余立三的《英汉修辞与比较》共提及33种汉语 修辞格和36种英语修辞格

使用语音手段的修辞格
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1.头韵(alliteration):在词的开头重复相同的元 音或辅音 2.谐音(euphony): 追求音调的谐和,悦耳。 3.半谐音(assonance) 4. 拟声(onomatopoeia)

使用词汇手段的修辞格
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1.明喻(simile) 2.隐喻 (metaphor) 3.移就 (hypallage) 4.拟植物 (plantification) 5. 典故 (allusion) 6. 拟人 (personification) 7. 类比 (analogy) 8.讽喻 (allegory)

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9.夸张 (hyperbole) 10.委婉语 (euphemism) 11. 迂回 (periphrasis) 12. 矛盾修饰法 (oxymoron) 13. 反语 (irony) 14. 双关语 (pun) 15. 通感 (synaesthesia) 16. 低调陈述 (understatements)

使用句法手段的修辞格
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松散句(loose sentence)
先表达主要概念,然后再补充次要概念,结构比较松 散。其组成部分可以自由的拆散,在句子的某些地方 还可以随时停顿。

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圆周句(periodic sentence)
把主要意思留在句末讲,有时句子的结构也只有到句 末才能完成。

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对偶句(antithesis)
工整对称的并列结构。是表示对比关系的有效手段。

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排比句 (parallelism) 反复 (repetition) 省略 (ellipsis) 倒装 (inversion) 反问 (rhetorical sentence)

Division of Rhetoric
Communicative Rhetoric 交际修辞 (Negative Rhetoric 消极修辞) -- To add to people‘s knowledge; accurate, plain; ? Aesthetic Rhetoric 美学修辞 (Positive Rhetoric 积极修辞) -- To get people affected, or moved; vivid, brilliant, colorful.
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英语修辞的一般规律与特点
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1. 关系词丰富,介词、连词、关系代词和关系副词等 的充分利用,使英语成为一种更为形式的语言,即以 形合为主的语言。而汉语是以意合为主的语言。
That is our policy and that is our declaration. 这就是我们的国策。这就是我们的宣言。 If winter comes, can spring be far behind? 冬天来了,春天还会远吗? This is the reason why he is leaving so soon. 这就是他所以这么快就要离开的原因。

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2. 英语名词用得多,汉语动词用得多。因此,从总体修辞效果上看,英 语呈静态,汉语呈动态。 I fell madly in love with her, and she – with me. 我疯狂地爱上了她,她也疯狂地爱上了我。 A woman with fair opportunities, and without an absolute hump may marry whom she likes. 一个女人只要不是驼背驼得厉害,机会好的话,想嫁给谁就嫁给谁。 Laser is one of the most sensational developments in recent years, because of its applicability to many fields of science and its adaptability to practical uses. 激光可以应用于许多科学领域,又适合于各种实际用途,因此成了近年 来轰动一时的科学成就之一。

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3. 英语有“物称倾向”,即主语往往是表示无生命物体的名词或表示事 物的名词词组。汉语则有明显的“人称倾向”,即句子的主语往往是人 或有生命的东西。 My heart went out to the old warrior as spectators pushed by him to shake Darrow’s hand. 观众从他身边挤过去争相与达罗握手时,我很同情这位久经沙场的老将。 Bitterness fed on the man who had made the world laugh. 这位曾使全世界的人发出笑声的人自己却饱受辛酸。 The sight of his native place called back his childhood. 见到自己的故乡,他想起了童年的情景。 The old man’s death was calm and peaceful. (那位)老人死得很安详。

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4. 英语被动句用得多,汉语主动句用得多。这更说明了英语的 “物称倾向”。 An illustration is furnished by an editorial in the Washington Post (January 17, 1962). 《华盛顿邮报》(1962年1月17日)的一篇社论提供了一个例子。 It has been known for a long time that there is a first relationship between the heart and liver. 长期以来,大家知道心脏和肝脏的关系是最重要的。 The challenge from the Third World has always been foreseen by our shipping companies. 我国的海运公司总能预见来自第三世界的挑战。

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5. 英语多用长句和复合句。 With the gaining of our political freedom you will remember that there came a conflict between the point of view of Alexander Hamilton, sincerely believing in the superiority of government by a small group of public-spirited and usually wealthy citizens, and, on the other hand, the point of view of Thomas Jefferson, and advocate of government by representatives chosen by all the people, and advocate of the universal right of free thought and free personal living and free religion and free expression of opinion and, above all, the right of free universal suffrage. 想必你们还记得,在我们获得政治自由之后,亚历山大· 汉密尔顿和托马 斯· 杰弗逊两人在观点上发生了分歧。汉密尔顿对于由一小群热心公益且 往往有钱的公民掌管的政府的优越性坚信不疑。杰弗逊则主张政府必须 由全民选出的代表掌管。他还主张公民普遍享有思想自由、居住自由、 宗教自由和言论自由的权利,特别是享有普选权利。

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6. 英语大量使用抽象名词,这类名词涵义概括,指称笼统,覆盖面广, 往往有一种“虚”、“泛”、“暗”、“曲”、“隐”的魅力,因而便 于用来表达复杂的思想和微妙的情绪。

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The signs of the times point to the necessity of the modification of the system of administration. 管理体制需要改革,这已越来越清楚了。 No year passes now without evidence of the truth of the statement that the work of government is becoming increasingly difficult. 行政管理工作已变得越来越困难了,每年都证明确实如此。

第一节

Simile, Metaphor 和比喻

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我们在使用隐喻取代不明说的事物时, 一定 不要用疏远的事物,而要用相近的类似的事物 做隐喻。只要这个隐喻一说出口,人们就会清 楚的想到那个不明说的相近的事物。 ? 亚里士多德 ? 《修辞学》

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惠施: 以其所知喻其所不知而使人知之。

3.1.1 Simile
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A simile is an expressed likeness. 明喻表述相像

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Rhetoric in Practice 《英文实用修辞学》

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Simile is a figure of speech in which one thing is likened to another, in such a way as to clarify and enhance an image. It is an explicit comparison recognizable by the use of the word like or as.

3.1.2 主体和喻体
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主体 primary term, tenor 喻体 secondary term, vehicle

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e.g. He entered the penumbra(半阴影) of the storm slowly, marveling at the light, at the horizon drawn back like a bow. 他慢慢地走进了那风暴的明暗相交的处所,惊 奇的望着那拉紧的像一把弓似的明亮的地平线。

3.1.3 明喻的基本特点
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1. 主体与喻体分属不同性质的事物并同时出现 在句中。 e.g. 猫的眼睛像老虎的眼睛。 柯南的眼睛象鹰一样。 The tiger is brave as the lion. He is as brave as a lion.

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2. 主体与喻体必须在某一观点上相似

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Her lips were red, her locks were yellow as gold.

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文军的《英语写作修辞》中归纳了主体和喻体 间常见的相似关系。 形状相似,性质相似,原理相似,功用相似, 动作相似,声音相似,颜色相似

Compare the following sentences: ? Jim looks like his brother Billy. ? My car runs as fast as the train. ? A real friend is like a mirror that can help you see any dirt on your face. ? Life was like a journey full of pitfalls. -- (The first two sentences are not cases of simile.) Simile is a comparison between two unlike things across domains (跨领 域).

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3. 用比喻词这类的引导方式引导。 1)用介词引导 e.g. In his dreams he saw the tiny figure fall as a fly.

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Marriage is like a beleaguered fortress; those who are without want to get in, and those within want go get out . 婚姻象是一个被包围的 堡垒;外面的想要进去, 里面的人想要出来。

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Love goes towards love , as schoolboys from their books; But love from love , towards school with heavy looks.(Shakespeare) 赴情人的约会, 象学童抛开 书一样, 和情人分别,象学 童板着脸上学堂。

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2) 用介词短语引导 (of-phrase) e.g. They crowded around the two strangers and the flood of questions came. Who is to blame but her tyrant of a father. A doctor must have the heart of a lion and the hand of a lady.

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3) 用从属连词引导
e.g. The sapphire(蓝宝石) shall be as blue as the great sea.

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4) 用what 引导 A is to B what C is to D What C is to D, A is to B e.g. The pen is to a writer what the gun is to a fighter.

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Judicious praise is to children what the sun is to flowers. (Bovee) 明智的表扬对于孩子的作用,就象阳光对于花 朵的作用。

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5) 用形容词比较级引导 e.g. The ruby(红宝石) shall be redder than a red rose. He had no more idea of money than a cow.

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We have no more right to consume happiness without producing it than to consume wealth without producing it . 我们不创造幸福便无权享受幸福, 正如不创 造财富也就无权享受财富一样。

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6) 用并列连词and 引导 e.g. Love and cough cannot be hid. A word and a stone let go cannot be recalled.

Exercise
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a bee the sky the coffee a devil a angel ocean

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as busy as a bee as blue as sky as black as coffee as evil as a devil as pure as an angel as deep as ocean

3.1.4 Metaphor
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Metaphor is a figure of speech containing an implied comparison, in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of one thing is applied to another. 隐喻是一种隐含着比喻的修辞格。

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1.His friend has become a thorn in his side.(他的朋友已变成眼中钉肉中刺。) 2.You are your mother‘s glass.(你是你母 亲的翻版。) 3.Hope is a good breakfast, but it‘s a bad supper.

3.1.5 隐喻和明喻的比较
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相同点: 1) 比喻要在两个事物之间进行 2) 两种事物相比较时只在一点上相似,不在 多点上相似。

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形式上的不同点 1) 明喻中有比喻词 2)明喻中的主体与喻体一定同时出现在句子 中,而隐喻会有三种情况:或同时出现在句子 中,或只出现喻体,或只出现主体。e.g. The sunshine of life is made up of very little beams.

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e.g. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

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本质上的区别 明喻是“相类的关系”。 隐喻是“相合的关系”。 e.g. Time is something like money. Time is money.

3.1.6 隐喻的种类
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1)The concretive Metaphor (具体化隐喻) e.g. the pain of separation the light of learning a vicious circle (恶性循环) room for negotiation

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2) The Animistic Metaphor (生机式隐喻) e.g. an angry sky killing half-an-hour shoulder of the hill

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3) The Humanizing Metaphor (拟人式隐喻) e.g. friendly river laughing valleys

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4) The Synaesthetic Metaphor (通感式隐喻) e.g. warm color dull sound

3.1.7 Metaphor 的修辞功能
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1)简练与生动 e.g. My husband is a walking wallet.

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2) 新奇与启发 月亮----地球的妻子,姐妹,还是女儿? Sometimes you go into what I call a bubble boom. Every bubble bursts.

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3)委婉与高雅 水浸金沙滩 蒸水蛋 云蒸霞蔚枫林晚 梅菜扣肉 珊瑚岛上宝石礁 咸鱼蒸肉

Metaphor 的认知功能
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1)隐喻是人类组织概念系统的基础 Couldn't say it was a merry-go round. Because the ends never meet. I don't know. Life is like a straight line. It never ends. Until you are dead. You know? The ends never meet, obstacles that you are going to find . You got to. Because if you don't, you're going to be down. I mean you're going to be dead.

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I would describe life in terms of a journey. But we're walking through it. Sometimes we see clearly, and other times it's dark and hidden. And you can still walk through it, in walking through a darkness, you come to a fuller understanding.

Time is money
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You are wasting my time I don't have the time to give you. How do you spend your time these days? I have invested a lot of time in her. He is living on borrowed time. I lost a lot of time when I got sick.

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Time is money. Time is a limited resources. Time is a valuable commodity.

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2) 隐喻作为人类组织经验的工具 the mind is a machine. My mind just isn't operating. I am a little rusty today.

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3)隐喻作为认识新事物的新视角 Love is a collaborative work of art. Love is work. Love is active. Love requires cooperation. Love requires dedication. Love requires compromise. Love requires a discipline.

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Love is a physical force. Love is magic. Love is war. Love is patient.

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Lakoff: Metaphors we live by. 1980.

Argument is war.
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Your claims are indefensible. He attacked every weak point in my argument. His criticisms were right on the target. I demolished his argument. He shot down all of my argument.

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Ideas are people. Ideas are plants. Ideas are products. Ideas are food. Ideas are resources. Ideas are money.

Ideas are people
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He is the father of modern psychology. Those ideas died off in the Middle age. His ideas will live on for ever. He breathe new life into the idea.

Anger is Fire.
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His remarks really made her burn. I am pretty burnt about it. Her anger suddenly flamed. A flame of anger lighted in her heart. He was born with a hot temper. Everyone present tried to cool down his mounting anger.

Happy is up; sad is down
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His spirits went up. In our town, interest in sports is on the decline. You seem in high/low spirit. The enthusiasm of the students ran high. He's been dowm ever since he heard the news. He was exalted by his success.

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The roses are in flower. The joke is in poor taste. She looks in good health. He is still in two minds. Tom is often in liquid.

More is up; less is down
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More is High; less is low. The number of books printed each year keeps going up. The government tried every effort to bring prices dowm. My income rose last year. The student passed with low grades.

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The kettle has heated up. The tea has gradually cooled down. They were stirred up to rebellion. The sea gradually calmed down.

Theories are containers.
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His theory doesn't have much content. I'm tired of his empty theory. The theory has a lot of holes in it. There should be a water-tight exposition for every theory. This is a new theory containing viewpoint of different schools.

Theories are buildings
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There is no foundation for his theory. The theory lacks supports. Their argument began to be shaky. The theory collapsed competely. A frame must be rebuilt for that theory.

英汉隐喻词对比
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1. 喻体对比 1)共性 在很多情况下采取同一喻体比喻同一事物。 e.g. ear-drum laughingstock corner stone storm to catch

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2. 个性
1)喻体的选择受到心理文化的影响。 心理文化包括思维方式,审美情趣,价值观念等。
e.g. 虹和rainbow. 苍穹和vault 气氛和atmosphere 流星和shooting star 鸡皮疙瘩和goose skin 血库和blood bank

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e.g. 领袖 狐媚 斟酌 雷同 吃醋

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Dog eat dog.

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2) 制度文化的影响 e.g. brand 和烙印 tally 和符合 not yield an inch 和寸步不让 an ounce of resolution 和一分决心

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3)物质文化的影响 e.g. Milky way 和天河

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4)语言本身内在因素的影响 e.g. I-bar=工型铁 T-square=丁字尺 V-neck= 鸡心领 回形针=paper clip 金字塔=pyramid

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e.g. 吹牛和talk horse

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2. 结构对比 汉语隐喻词大多是复合而成。 英语有派生或单纯词直接转义。

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e.g. cloud fog 疑云,迷雾 core 核心 dig 发掘

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e.g. fox snake monkey duck dog wolf snail worm 虎视 狐疑 牛饮 鱼贯 蝉联 鲸吞 蛇行

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汉语中有些喻体源自英语 e.g. 处女作 maiden work 生命线 life line 黄金时代 golden age 酸葡萄 特洛伊木马

隐喻对科技的贡献
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e.g. 电脑 记忆库 窗口 互联网 电压 电流 负荷

第二节

通感

Section 2 Synesthesia

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3.2.1 通感的生理和心理基础 3.2.2 通感的人类生理学共性 3.2.3 通感词的民族文化差异

3.2.1 通感的生理和心理基础
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《牛津英语词典》对通感的解释是: “同一词里表达不止一种感官印象” (The expression if more than one kind of senseimpression in teh same world.) “词义从一种感官经验向另一种感官经验转移” (The transfer of teh meaning of a word from one kind of sensory experience to another)

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辞海的解释: “ 通感,也叫‘移觉’。修辞手法之一。人 们在日常生活中视觉,听觉,触觉,味觉等各 种感觉往往可以有彼此交错相通的心理经验, 于是,在写说上当表现属于甲的感觉范围的事 物印象时,就超越他的范围而描写成领会到乙 感官的印象,从而造成新奇,精辟的表达效果。

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1)生理基础 日本的真岛英信在《生理学》中指出: “机体的功能和结构原本是不可分割的。只有 把两者作为一个整体而综合起来,生命现象的 机构方能被理解。”

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2)心理基础 《列子-黄帝篇》:“眼如耳,耳如鼻,鼻如 口,无不同也,心凝形释。” 《黄帝内经》:“所以任物者谓之心。”

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钱钟书:在日常经验中,视觉,听觉,触觉, 嗅觉,味觉等往往可以彼此打通或交通,眼, 耳,舌,鼻,身等各个官能的领域可以不分界 线。颜色似乎有温度,声音似乎会有形象,冷 暖似乎会有重量,气味似乎会有体质。” 这也就是心理学里的所谓联觉现象,为通感语 言现象提供了广泛的心理基础。

3.2.2 通感的人类生理学共性
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1. 视觉与听觉相通 e.g. I didn't see the joke you told just now. a loud shirt a noisy car a quiet colours 漂亮的衣服 漂亮话 响亮

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e.g. 剪剪清风不是轻,犹听花片做红声。

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2. 嗅觉与味觉相通 e.g. a sweet face

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3. 嗅,味觉与视,听觉相通 e.g. delicious dish delicious perfume a delicious story She is quite a dish, isn't she?

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e.g. Her name is fragrant with good deeds. His name stinks. a bitter smile sweet words

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e,.g. There be none of Beauty‘s daughters With a magic like thee; And like music on the waters Is thy sweet voice to me.

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4. 触觉----最具表现力的感官 英国的语义学家乌尔曼认为:通感说法的操作 成等级分布。 触觉--温觉--味觉--嗅觉--听觉--视觉 由最低级,最简单的触觉向其他五种感官挪移 的例子最多。

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e.g. cool the sound of the brook hot words icy voice heavy silence heavy sound piercing cry

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5. 一字一词通五官 e.g. sweet wine (味觉) sweet perfume (嗅觉) sweet music (听觉) sweet smile (视觉) sweet car (触觉)

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e.g. sharp wind a sharp smell sharp pepper sharp words sharp eye

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e.g. 苦味 a bitter taste 苦味 a bitter smell 苦寒 bitter cold 苦笑 a bitter smile 苦言相劝 bitter words

3.2.3 通感词的民族文化差异
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1)联想机制差异 2)词汇形态差异

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1)联想机制差异 c.f. 听到被表扬的不是自己,她心里有些酸溜 溜的。 他就喜欢卖弄,酸溜溜的来两句之乎者也。 a sour face a sour look a sour winter an acid look

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2) 词汇形态差异 c.f. a cold response 冷淡的反应 a cold evaluation 冷静的评价

第三节 借代
Section 3 Metonymy

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3.3.1 英汉词汇中的借代模式对比 3.3.2 英汉借代词的对比

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Metonymy is a figure of speech that consists in using the name of one thing for that of something else with which it is associated. ----Webster‘s New International Dictionary

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借代是修辞格之一。甲事物同乙事物不相类似, 但又不可分离的关系,利用这种关系以乙事物 的名称来代替甲的,叫借代。 ----辞海

英汉词汇中的借代模式对比
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1.共同的借代模式 李国南将其分为十类。

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1) 借事物的象征标记或个体特征代事物。 e.g. plain clothes bald head grey hair red cap

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2)借工具代工具使用者 e.g. pen sword mouth

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3) 借容器或处所代事物 e.g. to be fond of one‘s glass The kettle boils. the whole city chair

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4) 借首创者代首创事物 sandwich 杜康 杜撰

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5) 借产地代产物 e.g. champagne cayenne 茅台 龙井

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6) 借原材料代成品 e.g. metal watercolor copper 丹青

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7) 借原因代结果 e.g. pride bump

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8) 借具体与抽象相代 e.g. heart brain gentle youth

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9)借局部与整体相代 e.g. lazy bones green hand to count heads to spend the new year

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10) 借特定与普通相代 e.g. man woman Tom, Dick and Harry

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2. 各自特有的借代模式 1)英语中的抽象概念借代 2)汉语中的行为借代 3)汉语中的数量借代 4)汉语中的割裂式借代

1)英语中的抽象概念借代
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英语中常以某种感情的名称代替该感情所施与 的对象。 e.g. For Lycidas, your sorrow, is not dead. (Milton) At length Erasmus, that great honored name, The glory of the priesthood and the shame. (Pope)

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e.g. love hate like dislike pleasure joy grief

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表示某种心理状态的抽象概念,也可以转指引 起这一心理状态的原因。 e.g. interest surprise excitement inspiration

2)汉语中的行为借代
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例: 导演、教授、编辑、翻译、监考、同学、同事、 同谋

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c.f. guard rebel advocate suicide cheat

3)汉语中的数量借代
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例:斤两、年月、岁月、日月、分寸 人口、马匹、纸张、书本、物件 三言两语、四面八方、五湖四海、 八面玲珑、七嘴八舌 一头驴、一尾鱼、三口人、 踢一脚、咬一口、打一拳

4)汉语中的割裂式借代
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例:青梅竹马 郎骑竹马来,绕床弄青梅,同居长干里,两小 无嫌猜。----李白 结发、推敲

英汉借代词的文化差异
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1)代体选择的文化差异 2)代体选择的语言差异

1)代体选择的文化差异
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e.g. crown c.f. 乌纱帽 朱门 c.f. be born to the purple

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e.g. to be fond of glass =to be fond of the bottle

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c.f. to rack/ beat/ cudgel one‘s brain 腹稿、腹案、腹议 c.f. The sun blared like a brass 浔阳地僻无音乐,终岁不闻丝竹声。

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c.f. knife and fork 饭碗

2)代体选择的语言差异 ? 在大量的英语习语、谚语中,我们发现语音的 选择往往起着举足轻重的作用。

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e.g. town and grown bread and butter to put one's back and belly into one‘s pocket from the candle to the grave bed and breakfast

代体的交流
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丢脸----lose face----save face 洗脑----brainwash white collar----白领 go into the red----出现赤字 brain drain----人才外流

第四节 委婉

Section Four Euphemism

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4.1 英汉委婉语言手段对比研究 4.2 英汉委婉语的词源对比 4.3 英汉委婉语的文化对比

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― use of other, usu. Less exact but milder of less blunt, words of phrases in place of words required by truth or accuracy: ?pass away‘ is a euphemism for ?die‘. ?queer‘ is a modern euphemism for ?homosexual‘‖ -----Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

委婉语就是用一些不太准确的、较温和的或者 不那么率真的词语来取代另外一些事实上就是 那么真切的词语。 ? 委婉语属于褒义词的范畴 e.g. The students can do better work with help. The student is stupid.
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1. 英汉委婉语言手段对比
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1)共同的委婉语言手段 模糊词语(Vague words and expressions) 许多禁忌词由于意义鲜明而刺耳,有效的委婉 手段便是把他们抽象化,使之意义泛化,即代 之以概念意义较为模糊的词语,其中也包括上 义词(super ordinate)或代词(pronoun)。

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e.g. in difficulty trouble/problem to have an accident a woman of street a woman of a certain class a painted woman a lady of the night girl

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to be in the trade to see company it that

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借代 不管是英语还是汉语,运用借代手法的委婉语几乎覆 盖大部分常见的借代模式。 e.g. swag chest an old hand pick poppy hello

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隐喻 隐喻使喻体掩盖了本体,也就避开了所讳忌的 事物 e.g. going to his long home to be home and free to go to sleep to rest in peace to join one‘s ancestors

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e.g. sunset years to be pinched bracelets

个别的委婉语言手段
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1)英语中丰富多彩的语音、拼写手段 2)汉语中独树一帜的语音、字形手段 3)英语中的国名委婉法 4)汉语中的反义委婉法

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1)英语中丰富多彩的语音、拼写手段 缩略 ladies 逆生 burgle 音节或字母重复 pee-pee

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2)汉语中独树一帜的语音、字形手段 周先生,你一人十一划有么? 楚女身材高大,面黑而麻,服装随便,有丘八 风。 白水真人

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3)英语中的国名委婉法 梅毒: the Italian disease the Neapolitan disease 被解雇: Irish promotion

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4)汉语中的反义委婉法 失火被称之为走水 有关死亡的很多东西被称为寿 许多不卫生的东西被称之为卫生

2. 英汉委婉语的词源对比
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1)英语委婉语中的大量外来词 2)汉语委婉语中的文言词汇

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1)英语委婉语中的大量外来词 公元43年 ―罗马人的征服” (the Roman Conquest)----拉丁语的传播 449年,日耳曼人的征服----古英语的形成 (Anglo-Saxon) 1066年,诺曼征服----法语的传播

3.英汉委婉语的文化对比
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1)英语中的神讳、鬼讳 e.g. the Creator the Maker the Supreme Being Holy One King of Kings the Light of the World Our Father

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2)汉语中的国讳、家讳

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3)有关年老的委婉语 elderly, mature, an adult, a distinguished gentleman to feel one‘s age third age a home for adults, a nursing home, a rest home, a private hospital

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4)有关贫穷的委婉语 ―I used to think I was poor,‖ she wrote. ―Then they told me I wasn‘t poor; I was needy. Then they said it was self-defeating to think of myself as needy, that I was culturally deprived. Then they told me deprived was a bad image, that I was underprivileged. Then they told me that underprivileged was overused, that I was disadvantaged. I still don‘t have a dime– but I have a great vocabulary!‖

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out of pocket badly off in reduced circumstances
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------penniless

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cash advance in difficulties
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-----in debt

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out of the game
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----bankrupt

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lay off be selected out be terminated
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----be fired

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substandard housing
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----slum

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living on social security
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----living on pension

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拮据, 手头紧, 囊中羞涩 关于金银钱财的委婉 白物,雪花, 袁大头 大团结

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5)有关“低微职业”的委婉语 采用复合手段,比如许多职业都冠以“工程师 ‖ building engineer footwear maintenance engineer automobile engineer pipe engineer domestic engineer

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hair stylist woman surgeon grief therapist household executive homemaker domestic manager

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采用派生手段,加上后缀,使之貌似“专家”, “技师”。 mixologist garbologist beautician bootblackitician locktician

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6) 有关排泄的委婉语 go to stool 大便 pass water 小便 go to the bathroom answer nature‘s call make water empty one‘s bladder I have to pay a call.

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I would like to be excused. go to the bank spend a penny I have to retire for a moment. I want to wash my hands. see Johnny consult Mr. Jones power one‘s nose want to make oneself comfortable

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7) 有关犯罪的委婉语 主要用于社交场合,课堂和演讲会上 e.g. take care of dispose of remove rub out touch off ? -----murder

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the oldest profession in the world ? ----prostitution a lady of the town call girl street walker ? -----prostitute

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the big house correctional center
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----prison

委婉语的作用
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拣好听的话说言语活动中一条最普通的求美策 略。他表现了人对意义的追求,表现了功利目 的和对不宜说的话题的补救的努力。 钱冠连

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first class second class third class deluxe class first class business class tourist class

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1、避讳功能 2、礼貌功能 3、掩饰功能 4、幽默功能

委婉语的翻译
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应该把委婉语义翻译出来。 charm a dancer revealing her charms 一个袒胸露怀的舞女 一个妖冶的舞女

第五节 拟人
Section 5 Personification

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1. 动词性拟人隐喻 2. 名词性拟人隐喻 3. 英语中特有的拟人构词

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Personification is a figure of speech in which a thing, quality, or idea is presented as a person. ----- Webster's New World Dictionary

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e.g. The rain to the wind said " You push and I'll pelt," They so smote the garden bed That the flowers actually knelt And lay lodged--though not dead I know how the flowers felt (Robert Frost)

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雨对风说: “ 你来狂吹,我来猛落。” 他们俩就这样在花圃上施暴虐 于是花儿们便七歪八倒 最后终于倒下了----尽管还奄奄一息的活着 我知道花儿们此时心中感受如何

1. 动词性拟人隐喻
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1)有些动词原指人的行为,随后也用于其他 的事物,而且已不是临时的修辞用法。 e.g. The weather smiled on us. (天气很好。) 新的生活在召唤我们。 The space flight had to be aborted bedause of difficultied of the computer. 宇宙航行因计算机故障而流产。

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2)汉语通常用人或生物作主语,而英语则爱用 无生物作主语。 e.g. Your letter never reached me. The truth hit me at the last moment. His trouble deprived him of sleep. That mistakes has killed his chances. 译成汉语一般采用人称主语。

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The thirty years between our first regular English plays and Shakespeare's first comedy witnessed a development of the drama which astonished us both by its rapidity and wariety. ----W.J.Long, English Literature

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The tactic was successful and the early 1950s saw the establishment of a fairly substantial system of co-determination.
The sniper lay for a long time nursing his wounded arm and planning escape. Morning must not find him wounded on the roof. The enemy on the opposite roof covered his escape.

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2. 名词性拟人隐喻
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1)有关血缘关系的称谓词 2)有关人类属性的名词 3)表示人体部位的名词

1)有关血缘关系的称谓词
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表示血缘关系的名称,诸如“父”,“母”, “子”,“兄弟”,“姐妹”等,是人类最熟 知的概念,因而经常用来喻指其它事物。 e.g motherland 祖国 This machine is the ancestor of the morden computer.

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e.g. Father Time Father Christmas Mother Nature Mother tongue sister cities

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e.g. Father Thames Father of Waters

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“母”,还广泛用于动物中。 e.g. a mother/baby cat a mother/baby crocodile
由于英语的mother,baby 略显笨重往往另组新 词 e.g. hen/chick, cow/calf, ewe/lamb

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2)有关人类属性的名词
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动植物的名称也有拟人语。 e.g. American Beauty Baby's tears sensitive plants baby's breath kingfish, queenfish

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e.g. the king of birds the king of fish the king of the jungle the king of bees the king of the forest the king of day the king od metals

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king 还可以表示极重要的或极巨大的。 e.g. king snake king salmon king nut king blossom

3)表示人体部位的名词
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原始人类总是用自身的一切去类比大千世界, 人体各部位的不同形状和功能就成了他们认知 与命名的最有效手段。甚至位置相似也成为命 名的根据。

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e.g. the head of arrow the face of a watch the eye of a rope the mouth of a river the teeth of a saw the neck of a bottle the legs of a chair the foot of a mountain

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还有一些英语中的拟人,汉语缺少相应词。 the head on a glass of beer the brow of a helmet the neck of a microphone flames in the forehead of the morning sky the throat of a tennis racket the arms of a tree

3.英语中特有的拟人构词
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人称代词及人名作为构词成分构成复合拟人语 词,或者利用后缀派生拟人语词,是英语中特 有的构词法

1)人称代词拟人构词
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用he,she 构成某些动物名称,以示雌雄。 e.g. he-goat / she-goat he-wolf / she-goat he-bear / she-bear
Is it a he or she?

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2) 人名拟人构词
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英语中也采用某些常见男女人名来表示动物的 雄雌。 e.g. billy goat/nanny goat tom cat Our thanksgiving turkey was a tom.

3)后缀拟人构词
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-ess的用法 waitress, hostess lioness, tigress

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第六节 拟声
Section 6 Onomatopoeia

1.英汉拟声词的共性
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拟声的作用在于加强语言的直观性、形象性和 生动性。增强对声势、动态的描绘效果。

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"What be ye looking at?" asked a man who had not observed the incident. "Ho-ho-ho!" laughed dark Car. "Hee-hee-hee!" laughed the tipping bride,as she steadied herself on the arm of her fond husband. "Heu-heu-heu!" langhed dark Car's mother,storking her moustache as she explained laconically:" Out of the frying-pan into the fire!"

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乒!敌人听说是红军,慌乱的开枪了。可是他 们已经晚了,一下子四面都是我们的火力,通 通通,嘟嘟嘟,我们的火力对准敌人。敌人逃 啊,跑啊,顽抗的自己倒霉,活着的都当了我 们的俘虏。

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拟声词所指称的对象主要有两类: 1)发自人类自身的声音, 2)外部世界的各种声音。

1)发自人类自身的声音
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e.g. murmur, mutter, babble,hiss whisper, gurgle, groan, grumble, 喃喃, 呀呀,切切,咯咯,嘟嘟囔囔

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2)外部世界的各种声音
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铃声:ding-a-ling 丁零 号声:tattoo 嘟嘟 钟表声:ticktack 滴答 关门声:bang 砰 轻拍声:pat 啪 连续不断的拍击声:pit-a-pat 噼噼啪啪

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猫叫:meow/miaow/miaou 鸽子:coo 咕咕 牛: moo 哞哞 狼: howl 嚎

咪、喵

2.英汉拟声词的个性对比
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雷声:peal 隆隆 子弹:whiz 嗖嗖 雨声:hiss 淅淅沥沥 风声:rustle 沙沙 爆裂声:crack 劈啪 鼓声:drum 咚咚

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羊叫:bleat/baa 咩咩 狗叫:bark 汪汪 蟋蟀:chirr/chirp 唧唧 蜜蜂:hum/buzz 嗡嗡 老鼠:squeak/peep/rattle 吱吱 麻雀:twitter/chatter 呢喃

第七节 其他

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在这一节里,我们将讨论其他几种重要的修辞 手法。包括夸张,双关,移就,仿拟,反复等。

1.夸张 (Hyperbole)
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夸张的最大特点是“言过其实”、但是不论夸 张到何种程度,夸张都要在本质上符合事实。。 因此夸张的定义应该为:本质上符合事实,表 述上言过其实。 夸张不仅包括故意夸大,还包括故意缩小。

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红军不怕远征难,万水千山只等闲。 五岭逶迤腾细浪,乌蒙磅礴走泥丸。 金沙水拍云崖暖,大渡桥横铁索寒。 更喜岷山千里雪,三军过后尽开颜。
(毛泽东《七律 长征》

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山, 快马加鞭未下鞍。 惊回首, 离天三尺三。 山, 倒海翻江卷巨澜。 奔腾急, 万马战犹酣。

山, 刺破青山锷未残。 天欲堕, 赖以拄其间。
毛泽东 《十六字令三首》

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e.g. Hamlet: I loved Ophelia: forty thousand brothers could not, with all their quantity of love, make up my sum.
哈姆雷特:我爱奥菲利亚,四万兄弟的爱集合 起来也抵不上我的爱。

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关于英汉夸张的共通之处
英语中有一些十分普通的词,就是夸张的用法。 e.g. awful, dreadful, frightful, terrific, bottomless, deadly 这些汉译也是夸张性词语。

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汉语中的数字夸张和形象夸张 例:一尘不染、三缄其口、九天、十分、百衲 衣、千里马、万能胶 飞舟、绝顶、极端、虎背熊腰

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英语和汉语中有不少成语和谚语或习惯用法是 借助夸张的。 1)有的出自人类对外部客观世界观察的结果。 e.g. to hang by a hair 千钧一发 earth-shaking 惊天动地 Money makes the mare go. 有钱能使鬼推磨。

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2)有的出自人类自身共同的生理机制 e.g. to split or burst one's sides 笑破肚皮 to have one's heart in one's mouth 提心吊胆 to lush to the roots of one's hair 脸红到头发根

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另外英汉语的习惯用法都用“死”来夸说“极 度”。两者基本对应。 e.g. to be dying of laughing or thirst to be sick or tired to death to bore or worry sb. to death to catch one's dead of cold Your joke will be the death of me.

英汉夸张的对比赏析
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有些夸张式成语是各自民族所特有的。比如汉 语常用“泰山”来夸张。 例:泰山压顶、泰山压卵、泰山之安、泰山若 厉、泰山北斗
英语则用代表他们的大河来夸张。 e.g. to set the Thames on fire

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关于“恐惧”的不同表达法 e.g. to have one's heart in one's mouth to have one's heart in one's boots Someone's heart sank into his boots. to wear/carry one's heart upon one's sleeve

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汉语经常会用“肝”、“胆”、“肠”与“心” 连在一起。 例:心寒胆落、心胆俱裂、肝肠寸断

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在数量夸张上,汉语通常会用“三”、“九” 及其倍数。 《老子》曰:一生二,二生三,三生万物。 《素向》称:天地之至数,始于一,终于九。

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例:三番两次、三令五申、九死一生、十八般 武艺、十万八千里 三十六计走为上。 三百六十行,行行出状元。

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汉语的缩小夸张 量词是汉语特征,汉语缩小夸张就经常借助 “分”、“厘”、“丝”、“毫”等。 另外汉语还可以用“半”来达到夸张的目的。 例:一男半女、一官半职、一知半解

2. 双关 (Pun)
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双关利用语言文字上同音或同义的关系,使一 句话关涉到两件事。 双关指“言在此而意在彼”

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例:空对着,山中高士晶莹雪;终不忘,世外 鲜妹寂寞林。

双关的分类
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1) 同音双关 2)近音双关 3) 同词异义双关 4) 一词多义双关 5)歧解双关

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e.g. 1)Make your every hello a real good-buy. 2)Drunk drivers often put the quart before the hearse. 3) To England will I steal and there I steal. 4) Call me what instrument you will, though you can fret me, yet you cannot play upon me.

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5) The clerk: Can you see a female? Augustus: Of course I can see a female as easily as a man. Do you suppose I'm blind?

双关的特点
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1)话语意义的重心落在歧义上 双关有意利用同音词与一词多义的词可能引起 的歧义来达到一语双关的表述说话人真实意图 的目的。

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e.g. What kind of money do girls like most? Matrimony. King: my cousin Hamlet, and my son... how it is that the clouds still hang on you? Hamlet: Not so, my lord, I am too much in the sun.

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We must hang together, or we shall all hang separetely. (Benjamin Franklin) Try our sweet corn. You will smile from ear to ear.

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2)双重语境 e.g. Why are lawyers all uneasy sleepers? Because they lie first on one side, and then on the other, and remain wide awake all the time.

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e.g. A professor tapped on his desk and shouted: "Gentlemen--order!" The entire class yelled: "Beer!"

3.移就 (Transferred Epithet)
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移就指将原描写甲事物性状的修饰语移来描写 相关的乙事物性状,通常是把形容人的修饰语 移用于物。
When two impressions are associated together in the mind, an epithet that properly belongs to one only is transferred to the other.

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e.g. I must write one line out of my dreary bed... I am not goint to talk of my sufferings--it would be useless and painful.

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例: 相思枕上的长夜, 怎样的厌厌难尽啊! 但这才是岁岁年年中之一夜, 大海里的一个波涛。 (闻一多《红豆》)

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人类自然语言中的形容词经常出现这类语义转 移,尤其从修饰“人”转移到修饰“物”,而 且大多词义已经固定下来。

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e.g. a sad face a friendly greeting gay clothes a sincere answer
这些形容词已经转为“显示出的”。

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e.g. a sad story a thirsty meeting a dismal failure a melancholy landscape (忧郁的景色)
这类形容词转为“引起( )的”

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英汉语中基本等值的移就转义随处可见。 e.g. an understanding smile a sympathetic look an annoyed look angry words dumb anger careless days merry bells

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两种语言中的语义转移也并非一一对应。 a sleeping night---不眠之夜 a sleeping bed a happy event---喜事 喜酒

4. 仿拟(Parody)
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It is a piece of writing intended to amuse by imitating the style of writing used by somebody else. 通过摹仿别人的写作风格以使写出来的东西有 趣的一种写作手法。 仿拟可分为仿词、仿语、仿句、仿调四种。

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e.g. "Twinkle, twinkle, little bat! How I wonder what you're at! You know the song, perhaps?"
"Up above the world you fly. Like a tea tray in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle, little bat."

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例: 无论你所做的事是文化还是武化。

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在词汇层次上的仿拟可分为 相似类比,相反类比,空间类比,色彩类比, 数字类比。

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相似类比 例:水污染 (water pollution) --噪音污染 (noise pollution) 视觉污染 (visual pollution) 文化污染 (culture pollution)

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相反类比 例: 冷门---热门 hot war---cold war hot line---cold line

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空间类比 e.g. sunrise---earthrise airport---moonport 例:海运---空运 海域---空域

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色彩类比 例:white collar---gray collar black list---white list---gray list 红旗---白旗

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数字类比 e.g. the first lady---First mother --- First family 例:一线---二线---三线

5. 反复(Repetition)
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反复修辞格是有意识的反复。 是主体性的投射。是一种强调与推进。

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e.g. It was awful, he cried, awful, awful! Still the sun was hot. Still, one got over things. Still, life had a way of adding day to day. Still. he thought, yawning and beginning to ntake notice ----Regent's Park had changed very little since he was a boy.

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e.g. I don't know too many there was spmething terrible in me terrible in me Father I have committed Have you ever done that We didn't do that did we do that.

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e.g. There is nothing so bad or so good that you will not find Eglishman inthe wrong. He does everything on principle. He fights you on patriotic principles; he robs you on business principles; he enslaves you on imperial principles.

反复可分为连续反复和间隔反复。 连续反复的例子: Happy, happy pair None but the brave None but the brave None but the brave deserves the fair.

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间隔反复 e.g. We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on teh seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend on the beaches, we shall fight on teh landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills.

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e.g. Like draws like. We eat to live, not live to eat.

6. 排比(Parallelism)
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英语中的排比是一种富有表现力的修辞方法。 结构相同、意义并重、语气一致的词组或句子 排列成串,其目的在于增强语势,提高表达效 果。
e.g. He tried to make the law clear,precise and equitable.

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排比多用于说理或抒情。 用排比去说理,可以把观点阐明的更严密,更 透彻。 用排比去抒情, 可以把情感抒发的淋漓尽致。

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e.g. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender.

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The seed ye sow, another reaps; The wealth ye find, another keeps; The robes ye weave, another bears.

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英语中的排比,有时相当于汉语的排比。 e.g. Their powers of conversation were considerable. They could describe an entertainment with accuracy, relate an anecdote with humor, and laugh at their acquaintance with spirit.

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她们健谈的本领真是吓人。描述起宴会来纤毫 入微,说起故事来风趣横生,讥笑起朋友来有 声有色。

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No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy. 没有一个人能得到完全的自由,除非所有的人 都得到自由;没有一个人能变得完全的高尚, 除非所有的人都变得高尚;没有一个人能得到 完全的幸福,除非所有的人都得到幸福。

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英语的排比强调结构上的整齐匀称,汉语的排 比不仅强调整齐,而且还强调反复美。共同词 语反复出现是构成汉语排比的重要标志。

7. 典故(Allusion)
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An indirect reference; casual mention.
诗文中引用的古代故事,和有来历出处的词语。

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英语典故的来源
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1. 圣经 e.g. The dog returns to the vomit. 狗回头吃自己吐出的东西。 But itis happened into them according to the time proverbs, the dog is turned to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire.

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e.g. Bull of Bashan 巴珊牛
Many bulls surround me; Strong bulls of Bashan encircle me. Roaring lions tearing their prey Open their mouths wide against me.

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How came it that all of a sudden Mrs. Bingley began to raise her voice and bellow like a bull of bashan?

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e.g. Wind blows wherever it wishes 风吹向他愿意的地方 The wind blows wherever it pleases. You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone born of the spirit.

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2. 神话传说 e.g. the wheel of fortune 命运之轮
Though fortune‘s malice overthrow my state, My mind exceeds the compass of her wheel.

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e.g. Greek Gifts 希腊人的礼物 I fear the Greeks, even when bringing gifts.

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3.民间俗语 e.g. weasel words 黄鼠狼式的言辞
Why, weasel words are words that sack the life out of the words next to them, just as a weasel sucks the egg and leaves the shell.

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4.习俗 e.g. take somebody down a peg 放下某人的栓钩
You've put on considerable many frills since I've been away. I'll take you down a peg before I get down with you.

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5.文学作品 e.g prick up the ears 竖起耳朵听 Like unback'd colts, they prick'd up their ears.

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e.g. pound of flesh
The pound of flesh, which I demand of him dearly bought, it is mine, and I will have it.

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第四章
英语写作

英语句子五个层次的变化
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简单的简单句 复杂的简单句 非简单句 复杂结构充当句子成分 从句套从句的结构

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简单的简单句
六个最基本句型,以及其中包含的六种句子成分(主谓宾 系表补)。 ①SV(主谓) ②SVO(主谓宾) ③SVP(主系表) ④SVOOC(主谓宾宾补) ⑤SVIODO(主谓双宾语) ⑥There be + O (There be)

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复杂的简单句
在六大句型基础上加三大修饰成分(定语、状语、同位 语)后句子变得更加复杂了,但仍属于简单句(即句号前只 有一个主谓结构)。 如:

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I left the beautiful city Beijing yesterday. 主谓 定 宾 同位 状

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非简单句
当一个句号前出现两个、甚至更多个主谓结构时,简单 句就变成了并列句或复合句。

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①并列句(并列连词连接) ②复合句(从句引导词引导)

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复杂结构充当句子成分

简单句子中的成分一般由简单的词或词组充当,而随着 句子变长变难,句中的一个成分可能就会由长而且复杂 的结构充当,如从句、非谓语动词短语、动词短语、形 容词短语、介词短语等等。 ? 如: Feeling upset and not wanting to try, I left the city which I loved. (分词短语作状语、从句作定语)

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从句套从句的结构
一个复杂的句子中,可以有两个以上的从句,这些从句相 互之间可以是平行关系,也可以是从属关系(即从句套从 句),这种情况理解难度较大。

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如: The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, marketoriented economy in which① consumers largely determine what② shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that③they want most. (1994年考研英语 passage 1)

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下面通过英汉语法的对比来看英语语法的特点

英汉语法对比

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一、 汉语中有很多无主语句子或省略主语的句 子,在用英语表达时,须补出主语(祈使句的 情形例外)。如:

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1、暑假过得很开心 The summer vacation is happy. (F) We/They had a good time in the summer vacation. (T)
(上面的这个汉语句子实际上没有主语,“暑假”在句 中是状语。译成英语时须加主语We/They/He/I 等。)

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2、天气糟透了。整天刮大风下大雨的。

The weather was so bad. It blew hard and rained heavily all the day. (翻译时必须补出主语It。)

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3、考试没过别泄气。

Don’t lose heart if you don’t pass the exam. (翻译时在从句中要补充出主语you.)

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二、汉语中有很多无生物名词作主语,但在英 语中要改用生物即人作主语。如: 1、你的英语真棒。 Your English is excellent. (F) You are excellent in English. ( T )

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2、史密斯先生双目失明。 Mr Smith’s eyes are blind. (F) Mr Smith is blind in both eyes. ( T )

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三、汉语中的一些句子以生物即人作主语,但 受表语形容词的制约,在英语中不可以人为主 语。如:

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1、你方便的话,请在六点钟来。 Please come at six if you are convenient. (F) Please come at six if it is convenient to you. (T)

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2、你很难说服他不去逛街。 You are difficult to persuade him out of going shopping. ( F ) It is difficult for you to persuade him out of going shopping. ( T ) 但是我们可以说:English is difficult to learn for some people.

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四、汉语中有大量的无谓语动词句子,但英语 是一种以动词为中心的语言,每个句子几乎都 少不了谓语动词(省略句除外)。如:

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1、这本书值得一读。 The book worth reading. ( F ) The book is worth reading. (T )

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2、我父母每天都很忙。 My parents very busy every day. ( F ) My parents are very busy every day. ( T )

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五、汉语中及物动词与不及物动词、状态动词 与动作动词的差别不大,界限不明,但在英语 中却有严格区别和固定的用法模式。如: 1、他与她结婚了。 He married with her. (with 是多余的)

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2、凡是党和人民所要求的,我一定做到。 I’ll do what the Party and the people require me. ( 译句中require 后须加 of。)

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3、我开始学英语到现在已有十年了。 I have begun to learn English for ten years. (F) It has been ten years since I began to learn English. (T)

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4、这本杂志我可以借多久? How long can I borrow this magazine? (F) How long can I keep this magazine? (T) (borrow 是一个表示瞬间短暂行为的动作动词, 当然不能与how long 连用。)

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5、父亲直到半夜才睡觉。 Father went to bed until midnight. (F) Father didn’t go to bed until midnight. Or: Father stayed up until midnight. (T)

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六、在汉语中,词形没有变化;在英语中却有 丰富的词形变化。如:

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医生建议他每天喝两杯牛奶。 The doctor suggest that he drinks two glass of milk every day. (F) The doctor suggests that he (should) drink two glasses of milk every day. (T)

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英语中名、形、副、动、数词等均有词形变化, 其中以动词的形式变化最多,看下例:

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1、西瓜切成了八等份。 The watermelon divides into eight equal shares. (F) The watermelon is divided into eight equal shares. (T)

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2、从这一角度看,情况似乎没那么令人失望。 Looking at in this way, the situation doesn’t seem so disappointing. (F) Looked at in this way, the situation doesn’t seem so disappointing. (T)

写作

刘庭华 15938105533

作文不理想的原因
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第一、英语底子太薄。底子太薄主要表现为对 语法知识掌握不牢及对基本词汇记忆不清。 第二、词汇量太小,且对已学词汇记忆不清。 第三、缺乏思想,深度不够。 第四、缺乏应试技巧。

解读评分原则
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奖励分 (3分) 基准分(17分)

奖励分给分原则
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书法笔迹 大字vs小字 笔的选择

正确正规可读 1. 非正规标记:&, Vs, etc. 2. 大小写问题 3. 简写的问题:WTO? World Trade Organization (WTO) 4. ^_^ 5. 共120字!
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4.
5. 6.

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标点的问题 随意点 逗号的问题 句号的问题 省略号 顿号 书名号 惊叹号和问号

修改的问题 1. 尽量不修改 2. 反对对于内容的修改 3. 修正液 4. 正确的修改方法?
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基准分的考察范围
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内容 形式 语言

一 内容
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相关即可,自圆其说 13个万能理由 经济,效率,交流,他人,安全,方便,环境, 健康,情感,性格,经验,空间,耐久

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你认为是住在城市里面好还是乡下好?

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在你家附近建一个超市,你是否同意?

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养宠物的利与弊?

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避免跑题 内容趋同 一例多用

内容趋同
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1997年托福考试真题: 20世纪即将过去,21世纪马上到来,在你看来, 20世纪最著名的发明事什么?为什么?它将对 21世纪带来怎样的影响?

一例多用
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3. 4.

环保话题: 在你家周围建一个工厂,你是否同意? 你认为科学家对人类的贡献大还是艺术家对人 类的贡献大? 你的职业梦想是什么? 如果让你发明一样机器,你会选择什么?

二 形式比较重要
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分段
段落安排合理

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三 语言最重要
1. 2. 3.

4.
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谚语和典故 修辞 准确和地道 复杂的句式 多变的用词

5.1 词汇量的概念
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写作词汇就是与主题相关的词汇。 拼写稍微复杂的单词,放弃初中词汇

5.2 简单词复杂化的方法
(1) of +n.=adj. (2) the poor, the beautiful, the old (3) n.+and its like 和他的同类(作为从一个到多个的推广方法, 议论文常用) 表达陌生的词汇 (4) so called +n. 所谓的
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5.3 词汇的有效替换
important significant, necessary, essential, urgent 2. very of great importance, significantly important 替换very的方法:将adj. 的同义词 变为adv. 即 相当于very
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Different various, a variety of, vary from person to person People’s opinions are various. People have a variety of opinions. People’s opinions vary from person to person. 4. Think harbor the idea, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 5. thing affairs, business, matter, event, incident,
3.

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6)good 7) bad 8) people 9) more and more 10) problem

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练习: 网络: the net / the Internet / the web / the virtual w orld / the electronic world / the cyber world 地球 earth / the Planet earth / our Mother Planet / global village

写作常见错误分析
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严重错误 非严重错误

严重错误1
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一个句子在没有连词存在的情况下,有且只有 一个谓语动词(插入语除外,先行词作宾语的 定语从句除外) He, I believe, came from Africa. She is the kind of girl (that) I love.

严重错误2
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That 一定要在定语从句中充当名词成分, what一定要在名词性从句中充当名词成分。 Many students enter the university without any idea of that they are going to do after graduation.

严重错误3
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时态不一致 描述漫画:一般现在时,现在完成时 描述已经发生的现象,一般过去时,过去完成 时 一般过去时表示与现在相反的状态 China was a great country. I loved you.

严重错误4
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词性错误 主谓不一致(尤其是主语与谓语动词间有插入成分时) I, the son of an ordinary family, is a boy. 单复数不一致 They are boy. 性别不一致。 She, whose father is a doctor, is my brother.

非严重性错误1
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冠词问题 介词问题 非谓语动词问题 复杂从句错误 代词指代不明 语义重复 中文式英语

应用文

应用文的评分侧重点
信息点的覆盖 ? 内容的组织 ? 语言的准确性 ? 格式 ? 语域的恰当 注:对语法结构和词汇多样性的要求将根据具体试题做 调整。允许在作文中使用提示语中出现的关键词,但 使用提示语中出现过的词组或句子将被扣分
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应用文的考察范围
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投诉信 建议信 申请信 求职信 辞职信 求学信 求助信 感谢信 号召信

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邀请信 道歉信 合同 摘要 简历 备忘录 寻物启事 招领启事

应用文的格式

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注意几个方面: 署名一律LIMING 不要忘记Your Sincerely或者Yours 开头Dear Sir/Madam, 信封不予考虑

应用文的六句口诀
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1 开门见山说意图, 2 信息要点覆盖到, 3 举一反三讲细节, 4 语言正式词多变, 5 感谢客气不能少, 6 期待回信成老套。 注意:首段表明写作目的,中间段扩展内容,注意读 信人的感受,末段表明礼貌,并说出自己的期望。

投诉信
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投诉信又可称为抱怨信,其主要目的是表达写信人对于 某一情况的不满。 You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because your roommate always has friends visiting. He/she has parties in the room and sometimes borrows your things without asking you. Write a letter to the Accommodation Officer at the college and ask for a new room next term. You would prefer a single room. Explain your reasons.

写作策略(在未给出提纲前提下)
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首段:说明与收信人的相关性,表明写作意图并且在尽 可能的情况下做到客观礼貌给读信人留下好的印象,并 且始终牢记读信人未必就是错误的责任人,他的合作对 问题的解决至关重要。 主题段落:写明投诉的原因,要展开说明,可以说具体 的理由也可以说问题的具体体现方式。 结尾段:提出解决方案,不需要展开但要公平、公正。 此段应体现书信的礼貌原则,应当有类似“如你能·· ·, 我将万分感激”的话语,这也是投诉信最能体现礼貌原 则的地方。

投诉信的开头常用句式和套话
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I am writing to complain about/that… I am writing to make a complaint about… I an writing to express my concern/ dissatisfaction/ disappointment about… I feel bad/sorry to trouble you but I am afraid I have to make a complaint about… I am most reluctant to complain, but… I am writhing to advise you that I find…unsatisfactory. I wish to draw your attention to the problem/fault…that I bought…

投诉信的结尾常用句式和套话
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I trust you will take my complains seriously and… I will appreciate it very much if you could… I would be perfectly satisfied if you can kindly… I understand you will give immediate attention to this matter. I would like to have this matter settled by the end of… I would be grateful if you could… I would appreciate it if you could…

范文解析
Dear Sir or Madam: I am writing to inform you that I wish to move into a new room next term. I would prefer a single room, as I find the present sharing arrangement inconvenient. I must explain that the reason for my dissatisfaction is my roommate‘s inconsiderate behavior. For one thing, his friends are constantly visiting him; for another, he regularly holds noisy parties. In addition, he sometimes borrows my things without asking me. In these circumstances, I find it difficult to concentrate on my studies, and I am falling behind in my assignments.

范文解析
I am sure you will agree that the only solution is for me to move into a room of my own, where I will be free from such distractions. Therefore, I would be grateful if you could find a single room for me, preferably not in the same building but as near to the college campus as possible. Yours sincerely, Janice Kennedy

练习
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假设你是一个学校的学生,将图书馆中的一本 书弄坏了,请给图书管理员写一封信,说明问题 并请求原谅. 题目分析: 第一段 第二段 第三段

第一段
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表明写作目的(你是谁,给谁写,关于什么?) Dear Sir or Madam: I am writing here formally to apologize for the damage done to the book, borrowed last week and due to be returned next week.

第二段
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写什么? 书的破坏程度or 书被损 坏的过程 怎么搞坏的?

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借给同学,同学弄坏的 水洒了 太投入,把书撕了 太投入,在书上做了标 记 淋雨了 宿舍着火了 被偷了

要注意读信人的感受
I have always been cherishing the book as treasures. However, I have a cat accompany with me, who often jumps up and down to please me while I am reading. Yesterday, it happened to knock over the cup and out spoiled the coffee. Unfortunately, four pages of the book were stained.

第三段--解决方法
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As the only friend and roommate in the house, I cannot punish her but myself. I have contacted the publishing house to order a new one. If not possible, I am ready for any reasonable penalty. Sorry for any inconvenience I have caused. Sincerely yours, LiMing

图表作文

2 图表给出的背景
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图表类型介绍 柱状图: bar chart, 饼状图 pie chart, 线性图 line chart, 表格 statistics,table 所描述的图表可分为两大类型

静态图:pie chart
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9%

6% 34% A ? B C ? D
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51%

As is vividly shown in the graph, the total … is divided into four parts. A makes up 34% 51% stands for B 9% refers to C 6% is defined as D

静态图:pie chart
1. 2.

9%

6% 34% A B C D

3. 4. 5. 6.

尽可能少的罗列数字 over one third Nearly one tenth over a half The rest respectively

51%

静态图:pie chart
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The total … is divided into four parts, with A, B, C and D making up % % % and % respectively. 学会抓住主要矛盾 The total … is divided into four parts, with A and B making up % totally. 总结:尽管图中的数字看起来是孤立存在的,但事实上 他们是紧密相连的. Isolated as the figures seem to be, as a matter of fact, they are connected to one another closely.

2 动态图,以柱状图为例
某城市市民出行方式变化图 100
人数(万)
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80 60 40 20 0

80

78

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骑自 行车 出行 的人 乘私 家车 出行 的人

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21 5 1995 2005 时间

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看横轴 看纵轴 找到主要的变化 看标题 当图画中的数字过多时,要找 出应有变化规律 避免句式重复 private car is playing an increasingly important role in people’s means of transportation.

补充一些表示变化的词语
上升: surge, climb to, rise, skyrocket, jump to, a steady rise, a steep increase ? 下降: plunge, decline, drop, fall, descend ? 程度: sharp, drastic, dramatic, intensive, remarkable, sustained, temporary

比较状语从句的写作方法
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As much as 句式 汽车的速度是自行车速度的10倍。 A car runs 10 times as fast as a bike runs. A car runs 10 times as fast as a bike does. A car runs 10 times as fast as does a bike. 抽象动词与实意动词的替换 比较状语从句的倒装

比较状语从句的写作方法
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more than句式 中国的人口比日本人口多。 The population of China is bigger than the population of Japan. The population of China is bigger than that of Japan.

比较状语从句的写作方法
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(2) 倍数关系 中国的人口比日本多三倍。 The population of China is three times larger than that of Japan 赵薇的眼睛比林忆莲大N倍。 Zhaowei’s eyes are N times larger than Linyilian’s eyes. Zhaowei’s eyes are N times larger than that of Linyilian. Zhaowei’s eyes are N times larger than those of Linyilian.

综合训练 The Aging of Our Society
2002 2015 2050

数量(百 万) 占总人口 百分比

132

200

400

10%

14%

25%

参考范文
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From the table we can see that the number of senior citizens will increase from 132 million this year to 200 million in 2015, and then to 400 million in 2050. Accordingly, the percentage will rise from 10% to 14%, and then to 25%. According to the standard of the United Nations, a society is defined as old when the senior citizens over 60 reach 10% of the whole population. Consequently this table shows that our society, following many western countries, is stepping into the era of the so-called “aging society”.

参考范文
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The aging phenomenon will bring many unfavorable consequences, with health care of the elder generation being the foremost. With more and more members entering a senior age, the percentage of people in the main working force falls abruptly, thus gradually preventing the traditional social welfare system from functioning properly and effectively. The transformation to a modern and more scientific system of social security, however, may take a relatively long period, bringing hope and pain at the same time.

参考范文
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For the old people themselves, apart from the irreversible decaying of health, mental hazards may constitute a more formidable problem—loss of sense of security, identity and confidence may accelerate the aging process. Last but not least, aging poses an even greater threat to our country than to the developed world because we are aging before we become rich.

参考范文
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To battle the potential negative effects, several necessary steps should be taken: the chief task lies in taking care of the old people and helping them take care of themselves. All the members in the society should join their hands in creating a favorable environment for the old people. The old people themselves should never stop pursuing whatever they view as important in life since ―It is not the years in your life, but the life in your years that counts‖. Only in a reasonable, prosperous and healthy society can we hope to witness the ideal scene in which old people can enjoy their twilight to the uttermost.

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下图是2007年1-10月中国博客服务人均月度有效浏览 时间及增长率,描述变化,说明原因。

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Blog This histogram shows the number of people using blog services from January to October in 2007. From it we can see that the number of users increased monthly from January to August, except February. After two peak months, July and August, the number dropped slightly in September, while in October it picked up again.
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Possible reasons for these changes are first, in February Chinese people celebrated the most important festival—— Chinese New Year. This means more people spent more time with their families and friends, and therefore they didn‘t have as much time for surfing online. Secondly, college students are the main users of blog services. While in July and August,they had summer holidays, which enabled them to have more spare time reading and writing blogs. Thirdly, with improvements of blog services and the influence of some ―star bloggers‖, most of whom are celebrities, blogs are becoming an important way for people to express themselves and communicate with others. So more and more people are starting to use these services, which help explain the overall increase shown here.

议论文

写作方法
一、审题 二、确定主题句 三、三段十二句作文法 四、修改完善

一、审题
1 明确体裁 其中说明文、议论文是英语考试中最常出现的文 体,而记叙文和描写文有时也可能出现。 2 根据不同体裁确定写作方法 大学英语作文往往不是单一的体裁,而是几种 体裁的混合体。

示例
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Trying to Be a Good University Student. You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below: 做合格大学生的必要性 做合格大学生的必要条件(可从德、智、体等 方面谈) 我打算这样做

1. 2.

3.

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第一段为议论文,要求有论点和论据,而且往往从正反两面 来论述,所以第一段的写作思路是:做合格的大学生会怎么 样(正面);不能做到合格的大学生会怎么样(反面);所 以我们要做合格的大学生(结论)。 第二段为说明文,要求从几个反面或几条来说明一个问题, 可以从三方面(德智体)来说明作合格大学生的必要条件。 第三段为描写文,以“人”为中心描述一个“做”的过程。 跟上两段相比,本段的主语多为人称代词。本段的描述要与 第二段相呼应。 这个例子还可以看出四级作文大多为三段式。

二、确定主题句
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主题句是作者思维的起点,切题的准绳,阐述的对象; 段落的主题句则统领段落的主题句则统领段落中心内 容。好的段落主题句,不但切题,便于围绕主题句进 行扩展,而且又常常给读者一种一针见血的感觉。切 题的主题句是保证不偏题不跑题的前提,只有不偏题 的作文才有可能得及格分9分。

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写主题句最保险的方法就是把中文提纲的各句译成英 语。 如果要求句是英语,就可以把它扩充为主题句。

1. 2.

3.

写主题句最保险的方法就是把中文提纲的各句 译成英语。例如上述作文的三段主题句分别为: It is very necessary to be a good university student. There are several prerequisites to be a good university student. What I will do in the future is as follows.

如果要求句是英语,就可以把它扩充为
主题句,例如: Good Health ? Importance of good health ? Ways to keep fit ? My own practice 1. It is very important to have good health. (将名词importance变 成形容词 important) 2. There are four ways for me to keep fit.(用there be句型) 3. My own practices are the following.(采用原词)

三、三段十二句作文法
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第一段提出论题(开头段) 第二段进行论证(中间段或支持段) 第三段给出结论(结尾段)

开头段
1.引用法-名人名言、谚语、流行语 2.提问法-以激起读者的兴趣 3.定义法-作出解释,限定范围 4.数字法-客观报道的数字具有说服力 5.故事法-简短有趣的故事 6.开门见山法-直接表明观点 7.间接开头法-以别人的观点为开头 8.概括法-总结题目设计内容,引出主题

中间段
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中间段是用以发展、拓宽开头段中所提文章主 题的段落。中间段和文章的主题紧密相关:主 题限制着中间段的内容,中间段必须支持主题, 即中间段的内容必须从不同的角度说明、叙述、 论证文章的主题。中间段常用的表达方法要有 例证法、比较与对比法、因果法等。

结尾段
两条原则: 1. 照应开头 2. 总结全文

结尾段的常见方法
1.总结法或者重述法:句式、措辞要变化 2.建议法:适用于有争议的话题或说理性的文章 3.评价法:明确个人立场 4.引语法:格言、习语来结束文章 5.预测法:提出警告或者希望 6.展望或者期望法:表示将投入行动 7.反问法:形式上是问句,但意义是肯定的

如前所述,作文大多是三段式。这样算一下, 如果每段写四句话,这样全篇在十二句左右。 每句话十多个字,这样就是120-150字。不要 写得太多,言多必失。同时要注意分层次来写, 不要记流水账。即不要就前一句话中的一个非 重点再进行描述。

四、修改完善
1.

语篇水平上的检查
也就是从全局来看,文章主题是否明确;观点是 否可靠;内容是否切题;立论是否恰当;论证是否有 力;推理是否合乎逻辑;结论与主体是否一致。

3.句子水平上的检查 也就是语言上的检查:行文是否简洁;用 词是否准确;句子结构是否完整;语句是否通 顺;有无重大语法错误(主谓一致、时态、语 态);最后看看标点符号,大小写是否规范。

2.段落水平上的检查 也就是局部检查:段落是否完整;段落的 扩展是否充分;细节安排是否合理;段内各句 衔接是否紧凑;语意是否连贯等。

几个原则: 1、尽可能把语义抽象的单词改为语义具体的单 词; 2、多用主动时态,尽量避免被动时态; 3、多用短小的单词,尽量避免用冗长的单词。

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Directions: For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Jobs for Graduates. You should write at least 120 words and base your composition on the outline below: 1、 大学生难找工作 2、 原因很多 3、 解决的办法

Jobs for Graduates
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Job hunting has always been a headache for college students. Though many graduates are employed right after graduation, some are not. Most serious of all, some still have no idea where to go working even a long time after graduation.

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The reasons for this phenomenon are various. On the one hand, a few years ago colleges and universities enrolled so many students in popular majors, such as economy, finance and so on that the number of graduates was greater than the need in the market. On the other hand, most graduates would rather stay in large cities without suitable job to do than go to the country.

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I reckon this problem can be solved if both colleges and students take measures. First, they should research the market and develop special skills to suit its need. Second, students' attitude towards employment should be changed. They should go to small cities and country. There they can also give full play to their professional knowledge. In a word, if we pay much attention, the situation can be improved.

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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Credit Cards. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese: 越来越多的人使用信用卡, 信用卡有哪些好处 信用卡的弊端 你自己的观点 ●审题概述●? 这是一篇议论文, 关于信用卡的利弊。可以分成三部分: 第一部 分,信用卡的好处,比如说应急等;第二部分,信用卡的一些弊 端,比如说鼓励一些无用的消费;第三部分:你自己的观点,理 性使用。

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Personal credit cards are becoming more common in China. Banks and other financial institutions are encouraging their customers to change the way they buy things. Credit cards, otherwise known as ―plastic money‖, are being offered on very good terms to encourage the change. Consumers will be able to ―buy now, pay later‖, and many see this as an advantage.

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But people need to be careful. There are dangers associated with credit cards. Some people find it very easy to exceed their budget. They are tempted to purchase goods that they do not really need, and can become quickly overburdened by debt. The credit cards often charge a high rate of interest, which exacerbates the problems for these people.

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However, using wisely credit cards can improve the quality of people‘s lives. They can give people access to money to meet sudden unplanned expenses. Properly handled, they can let people control their expenditure and the monthly statements provide a record of where their money has gone.

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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic Advertisement. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese: 广告的作用 广告的形式多样 广告的夸张性

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这是一篇说明文,用说明的表达方式来解说事 物,阐明事理。写好说明文,不仅要抓住特征, 注意条理,而且要巧妙运用说明方法,像下定 义、举例子、作比较、分类别、列数字、打比 方等。

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Advertisements are forcing their way into people‘s lives. People refer to advertisements in their daily lives because they are consumers. The advertisers are usually manufacturers, retailers and salesmen. Their merchandise needs to be advertised to bring it to the attention to the customers. Thus nearly every product is advertised in some way. To a large extent, good advertising leads to success while bad advertising can mean failure.

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There are many ways to advertise and ?ads‘ come in different forms. Newspapers carry advertisements. Some products are publicized on TV and radio which bring them into notice of a wide audience. Billboards also carry advertising Advertising is a big industry now and many agencies have been set up to furnish a variety of forms..

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However, advertising is not always truthful. A product is often misrepresented. The advertiser exaggerates the benefits of the merchandise he wants to sell. Thus, he misrepresents the truth. The consumer falls victim to such advertising. Millions of people have bought advertised products and have been dissatisfied with them.

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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Trying to Renew Knowledge. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese: 1. 更新知识的重要性 2. 怎样更新知识 3. 你自己的感受

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Today‘s society is of knowledge economy age, in which new knowledge emerges much faster than ever before. Moreover, knowledge plays an important part in the whole economy. Therefore, everyone finds it necessary to renew his (or her) knowledge, otherwise he (or her) will be left behind the society.

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There are some ways to update knowledge. On the one hand, one can attend different courses at all types of schools, either parttime or full-time. On the other hand, selfstudy is, in a sense, a more convenient and practical method by which one can effectively renew his (or her) knowledge.

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In my view, I have primarily depended on self-taught method in the recent years. Although I am busy doing daily work, I still insist on teaching myself at night. In this way, I can not only keep up with the swift development of society but also apply new knowledge to my practical work, which benefits me a lot.

图画作文

范文分析
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98.1母鸡下蛋,虚假承诺 Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should: 1 write out the messages conveyed by the cartoon此提纲 应分为两段写作) 2 give your comments 描述图画+阐释寓意+给出评论 (解决方法)

范文分析
The past several years have witnessed a phenomenon that a variety of promises have been arising from all walks of life . Regrettably, quite a lot of promises are sheer nonsense, just as the hen in the given cartoon commits herself to lay eggs which are round without any angles and corners and have shells, egg whites and yolks.

范文分析
Odds and funny as they sound, such false promises can be seen and heard everywhere in our country. Administration departments assure to perform their tasks effectively and fairly without taking any bribes; manufacturing units guarantee to turn out products of good quality; commercial enterprises swear to provide genuine commodities and polite and enthusiastic services. Can you find anything new and substantial other than their obligations, duties and jobs in these so called promises? I guess your answer will be negative. As a matter of fact, their intention to make such commitments is nothing but to put on civilized outer clothing to please or deceive the public.

范文分析
I dare say that your society is suffering corruption and cheat which are causing damage to society both materially and morally. But the hen and her like should know that by dishonest words no one can survive the intense competition under market economy system. They should remember the old saying, ―Honesty is the best policy‖.

范文分析
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Here is an interesting cartoon: With her head held high, maybe singing, a hen stands proudly in the cartoon of the picture with a notice in hand. It says: ―Firstly, I promise that the eggs I lay are absolutely round without any square corners. Secondly, they all have shells and cores.‖ It‘s so ridiculous that we can‘t help laughing. But after that there must be something left.

范文分析
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Recently, many promises have come up in many walks of life, especially the service departments. They promise you that they will provide you with warm smile service and good products. At first you are moved nearly to thank them. But if you think twice, you may wonder if those should be their duties. It goes without saying that factories should produce goods of quality, department stores should serve customers politely, buses should arrive on time, and so forth, because all of these are their responsibilities. But why should they promise what are their due jobs? One reason may be that they want to correct their past mistakes under the planned economic system. Another is that they intend to improve their images and please the customers.

范文分析
In my opinion, trying to be better is worth welcoming, but making empty promises is unacceptable. If factories, stores and administrations do their jobs well rather than talk nonsense, our society will be more prosperous.

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范文分析
? 1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6.

总结 段落安排合理 聪明的学生举例子 句式复杂多样 用词有效替换 语法错误较少 我们的目标?

描述图画
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操场上有一个小伙子在 跑步, 向着终点冲刺。 然而,终点又被命名为 起点。 尽管他已经很累了(大 汗淋漓),但是他还要 乐观的继续跑下去。

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Runs Rushing to Be defined as 尽管??

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描述图画
As is shown in the cartoon, on the playground runs a young man, rushing to the final, which is defined as another start one. ? Tired as he is, he has to continue his journey optimistically.
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描述图画
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图画中央躺着一位老年 人, 蜷缩着像一个皮球, 他被四个子女赶出门外; 而四个子女各自把守着 自己家的大门, 拒绝接纳老人.

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Lies Like 使用定语从句还是分词? 谁把守?

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描述图画
In the middle of the picture lies an old man. ? He crouches like a football, who is rejected by his sons and daughter. ? they are guarding their homes respectively and refusing to take care of their father.
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描述图画
In the middle of the picture lies an old man, crouching like a football, who is rejected by his sons and daughter, who are guarding their homes respectively and refusing to take care of their father.

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总结
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尽管图画很简单,但其寓意却是非常深奥的.

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Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning is as deep as ocean.
作者的真实目的不是图画本身,而是要引导我们 去探求在图画背后究竟隐藏着什么.(任选)

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The author‘s real purpose is not the fact itself, but to lead us to find what hides behind the ice burg.

意义阐释段落
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描述图画中各部分的象征意义 段落具体描述――展开段落 阐释原因(可能性较小)

个人评价段落
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写什么? 讨论的对象是什么? 怎么写?

好的现象
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取其菁华,祛其糟粕。 Absorb the essence and neglect the drawbacks.

坏的现象?--解决之。
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情况如此危急,解决这个问题刻不容缓。 首先,我们必须制订一些法律和法规。 第二,个人应该被教育。。。 伴随着一个恰当的法律和警觉的民众,这个问 题迟早可以被解决。

例4
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04.1 终点又是新起点: Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should: 1 describe the drawing; 2 interpret its meaning, and 3 support your view with examples.
描述图画+阐释寓意+举例论 证(至少2个)

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describe the drawing
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There has been a heated discussion about a picture in the newspaper. As is vividly shown above, on the playground runs a young man, rushing to the final, which is also marked as another start one. Tired as he is, he has to continue his travel optimistically. Just as the old Arab proverb says, determination means another start point

interpret its meaning
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Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning behind the pictures is as deep as the ocean. The running situation is naturally associated with our real life. Whenever we have achieve a goal or the like, should we just stop pursuing the further goal and just enjoy the happiness of success or be savage again for the next terminal--a question deserves our more attention.

support your view with examples
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Among all the touching facts relating to running that I have heard, noticed and experienced, the most impressive one is Liuxiang, the gold medal winner in Olimpics, 2004. Had he stopped practice only after he had won a region championship, he would not have been the world super star. Turn our attention to the business field. According to a survey, 70% of the companies merged by bigger ones, have once been overjoyed with their small profits and unaware of the danger posed by more ambitious rivals. In sum, keeping making progress should be the right attitude toward life and work for everybody and even for a country.

综合训练

描述图画
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There has been a heated discussion about a picture in the newspaper. As is shown above, on the thick pile of papers, proudly sits an old professor, seeming satisfied with his success, neglecting the demand of students.

阐释寓意
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Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning is as deep as ocean.
The past decade has witnessed a huge development in education owing to some policies being carried out, bringing some problems at the same time, with the above one being the foremost.

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阐释寓意
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According to a survey, the number of papers published in 2006 is 10 times as much as that of 1996, with the students‘ ability remaining still. Were the situation to continue, we would pay a high price.

个人评价--解决这个问题
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虚拟语气 学校制订法律法规去限制每年发表论文的数量; 老师们也应该被教育去花更大的精力在学生身 上。 只有在一个……的环境下,学生才能尽情体会 学习的乐趣。

个人评价
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The situation being so serious, it is high time that we took effective measures to solve the problem. On the one hand, it is essential that rules should be worked out to limit the number of the paper published annually; On the other, teachers should be educated to pay more attention to students. Only in a prosperous, reasonable atmosphere can we hope to witness the ideal scene in which students can enjoy their study to the uttermost.


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