ǰλãҳ >> Ӣѧϰ >>

outline for american literature


?29?

Ӥ

ȫ ͼ

P&rt o: ѧȫͼ
Nimeo the W-ter
A z R
z V7rg /,

rjo
`

Of

0 cd
rst book bc thc
in~Alllcrican litcr? aturc



ڸǵ ʵ A3Fӡ r/I 1gJ ҨD s o r c f rV Ct, ǵĵͼ H sro` pf P~ o
rF,r

ͯ :
- - alIcr a -;

rϦ P`ɬ rjo

1 ^r
,

é˹ֲ ԰ʷ


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ѿ ; :

v r/ze
d E g`Ϧ

Ӣ ʷ
r/,
sf, lJ,ag

ݹ

Ϧ //,M s rc~ ˡ lr/, A e


(1)īȶҵ ׹˿L˿š is

ʮλ˹



s

ds f/,eH 's AJag,Cocl

bis mous scrmon O) t CxplC Cs such
basic puritan tcllets as G()d s abso1utc

ŭ ֮
P @ R c/z
9 l

nd n dp 0 ԡoֱ v,ol ϻ

A`,,aϦ

c


r/l

d A`/,,a c co0tains a1argc numbcr of prac"cd sayings ab 1ifC,g)
(1)P or
R c
,?

A r b ogrn/~,

Thc common thCmc running through thc
sayings is that iRdustriousness and
discretion arc rc`vardcd



(1)
Amcr1can Drcam

s ms h

fron1 povcrty or humb1c bcginnings to
success (2)It is an carly cXamPlc of tllC

o-0 ͡ AѪ Eh olllC0
Co,9i o
s S s Co` o s h his most hmous politic? dl

ʶ
r/l AFPaer|c Fl Cr sjs

pamph1Ct,alld it is rcgardcd as thc grcatcst

ofthc Rcvolutionary pamph1cts

Σ軡 fg rs qfi r Ȩ
r/l

Ag pfRctts0

Եʱ

F



jo or c L mrJJ Brj D scr

r c

JJ Jr 9Iӡ

s߶ c
`

(O%

f vs c J

0Frcncat1o bC

Ұ
r r/Jd


1yric (2)It

nticipatcd

thc19th-ccntury usc

g Vj

of simplc nature i agcry?
TPJ

CrOItP9'

r,E B߶ ӡ

J Cro ɬ

an c atcd

ӡ ذ romanuc p mitiv m
% Brjr
s?

and tllc cClc0rat no

/ls

thc 9 ob1c savagc

Ӣ
r/J R s r9c

g C V o/

^rJ9

Ե



`
һ һ

D cJϦ


rjo



c fJ,ldcI,eP9 ʯ ,rrI D c` J9

w
an

|

9ld ,lc er,

adoptcd Ju1y 4, 1776, (2) It not

n1y

ԡ

noun0cd thC birth of a ncw natioh,but a1,

cxpoundcd a p lo phy of human ecdom?

;



sts13cmclţ s committcd by tllc t~s)R
King of Britain( The hѪ ouF hnCs arc: ho1d thcsc truths to bc scIf-cvidcnt, Wc
that a11 mcn crcated cqua1, that thcy arc
ll cndowcd by th r Crcator With cc unal-

hab1cr h ,that among thesc arc Lifc, ̧

hbCr and thc pursuit of Hapuncss.

(5)

Tllomas Jcfferson s thought vas inspircd by

the thoughts of John Lockc.

__

?31



ȫ ͼ

C

lnost m m



y



r onalism

imp tallt tllm rca

ns w C mt,rc C1ings,htt itons and Cmot For romallt s,t11c d indl dua1ism n and common sƷ Tllcy Cmpllasizt?
firmCd thC inllcr1ilC of thc sC1f,

:tw





a m
.

+k^ ^li;^ Ѫ
~

m h c f;v;1 u ` d
f

p1acing thc individua1against thC group ThCy a and chCrishcd strong intCrcst in thC past,thC xxri1d,th0rCmotc,thC mystCrious and
AmCrlc annCss

in thCir workS (3)It
rcJ,Bot,

thc strangc ThCy strcssCd tllC ClCmcllt
startcd with thC pub1ication o

th Wa1t Whitman s

of AmCrlcan1itCrattlrC, it is also Callcd

bc s s/cc å `shington Irving oWC ng Cat V L s Cr ss? )BCing a pCriod of tllC thC Amcr an RCn s0ancC (5)

and cndod

gurcs aså `shington Irving,Ra1ph ® uncrican Romanticists inc1udC such litcrary CLtllm Brla ,Htilnߵ ߴ M iii Hc :uLi 1m A tllorllc,E l Poc,HCrI
iii

w tlsworth

Mc1vi11C,Walt Whitman alld

LclllgfC11oxxj.Natlla11id H mC Othcrs



˧
,



sd
s,wh h
r~? .



^ Ralph?Waldo Emcrson alld otllc `Cl
l

in NCܳ Eng1and h tllC middlC18lJll

^~ 0 zI, :^^ 7

cmphasiz d thC importancC of individua1inspiration and intuition,thC OvCr-soul,

"I

and Naturc OmCr conccpts that acc0mpanicd TranscCndcnta1ism indudc lllC idca
that naturc is Cnnob1ing and thC idCa that thC individua1is divine and,thcrcft)rc,
scl

rcliant (2)NCw EnҪ and TranscendCnta1ism is thC pioduct of a c(


mbha on

dn c cncan P



i

F

ese lnca

dTu

hyhCd po



co



dw b papng

attcntion to convcntiona1mlcs of mctcr O)Frcc vCrsc Was originatCd by a group

:1 æ

i: s ofthc1atc19m ccnttIry,(3) ŷCad IliC CC dl pattCms and to rCciCatCѪ from thC rcstAdions of formal mctnc? ss i ,pcrhaps,tbC t whitman sL vcs or C rhythms of na-uralӡ CCch )w

Cir pLlrpo

w



C tbCmsdvss



h

a

ms

h

ǭ


lllCthing

el



: J^=Ӯ hc wm

palpat lC tllall mc nam w1nbc,lO)ThC , ua11v somcthing ڢ ~~^ ^ ڢ muC onc dh ^lɡ

? andګ rCllt^n oR

vith vhat

cquiva1cpcC,A11cgorica1symbo1s usua11y cxprCss a nCatcr Cquiva1cncC
,jaidh

althcw

foLIndѪ ɽ
s Ʒ w

(1)Theme mcans tllc unfying p0nt Pr g9ncr =

Ʒ

j

^iƫ

Ca o

Ӥ ::= work a tcr y
9

һ

һ

G)

c m

. 1 ~1~^ `,` r.Y b ٤ w k
jJlg LcϦ r has nany

1itcrary`

thcmcs,

ork carrics its o`vn thcmC OrthCmcs For cxamp1c,د s which Cb1indn s and madn

B'j D scr rjo o/

c Lj'



?33?

㾰 Ѷ Xǭ ȫ ͼ
(1)T/l c Boo ~ ɯ

ro 릫 峦 ŦԼʷ
r,J

markcd thc bcgin-

ning of thc Alnerican romanticism and
the irst vork by an Alucrican writcr vas to win financial succcss on both sidcs of

s

rc?

/9Bo

ǡ
R
I/c
9V

? ? ˶
`



thC' 1an"c,(2)R c and z˿

z e/c
famous
taIcs

s L~ffo/`֮ , arc the most
:

r gc do/sJ

ӡ

y Hor~

and

frcqucnt1y

antho1ogized

`o


˯ȵĴ˵
ƨ

(ll Rj

7: , 塾 kJc

about an indo1cnt,

o/A TrԻ v
`

ߵĹ¡
TPJ rFlϦ b

'

good naturcd

and hen-pcckcd farmcr,

Rip an ,Vink1c, and his 20.year s1cep,
(ۿ The thCmes ofthe sto may bc man s



desirc for an cscapc from socicty and
rctuln to nature, man s identity crisis,
man s diE cu1ty

in facing o1d age and

ma nostalgia of thO past,ctc. s

ѡ Ȼ % A cϦ o sC ' ѧߡ
r

߶ has becn caIlcd thc manifcsto of American transCendcntal m in which hc says Thc univcrse is omposed of
:

seJ/

R JnP9ce


Nature and thc sou1, spirit is prescnt
evc-, vhcre,

rr P,sc rnJ9s

ߡ D 0 sc oo`^d ss Ժ˵ ѧ

(1)%

del crcd

s o 'is an ad-rcss ^ 'jcϦ at Ha ard Univc ity.lz)

AJnerica s Dec

has becn acc1aimcd as

laration of Int 11ectua1 Indepcndencc

because it cxpresses Ameriqan pcop1e

s

1onging for cu1tura1 indepcndence and
I erary

idcntity

S /FR
`J

,,ce hot only

demonstratco

EmcrpolIian ideas of sc1Irehance, but
aIso deve1ops and tests Thoreau
/c ߶ Ǻ
c

s Own

T?

(1)TV is a product of Thoreau
tb/ yc

s

CJv

֮

'asob

expcrimcnt Waldcn Pond,(zl

R str scs thO i ortancc of ght ov

m crial circumstanCcs o)He b ̧ vCs
that thcre is toe possɽ iIit,,for and im

portancc of coangCѪ

onc ss ritual

fc

tllat is in harm ny With n urc.e)wal dcn is ft111of cco-wisdom

ˡ ˡ á

Brj vF D scr r @

7zzrzJ orA jc Lj

׾ Mo 0 c T,,p ̩ȡ ŷ o j ء llrϦ
TI,9 J

(1)M yJ regarded
dous chronic1c of a

as thc f

t

Amerlcao prosc ep .(2)It a tromen vhaling voyage in
`hltc

pursu of a sccmingly supcrnatural Ѵ
whaIc that bit off Ahab

r Ϧ J c

s1eg(3)Ishmae1

Pj rre

Ƥ ?
'

is the narrator of tho novcl, the captain,

Ӥ : |

B J/,?

B

Ahab, is a monomaniac man whosc sinerce,cunlC purposC Is to revenge thc ing hitc whalC (4)ThC voyagC sym~
bolizes thc search for ulti1nate truth Thc

giant whitc whalc is symbo1ic of thC
cr mystery of thc univcrse,thO po of the

grcat naturc,and the evi1of thc`^`or1d

i a romanticizcd accoun V
vi11e s

of Mel-

staV amon the Polvncsians,

r r/ ,/o'`' cx0 J `r prcsses thc poctcss anxiety about her Ҹ һ communication vith thc Outsidc World J Ϧ Ϧ FϦ bIJzz
r9Ijs js

Vo'`J yJ r r o



r/9

s s V

\ P, dj - ʱ ˲ Ӭ
r zj
J ,9JI?

(1)

is a desorVt n of thc momeit of deat

)ThC King in tllc poom symbo1 es the
God of death
(1)
s

s ej

0
Ӥ

L

i,fj s rrI Ը ǧ

,

e Ϧ r/9 Mj` s-

oa

poem in which Dickinson makcs the train
part of natLlre by animal ing it )In the

B cϦ Irs rc JJ` J/,oɯ



Ӥ

srop ror D



poem

it

refers to the train

Ϊ ܵȴ



rFI or (1) B cԻ ٢C0 J shoϦ fo'D

is a pocn1in which thc poetess pers0nifics death and imѪ o ality so as to make

her mcssage strongly felt (2) In the

poem

school symbolizcs youth; thc

Fields of Gazing Grain is a symbol thc of maturc period; f thc setting sun stands for cnd of1ife. Housc and A
s vc11in


r
: d F m

ofthC Ground refer to gravc



? ܳ

ס

jo D scr

o/^

c L



`rj

i-

?37?

ǭ ڡ ȫ ͼ
Brief descrintion

Name oF1he W-te

â

I/,lc` r,P

C brJJ

(1) c`

oJ,J

C b` traocs thc tllals,

ķСݡ

sufcrings and human dignity of Unclc

Tom,an old black davc g)Thc novcl
hclpcd trcmcndously /|`1ncricans kno
^/

morc about thc crucIty and inhumanity
of slavcr and hurricd on a rcat war
r/l R
/l PJJ

sc

s sL tJ,-

(1)

Howclls

= ˿ L˿ ˿ is ب mС ̧ rpiccc(2)It con id

ķķ crcd to bc a nc cxamplc of thc ˹ ? Arnerican realist novels
A Mo (,r/lJ,Jt,r/IJzc
A JfFz
r
?

ִ֤ һ
Pد `1

r fVc F r-

s

²ƸΣ
`
r

( С˵ )


A c

s



(1) A s@F cPz

HrrC bc`,

Fz
al

HzfcX/` /9 rry Ff/z/

is Mark mn,s ma clpʼ ce 1th
books of wcstcrn litcraturc and

˱ ? ` ǡ r߶ A'v s
sҨ lI
l

vays bccn rcgardcd as onc ofthc grcatcst vcstcrn

civi1ization Hcmi11 vay dcscrbcd it as

r

'

thc book on1 vhich al1modcm/ Jncricall litclaturc

ķ ? Үռ
L0jft9o,I د ss sv`J
l'`l

m߲ @)HLlck Finll o

portraycd as a typica1 ' kr11crican Boy vith `holll its crcator dcscribcd as a boy

Ⱥϡ
r/J

G d

a sound hcart and a dcformcd con-



'Ag ƽʱ
AD Ի

scicncc (3) lC raR jotirncy do

mc

r/l @c rlrs

Mississippi rivcr is both rcalistic and

' ɵӳ
r/,
J

symbolic, c rivcr a symbol of iccdom and thc shore a symbol of bondagc,
(

Ce`eDrҨ

r

J JlfF,P-

gF,og Co 9

C Ϧ r s v

wi1s of c 11e

prc-()ivil W?al ri-

can socicty is

Ѫ11y exposed through thc

ά˹س ܡ
r/l
'

cycs ofthc innoccllt Huck,l~s)h tllC book

vc

see c1carly tllc atlthor s thcmatic con-

PrJ c



Pnzr-

trasts bct vccn inno

cncc and cXpcricncc,
v dcrncss

'

naturc and culturc, zation

and ck

i-

'ӡ ƶ
Ro & ɽgfr

(Dr/Ic o c,rf ˿ was w ttcnѪ ޢ dbo
raton xx tll( pic rcs

ʱ

arlcs Dudlcy Wanlcl O)It

thc Unitcd statcs as bcconung

oormpt bccausc t sam ccd thc tnJc idcas
of vlrllIc and happ lcss for dcstmc vc notions In sho , tllc thid quartcr of thc 19th ccnturyѪ thc Unied states was not a

Brj D scr ɯ or

c Ljr rJJ

?39

& CϦ

(1)s rcϦ

tclIs aboIt pooI

á
Jc,I G //rԻ t

country gir1rCarric Mccbcr)who gocs tQ Chicago to pursuc thc Alncrican



ݹ
Tr

Dlcam.O)111e nov

shows Drciscr

s

Jog D
F

s



natura1istic vie`v about life by i11ustrat


Ϧ T/z ˵cj

ing tllc purposclessllcss of hfc.f~s)ThC

ڼҡ
3T/J

'

don1inant symbo1 of the nOYel is thc
roCking chair that is indicativc of thc
unCertainty of lifc

ˡ
c Fa
sr, c

(1)A
^/9J

rjc

7 cdv Drcoer s

greatcst vork ahd the tidc of thc book
i1np cs Drciscr intcntion to tcl1us that

˹
T,Jc C Jrs

it is thc social prcssurc that makos

š
A A,PJ r c rrng Ϧ

C dC downfa

inex, ablc

O)Cl

C

tragcdy is a tragcdy that d̦

pcnds ipon
^'hich cn-

ı硷

thc Alllcrican social systcm

couragcd pcplc to pursue thc drcam
of succcss at alI oosts

߶s ci9ɳ С

j

(1)2˿ ˿ is a co11cction of ˿ = ˿ 23 intcrreIatcd storics of small~tOwn

hfe. Thesc storics sound morbid and
grotcsquc,but undcrncath thcn1runs a
strong desirc to con11nunicatc,and Iove

and bc1ovcd.O)It won thc alIthor a
forcmosposition in contcmp rary

Alllcrican1itcrature,

Brj Dcscrv

jo

or^

߹ jc

L r



?41?


melui 0 0 ˢ |
Hero ʽ ڡ

ȫ ͼ
ong,

(1)Hemhgway Hero,also callcd codc hclo,is one who,woundcd btll s
morc scnsiti

)ˢ ˡˡ

lls,thro gh mc notioh of a code,an idcal of lllmsclf O) dcatll,and m ֺ

`c,c11joys fllc p1casurcs of hfc6cx,alco

ol,sporO in facC ofruh and

Barncs in r ,t Afs@Rjs s,Hcnry in F r A s 塨

Ϧ @`dM
Ha|I0ܳ

s

arc

`1s and santiago in r



typ

al of Hcmingway Hcro

̩ ܳ ߨ ) |

Re

^0ance

(1)Harlem Renaissance rcfcrs to a pcriod of outstanding1itcrary xlgor and crcati ty

'r/z

that occurlcd in thc Unitcd Statcs during thc1920s(2)ThC HallCm Rcn

aissancc changcd thc imagcs of 1itcraturc crcatcd by many b1ack and whitc
Alll an wrilcs Ncw black imagcs wcrc no longcr obcdicllt and doolc,instcad

they showcd a ncw con 1dcncc and racial pridc o)ThC cClltcr of th^movcmcn{ was thc va black ghctto of Hallcm,in Ncw York C y(4)ThC1Cading ngurcs
arc Lan ston Huf

hes,Jamcs Wc1don Johnson,Wa11acc Thurman,ctc

{ӡ)
I

(1)I presso"sm o a stylc of painting tlldt givcs thc imprcssion madc by thc
stlbjcd oll tllc arti



conviction that thc pcrsona1 attitudcs and moods of thc

^`itllOLlt mtlCh attclltic,ll to dctai1s Writers acccptcd thc same vritcr vcrc 1cgiti1natc

c1emcn in dcpictlng charactcr or sctting or action (2)BhCfly,it o a sty1c of
1itcrature charactcrizcd by thc crcation of gcncraI imprcssions and moods rathcr
than rcalistic llloods

'
Brj /D sc
Jo ɯ

or c zJ ʯ r

?42?


M P91Frre ɯ

ͼ
ofthe du11

(9 srre о a- tcr it m
ness,hyp orisy,prӴ
Midd1C
udic

֡
B bb rr

,and opprcs on of

fc

westcm gc. )ThC novc1 as 1
Whcn pubIished in19zO

ͱ ء

an

antߵ ccess

o)

shcmrood AndeF on s sb rg,@ jo
sc c as a kind o prCIude to this novO1.

is said to

(1)B b gencra11y regardcd uc ,(

his

aotcr

critic bourgcos

matcrhl m and

thc suppression of mora1 conscicnce undcr thc
burdcn ofFnidd1ec1ass customs



Cr,p s
yrcr



(1) %C Ϧ Wrc stcѪ beck sm tcr f
p cc

)Thc tit1e mca

an angry ccrtaѪ ty of

ŭѡ o/MC A ֮'M
f

i ust e

ofthe systcm that h impovcr hcd and
c nVCi/th

C 1aved thc pcoplc.r s)n ai st

hars0rcality of thc deprcsso g)It won a P0
itz P zC.(

DzJ3jo .s B rrJe

ThC novC1trac

c ɽ

su ings of

ʤ δ
%'
`

thc Joad fami1y who are drivcn away0omɽ fam1in oklahoma and move to Califoroa,

0r

FJ,ɯ

ƽ

tc11s of thc}agic iCndship

% R
'Po С `
F P Ϧ

betwccn a muant farm wOrker aIld h cnorm umy str ng,fceblemind d fr nd

whom hc

Iy forced to1<il1,as an act of1<indiess,to n c m from a worsc dcath at c hands of h
oppressors



%P rr ap st war novel that reflccts his b c=

ɯagѪ d tho grc b us
c sooetv whiɽ made thc w
BeJo

el of nts

d Jfo'ڥ )% rv

Az,e

o Neil s

greatcst pl
an s

at

µ
Z

conCerns the prob1em of modeѪ

idCntity.

rorJo Eӡ

@)Yank:s sCnsc of belon ng nowhelc,hcncc
hom 1essncss and root1essnc , typical of thc mood of iso1ation and a1ichation in thc ear1y twentieth century in thc Un c- statcs an- the

˹ʵۡ
%

ëԳ
Jk

Ap

D ѡ r
E' s

Jد 1

whoIe world as weI1


z

C Ϧr Cod

Bro

ΰ ֮
zjo g

D y Jo
`

JPzroڥ r ӡ

ҹ·

jo jf Br D s

orA jc Lj
`tz
r/l c`k



?44

о rCϦ ˲ĸǴıȡ


(1) C Ϧ rCϦ rsbv

FitzgCrald

sѪastcrphcc O)
vca1thy, p1cas

It a sad story of an idcdlist(Gatsby)who was dc~



&





s

stroycd by thc in ucncc of thc

á
s
r/9

urc-sccking pcop1c around hi1n Thc book n1irrors thc
Ag cxpc cnccs and att udcs of thc1920s (3)The n vc1



2

ʿʱĹ¡
ˡ r d
r/l

cmbodics thc disillusionmcnt ofthc Amcrican Drcam
( ThC nalrator o Nic?
crncr,
r/z s

8

J

kC rawa

a young M w t-

ҹɫ ᡷ

e s

js fPϦ r is, to s0mc cXtct, his own

story, It portrays thc cmotiona1and spiritual co11apsc
of a vca1thy young rnan during an unstablc Inarriagc,

traccs thc dccIinc of a young
Alllcrican psychiatrist vhosc marriagc to a bcautiful

and vca1thy paticnt drains his personal encrgics and
corrodcs his profcssionaI carccr
JPl0 r TI/9,e
1
`

IF ,z

AJs ,R ses

paints thc imagc of thc1ost gcn-

ǵʱ
T S

cration

A`so R s

describcs thc po1gnant1ovc bc

̫ r AF Iod` s ,
`x

twccn an 'uncrican soldicr Frcdcric Hcnry and an
English nursc Catherine,It is an anti-war nove1,

Fo'N`o/PI B J`V`Js tclIs of a voluntccr Almc can
gucrri11a in thc Spanish Civi1å
(1)T/l

For
r ``s

oJ9J l.

r/z

Bt,/`

@ Ϧ VrϦ Ϧdr/ s tclls of a Cuban shcr

`r

ɥΪ˭

man(Santiago)who cʱ chcs a big sh,on1y to scc it
dcvoured by sharks,( hHights thc themc that
man can bc destroyed but not dcfeatcd It is a reprc
scntation of1ifc as a stru ܼ gle against unconqucrab1c forccs in

ȡ
i

r/lc o`d M

PlϦ dr/le

;

뺣 ڢ D Ի r/l r/J oo AC Ϧ
S
,

^`hich on1y a partial victory is possiblc,Thc

o10man,s indomitablc spi t rcmons inspi ng al1thc timc r~s)This book lcd to Hcmingway s rcceipt of thc Nobcl Prizc in1954.
De r/l r Afrc'PIo0 prcscnts his philosophy about lifc and dcath through thc depiction ofthc bu11 ght


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Moses

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brothcrhood.

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ine table chapge and lo

th?

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desccndcnt of thc southern aristocrac,1EmiIy is typi

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truth

at first the ta1e of a boy1carning to hunt,but bencath the

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- couragc,
ce,

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socict,;hoping t find tmth and goodncss du ng hio9scapade in Ncw York.o)It is to1d in the

pcrson point of rst

vicw1

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fricnds

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was ca11cd thc birth trauma ofthc Bc,t Gcneration


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o r/Je Ro

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Bcat hfcstylc of povcrty.J[i

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s r9cs

Thc Rabbit Scrics tc11s ofthe ups and do vns of rd young
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,I is a novcl that calls for a rcform of thc

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r/J JzJPterc

whoIc ^r dchumanizcd socicty, not on1y for b1aCks but
for a11pcoplc



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(1)ThC novcl CԻ rc 22bittclly criticizcs thc dchuma
zation of a11 contcmporary institutions and thc corrup

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ton of ind muals who g

n powcr hѪ ittltio s O)

Yossarian is thc hcro vho is caught in thc absurdity of

thc situation causcd by thc n1ilitary rcgu1ation -

Catch-22(3)Catch

2^am tcr0us rcgLllaton th h
ch kccps YOssar-

in esscncc a circuIar argumcnt,This c
ia

var in the bccausc a conccrn for onc

s own fc

provcd that hc is not rcally crazy,and to gct out of combat you havc to bc crazy Thc catch is uscd by thc supc~
rior po vcrs to uphoId and incrcasc thcir po vc

and yct

it is harmftll to thosc vho do not have thc powcr in thc
f1rs

nl/nce If crenfes sifllnfionq wher0 when von fhimk

cvcrything is pcrfcct,Catch 22p0ps up and makcs your
Dlans imDOssible

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mastcrpicCe

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` of a travc ng sa1csman a mctaphor for Amcrican

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vho socicty chooscs popu1arity and gctting rich as
thc false goals for his1ifc and is finally driven to suiCide. (ۿ Ill thC plߵ

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Cxprcsscs hs bc1icf that tllc com-

mon an

is tllc tragic h

o of modcrn timcs,l~s)ThC
fc ڧ Linda,

main charactcs arc V uV Lman and his

jE`1

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Me-

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aboLlt fallen southcrn famiIy h ing in a m m

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rhe N JJد oe JD is a War novcl aboit a p1atoon of JϦ Amcr an so1dcrs ghtin to frcc a Paci c land from
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