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Heidelberger Druckmaschinen
How is a press made? The production network stands for high-precision series production

October 2007

2 Press Guide

1 How is a Press Made? The Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG production network – for high-precision series production “Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads” Stephan Plenz, head of the Heidelberg production network, speaks about organizational processes, management principles and core skills at the world’s largest press factory Presses for the World One factory at three German sites: the Heidelberg production network in Amstetten, Brandenburg, and Wiesloch-Walldorf It all Starts with the Customer Order management provides the link between markets and production Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press The “noble parts” are cast and processed at the Amstetten site – bases, side frames, and cylinders The Parts Millionaire Mechanical manufacturing in Brandenburg Wiesloch-Walldorf manufacturing facility – Seven Stages at Once Improved, faster, and more innovative with multifunctional processing centers The “Nervous System” of the Press In the Wiesloch-Walldorf factory, Heidelberg produces electronic circuit boards, control cabinets and control systems 4
















The Best on the Market 54 Heidelberg purchasing evaluates suppliers using criteria such as quality, price, flexibility, commitment to innovation, and reliability The Right Place at the Right Time Wiesloch-Walldorf plant logistics – a “large train station” for around 60,000 different parts and components Assembly – the Emergence of a Gigantic Clockwork Mechanism Heidelberg presses are assembled and test-printed in Wiesloch-Walldorf Heidelberg without the “Heavy Metal” Prepress is the first stage in the offset printing process chain The Heidelberg Product Range 58








Copyright by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG 2007

Contents Press Guide 3


A Clear Aim to Build on our Lead 72 The Heidelberg production system HPS is based on intelligent, innovative solutions that bring quality and efficiency – “breathing factories” – a culture of continuous improvement Better, Faster, Cheaper Technology development is bringing the latest technological findings and methods to press production, while value analysis is reducing production costs Learning from the Bottom Up People are a key success factor – Heidelberg attaches great importance to training, while demographic change is increasing competition for the workers of tomorrow Quality from the Outset and all the Way along the Line Heidelberg’s tree of key figures makes it possible to evaluate requirements and therefore progress APO Works Out the Best Plans New planning system takes capacities into account and makes production transparent New Press. New Format. New markets. Heidelberg is extending its portfolio upwards by introducing the “very large format” – new assembly hall First Heidelberg Production Site in Asia In the Qingpu industrial zone near Shanghai, China, folders and small-format presses are assembled for the Chinese market Perfect End Results Heidelberg Postpress rounds off the production line in offset printing with finishing systems 78















24-Hour Delivery Worldwide 106 With networked logistics centers in three time zones, Heidelberg ensures the high availability of spare parts The Largest and Most Modern Press Factory in the World 50 years of the Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG plant in Wiesloch-Walldorf Sixfold Precision – The All-Seeing Eye! Offset printing is a complex process and requires accuracies to within thousands of a millimeter and milliseconds 112




Copyright by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG 2007

4 Press Guide

The Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG production network – for high-precision series production This document outlines the organization, processes, core skills and quality requirements that go into manufacturing high-end products in the world’s largest offset press factory.

Copyright by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG 2007

How is a Press Made? Press Guide 5

Printed matter provides information and communication and is an everyday medium enhancing education and quality of life. This can take the form of a car brochure, mineral water label, picture book, encyclopedia or the wide range of packaging for cornflakes, creams, etc. Each and every working day, around 60 billion A4 pages – excluding newspapers – are printed throughout the world. The printing industry has the secondhighest market volume in the communications industry behind telecommunications, and is well ahead of television, the Internet and radio.

The core area of activity for Heidelberg is the complete process and value added chain in the format classes from A3 to A1+ (35 cm ? 50 cm to 75 cm ? 105 cm, or 13,78 ? 19.69 to 29.53 ? 41.34 in), including machines for printing plate production, finishing and software components for integrating all the processes in a printshop. This is accompanied by service, spare parts supply and training. In the second half of 2008, the new 6 (106 cm ? 145 cm, or 41.73 ? 57.09 in) and 7b (120 cm ? 162 cm, or 47.24 ? 63.78 in) formats will also be launched. Heidelberg primarily supplies the markets in the key OECD industrial regions, but it is also in creasingly investing in growth markets such as Asia and Eastern Europe. The company supports its 200,000 customers in 170 countries with international development and production sites in six countries and around 250 sales branches. It generates more than 80 percent of its sales outside Germany. Offset printing – a tried-and-tested technology Offset technology, developed around 100 years ago, uses ink dots on a scale of hundredths of a millimeter consisting of the primary colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and black, which need to be positioned next to each other in a precisely defined pattern. However, the human eye is highly sensitive. If the ink dots are not positioned exactly in the specified screen configuration, this is immediately perceived as a color deviation and fuzziness. Process colors are applied one after the other in the offset press. Each color requires a printing unit and a printing plate, from which the print image is reproduced. The demands made on the stability and precision of the press to achieve this are enormous because the ink dots have to be positioned precisely after the fourth or even the eighth printing unit – at a speed of 15,000 or 18,000 sheets per hour. In particular, the tendency of ultra-thin paper to flutter about and the bulkiness of card also need to be factored into the equation.

Over 70 percent of the world’s printed matter is produced using offset technology. Offset is the most advanced printing process in terms of quality and production and the most cost-effective for runs from approx. 500 to more than 500,000 copies. The market volume for presses in the print media industry is close to five billion Euro worldwide in sheetfed offset and around one billion Euro in commercial web offset. Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG is the world market leader in the sheetfed offset segment, with a share of over 40 percent.

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6 Press Guide How is a Press Made?

Production tolerances of one thousandth of a millimeter These precision and quality requirements for operating an offset press are secondary, however, to the requirements for developing and constructing such print systems. A Heidelberg press is a high-tech system consisting of tens of thousands of parts and components. These are augmented by high-performance software for controlling up to 600 individual drive axes and up to 300 pneumatic parts. The cast iron offers stability. Tolerances down to thousandths of a millimeter – one sixtieth of a human hair – and the exact interaction of the mechanical and electronic parts accurate to within a millisecond put the focus firmly on precision. At the end of a mechanical engineering production process, up to 50 tons of cast iron and electronics need to work even more precisely than a Swiss watch. Manufacturing offset presses is equivalent to taking part in a technological decathlon. It combines precision mechanical engineering with printing technology, sensors, material technology, mechatronics, control and gearing technology, aerodynamics, and integrated software development. This complex mixture calls for long experience in production technology too. The major players in press construction are based primarily in Germany and Japan and can draw on know-how built up over 150 years.

From customer inquiry to ready-to-use high-tech press Constructing a press is a highly complex task, a major feat of industrial engineering that can only be achieved with highly skilled staff. It takes in quantity, quality, on-schedule delivery, efficiency in series production, price, precision of parts, precise assembly of all components into printing units, and finally the integration of system components into the particular press configuration and version required by the customer. And all that in the face of increasing competitive pressure. This press guide aims to give an insight into the organization, processes, core skills and quality requirements of the world’s largest offset press factory.

Vom Kundenwunsch zur einsatzbereiten

Heidelberg gathers the raw data for its production planning from market forecasts, customer requirements and potential business deals arranged by its sales companies. This data is regularly reconciled and updated in line with market growth. The specified production volumes trigger order cascades in manufacturing. Components such as cylinders, side frames, gears, rollers and electronics, which are all core areas of expertise at Heidelberg, are manufactured in the company’s own production network, which spans the sites in Amstetten, Wiesloch-Walldorf and Brandenburg. Some 60 percent of components are obtained from specific development partners and approved suppliers or as standard parts from the market.

How is a Press Made? Press Guide 7

With the exception of one series of presses produced for the Chinese market in Qingpu near Shanghai, Heidelberg assembles all of its presses at the Wiesloch-Walldorf site to meet demand worldwide. Parts are delivered to WieslochWalldorf in the required sequence and volume – either just-in-sequence to the assembly line or via the plant logistics system to the relevant assembly hall. In the assembly stage, experienced specialists assemble feeders, deliveries, printing units and coating units, and fine-tune the components. The finished press system cannot begin its journey to the customer until it has passed thorough quality tests.

Copyright by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG 2007

8 Press Guide

Stephan Plenz, head of the Heidelberg production network, speaks about organizational processes, management principles and core skills at the world’s largest press factory

High-tech production on the assembly line – approx. 65 printing units per day, as well as prepress and postpress equipment – are manufactured in the Heidelberg production network, which has a workforce of 8,500. The level of precision required of the highly complex, gigantic mechanical and electronic clockwork mechanisms is finer than a human hair.

Stephan Plenz Stephan Plenz (42) has been at Heidelberg since 1986. Following a number of management positions in the Sheetfed Division at the Wiesloch-Walldorf factory, he became a production

manager in the Postpress Division in 2001 before taking overall charge. He took over the role of Assembly and Logistics manager in Heidelberg’s Sheetfed Division at the WieslochWalldorf factory on February 1, 2005. On April 1, 2006, he became manager of the WieslochWalldorf site and since July 1, 2006 he has been a member of the Extended Management Board at Heidelberger Druck-

maschinen AG, with responsibility for purchasing, in-house manufacturing and assembly in the Heidelberg production network, which comprises the German press production facilities in Wiesloch-Walldorf, Amstetten, and Brandenburg, as well as the Qingpu site near Shanghai in China. Stephan Plenz is married with three children.

“Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads” Press Guide 9

Stephan, a press consists of up to 100,000 individual parts required to deliver printing precision to within a thousandth of a millimeter. How is it possible to organize production of this kind cost-effectively? We manufacture high-tech presses with very precise components that are expected to meet extremely high end-quality requirements. We achieve this through detailed planning augmented by many years’ experience. Our know-how is stored in many heads and many areas. All of these areas have to cooperate effectively to ensure that such complex products function as required. Would it be possible to relocate production of this kind? No, it would be impossible. It is not even possible to relocate simple presses without in-depth support from here. Just consider the industry – no one expects a new competitor without previous industry experience to suddenly appear. Printing and press construction are highly complicated processes. The market continues to be dominated by the same six or seven major players who’ve spent decades building up their knowhow.

Yet Heidelberg, one of these major players, is setting up a production facility in China? We are relocating the production of standardized presses and products to China – with indepth support from the factories in Germany. We train staff here and transfer know-how there. This is the only way of setting up and gradually starting assembly of the few models we intend to produce in China. It would be extremely costly and impractical to relocate a complete series or factory, even with the know-how we have.

Why is press manufacture so difficult? A press applies tiny ink dots to an ultra-thin, delicate material – namely paper – with up to 18,000 rotations per hour. The parts and components have to be manufactured and assembled with extreme precision to ensure that the color image lands on the sheet of paper with an accuracy of one hundredth of a millimeter after the third or sixth printing unit. The press has to provide outstanding stability; while thousands of parts have to interact in milliseconds otherwise there will be visible deficiencies in the printed image.

What are the key factors? We manufacture some components in-house because we cannot buy them on the market in the required quality and/or at the required price, e.g. highprecision side frames or grippers for transporting paper within the press. For this, we need a special tool machine park and specific know-how among our staff. Another factor is highprecision, long-lasting surfaces, which are absolutely essential in offset printing. They are also a key topic for Heidelberg research and development. The production department also has its own technology consulting area, which is exclusively dedicated to producing and checking the surfaces of cylinders, rollers or plates. We buy in many parts. Our suppliers manufacture the parts in line with our development and quality specifications. It is not just standard screws that others can make more costeffectively. We ask ourselves whether to “make or buy?” Are we better at manufacturing a particular part? Is that our core skill? The third factor is the many critical components and the levels of accuracy required in production. You can’t simply restore a press to working order at the end of the production line. A lot of employees with know-how are required in the process in order to create a quality product.

10 Press Guide “Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads”

How is the quality of the final product determined, and by whom? Checks are carried out along the entire process chain at the interface to the internal customer. The strategy is to distribute only completely error-free products at all times. This is the only way to construct a press that passes the final check at the end of the chain. No press leaves our factory without having been built and tested in full. They are optimized in practical trials to ensure that they meet the high printing quality criteria.

in Wiesloch-Walldorf. Our electronics components and prepress equipment are also manufactured in the WieslochWalldorf factory. Postpress equipment for die-cutting, trimming, stitching, and perfect binding is concentrated in the Leipzig, Ludwigsburg, M?nchengladbach and Nové Mesto in Slovakia. The software for networking the processes and presses in the printshop is produced at the Kiel site. Since last year, we have also been producing presses and folders in Qingpu in China for the local market. What is the production philosophy at Heidelberg? Our ambition is to be the best press manufacturer worldwide. Our philosophy is based on five principles. We have defined these in our Heidelberg Production System HPS. Principle number one is the zero error strategy. Our vision is to deliver nothing but error-free products to our customers. By customer, we mean not only the external customer but also the next stage in the production chain. Another principle is synchronous production. We don’t produce for a warehouse, and then rework the parts in the event of a modification. We produce the quantity required by the next in the chain on schedule – if possible on the assembly line, or also by means of material supply using Kanban control. The parts are replenished if the system receives notification of an empty container.

Creating efficient working structures is another principle of the production system. The employee has a considerable impact on costs and quality in assembly and manufacturing. We have to set up our workstations in such a way that employees can concentrate on building a press without having to look for tools or parts. The employees are directed using goals. There are targets, but we do not set out in detail how the goals should be reached. This is decided by the teams on site. The final principle is continuous further development. This takes in staff training, processes and technologies. Is this a continuation of traditional mechanical engineering, with a highly skilled workforce? The most important thing about tradition is the ability and above all the willingness to change. Unless we look for new, improved, more cost-effective and practical solutions and use them to develop innovative products and methods, the tradition will soon come to an end. We are faced with cost and time pressure.

How did you organize production at Heidelberg? In press construction, Heidelberg operates a factory at three sites that is categorized into families of parts. In Amstetten, the heavy metal – bases, side frames and cylinders weighing several tons – is cast and processed. Bars and rotational parts are produced in Brandenburg, while cams, gears, cubic parts and grippers are made in Wiesloch-Walldorf. To this day, all presses are also constructed

“Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads” Press Guide 11

We want to build presses, but efficiently and economically. We want to improve every day. To achieve this, we need employees who realize that it’s a question of optimizing processes without endangering quality. Can these skills be copied? Our operations are based on our specific know-how in particular set-ups and assembly sequences. It’s conceivable that this could be copied. However, the skills required to allow interaction of the complex elements are spread across a large group of people. That’s why we invest in training, in familiarity with our production system. For example, our employees have to know what to bear in mind when using a particular part, or recognize where no tolerance is permitted because it may prevent the press from functioning properly. This applies to parts, work plans, drawings or quantities. Nevertheless, it is essential that we improve continuously. If not, others will eventually overtake us. Does continuous improvement not bring with it a risk that employees will lose their jobs, as a result of streamlining? These fears are understandable. When we enhance the production processes, we also reorganize tasks and employees are given better or new jobs. But it’s in Heidelberg’s own basic interest to keep the know-how and experience of staff on board. The worst trap a leading company could fall into would be to rest on its ability to build a press. If we don’t manage to increase our productivity continuously,

we will be overtaken by our competitors. And that really would put jobs at risk.

Do you measure yourself against your competitors in the press construction sector? Naturally, we measure ourselves against our competitors. At least in as far as it’s possible to do so. Heidelberg is undoubtedly number one in the press construction industry. But we don’t simply measure ourselves against companies in our own industry. We also analyze other companies facing similar challenges in a wide range of sectors, in order to learn from the best. For example, we held a workshop with Porsche to find out how to change over a machine quickly. And when it comes to parts supply for assembly, we look to Toyota. I adapt these methods to our production levels and versions. We don’t simply copy, but instead develop our own, tailored model. How is this put into practice at Heidelberg? A wide range of projects are underway to improve our cost structure and productivity.

The information we gain about how to reduce makeready times, how to organize a workstation more practically, or how to supply parts more effectively is gathered in a central database and made available to other areas. Binding standards are defined and implemented for all until being replaced by further improvements. In my opinion, that’s the key to a successful production system – continually working on improvements, making them available to all, and introducing them across the board. If every area had to come up with everything on its own, operations would be slow and the solutions would not be optimal. Headquarters coordinates the change process and ensures transparency. Can you quantify these improvements in added revenue and cost savings? Yes, of course. We have achieved an annual productivity increase of 5 percent in assembly and an annual cost reduction of 3.5 percent in the manufacturing areas, while the purchasing department has achieved a net annual reduction in purchasing price of between 1 and 1.5 percent, dependent on price developments for the key raw materials. In total, we’re talking about savings running into eight figures. These successes are attributable to the continuous improvement activities, optimized job organization, and the process improvements resulting from the many different projects being implemented in the various areas.

12 Press Guide “Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads”

Is it possible to enforce or manage processes like these, which involve thousands of steps, in practice? They have to be managed, otherwise activities are not focused and might even work against each other. There are many levels in project organization. At the top level, we have set out the concept and guidelines that describe how the Heidelberg Production System should look. The second level contains a timescale. When do we start operations in a particular area? Which employees will be used?

describing how containers should look and how the tools should be positioned. We have carried out tests in many different areas of the factory, made improvements, written documentation, and planned the implementation. What is the current status? We have completed the overall concept and are currently rolling it out in all areas. We are much further forward in the areas where we had lots of pilot installations than in others. Work is still necessary in all areas.

When will the process be complete? In effect, it never will. Continuous improvement is a fundamental principle of our production system. This applies to all aspects of logistics – all the way to integration of hundreds of suppliers. We have created a living system that is continually being further developed. We will still be reaping the rewards from it in ten years’ time. Production will look different then, but the basic ideas will be the same. By mid2008 we will be able to present exciting results in all areas. Is that soon enough? It’s certainly not slow if you consider what’s involved in changing a production process in a company as complex as ours. After all, we’re not only going to reap the benefits at the end – we’re already profiting from each and every improvement. As I said, we’re not copying or looking to emulate the latest trends or the developments that are grabbing the headlines. The methods and tools have to be right for Heidelberg. For example, we’ve put our entire logistics operation on a new footing – the container system, the vehicle system, the complete software behind it – in order to be able to put these new concepts into practice. It takes more than just a few months to do that.

Which projects are currently underway? The tools themselves are located on the work level. In many projects, we’ve selected the tools for Heidelberg that we map in the systems and make available. We ask ourselves what we mean by low-cost automation (LCA) and how we will put it in to practice. How will we set up a makeready workshop in manufacturing? In three years, we’ve designed the tools and set up a training workshop where employees have been involved in configuring workstations –

“Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads” Press Guide 13

How are the other areas incorporated – what are the key interfaces? For production, that clearly means closer contact to development. Our construction and development consultants transfer the knowledge that we gather here in production to development. It’s equally important for the series managers from production to be in contact with development, product management and service to agree on new products, discontinuations, changes, quality problems and the service issues that crop up during day-to-day operations. Of course, we are in close contact with order management and sales. We have to determine the number of presses and the deadlines. We analyze the orders and forecasts in monthly meetings. Production is also involved with virtually all service organizations – from personnel and controlling to IT. What form does this close contact with development take? Each series of presses has a lifecycle. It is developed, constructed, updated, supported on the market and then eventually replaced by a new generation. Heidelberg has described these stages in product lifecycle management (PLM). When new requirements and new technologies are introduced in development, it also has to be possible to produce and assemble the parts and components cost-effectively. We therefore have to release the information as drawings and lists of parts or components to all areas of production and put these into practice. We achieve this, for example, by transferring the

data directly from the drawing and bill of material and through end-to-end integration with SAP software. How will Heidelberg production look in five or ten years? All the flow principles will be identifiable. The factory will be more heavily synchronized – with lower material stocks. Let’s take the analogy of a river, which flows either with a high water level at a low speed or a low water level at a high speed. Effective production is equivalent to a low water level flowing at a high speed. Ideally, when one printing unit is taken off the end of the ramp, another one will be just beginning its journey through the plant. This principle applies throughout the factory – from manufacturing to purchasing and all assembly areas. All tributaries flow into this main stream. We deliver the things our customers require, and we deliver them in such a way as to ensure maximum efficiency, in a quantity, quality and sequence that they can use immediately.

What challenges does the large format bring? You’ve previously distributed the 105 cm (41,34 in) format, and now you’re adding 145 cm (57.09 in) and 162 cm (63.78 in) to the range. These large parts push all previous manufacturing machines, measuring devices and logistics to their limits. You have to handle an impression cylinder that weighs five and a half tons, but which must have a rotational tolerance of no more than a few hundredths of a millimeter. The temperature of this cylinder is still 200 degrees a week after it is cast. Be it containers, transportation systems or suppliers – we have to break new ground in all areas. We work with experienced people in assembly and the system will be fully functional from the very outset. However, it remains a formidable challenge. We will have to build, test, dismantle and deliver a colossal press weighing 150 tons. The new hall 11 at the Wiesloch-Walldorf site has been specially designed for assembling this press.

14 Press Guide “Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads”

You have already addressed the topic of “cooperating with partners”. Can you envisage buying in more parts and outsourcing more? There are no hard and fast rules. Each time we plan, we compare the families of parts with the

buying something cheaply in India and then paying double on account of transportation and quality problems. However, we can’t allow others to roll over the top of us. We have to take better advantage of globalization than others.

around the world. And we buy wherever it’s most sensible to do so. Nevertheless, when it comes to dynamic production, proximity is an advantage that should not be underestimated.

supply on the market. Each site is working on becoming better and more cost-effective. At the same time, our colleagues in international purchasing are looking for suppliers in India, China and Ukraine. We have reduced our vertical integration to less than 40 percent in the last few years. The products that we manufacture in house are also competitive. What does globalization mean for you? It offers huge potential for Heidelberg. Our export share is more than 80 percent. We can’t survive solely on our domestic sales. Globalization is not an evil in itself. There’s no point in

Does the issue also concern you in terms of our national economy? I live here and I have three children who might choose to live here in future. Of course it concerns me that others can do so many things more cheaply than we can. That’s why I expend so much energy ensuring that we produce more cleverly than others. I am convinced that with the right system and the right intelligence, and by tapping the potential that exists in Germany, we can continue to produce sensibly for a long, long time to come – while also continuing to produce in China. We no longer ask what something costs around the corner, but what it costs

How do you assess the future of the German and European producers? Are salary and personnel costs too high? High personnel costs are a burden for every producer. That’s no secret. But forwardlooking producers can match competitors’ prices anywhere in the world. Efficient, highquality production, especially of complex products, is possible at Heidelberg even if we have to work that bit harder than others to remain competitive.

“Our Know-How is Stored in Many Heads” Press Guide 15

Will the highly skilled employees at Heidelberg continue to produce in-house at the company’s existing sites in 10 or 20 years’ time? Yes, I’m absolutely sure of that. To the same extent as today? I don’t know. That depends on our sales figures and how the market develops. If we grow and enjoy the success that we anticipate, then we will continue to need the people we employ today. However, I don’t see any need for additional plants at the moment. With the production network in Germany and the factory in China, we are well equipped. Do you plan to keep your presence in China to a single site? I assume so. We have developed 5,000 m2 (53,820 sq ft) and in September 2006 work began on developing the next 11,000 m2 (118,404 sq ft). And we still have sufficient room for expansion. In Germany, production and globalization is an extremely emotive topic … That is as it should be. Without emotion, the future of mechanical engineering in Germany would be a hopeless one. We need emotions. We have to mobilize people and push through changes. We can’t pay five times as high a salary and simply believe we’re the best, that somehow it’ll work out fine. It doesn’t work like that. But being five times better – that does work.

Do you have an obligation to the German sites? I feel a considerable obligation to the people who live and work here. And I also want to live up to my responsibility. I attach great importance to the culture I live in. I don’t think we should simply give up and accept that everything’s cheaper in Asia. We have to ask why it is cheaper in Asia. Besides lower wage costs, what do they do differently to us? What do people in Asia do that’s different or better? They do without certain things and live a much simpler life. Their life circumstances are different and they measure satisfaction far differently. You can’t compare the two cultures. They will catch up. But, if we’re not careful, it’ll be too late by then and we’ll have lost our industries. So we’ll have to be much better than others in the next few years.

16 Press Guide

One factory at three German sites: The Heidelberg production network in Amstetten, Brandenburg and WieslochWalldorf is organized into families of parts. Until 2006, all Heidelberg presses for more than 200,000 customers in around 170 countries worldwide were assembled in Wiesloch-Walldorf, the largest press factory in the world. In spring 2006, Heidelberg began developing an assembly line for a series of folders and a small-format press specifically for the Chinese market.

Casting and mechanics were the technological requirements for constructing printing presses. The major players in the press industry continue to be based in Germany. Their roots go all the way back to the start/middle of the 19th century. The beginnings of modern-day press factories lay in bell foundries. This was also the case with the press factory founded by Andreas Hamm in Frankenthal in 1850, which moved to Heidelberg in 1896 and was renamed “Schnellpressenfabrik Aktiengesellschaft Heidelberg” in 1905. In the 1920s, the company launched a groundbreaking precision letterpress machine onto the market, the Heidelberg Tiegel.

The company’s marketing and sales operations were far ahead of their time and targeted the global market from the outset. The organization of Heidelberg precision mechanical engineering into highly streamlined series production was quite revolutionary. It was based on Henry Ford’s model of assembly line production using stateof-the-art manufacturing methods and processing machines. Producing the complex, precisionengineered product in large series was the only way of offering it at competitive prices.

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Presses for the World Press Guide 17

In 1929, as sales and demand for Heidelberg presses continued to grow, the company acquired its own foundry, the Maschinenfabrik Aktiengesellschaft Geislingen. When there was no longer any room for expansion in the town, the company (which had been trading as “Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG” since 1967) built a new state-of-the-art foundry and processing facility for large cast parts in neighboring Amstetten. The factory, which was commissioned in 1985, produced its one-millionth cylinder at the end of March 2007. The south-west of Germany, a hotbed of mechanical engineering, continues to offer Heidelberg many advantages for developing processing machines and maintaining production and supply partnerships.

When Germany’s economic miracle took effect, there was soon no more room to expand even in Heidelberg, the company’s production site. In 1957, press production was relocated to Wiesloch-Walldorf. Production was split up in a traditional and straightforward manner – one hall for each type of press. In this way, stock, manufacturing, preassembly and final assembly were concentrated in a single site. This structure was also used initially at the new WieslochWalldorf site. However, as the range of press formats, types and versions, and the variety of parts and components increased, the hall structure and the existing areas were soon insufficient.

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18 Press Guide Presses for the World

This meant a systematic division of labor was required at Heidelberg. A closely integrated production network was set up which clearly divided production up into different families of parts. To achieve cost-effective production quantities, standardize operations, and keep special machine tools working at full capacity, castings were produced in Amstetten, profile materials in Brandenburg, and gears, cams, and electronic components in Wiesloch-Walldorf. All small-format (A3), medium-format (A2) and large-format (A1) presses are assembled in Wiesloch-Walldorf. As of mid-2008, the product range will be rounded off by the very large format (format 6 and 7b). A production hall will be set up specifically for this in WieslochWalldorf. It will be ready to open by fall 2007. The heart rate of Heidelberg production is determined by specific customer orders. And the supply arteries pulsate at exactly the same speed. Using the quantities and priorities defined in the production planning system,

which are adjusted in continuous closed loop systems, the planning cascades are transferred to the manufacturing and assembly lines of the production network and trigger orders that are fed back to the system at each workstation. The manufacturing stations and assembly lines each move along a stage in the chain based on the delivery dates for the ordered presses. To master these complex production processes, continuously improve workflows and ensure competitiveness, the company has set out guidelines, values and methods for efficient and economical press production in the Heidelberg Production System HPS. HPS is based on the know-how, experience and responsibility of the managers, technicians and employees on site. The following diagram illustrates the basic principles and the most important steps in press production.

Heidelberg production network (as at March 2007)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 sites in Germany: Amstetten, Brandenburg, Wiesloch-Walldorf Employees at these 3 sites: Approx. 8.500, of whom approx. 1,950 are white-collar staff, approx. 6,000 shop-floor staff and more than 500 trainees Production staff: Approx. 6,800 in total In-house manufacturing: 1 million parts and components per month Around 950 machine tools Investment in all 3 production sites per year: Approx. 40 to 50 million Euro Production staff from outside Germany: Approx. 10 percent Female production staff: Approx. 5 percent Daily production in the assembly stage: Approx. 65 printing units Annual production: Approx. 3,000 presses Vertical integration: Approx. 39 percent

Figures for the Heidelberg Group ? Female staff: Approx. 24 percent ? Average period of service: 15 years ? Average age: 40.3 years Heidelberg generates more than 80 percent of its sales outside Germany.

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Presses for the World Press Guide 20

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21 Press Guide Presses for the World

Please open up

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22 Press Guide

Order management provides the link between markets and production. Customer requirements and market assessments create sales data and orders that trigger planning cascades and determine the pace of manufacturing and assembly. Parts manufacture has to begin early, initially based on forecasts. The customer still has freedom to choose the press configuration until three months before delivery

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It all Starts with the Customer Press Guide 23

The process starts with the customer inquiry – for example for a Heidelberg Speedmaster CD 74 six-color press. The press has to be delivered around four months after the order is received. However, if order and manufacturing of the thousands of parts for this machine were only started when the order was received, the press would only be ready for shipping seven or eight months later at the earliest. Customers cannot wait that long. In other words, production has to be one step ahead. The tools and methods that Heidelberg uses to achieve this lead to a controlled, hybrid calculation based on forecasts, empirical values and the orders actually received. Seismographic market awareness and close customer contacts help predict demand for the next one-and-a-half to two years and ensure production is supplied with the necessary parts for day X after receipt of the order. Basically, these can be customer inquiries and orders from anything up to 200,000 companies in around 170 countries, relating to small, medium, large and very large format presses in a wide range of versions and in numerous customer-specific combinations. And this all has to be produced economically and organized as effectively as possible in line with the Heidelberg principle of spreading capacities evenly to minimize idle time costs. This sets in motion an apparatus involving 8,500 in-house employees and another 3,500 to 4,000 employees at the suppliers’ sites.

Heidelberg Order Management provides the link between markets and production. This is the main coordination point. It is here, in annual production planning, that operations in the world’s largest press factory are scheduled in tandem with sales specialists from the Heidelberg branches in the various countries and regions, product management, production management and controlling. People and markets think differently “The skill is to pick up on medium-term trends and to cater for all global developments by harmonizing production,” says Holger Steuerwald, head of order management. “There is always a certain degree of uncertainty involved in the decision. So you need intuition and experience. People think differently in Dubai than in Denmark. A salesperson has a more optimistic attitude; he is in contact with the customer and has to weigh up the probability of a contract being concluded. Those in production tend to be sober pragmatists – either the parts are on the production line or they’re not.” Production – or more precisely parts and component manufacturing – is based initially on forecasts by Heidelberg Market Centers, not on a specific customer order. The sales department looks at the customer inquiries and quotations, applies probabilities, factors in market trends, and makes a projection. The production cycle starts with annual operation planning (AOP), in which the responsible parties from product management, production and controlling analyze and smooth out the figures. Statistics have considerable bearing at Heidelberg on account of the sheer production volume. Overall trends are easier to forecast than individual values.

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24 Press Guide It all Starts with the Customer

Planning figures are determined for the 30 largest countries and quotas are allocated. It is essential to include smaller markets in overall planning, too. If this were not the case, a boom in China or the U.S. might mean we run the risk of not being able to deliver eight-color presses to Norway for two years and would therefore lose serious ground in this market. The figures are aggregated on a quarterly and monthly basis. This highlights trends. For example, if too many orders are postponed or a large number of orders

are suddenly brought forward, we want to know whether it is coincidence or the result of the overall economic situation. We want to know the capacity utilization of the factory and its capacity limit, and whether we have to increase or decrease production capacities. Assembly can be manipulated at short notice by adjusting working time. But can the foundry or parts manufacturing increase their delivery volumes? And what about suppliers?

Steps in annual planning

The branches provide the input and an outlook for the next 18 months. The figures are analyzed and smoothed out together with the consequences for production. Next, the values are input into the production system comprising Wiesloch-Walldorf, Amstetten, Brandenburg and external suppliers. Production planning sends a response to sales and reliable quotas are allocated. Specific customer orders are received, and reconciliations performed in the event of deviations.

Country quotas The data from the Market Centers is presented in tables and diagrams. Specialists from order management, manufacturing, product management, assembly and controlling then pore over these in the supplier meetings. How closely do planning and orders correspond? The agreed delivery quantity provides the basis for the cascade planning run. The required materials, parts, and components – perfecting devices, grippers, and cylinders – are calculated for each plant using special software using a variant code

and are forwarded to internal and external procurement. A monthly statistical average for particular printing units and presses is planned. This allows production to meet all requirements. Three months before delivery, the customer still has complete freedom to choose. If the customer places a concrete order, the branches consult their plan – is the press within the quota? If not, a query is sent to order management: “Is there any free capacity in another country quota?” This uncertainty is part and parcel of the operation.

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It all Starts with the Customer Press Guide 25

The customer press ordered by the Market Centers is confirmed. The parts and components are put together precisely for this specific order and transferred to the assembly line in the sequence defined in production planning. The press is constructed, checked and test-printed. At this stage, order management – with its 50-strong team in Heidelberg and six employees in Kiel for software activation – enters the equation. The complete shipping documents – declarations of conformity, export documents, commissioning of a hauler – are prepared and compiled here in the shipping department in Wiesloch-Walldorf. Then the press is ready to set off on its journey to the customer.

By water, land and air Half of the shipments travel by truck from the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant to Germersheim, where they are shipped along the Rhine to Rotterdam in a sea container and are then transported to their particular destinations. Land shipments are made by truck to the national companies e.g. in Germany, France, Austria and the rest of Europe. Air transportation is only used in exceptional cases. Air freight costs ten times as much as transportation in a ship container.

Order management process

Specific orders are entered in the production program, while deadlines, manufacturing and assembly are precisely coordinated and reconciled with the possibilities and capacities in production. The branch is sent an order confirmation. When the press has been constructed, the shipping documents are sent to the press in Wiesloch-Walldorf, and transportation to the customer can begin.

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26 Press Guide

The “noble parts” are cast and processed at the Amstetten site. High-precision bases, side frames and cylinders provide a stable structure for quality offset printing

A Heidelberg press enters the world in the blazing furnace at Amstetten – a fiery scene where elementary volcanic forces appear to be at work to make the iron pliable and squeeze it into the mold. Five smelting furnaces with a power of five to eight megawatts heat the “soup” of iron, enriched as necessary with nickel, copper,

silicon, and carbon, to 1,400 °C. Materials are regularly replenished via the charging barrow. The materials travel by elevator from the bunker to the upper floor and are transferred via the vibrating chute to the furnace, which sends out spurts of flame in response.

Administration building, Amstetten site

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Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press Press Guide 27

Depending on the power consumption, it takes between 45 and 90 minutes for the molten iron to boil. One cubic meter of cast iron weighs 7.2 tons, and 1.1 cubic meters of molten metal fit in an 8-ton furnace. In the smelting furnace, the specialists, encased in their fireproof clothing, can work in three shifts to operate the kilns and precisely monitor the quality of the melt. Regular samples are taken and analyzed. If necessary, additives are mixed into the “soup” of metal. The mix must correspond precisely with the recipe and be completely uniform in order to ensure that the cast iron contains the correct physical properties and no hardening ester is produced. The molten iron is then transferred in gigantic ladles to four large holding furnaces that accommodate a total of 180 tons and thus half of the foundry’s daily requirements. The holding furnaces ensure that there is a steady supply of molten iron in the foundry. A kind of induction spoon is used to continuously stir the molten metal in the furnace. The composition of cooleddown samples is analyzed in a special device where individual metal particles are released and burned in the atmosphere of the noble gas argon by an electric arc. The intensity of the colors that blaze in the combustion procedure reveals the secret of the metallurgical composition. A computer converts the calculated values on the monitor into profiles and displays whether all the components meet the quality standards. Later, the slag is separated from the glowing mass and then the iron can be cast. The mold – sand, resin, placeholder and afterburner The casting molds are produced at the same time as the smelting. The orders for these are sent via the production planning system from assembly in Wiesloch-Walldorf to manufacturing at Amstetten, where the quantities and sequence of the individual parts are calculated for the foundry. As the cast iron shrinks during cooling, construction needs to calculate these values and incorporate them in its model building so that at the end the cast part is one to three millimeters larger at the areas that

The melt, which is heated to 1,400 ?C, is transferred across to the sand molds.

will later undergo processing. In total, the foundry in Amstetten has more than 5,400 models – the wooden or metal “originals” used as substitutes for in-mold casting. A mixture of fine quartz sand and a kind of twocomponent bonding system is used as filler for the molds. The molds are produced in a cycle with continually recurring process steps. First, a metal frame is applied to the model that is to be cast. At the next filling station, the sand-resin mix is applied to the mold using a tube, distributed evenly, packed into difficult contours, compacted by means of vibration and passed on to a furnace tunnel to be cured. A large mold requires around 3.5 tons of sand. If there are 240 molds a day, that makes 850 tons. In total, 2,300 tons of sand are processed each day in the foundry. Some 98 percent is re-used in the next cycle. The high level of re-use is shown by the black color of the sand. This blackening is produced when the adhesive is burned by the hot molten iron. After about 15 minutes, the sand mold has been cured. The model is then separated from the mold and can immediately be used again to repeat the process and produce another mold.

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28 Press Guide Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press

The mold continues on its journey and is immersed in a fire-proof mixture of loam, clay and water. The mold is dried again in the next furnace tunnel and the cores are then inserted. These are placeholders for forming cavities in a casting. The top and bottom halves of the mold are fitted automatically and precisely on top of one another automatically and the mold is ready to be cast. An operator at the stacker pours the hot mass into the large molds. He carefully lifts up a vast steel can lined with fireclay, aims the sprue cup at the inlet, and tilts the container forward. The iron flows into the mold as smoothly as if it were water. The bright light, heat radiation and flying sparks are testimony to the fact that this is a special kind of liquid. The filled forms are weighed down for close to an hour, otherwise the lifting force of the molten iron would push apart the two halves of the mold. Afterwards, the mold is taken away to cool down. Molding and

casting takes around a day. Small parts take four hours to cool down, larger parts 24 hours. The new very large format (Speedmaster XL 145 and XL 162) “breaks the mold” here, with its impression cylinders needing some 6,000 kg of molten iron per mold and still being at a temperature of 200 °C after cooling for 5 days. Smaller castings are arranged efficiently in a single mold. The loading capacity and function of the casting depends crucially on the formation of a homogeneous microstructure during cooling, as well as on the material composition. Depending on the geometry of a part – whether it has angles or bulges – cavities may form during cooling. Consequently, exothermic feeders are used at critical areas. These function like afterburners and keep the material at the required temperature in these areas or feed in extra molten iron.

The large molds are produced at the mechanized molding plant.
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Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press Press Guide 29

When the cast iron has cooled down, the mold is opened and the casting is taken up by the hooks of a conveyor belt for the next step in the process. It is freed of the sand in a gigantic jet machine and in its contours it can be recognized for the first time as part of a machine. The metal surface

is not yet spick and span and has burrs and rough edges. These are removed in the final process step during fettling. A large part of the fettling work is performed by companies within a radius of 20 kilometers.

Heidelberg site at Amstetten
Competence center for manufacturing cast iron and large parts for Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG; one of Europe’s most cutting-edge foundries, one of Germany’s 15 largest foundries; Germany’s largest mechanical engineering foundry. Service portfolio extends across the entire process chain, from casting consultancy work and patternmaking to actual molding and casting operations and delivery of cleaned and primed castings. The foundry also produces for external customers in a wide range of sectors. Integrated quality and environmental management system; certified to DIN 9001 and 14001. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Production start: August 16, 1985 Investment volume: 450 million Euro Workforce: 1,250 (as at March 31, 2007) Percentage of trainees of total workforce: 7 percent Area: 390,000 m2, (4,197,960 sq ft), built-over area: 92,000 m2 (990,288 sq ft) Foundry production area: 52,400 m2 (564,034 sq ft) Mechanical production area: 53,000 m2 (570,492 sq ft)

Production program Foundry: ? Manufacturing sectors: Smelting shop, heavy casting area (150 – 1,500 kg), light casting area (0.5 – 150 kg) ? Manufacturing range: Gray, nodular, and vermicular graphite cast iron ? Job sizes: Manufacturing of short, medium, and large series ? Product range: 3,000 “live” castings, 300 new parts per year ? 5,400 models / core boxes ? Production performance: 57,000 t of cast iron per year ? Smelting performance: 80,000 t of molten iron per year (smelting capacity: 95,000 t/a) ? Pure charge materials: Pig iron, scrap (e.g. high-quality punch or cutting debris from metal processing), alloying agent ? Auxiliary materials: Resin, bentonite, quartz sand Mechanical manufacturing: ? Manufacturing sectors: Cylinder and side-frame manufacturing ? Machining of cylinders, side frames, bases, cross bars, etc. ? 400 machining parts ? 34,000 press side frames per year ? 70,000 cylinders per year ? 1,000,000th cylinder delivered end of March 2007

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30 Press Guide Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press

The specialists in the Heidelberg heavy metal section at Amstetten are expert in a whole array of techniques, ranging from the ultra-fine to the colossal. The castings weigh 150 grams up to 1.5 tons. The “super heavyweight” class will also be covered in the future – until now, the heaviest cylinder weighed one ton. In the very large format, this will rise to 4.3 tons. The side frame of a Speedmaster CD 102 weighs almost 700 kilograms, while the side frame of the very large format has to be manufactured in two parts on

account of its geometric dimensions. Nevertheless, each part still weighs approx. 2.5 tons. Around 75 percent of the cast iron (by weight) remains in Amstetten for further processing, 20 percent – gears and small parts – is transported for machining at the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant, and 5 percent goes to external customers, of which a certain percentage returns to Heidelberg in component form and becomes part of a postpress machine.

Casting a keen eye over molds
The development of castings is dominated by 3D digital technology. New developments involve changes to the components and parts of presses. The time to market specifications that have now become established would not be possible without a fully integrated digital production flow. The 3D development programs allow parts to be examined and rotated if not by hand at least by eye. And they allow developers to determine the possibility of a collision with other parts at particular installation locations in the interior of the press. A newly developed part not only has to fulfill its function, it also has to be cast, processed and subsequently assembled. The later steps must not use up the cost saving achieved in construction. Model building and casting technology, manufacturing and assembly therefore all coordinate closely with development from the outset.

Simulation of the solidification of an impression cylinder

Volume model of the raw part for an impression cylinder

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Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press Press Guide 31

In the past, new parts were computed “by hand” and a series of test castings were made. Nowadays, much of the communication takes place via a data line. The design department in Heidelberg digitally transfers a new component to the model building department in Amstetten, where its suitability for production and finishing is examined. The model is split for the casting to give a top and bottom box for the mold. The technical elements, rounded surfaces and bores are specified, while the shrinkage factor of the metal when cooling down and the additional thickness allowed for subsequent machining are calculated. Solidification is very much a controlled process. During a computing process that takes several hours, a special program calculates how the metal flows when it is poured in, whether splashes are produced, whether a cold run is formed, and where the last heat zones will be. The structure must be dense enough to withstand the stress to come. Breakage or cavities can be prevented or corrected through design changes – for example by fitting a chill for the casting or providing extra heat using a feeder. Each year, around 300 new parts are computed. The data approved by model building also provides the basis for the CNC machine, which mills the model from the plastic plate.

Will the lever hold?
Metallographic analyses reveal whether the casting is good. Made-to-measure metal – staff in the laboratory at the Amstetten foundry are working on new solutions and material combinations that will give the casting steel-like properties. Their core activities also include regularly checking the composition of the casting in ongoing production. Metallographic analyses are a common method of achieving this. A cross-section of the sample casting reveals the composition of the particles. Previously, reference images would have been required to make an optical comparison. Nowadays, the computer carries out the image analysis and counts the number of graphite particles accurately. Typically, there are 200 to 300 per mm2.

However, the graphite particles have to be finely distributed. Large masses have a negative effect on the material properties. Depending on the particle values, micropores can cause a crankshaft to fail. A distinction is made between spheroidal iron and gray cast iron, depending on the composition. Spheroidal iron exhibits steel-like properties, results in greater elasticity and is suitable for use in levers, for example. Gray cast iron offers outstanding strength, dampens vibrations, conducts heat, and is brittle. It is suitable for bases, cross bars and side frames. The picture shows spheroidal iron in its typical graphite form, with tensile strength of more than 700 N/mm2.

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32 Press Guide Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press

Machining the side frames – the skeleton takes shape

The printing unit side frame is deburred using a robot.

From the foundry, the large castings are transferred along a tunnel and up an elevator to the raw part store in mechanical manufacturing. Here, the scheduler responsible for the processing lines arranges them in a particular sequence and in job sizes of 20, 30 or 40. At the same time, from a stock of 1,000 drills, cutting dies, friction heads and milling cutters, the tools required for the particular job are also placed on the trolley. Several follow-up jobs form a queue. This is crucial for the quality of the work. Objects expand in heat and shrink in the cold and precision requirements down to one thousandth of a millimeter cannot be met unless conditions are controlled. Castings and tools have to acclima-

tize to reach the hall temperature. Each day, 60 to 65 pairs of printing unit side frames are produced here. Capital-intensive systems are operated in three shifts, while other jobs are carried out in two shifts. All aspects of mechanical manufacturing are characterized by teamwork. The two side frames of a printing unit are married in the first machining operation. They travel along the manufacturing line in pairs in order to achieve absolutely consistent results. Each part is given a barcode to enable production steps and quality development to be tracked.

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Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press Press Guide 33

The side frame takes on its final shape after passing through a total of around 35 partly synchronized machining centers and complex manufacturing groups that combine and automate several processing stages in a single process. Supporting tables and powerful clamping devices up to two meters (6.5 feet) wide, largely developed in-house, fix the metal blocks with hydraulic clamps for machining. Heavy parts are transferred to the next stage using cranes and carts. The tools are coded and recognized by the machine when inserted. The manufacturing master computer supplies the machine with the relevant tool data and programs. Sensors monitor the wear of the tools during the machining operations. At the same time, the processing machines have to use technologies that can produce high volumes efficiently. As with the high-speed magnetic suspension train Transrapid, the single-spindle processing machines are driven by linear motors. The “floating” drive speed and short tool changeover times dramatically reduce processing times. Because of the many recurring geometries of 30 or 40 bores, it makes sense to automate and standardize. This is where Amstetten led the way at Heidelberg. Flow-line manufacturing played a central role there from the very start. First of all, the surface is milled and is then finished in several stages. Then large and small bores and threaded bores are made, before the parts are rotated and turned and then drilled and milled again. Machining takes place with minimal lubrication, if any. Cooling lubricants are not used. Here too, however, deviations in temperature hamper quality. Hot shavings must not be left on the machined part. They fall into containers and boxes and are taken away by an underground collection system in each manufacturing line. The last remaining burrs are removed by a robot.

The key element is fine-machining on orbiter machines. The register accuracy of screen dots on the sheet of paper is critically affected in drilling the holes for cylinder mountings. The side-frame pair is clamped in a powerful clamping device and subjected to a 15-minute procedure at a constant temperature of 21 °C in a single pass using a single tool. The drill heads are at the exact temperature. A cooling system is used to bring each spindle to the required temperature. The drill heads are not changed over, and specific clamping angles are defined for each part type. The drill head for the next processing batch is already docked onto the reverse of the orbiter and has reached the exact operating temperature.

The printing unit side frames are fine-machined using drill heads on an orbiter machine.

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34 Press Guide Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press

“The Mechanics department has to adhere to tolerances that would split a human hair into 60 parts. If a side panel falls over, it is no longer usable. Any mistakes made here, at the start of press production, can’t be ironed out at a later stage. That’s why we attach such great importance to staff training,” explains site manager Thomas Doyon. “We have a sophisticated err or reporting system that enables us to identify causes and respond accordingly. And we regularly benchmark our efficiency against other suppliers on the market.” Operators measure the results at set intervals during the machining process. In the final checking stage, all parts are tested in accordance with a comprehensive and detailed plan. All bores are checked using special tools. Some measurements are so precise that they need to be performed in a conditioned room using instruments that Heidelberg developed together with leading optical and measuring technology manufacturers. To ensure the quality of measurements, the devices are also checked and calibrated regularly. If the side-frame pairs pass the tests, they await shipping in block storage after around ten days’ throughput time.
Checking side frames using a measuring machine

The majority of parts produced in Amstetten are transported by rail from Amstetten to WieslochWalldorf, where all Heidelberg sheetfed offset presses are assembled. Every day, an average of three to four wagons with 160 to 220 tons of material leave Amstetten and are ready for unloading in Wiesloch-Walldorf around two and a half hours later.

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Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press Press Guide 35

Turning an impression cylinder

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36 Press Guide Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press

Cylinder machining – the hub of a printing unit
On average, each sheetfed offset printing unit comprises four to five cylinders that are connected to one another by means of a gear system on the side frame and which transport either ink or paper. At the end of the 1990s, Heidelberg concentrated its cylinder production in its Amstetten site. Each day, 320–330 cylinders enter the manufacturing lines. The variety of materials ranges from cast iron to aluminum and steel. The cast iron comes from the company’s own foundry, while the steel and aluminum parts are bought in. At the end of March 2007, the Amstetten site reached a “magic figure” – the factory has delivered one million cylinders since it began production in 1985. Machining is a multi-stage process that extends across 60 manufacturing centers. Cast iron is dry machined; steel needs to be wet machined. Employees work in three shifts. After the cylinder blank has acclimatized in the manufacturing hall, the pins are machined and the hardened steel center from Heidelberg’s Brandenburg plant is installed. A double spindle machine “shaves” off 14 mm (0.6 in) of cast iron at a single stroke. Channels for the gripper bars are subsequently precision-machined in machines the size of a railroad car, and the pins and print areas are then ground. The cylinders subsequently proceed to coating. Two thirds of the cylinders are surface coated. Chrome plating, nickel plating and anodization are performed by contractually bound external specialists. After all, one thing is fatal for a press and that is rust, which would make the cylinder swell up and immediately damage the surrounding parts during operation. After finishing and final inspection in Amstetten, the parts are transferred to Wiesloch-Walldorf.

At the end of March 2007, Heidelberg delivered the one-millionth cylinder from Amstetten.
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Hot Conditions for the Birth of a Press Press Guide 37

The organizational topics of workstation design and continuous improvement are an element of and prerequisite for new investment in capitalintensive manufacturing lines – process orientation in manufacturing, the workflow principle, shorter makeready times, and responsibility for scheduling on site. Process steps are bundled whenever doing so boosts efficiency and generates added value. For example, Heidelberg GTO has anodized aluminum cylinders. Using pins from Wiesloch-Walldorf, they are polished, checked, and final-assembled in Amstetten and shipped to the Assembly department. There is a definite trend towards the assembly of modules. The manufacturing of impression cylinders requires extensive know-how. Consequently, this area in Amstetten is not only responsible for the complete process – from machining to coating and delivery – but also operates its own technology consulting department.
The holding and clamping systems of an impression cylinder are pre-machined.

A metal cylinder is allowed a maximum inaccuracy of one hundredth or one thousandth of a millimeter over a length of one meter (3.28 feet) or – with the very large format – more than two meters (6.5 feet). This precision must also be provided in a quasi series, which means machining accuracy needs to be monitored and checked in closed loop quality systems. The software tools and measuring machines necessary for this are developed by Heidelberg in conjunction with the respective industry leaders.

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38 Press Guide


The Brandenburg plant is one of the main suppliers of mechanical parts for assembly and the global logistics center at the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant. Some 9,000 different part numbers, accounting for 40 percent of all sheetfed offset printing press parts produced in-house, come from this plant, constructed in 1992. Around 37,000 parts are produced each day in the factory, which was designed according to the construction plan for the Wiesloch-Walldorf manufacturing facility, and are sent to Wiesloch-Walldorf in anywhere between two and four tractor-trailers, including shafts, rollers, and flat and profiled parts.

In future, the focus will increasingly shift to more complex parts and components. “We will focus on those areas where we have long-term cost advantages and can harness the greatest potential,” says site manager Klaus Peter Gurries. “We will concentrate on the area in which we are the world’s best, that is, on the ability to produce complex parts with the necessary high level of precision, often to within one-thousandth of a millimeter. Increasingly, we intend to source out simple parts and evolve into a system supplier.”

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The Parts Millionaire Press Guide 39

Range of parts at Brandenburg

The Brandenburg site already has a well-developed extended workbench that absorbs capacity peaks. The supplier already carries out the first stage of processing whenever it is practical to do so. Steel is not supplied in simple bar form for sawing and turning in the factory but as a premachined part. Quality is the foremost priority in all activities. All employees are responsible for the quality of their own work. Moreover, Heidelberg not only checks and monitors the results of its own work, but also takes work samples and carries out audits at external suppliers. Most operations in Brandenburg are performed on high-tech systems – for example, on machining centers with four or five axes that machine the various elements of a part in all planes in a single clamping operation, in particular milling, drilling and thread tapping. Tools are automatically changed over and the workpieces are completely machined on a turntable. The employees are responsible for setting up and operating the machine, and for the quality of their parts.

However, the 10 to 15 operations performed on a workpiece or component also regularly include manual activities – flat parts need to be leveled and torsions removed with great dexterity using a press. In-between, the parts are sent to storage or to an external processor. These include ceramic-coated rollers for an ink fountain roller, which takes up the ink paste from the ink fountain in a thin film. The core of the roller is produced in the Brandenburg factory, plasmacoated externally and then smoothened and polished in the Brandenburg site using diamond wheels.

A CNC machine permits high-precision finishing of pins and cylinder surfaces of large shaft-shaped parts.

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40 Press Guide The Parts Millionaire

Heidelberg site at Brandenburg
Key integral component of the production network for sheetfed offset presses. Approx. 40% of all mechanical parts produced in-house for sheetfed offset press (approx. 9,000 different parts) are manufactured here; the plant’s specialties include manufacturing and assembly of shafts and rollers that are manufactured in autonomous production units and delivered directly to the printing unit in the Wiesloch-Walldorf assembly plant as required. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Processing of approx. 9,500 t of steel, 1,000 t of aluminum, brass, and cast iron per year Approx. 270 CNC-controlled machine tools Area: 760,000 m2, (8,180,640 sq ft), built-over area: 50,000 m2 (538,200 sq ft) Production start: 1992 Investment volume: Approx. 7 million Euro per year Workforce: 730 (as at April 2007) Proportion of skilled workers: 95 percent skilled metal workers Percentage of trainees of total workforce: 11 percent, from 2007 onwards 16 percent Certified to ISO 9001 and ISO 14001

Production program ? Manufacturing of mechanical parts for manufacturing presses ? Approx. 1,000,000 individual parts per month (approx. 37,000 parts per day) ? Primarily shafts, rollers, roller-shaped parts, flat and profiled parts, rotational parts ? Pre-assembly of various assemblies, such as numbering inking units, Rilsan roller assembly, feed table for Heidelberg prepress products, etc. ? Approx. 1,000 new parts per year

The key products “Made in Brandenburg” include Rilsan rollers. The polyamide Rilsan plays a crucial role in offset presses thanks to its outstandingly smooth surface and its special property profile, namely its low-temperature stability, adhesive strength, chemical resistance and elasticity.

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The Parts Millionaire Press Guide 41

In offset printing, inking rollers need to apply a thin metered film of ink to the printing plate. This means high demands are placed on the metering roller. Rilsan rollers exhibit outstanding ink acceptance. This property ensures excellent ink pick-up and transfer qualities and defined ink transport to the printing plate. Requirements are accordingly high for surface roughness, concentricity, and cylindricity. These need to be exact to one hundredth of a millimeter. A Rilsan roller consists of a tube and two pins that are connected to each other using friction welding. In friction welding, the stationary metal tube is squeezed with several tons of pressure against the rotating pin. The two parts are welded together by the frictional heat created from this. This is followed by the first lathe operation, in which the rough roller is machined on both sides. Afterwards, the roller is degreased in a washing machine and then roughened on a grinding stand.

In the subsequent coating process, the roller is heated inductively to a temperature of approx. 300 °C and immersed in a Rilsan powder bath. The powder melts on the hot roller surface, forming the plastic coating. After cooling, the one-millimeter thick plastic film is turned to 0.5 millimeters (0.020 in) and ground. Finally, the end result of the surface is checked by the trained eye of the machine operator to ensure that only parts that are 100% correct leave the plant.

Rilsan rollers are machined on a CNC machine.
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42 Press Guide

Improved, faster, and more innovative with multifunctional processing centers – annual cost saving of 3.5 percent as a result of continuous improvement processes

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Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility Press Guide 43

Music for metal lovers is provided by the giant manufacturing hall, housing an orchestra of murmuring and clattering drives, drills, milling and grinding machines fitted, operated, and synchronized by specialists who are skilled with their instruments, know their work, and bring their musical score to life. Over 300 machine tools and manufacturing centers – arranged in a cellular pattern in the soccer field sized hall 12 – need to be divided up and controlled in order to execute the necessary operations on schedule. The production planning system calculates the optimal sequence and uses feedback from the operators at the workstations to determine the current status of manufacturing.

Range of parts in mechanical series production in Wiesloch Around 6,200 orders a month pass through the manufacturing areas in Wiesloch-Walldorf and are delivered to assembly. These include gripper bars and pads for passing the sheet of paper through the press, a whole host of cams, and rotational parts, and a full range of gears with diameters up to one meter (3.3 ft). The parts need to be machined with register accuracy on a scale of thousandths of a millimeter. Precision is a crucial factor in finishing. Raw parts from the foundry or bought in must have a particular thickness. Usually, one to three millimeters has to be machined off using suitable procedures. Moreover, up to a dozen different steps may have to be carried out in the case of complex parts.

Rotational part

Small cubic part

Medium-sized cubic part

Large gear Gripper

Small gear


Range of parts from mechanical series production in a printing unit
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44 Press Guide Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility

Heidelberg site at Wiesloch-Walldorf
World’s largest and most modern printing press factory and largest manufacturing site in the global Heidelberg production network ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Production start: 1957 Area 860,000 m2 = 9,257,040 sq ft Effective building area: 510,000 m2 = 5,490,600 sq ft Workforce: 6,440, of which 4,860 shop-floor and 1,580 white collar staff Employees in production: 1.450 Employees in assembly: 3,355, of which 2,000 shop-floor, high proportion of skilled workers Longest assembly activity: 1,200 minutes 70 percent of the production area is used for assembly Percentage of trainees of total workforce: 5.7 percent Since 2001, tested and certified to international standard ISO 14001 World Logistics Center (WLC) Training center

Product / service portfolio ? Mechanical and electrical supplied parts, components, systems, and spare parts ? Number of parts (part numbers) for Wiesloch manufacturing: 10,300 ? Total manufactured parts per day: 38,000 ? Number of operations per day in manufacturing: 310 ? Number of machine tools in manufacturing halls: 450 ? Assembly of sheetfed offset presses and platesetters ? Assembly of CtP platesetters since 2004 (1,200 devices per year) ? Production volume: Approx. 65 printing units per day More than 400,000 printing units have been produced since 1957.

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Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility Press Guide 45

Machining centers and manufacturing groups Whereas numerous separate steps and more manual work were previously required to machine this type of component, the current trend is toward handling four, six or seven process steps “at a single stroke.” Manufacturing groups with several, synchronized components and machining centers are preeminent. These include CNC-controlled, complex stations the size of a small bus, equipped with several tool pallets, clamping devices, claw arms, and digital drives, which close the doors after the raw part has been clamped, extend the required tools as defined in a fixed program, turn the clamped raw part in all directions, apply a batch of drills simultaneously and produce a series of holes as though they were going through butter and not metal, then automatically rotate and turn the part, exchange the tools, immediately process the next sequence, and finally open the doors and release the finished machined part, resulting

in time savings of up to 70 percent. The parts could otherwise no longer be manufactured costeffectively, given the increasing diversity and decreasing batch sizes. These special machine tools and processing centers cannot be bought at trade shows or on the market. Heidelberg develops these complex machines in conjunction with its supply partners – with clearly defined requirements profiles covering everything from drive performance and the various processes to the resistance to wear of the tools used. Depending on the terms set out in the contract, a supply partner can subsequently incorporate the new development in its series-produced presses and offer it on the market. By then, Heidelberg has achieved a time and cost advantage.

HPC implementation: Results II – gripper pads

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46 Press Guide Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility

Abschleudern Grinding


Measuring the tooth width


Enhancing machine tools and methods and using them efficiently are both central to the continuous improvement processes anchored in the Heidelberg Production System. “We aim to cut costs by 3.5 percent per year and are using our Technical Innovation Plan (TIP) to systematically identify more cost-effective applications in-house. We are working on developments in tandem with partners from industry and research,” explains Heribert Wille, head of Manufacturing. “We are incorporating new topics and technologies from other branches of industry into the company via marketplaces and specialist forums, and we are working with our technology development department to examine the measurable benefits in actual manufacturing. Our design consultants are involved in development meetings about new products from the very outset – effective manufacturing technology for the new parts is all part of this development process.” A new production group for gears (pictured) can, for example, grind gear flanks, immediately check the axial runout of the gear and, if necessary, adjust the travel axes. Before grinding, the arrangement of the toothing is determined and the gear positioned in such a way that the same quantity of material is removed in all areas and

the tool is subject to an even load. The grinding wheel that grinds out the tooth space can move into action in live operation and create at least five spaces in each operation instead of one. Unique measuring technology The sensor, which was developed in conjunction with a supplier expressly for this purpose, measures the gear axially and identifies runout to within two-hundredths of a millimeter. This feature is unique in machines worldwide. Beforehand, all gears had to be measured in full on the test station, whereas now samples are sufficient. Prior to measuring, the part is cleaned by centrifuging off the residual oil, before then being passed on via robotic arm to the measuring device and then to the next stations for labeling with the part number and the tooth width. On average, this technology made it possible to reduce the processing times from 15 to 3 minutes. The investment of 1.6 million Euro was therefore worthwhile. 18 of the previous machines were required, working in two shifts. Today, this area of production is managed by three new production groups. Because of the high capital tie-up, these groups are utilized to full capacity in threeshift operation.

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Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility Press Guide 47

Effective manufacturing during gear milling in the large parts sector (hall 12)
? ? ? ? ? ? Production of toothing by means of continuous milling with TIN-coated milling cutters for high cutting speeds Processing time: e.g. gear ? 280 mm (11 in): Approx. 2 min. Accuracy: 0.02 mm (0.00079 in) (tooth width tolerance) Cost of the milling tool: Approx. 5,000 Euro Cost of the machine: 500,000 Euro Working model: 2 workers for 4 machines; 2- or 3-shift operation

Gripper systems also constitute part of the core business of Heidelberg. Gripper pads – the “fingertips” of the paper transport system – need to be highly friction proof and also be ground with great precision, but must not damage the paper. They generally consist of alloyed steel or hard metal. A grinding method was developed for machining pads using a diamond disc. After machining, the microscopically small properties of

the diamond-like surface profile need to be measured precisely. The tolerance of the ground sample is a few thousandths of a millimeter. It scarcely made sense to measure these intricacies using optical processes. An external laser measurement specialist developed a measuring device that is now used for checking the quality of these high-precision parts.

Mechanical series production of gears
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48 Press Guide Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility

Quality requirements in the final inspection of the gears (hall 12)
Klingenberg tooth measuring machine

? ? ? ? ?

Scanning of the gear contour to determine geometric parameters, e.g. pitch, difference between adjacent pitches, axial runout, tooth profile, tooth flank, convexity Determination of the tooth width distance assignment of the gear to a dimension group (categorized in 0.009 mm (0.000354 in) increments) Creation of a comprehensive measuring record for documentation Measuring accuracy: approx. 0.003 mm (0.000118 in) Duration of a measuring cycle: e.g. gear ? 280 mm (11 in): 3.5 min

The Swabian factor Swabia in the south-west of Germany has traditionally been a hotbed of mechanical engineering. Heidelberg and its partners in other sectors use the Swabia factor to acquire state-of-the-art technology cost-effectively. One example of this is tool development in the High-Performance Cutting (HPC) consortium with DaimlerChrysler, Bosch and Ford. The consortium identified the common applications for a tool, defined the standards, and specified them to the manufacturer. Essentially, this involved minimizing lubrication and dry machining the metal, a process that is far more effective and, because lubricants and coolants are not used, much more environmentally friendly. The tool manufacturer developed enhanced tools to meet these requirements. Rather than each commissioning individual production batches – an expensive undertaking – the orders placed by the consortium with the manufacturer amounted to a

small series. The individual customers could then afford the development and production costs for each machine tool, which allowed them to make headway on the international market even with relatively small volumes. Sawn or cracked? In a sector that generates so many chips, improvement processes are focused on metal-cutting. Traditional fields of mechanical engineering are now being analyzed. After all, technologies do not have to be new; they simply have to offer Heidelberg new opportunities. For example, the task might be to open a metal ring to enable a bearing to be fitted. The skill lies in joining the two parts of the metal ring together again with such extreme precision that the bearing has as little play as possible. The automotive industry uses the “cracking” process in the production of connecting rods.

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Wiesloch-Walldorf Manufacturing Facility Press Guide 49

A notch is cut in the casting by laser in order to create a predetermined breaking point. The casting is cracked. Unlike sawing or grinding, smooth interfaces are produced when the part is fractured. When the bearing has been fitted, these interfaces are easily joined together again and fastened with screws, and do not have to be machined. It does not always have to be high-tech There is potential for improvement in thousands of technical details and in the working processes. It is possible by acquiring new techniques and machines every 10 to 15 years to achieve real leaps in innovation that bring time savings of up to 80 percent. But that’s just it: you only acquire a new machine every 10 to 15 years. Continuous improvement processes may provide a contrast to the high-tech world of manufacturing centers, but they are no less effective, since it is possible to make progress very quickly in many small steps. This begins with things that are apparently “straightforward”, such as the toolbox. Which tools are actually required? Which most often? It takes time to locate a tool in a full, untidy toolbox. And if this happens countless times every day, it all adds up. Consequently, toolboxes have been cleared out and rearranged. Frequently used tools have been placed within easy reach. The same applies to incoming and outgoing containers filled with material. To identify the optimum layout of the stations for personnel, useful aids and furniture have been constructed, modified and moved around, and the ideas discussed and fine-tuned in teams.

Life-long training Staff have to undergo further training to keep pace with the increasing speed of innovation and the number of different fields of innovation. They not only need the know-how to master the critical areas but also to support the continuous improvement processes. This requires new forms of learning to take demographic change into account. 15-year-olds have a different approach to learning than 45-year-olds. Some 3,000 people are employed at the German sites in the Heidelberg production network, and the same number again in assembly. In 1992, the average age of employees was 35.4. It is now 41.1. A number of the company’s top performers are due to retire in the next few years. On the one hand, that means we have to recruit enough young people, on the other that we train senior employees of 55 or 58 for challenging roles in manufacturing.

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50 Press Guide

In the Wiesloch-Walldorf factory, Heidelberg produces electronic circuit boards, control cabinets and control systems for the Printmaster and Speedmaster press series and the Suprasetter platesetter.

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The Nervous System of the Press Press Guide 51

The electronization of the press began in the mid-1970s when Heidelberg developed a new generation called Speedmaster. Up to then, a press had a main switch, a motor and countless manual control knobs. Suddenly, the Speedmaster came with 120 ink zones that had to be controlled to allow fine dosing of the ink application and to increase the quality of the print and production speed. There was a motor for each ink zone. The entire system was controlled using a CPC (Computer Print Control) console. New control and adjustment functions were added as the pace of development increased. The CPTronic cable harness from the control console and control cabinet to the press got thicker and thicker. In value terms, around 30-40 percent of a modern press consists of electrical elements, electronic components and electrical assemblies. They form the “central nerve system” of an offset printing system that sends, receives, regulates, and controls signals in hundreds of components with a precision of one thousandth of a second, covering everything from movement, air pressure, ink, acceleration, speed, and water to electricity, sensors, heat, and cooling. Critical know-how lies in this close interlinking of mechanics and electronics. Heidelberg thus operates its own production facility at the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant for electronic circuit boards, control cabinets and control systems. This is where the control systems for the entire Heidelberg sheetfed-offset press range are produced – from the Speedmaster 52 to the very large format. Each year, this medium-sized electronics factory supplies around 3,000 complete control systems and produces some 600,000 printed circuit boards holding a total of 140 million components. And the level of automation is increasing. The number of components being integrated is growing rapidly. Up to 700 connections have to be installed on an area no bigger than a thumb. These have to be positioned precisely on the PCB to within a thousandth of a millimeter. The new generation of Sheetfed Control systems already being used in the newly developed Speedmaster CD 74 and Speedmaster XL 105 presses transfers even more intelligence from the control cabinet

to the printing units, which are connected to the central control cabinet via a bus system. The new control system will also be implemented in all other press series by 2008.

Facts and figures
? ? Approx. 350 employees 2 shifts

Buildings ? Commissioned in January 1988 ? Area of 90 m ? 100 m (295 ? 328 ft) Product range ? PCBs ? Press control systems ? Electronics for CtP platesetters Annual production ? Approx. 140 million components ? 600,000 PCBs ? 3,000 control systems

“Many companies can produce electronics. Competition is fierce. Our strategic advantage is that our in-house electronics factory is on the doorstep for internal customers,” says Helmut Schmidt, head of electronics production. “Feedback can be sent directly to development and many problems are solved as soon as they arise. And even if the internal customer in assembly has a problem, Heidelberg electronics engineers are on site in 15 minutes. Thanks to processoriented organization, we can deliver exactly what is required on the conveyor – the right product at the right time in the right place. Mass producers of IT or consumer electronics can’t match this.” The continuous improvement processes with their targets for autonomous teams zero in on quality, deadlines, level of utilization and costs and thus increase competitiveness directly.

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52 Press Guide The Nervous System of the Press

State-of-the-art technology Special clothing, conductive footwear and a conductive floor are just some of the special production conditions. Otherwise rubbing the soles of your shoes on the floor would produce charges and the spark might cause a defect in highly sensitive electronic components. Electronics production is organized in line with the pull principle. The requirements in mechanical assembly trigger the production of the corresponding replenishments in the electronics department. Only the required quantity of electronic assemblies is produced in the pick and place center and in the assembly cells. They are used to supply the assembly lines for slide-in modules, power elements, control consoles, main control cabinets and printing unit control cabinets. The raw material is transferred to the worker, shelves are filled from behind, empty containers are removed by the logistics train every hour, refilled, and sent back again based on the barcode of the parts. Around 90 percent of standard components are sourced – in cooperation with Heidelberg purchasing – from worldwide manufacturers of electronic components.

Siplace SMT pick and place machines (X-series)

Cutting-edge technology shapes the manufacturing lines, including the printing unit-sized SMT (Surface Mounted Technology) pick and place machines. The tiny components are inserted into belts that travel like an endless conveyor belt. A robot revolving head deftly picks out twelve components at a time from the reel belt and places them with the necessary care onto the circuit board. A line of this kind can place up to five million components each month and the latest X-series generation of machines picks 11 million components per month.

Logistics vehicle in electronics production

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The Nervous System of the Press Press Guide 53

The circuit boards were developed in-house by Heidelberg. A soldering paste is applied to the plastic body, which is provided with numerous conductive pathways, prior to being fitted with components in the screen-printing process. The modules pass through a hot-air oven in the next process step. The soldering paste is melted at 200 °C. This ultimately creates the electrical connection between the component and circuit board. The finished board slides into a hopper and arrives at the production group, where it is processed further, checked and inserted in a metallic protective housing. Operators use the in-circuit test to check that the individual components of a printed circuit board interact perfectly and that there is no short circuit or interruption. Control cabinets arrive pre-configured with commercially available electrical components at electronics assembly. Depending on the production needs of printing unit assembly,

printing unit control cabinets are produced the size of a PC tower – some 40 to 50 units each day. Cable harnesses, sensors, and batteries of printed circuit boards shape the assembly processes of a head-high press’s main control cabinet. The two control cabinet types undergo the same intensive test program at the end. Assembly and testing of a large control cabinet takes 18 to 26 hours depending on the version. Released cabinets are transferred just in sequence to press assembly. Some of the products from in-house electronics production are sent to the Heidelberg Suprasetter CtP platesetter, which is also assembled in the Wiesloch-Walldorf factory. External suppliers of peripherals are also provided with electronics. In this way, electronic assemblies are integrated in dryers or measuring devices, for example, and sent back as complete units.

Circuit board assembly

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54 Press Guide

Heidelberg purchasing evaluates suppliers using criteria such as quality, price, flexibility, commitment to innovation, and reliability

The question whether to make or buy, which is raised before every decision on investing in inhouse manufacturing, can be answered easily in most cases. Other, specialized manufacturers can offer customized mechanical parts of steel, sheet metal, aluminum, and plastics, standard and catalog parts, surface finishing, sets of cables, hose systems, high-quality assemblies and systems with specific know-how such as electric motors, lasers, control cabinets, pneumatic systems or peripherals such as IR/UV dryers, dampening solution systems, and air supply cabinets. The Heidelberg purchasing department is tasked with identifying and further developing the best suppliers for the necessary parts and services. This is a complex area with a vertical range of manufacture of around 40 percent.

The best price is not the only criterion. “Purchasing is an integral part of the two most important core processes at Heidelberg – the production of a press system (product lifecycle process) and the logistics and supply system (supply chain management) in the production flow,” underlines Michael Zirm, head of Heidelberg purchasing. “That means that the suppliers have to identify with the principles of the Heidelberg production network, “just in time” supply, the zero error and continuous improvement strategies and apply them in the same way.” Key interfaces for purchasing include research & development, production, quality management and logistics.

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The Best on the Market Press Guide 55

Thorough checks The selection and training of suppliers takes place in line with a defined approval procedure. The “best” quotation covers a whole host of criteria such as quality, competitiveness, risk assessment, contribution to innovation, supplier flexibility, responsiveness, reliability, information flow, collaboration or communication interfaces for electronic data exchange through to docking to a supplier portal. A points key is then used to calculate a final overall mark. A key element is assessment through an audit at the supplier’s premises. Following successful testing, the supplier is approved and the business relationship commences. This usually takes the form of framework agreements. If the supplier provides an excellent level of service, titles such as “preferred supplier” are awarded. The aim is to find the best suppliers worldwide and set up a working relationship with Heidelberg. There are currently around 650 suppliers for series press production, and around 1,500 when auxiliary and process materials,

spare parts, and services are taken into account. A good two thirds of suppliers are based in Germany. The global purchasing network has been expanded in the last few years. Since the expansion of the European Union, the purchasing markets in Central and Eastern Europe have become more significant. In the electronics sector, Asia and the U.S. have long been key purchasing markets. The supplier market in China is also developing quickly as a result of investment by Heidelberg in this market. However, Heidelberg does not purchase consumer products that are easy to find on all markets. To increase skills on the purchasing market and to implement benchmarking, Heidelberg also uses industry-specific electronic marketplaces. Whereas the market in Germany and Western Europe is largely transparent, the “iceberg model” applies to purchasing in the emerging markets, whereby six-sevenths of the market is hidden under the surface of the water. The challenge is to identify the high-performing partners in these countries.

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56 Press Guide The Best on the Market

The suppliers are assessed at yearly intervals. Besides measurable criteria such as quality, price, and delivery reliability, aspects such as accessibility, quality of documentation, consulting skills, contribution to innovation and compliance with environmental targets also play a role. The annual report provides important feedback for suppliers. It highlights their own performance against developments on the purchasing markets, indicates their strengths and weaknesses, and shows where there is potential for improvement. Cost and value analyses and agreements on improving production and process costs – which are identical to those for in-house manufacturing – play a major part in maintaining competitiveness. Thanks to consistent implementation of the Heidelberg purchasing strategy, the average

price agreement in the financial year 2006/2007 was one percent below the reference index provided by the VDMA basket of commodities. This complexity is overcome using standardized, system-supported processes. As part of the Heidelberg supply chain, suppliers are included in the “rolling forecast” – a requirements plan that is increasingly evolving into delivery schedules and finding its way into synchronous production. And it has to run constantly. A machine defect at a supplier’s, a bankruptcy, or the nonappearance of a planned delivery could bring the finely tuned production chain to a halt. Risk management, which devises alternative strategies, is therefore a key component of the Heidelberg purchasing department’s strategy.

Purchase management at Heidelberg:
? ? ? Around 1,500 suppliers 100 development partners Heidelberg buys more than 60% of its annual purchasing volume from its 10 biggest supply partners.

Purchased volume per year
More than 50,000 active part numbers ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Approx. 140 million electronic components 15,000 m2 (161,460 sq ft) printed circuit boards – the size of 2.5 soccer fields 490,000 motors More than 100,000 t iron- and steel-dependent parts 1,700 t aluminum 700 t copper 900 t plastic 7,200 m2 wood for packaging More than 50,000 different parts 100 truck deliveries per day 2,400 inbound deliveries per day

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Development partnerships Heidelberg concentrates its development resources on its core areas of expertise and unique selling points and looks to development partnerships with supplier firms for the many electronic and electromechanical assemblies and peripherals it requires, ranging from control cabinets to powder spray devices. When Heidelberg’s requirements for the project have been defined, an invitation to tender takes place in the form of a concept competition. Here too, the offers are evaluated from the perspective of price, performance and quality using a Purchasing, Quality Assurance and Development matrix. When contractual conditions such as the rights of use have been agreed, the development partnership is commenced with the placing of an order in the same way as an internal project – the steering committee and project team are formed, and regular tests and coordination processes are implemented. These ensure that the delivered components or systems – from the quality requirements and the spare parts list to the operating instructions – are fully integrated in the Heidelberg world. The partners usually supply the approved parts to the assembly line just in sequence or directly to shipping.

In total, Heidelberg has around 100 development partners. For historical reasons, many are based in the south-west of Germany, a hotbed of mechanical engineering. Heidelberg buys more than 60 percent of its annual purchasing volume from its ten biggest supply partners. On average, three to four developers at each supplier are assigned solely to Heidelberg projects.

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Wiesloch-Walldorf plant logistics – a “large train station” for around 60,000 different parts and components that are synchronized with the demand in assembly and have to be delivered just in sequence to the assembly line

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The Right Place at the Right Time Press Guide 59

Are suppliers actually able to supply? Planned quantities are controlled using the production planning system. Demand for materials is calculated on the basis of actual customer orders and sales forecasts. The purchasing department negotiates with suppliers, creates blanket orders, sets prices, specifies the expected sales volumes, passes definite material requirements on to the supplier in the form of automatically created delivery schedules, ensures their delivery capability, processes complaints and handles urgent requirements. Here, everything is in constant motion. Each day, four to six rail cars carrying castings both large and small roll out of the Amstetten plant and around 100 trucks set off with steel parts from Brandenburg and materials from external suppliers headed for the storage and distribution center in Wiesloch-Walldorf. Hall 40 is the powerhouse for providing materials. In three shift operation, materials are unloaded, put into storage, picked and transported by staff that are constantly looking to set new record times. Three press assembly lines – soon to be joined by a fourth, the very large format – need feeding. A total of around 60,000 different parts and components for press assembly need to be managed to ensure each one arrives at the right place at the right time. Some 40,000 of these go via the central store in hall 40. The tray storage system at the World Logistics Center (WLC) in WieslochWalldorf is used for the blue plastic crates in the Kanban system. “The volume of part numbers has doubled in the last ten years. We expect it to increase by another 40 percent in the next five to ten years because of the increasing number of equipment versions and the different customer requirements,” says Wolfram Fendler, head of Production Planning and Control. Matthias Ehmler, head of Plant Logistics, adds: “To manage all of this cost-effectively, we are reducing stock levels in the area, using computer-based planning and incorporating our external suppliers as far as possible into the just-in-sequence system, i.e. demand-driven delivery at just the right time.” A flood of 2,500 consignments arrives each day. The material is identified and inspected and the quantities are checked. Metal parts undergo special surface treatment. In the gunmetal finishing process, all interior parts of a press pass through a series of galvanic immersion baths. This creates a black surface coating which, in combination with oil, functions as corrosion protection, without altering the dimensions and stability of the parts. The parts are then stored. The high-bay store – 33 meters (108 ft) high with twelve lanes and an automatic rack serving unit – is operated in three shifts. The computer calculates the optimal usage of space and determines which crates are sent to which pallet. Deliveries in large containers from external producers are gradually being replaced by small packages suitable for use with the Kanban system. High-quality individual parts such as bases, side frames, cylinders, cooling and circulation units, and air supply cabinets are delivered directly to the assembly line. Empty control cabinets are sent directly to electronics production in hall 9, while enclosed products such as usage instructions etc. are sent to press dispatch. The procedure is similar for the cylinders and side frames for the very large format, which weigh several tons. These are sent directly to the new hall 11.

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60 Press Guide The Right Place at the Right Time

Wiesloch-Walldorf plant logistics
? Approx. 200 employees in total

Inbound deliveries ? 3 unloading points: Central store in hall 40, halls 69/9 and inbound packages in hall 48 ? Approx. 2,500 inbound deliveries per day, of which 1,000 are for the central store and 600 for the package service ? Approx. 100 trucks per day, 4 – 6 rail cars from Amstetten via night delivery Warehouse ? Approx. 32,000 pallet bases in the central store, of which approx. 8,000 are large-part spaces ? Approx. 13,000 storage compartments in the cheap part store ? Approx. 8,000 part numbers in Kanban containers in the WLC ? Approx. 3,400 withdrawals from stock per day, 35 percent picked manually ? 35 percent of shipments via transport bridge, 60 percent via internal transportation system (ITS) Gunmetal finishing facility ? 26 baths, automatic loading and process run-through ? 3-shift operation, 20 – 25 t cast iron and steel material per day Transportation – facts and figures ? Transport bridge in hall 6 (3 disposals), main paint shop and hall 5 ? Internal Transport System (ITS) with 3 tractors and 25 double tractors and trailers (each with a 2 ? 6 t payload) ? Average of 210 ITS tractors and trailers per day, dispatch to 16 train stations for decentralized unloading ? Forklift truck transportation for express service and special transport duties with 3 forklift trucks, Unimog for shunting tasks and winter service, trucks for carriage between Wiesloch-Walldorf and development or the Print Media Center in Heidelberg

Materials that are procured from the store rather than for a specific order (JIS) are supplied to assembly on a consumption-basis using the “pull” method. The material is requested by the assembly staff, who place an empty container on the collection location and notify the production system by pressing a button. This sends a supply order to the store. The store then puts the requested materials into piles and announces that they are ready for collection.

Around a third of the material called up from the high-bay store travels under computer control on pallets on conveyor belts, enclosed in metalencased aisles, around ten meters (33 ft) above the plant to key points – mainly to hall 6 and the main paint shop. They are received there by hall logistics using a type of freight elevator. Each day, some 500 containers leave the highbay store in this way on this overhead transport system.

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Two thirds of the material are delivered by the orange and yellow vehicles of the newly designed Internal Transport System ITS to 17 “stations” at the plant and then distributed by hall logistics using, for example, driverless transport systems that run via induction loops in the hall floor. The ITS tractors receive their orders by radio over a W-LAN transport control system. Three tractors in two-shift operation travel constantly to and from the assembly halls. Powered by liquid gas, they deliver the required performance and are also permitted to travel into the halls because of their environmental compatibility.

They shuttle 25 trains of two trailers to and from the “stations” in the halls. Ingeniously, while the trailers are being loaded and unloaded, the tractor is already well underway with a new train of trailers. Each day, around 800 pallets of material are removed from storage and empty containers transported back in around 200 journeys. At the same time, the central store is used as temporary storage – numerous parts travel back the same way following particular processing operations and wait to be moved again.

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62 Press Guide

Around 70 percent of the production area at the WieslochWalldorf plant is occupied by assembly. Here, all Heidelberg presses – which are divided up into four format classes – are assembled from the supplied parts and components, test-printed and then delivered. 15 presses are turned out each day.

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Assembly – the Emergence of a Giant Clockwork Mechanism Press Guide 63

Hustle and bustle all around. The spacious factory accommodates a maze of activities. The workstations, assembly lines, shelves, and workspaces are a hive of activity. Supply shafts carrying material run underneath the hall roof. The plant logistics system takes the tens of thousands of very wide-ranging parts ordered on the production system – ranging from castings, cables, and tubes to shafts and rotational parts through the warehouse or from the supplier just-insequence to the point of assembly. Heavy gears are installed using hoisting cranes. Stackers with large parts travel along lengthy aisles in the halls. Supply vehicles go about the business of filling shelves. All these activities are coordinated by the job control system, supported by stateof-the-art software. After all, all the parts and assemblies have to be available at the right place at the right time. Over 2,000 shop-floor staff work in assembly, mostly in two shifts. They ensure that a press is created from 50,000 to 100,000 individual parts. The proportion of skilled workers is very high, as high levels of expertise are a prerequisite for high-quality work. Despite the enormous quantities of equipment in assembly – each day, 35 trucks leave the plant with finished presses – it is seldom that two completely identical presses are built, an indication of the product’s complexity and ability to be adapted to customer needs. This level of complexity requires special processes that enable orders to be customized. “Within a hair’s width” is an everyday synonym for absolute precision. However, in press construction, the diameter of a human hair is much too imprecise for many areas. Presses are stable yet sensitive electronic and mechanical structures with accuracy requirements to within a thousandth of a millimeter. And there are gradations even on that scale. To meet these requirements, specific precautions need to be taken.

For example, cylinders have to be stored in the hall for at least a day to acclimatize before they can be installed. This is because the metal contracts at lower temperatures and the cylinder falls out of the tolerance range. Or take the adjustment of the grippers. They hold the sheet of paper with metallic “fingers” and extreme sensitivity without damaging it. The level of accuracy required when the grippers are moved towards each other on the gripper bars is far greater than “within a hair’s width”. The ceiling lights have to be screened for specific working and measuring procedures because the irradiation from the sun expands the material and corrupts the measurement. Staff regularly take part in training workshops, where they learn new methods in the Heidelberg Production System HPS – the Heidelberg system for producing the best press factory in the world. These training workshops also form part of staff communications that provide information about production output, targets and continuous improvement processes. Precision is multi-dimensional Before the components of a press are assembled in the final assembly stage, a whole host of assembly and adjustment operations are necessary. Gears and bearings need to be paired up correctly to the cylinders as these have a major impact on paper transport in the press and thus printing results on the paper. Parts are married up on the basis of dimension groups – gears on a scale of hundredths of a millimeter, bearings on a scale of thousandths of a millimeter. And it is not just a question of roundness but of conicity and torsion on the longitudinal or transverse axis on the cylinder journal. As these precision requirements are so high that cannot be met with any production methods, the gears are measured on a micro-scale and deviations from the ideal are compensated for by a “marriage” of two parts that cancel each other out.

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64 Press Guide Assembly – the Emergence of a Giant Clockwork Mechanism

Later, when they have been installed in the printing unit, the cylinders and gears are attuned to one another to ensure that the paper transport functions optimally. Here too, the accuracy requirements are to within a thousandth of a millimeter in all directions. Press assembly begins with preparing heavy parts. Paper-feeding cylinders (with a gripper system) and ink-feeding cylinders (without a gripper) are prepared for installation in the printing unit. Cylinders cannot be assembled by automatic assembly equipment. For many settings, there is no substitute for human dexterity. Needle bearing cages also need to fit the bearing bushes and surface of the cylinder to half of one thousandth of a millimeter – once again, an operation that only staff with many years of experience can perform. Ready-assembled cylinders are provided with accompanying documents and the customer machine number at the picking area. When cylinders are assembled, side frames are also assembled. Devices such as chain guides or bearings for inking units and cylinders are fitted. This is followed by connecting the side frames to the base – the “chassis” and “bodywork,” so to speak. The metal parts are aligned and joined. Cross bars are also inserted for stability to maintain parallelism and correct angles. Heating devices expand bores. Granite plates are better than steel. At the swivel station, the resulting printing unit “skeleton” is tipped at a right angle to the side just like on a seesaw. A side frame is taken off, and now cylinders, distributor cylinders (for ink distribution), ink fountain roller (to meter the ink) and various shafts can be inserted. Then the side frame is reattached and rotated, the printing unit is aligned on a stand, and ink fountains installed, tested, measured, and adjusted. This swivel process is used for small and medium format machines and for the Speedmaster XL 105. With the 70 cm ? 100 cm (27.56 in ? 39.37 in) format and the new larger format, assembly now takes place upright with the cylinders supported by an auxiliary structure and the side frames moved up. The printing units are constructed on granite plates because
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they bend less than steel. As there is no play between the cylinder bushing bush and sideframe bore, the bore is expanded using a heating device. Assembly staff have to master processes that can extend over 3,000 minutes The printing unit with cylinders is placed on the assembly line. Printing units move one step forward every 40 minutes, powered by transfer carriages that move the platforms along from one section of the production line to another. Pre-assembly work is performed in parallel to the actual assembly lines. Staff on the assembly line take the finished components from the push-through shelves in which they are stored. Fitters accompany “their” printing unit until they have completed their task and then return to begin a “new” printing unit. While an employee in the automobile industry has to master three minutes of work content, printing press machinists are responsible for up to 3,000 minutes of work.

Assembly of the gripper systems for the paper-feeding cylinders.

Assembly – the Emergence of a Giant Clockwork Mechanism Press Guide 65

In side-frame assembly, the chain guides or bearings for the inking units and cylinders are fitted and the side frames are attached to the base frame of the press.

In the first stage of printing unit assembly, the gears are assembled. The main focus here is on positioning the cylinders in relation to each other to ensure exact paper transport. In the second stage, the feeder is assembled, and the angles, the front and pull lays and the low pile assembly are set. The third stage includes fitting the oil and lubrication lines and assembly operations on the ink fountain and blanket washup device. The fourth stage comprises installation of electrical and pneumatic elements and sets of cables, pneumatics assembly, and the setting of safety devices and limit switches. The final stage consists of an automatic printing unit test lasting around two hours, where valves and actuators – electromechanical components that become active in a closed loop to maintain predefined target values – are activated and the printing unit undergoes pneumatic and electrical testing. Only fault-free printing units reach the final assembly stage. In parallel to printing unit assembly, the deliveries are assembled at the workspace in the synchronized box. These will later receive and deposit the printed sheets from the press. In addition, the feeders that will subsequently

feed sheets of paper to the printing units are assembled directly alongside them. The feeder frames are placed on pallets and moved like shopping carts along the material shelves, where fitters take what they need and install electric motors, pile chains, suction heads, sheet stops, air supply tubes, and control consoles. This is followed by the final assembly. The press is assembled from the various components – consisting of several printing units, coating units, dryers, feeders, deliveries, peripherals, and control cabinets. Reinforced concrete floor sags up Depending on the press type and weight, a 25 to 60 cm (9.84 to 23.62 in) solid reinforced concrete base is needed for the floor surface. The printing units, feeders, and deliveries need to stand on the floor for around ten hours. The concrete then sags up to 1 mm (0.03 in) over several meters. It does not give any more. Only then can the press be assembled. Precision plays a key role here too – the up to twelve printing units of a press, each weighing six tons, need to be assembled absolutely parallel with each other.

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66 Press Guide Assembly – the Emergence of a Giant Clockwork Mechanism

Each Heidelberg press undergoes a test-print at the plant. Depending on the complexity involved, it is tested over several working days from head to toe for criteria such as streaks, dot gain, and the vibration of the entire unit. “Test-printing a press is like constructing a musical instrument – the system is fine tuned on countless setting wheels so that the customer can bring its musical score to life,” says Ulrich Wege, head of assembly in the 70 cm ? 100 cm (27,57 ? 39,37 in) format. “To a certain extent, the test-printing specialists are maestros. They identify if a problem on the print sheet is caused, for example, by the gripper or a gear.”

Assembly throughput for a press depends on the press configuration and the complexity of versions and takes several weeks. Defining a concrete customer order begins with allocation of the two side frames in the foundry at Amstetten and allocation of bearing bushes to side frames in the Wiesloch-Walldorf preassembly section. All areas in assembly thus operate according to a concrete customer order. On course to remain the best press factory in the world Further development of methods and workflows benefits assembly in the same way that further training benefits staff. The focus is on press quality and performance, in other words, the result of all the factory’s efforts. The ongoing restructuring of workstations and continuous process improvement are as fundamental to this as innovations. These include the aforementioned swivel units, which were developed and constructed in the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant, and the introduction of innovative assembly methods that involve suppliers. Staff at the factory are included in the improvement process. A rewards system is in place for suggested improvements, and staff are also actively involved in designing their own workstations. The ideas that are developed are tested at selected points in assembly – known as “learning stations” – and transferred to other areas if they prove to be successful. Ideas are passed on by virtue of the open communication that exists between the different areas. Target agreements are in place to ensure that all areas are focused on the joint goal of being the best press factory in the world.

Press assembly

Maximum precision is also necessary here. To set the press correctly, gears may need to be moved on a μ scale. All test records and reports are collated for production and customers in a document folder. Following successful testing, the presses are dismantled, cleaned, conserved, stored, and packaged for worldwide dispatch.

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Assembly – the Emergence of a Giant Clockwork Mechanism Press Guide 67

Production line assembly of a printing unit

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68 Press Guide

Prepress is the first stage in the offset printing process chain. High-precision, effective plate imaging is a prerequisite for highquality end products. The Suprasetter platesetter is assembled in two lines at the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant using many different finished components – the laser head is a Heidelberg development.

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Heidelberg without the “Heavy Metal” Press Guide 69

To provide its customers with a complete process chain in sheetfed offset, Heidelberg has built up its own know-how in the prepress sector. Special interfaces and software modules are used to network prepress, press and postpress in a single system. Since 2004, the platesetters in the Suprasetter family have been assembled in the Wiesloch-Walldorf plant. A polymer coating is applied to printing plates. The basic material is usually aluminum. The plate, which weighs only a few hundred grams, rotates on a cylinder that moves at high precision. A laser beam is used to expose ink-accepting dots in line with the print image created in the layout program. If the beam is not perfectly accurate, the image will be blurred or streaky. The state-of-the-art laser head, which comprises 64 separately controllable laser beams and can be extended by additional modules, was developed in-house by Heidelberg and is produced by cooperation partners with special know-how in optics and optoelectronics.

ongoing value analyses with the purchasing and development departments. The plate cylinders for the Suprasetter are produced in Brandenburg, the machine bed in Amstetten, and the complete electronics boxes in Wiesloch-Walldorf. Many sheet steel parts and preassembled or end-coated elements are purchased just in time, for example from Hungary. Small parts are supplied via the central store in hall 40, while large parts and system components are sent directly to the assembly line. To ensure quality, incoming goods are checked and quality assurance agreements are in place with suppliers. Heidelberg supplies the electronics for the laser and the cooperation partners send back the finished module. Assembly takes place in two lines and preassembly work is performed in parallel. A total of 75 employees produce between 1,000 and 1,200 recorders per year. The pure manufacturing time is 50 to 60 hours per unit. The finished units are tested, the quality of the printing plates is assessed, and the units finally delivered. The principles of the Heidelberg Production System HPS were immediately implemented when the lines were set up in 2004. In the next stage, production is to be converted entirely to line assembly and will be able to respond flexibly when different versions of the unit are ordered. By drupa 2008, the Suprasetter for the very large format will also be assembled here.

Assembly of platesetters

Platesetters are lightweights compared to the hugely powerful printing presses and the forces they unleash. Little heavy metal is required and almost no steel, but instead many sheet steel and aluminum parts, which are not a core area of expertise at Heidelberg. Consequently, the proportion of purchased components is relatively high at more than 80 percent. “Computer-toPlate is a very cost-sensitive area. Product lifecycles are shorter and the price pressure is high,” explains Rolf St?rke, head of prepress assembly. “As a result, there is continuous pressure to push ahead with parts sourcing and increase the efficiency of assembly.” This also involves

Laser modules for the Suprasetter platesetter

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70 Press Guide Heidelberg without the “Heavy Metal”

Pin-point accuracy – high precision requirements
The laser bombardment of a printing plate can be pictured as the game “battleships”. Each square on the plate, which has an edge length of 10 μm, represents a potential target for a laser spot. A 70 cm ? 100 cm (27.56 in ? 39.37 in) printing plate has 7 billion squares or potential information points. Itis imaged within 60 seconds. The cylinder turns at 300 rpm or 5 meters per second past a beam, which lasers at a distance of 10 μm. With the Suprasetter 74, that equates to a shot every two to three microseconds. The Prosetter is an internal drum imagesetter whose laser beam moves at 54,000 revolutions per minute. At 100 million exposure dots per second, that is nanotechnology – in this case ten nanoseconds per dot.

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The Heidelberg Product Range Press Guide 71

The Heidelberg Product Range

The core business of Heidelberg is the complete process and value added chain in sheetfed offset. The format classes range from A3 + to A1+ format (35 cm ? 50 cm to 75 cm ? 105 cm, or 13.78 ? 19.69 to 29.53 ? 41.34 in).

From the second half of 2008 onwards, the new 6 (106 cm ?145 cm, or 41.73 ? 57.09 in) and 7b (120 cm ? 162 cm, or 47.24 ? 63.78 in) formats will also be available.

Offset print products would be incomplete without the before and after. Heidelberg caters for the entire process chain in sheetfed offset printing. Its range of products comprises machines for printing plate manufacture, finishing – for example, die-cutting, trimming, binding and gluing – and software components for integrating all printshop processes. It also includes the Print Media Academy training portfolio, service, spare parts, consumables and sale of reconditioned equipment.

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The Heidelberg Production System HPS is based on intelligent, innovative solutions that bring quality and efficiency – “breathing factories” – a culture of continuous improvement

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A Clear Aim to Build on our Lead Press Guide 73

Since 1997, the number of supplied assembly parts at Heidelberg has more than doubled

Even up to the end of the 1990s, production programs could be costed far in advance. Indeed, the organization of production at Heidelberg was based on this premise. Changes were driven mainly by new technologies. Market conditions in the print media industry have changed drastically in the mean time. Decisions are quicker, while competitive pressure on the market and the cost pressure of new technologies, raw materials and energy is increasingly all the time. Customers want new markets and unique selling points for their products. Their expectations of printed and finished end products are increasing and they are therefore making greater demands of machines and manufacturers. There has been a sharp upturn in the proportion of customized machines. For example, presses for high-quality beverages packaging that not only print the four primary colors but also spot colors such as gold, and which integrate various coating and drying sections to enable the outside of the packaging to be produced in a single operation – as opposed to three or four, which used to be the case. Or for metallic coatings in car brochures that are to be identical to the shade of the cars. And, of course, extreme precision is also required for the printed targets used in shooting contests at the Olympic Games.

Mastering complexity Press production is confronted with a wide variety of standard models and increasingly complex machines – even more printing units per press are required, as are new ways of combining printing units, print technologies, coating units and dryer systems. And all this with shorter and shorter delivery times. This creates a growing demand for space, which becomes more pressing in the event of high capacity utilization. And in the case of a foreseeable increase in the range of parts – as a result of new press versions and additional, very large formats – it also leads to higher organizational costs. To master this list of complex requirements, a press manufacturer needs great flexibility within the company – and that is not possible without the right processes, streamlined structures and highly qualified staff. Heidelberg therefore kickstarted a change process to further develop production systematics, which began at the Wiesloch-Walldorf, Amstetten and Brandenburg plants in 2003 in twelve different subprojects. The assembly facility for medium-format presses underwent further development into a “demo factory”. Even as recently as 2004, less than 40 percent of the area was used for actual assembly.

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74 Press Guide A Clear Aim to Build on our Lead

Material storage and long transport routes were typical. Studies showed that workers had to cover hundreds of meters a day to procure materials and assemble components. The solution was to gear the design of working processes and systems to the value stream, whereby working processes were based on actual value generation and the value stream was optimized all the way from the raw part to the finished product. In other words, waste was eliminated and the outlay for storage and administration was minimized. This included a new materials provision concept – containers and shelves with frequently required materials and parts were positioned in such a way that the factory worker had immediate access to them at his ergonomically enhanced workstation. The result was a considerable reduction in the input needed to carry out specific activities. The highly qualified worker can concentrate on his core area of expertise – assembly. As part of the restructuring of assembly, stocks were drastically reduced, workstations were

rearranged with substantial input by the people who use them, and working steps were combined. In manufacturing, the principle of production units was introduced to replace the workshop principle. In this, the manufacturing machines were arranged into processing sequences and areas of responsibility were systematically aligned with the part groups to be manufactured. Sweeping success of the “test factory” Parts and material stocks were reduced by around 30 percent in the assembly departments – without restricting speedy availability of materials. Internal and external suppliers are integrated in the process and supply the parts just in sequence to the assembly line. One direct affect is an appreciable reduction in the space requirement. After two years of the project, an additional 8,300 m2 (89,340 sq ft) of floor space was available for assembly of the mediumformat presses than at the start of the project. The additional space will be required to meet the demand for longer presses with six, eight or more printing units.

HPS info point with keep-fit station

Info point
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Keep-fit station

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Following the great successes in the mediumformat “test factory”, Heidelberg shifted its attention to rearranging all the assembly departments in Wiesloch-Walldorf in line with the new principles. Methods, procedures and principles that had been devised by staff and management were combined, practiced and enhanced in an integrated production system. The Heidelberg Production System HPS has been implemented systematically in all areas of production since the start of 2006. The focus is on purchasing, manufacturing, logistics, assembly and quality. The Heidelberg Production System is used to keep labor costs competitive, achieve clearly defined annual increases in productivity, boost product quality and thereby safeguard jobs in Germany. “The simplistic formula – more productivity equals fewer jobs – is flawed. Efficient production strengthens our company’s position on the market and that alone can safeguard employment,” explains Stephan Plenz, head of the Heidelberg production network and member of the extended Heidelberg Management Board. The starting point and the objective are clear – a large proportion of the value created by Heidelberg takes place in Germany. The company’s export share is over 80 percent. An ongoing reduction in labor costs is essential if we want to continue producing cost-efficiently and extend our market position as the world’s leading press manufacturer. The Heidelberg Production System is not a bundle of directives aimed at optimizing technical details. It describes the philosophy and selfimage of Heidelberg production. It defines the principles, guidelines and methods for efficient and cost-effective press manufacture, makes a series of key basic considerations binding for all, and provides orientation using a few handy organizational rules.

A workstation being constructed of cardboard, such as here in hall 10, to test the optimal dimensions and arrangement of the tools.

HPS also provides the tools to put its methods into operation. “Continuous improvement is the normal state of affairs, rather than one-off enhancements. The desire to ‘do something right once and for all!’ is understandable, but counterproductive,” emphasizes Clemens Schilling, manager of the Heidelberg Production System. “The market, product, demand and priorities can change from day to day. To create this culture of change, we have to put people in the picture and convince them of its benefits. It might be more convenient in the short term to use existing methods rather than adapt continuously, but if we did so, we’d struggle in the medium term to find a market for our presses.”

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76 Press Guide A Clear Aim to Build on our Lead

Heidelberg Production System – the five pillars
HPS combines individual methods and processes into a complete system that coordinates all processes to best effect. There is no need to reinvent the wheel. The best solution is recorded, becomes the universal standard, and is implemented in all areas. The focus is always on increasing productivity and eliminating waste. The production philosophy is essentially based on five pillars:

1. Synchronous production The pace of production at Heidelberg is shaped by customer orders – final assembly progresses in synchrony with customer demand. Based on this guideline, all upstream areas also gear their production speed to their customers’ strict requirements. The products “flow” along the assembly line from station to station. The downstream production requirements are communicated via a dual container system or Kanban card, which takes over the central control function.

2. Zero error strategy Nothing but error-free products are delivered to customers. The downstream areas in the manufacturing and assembly process are also considered to be customers who need to be able to be sure that no errors are made in the upstream areas. Each area is responsible for the quality of the products it creates. Product checks using suitable operating and testing equipment are an integral part of production.

3. Target-based leadership Heidelberg employees act on their own initiative within a target system. The company’s strategy is broken down into operational targets for each area and set out in a concrete agreement known as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC).

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A Clear Aim to Build on our Lead Press Guide 77

4. Continuous further development It is part of the job to think about work content and working processes. Continuous improvement processes (CIP) go hand in hand with the Heidelberg production philosophy and are essential for ensuring the company’s competitiveness and future viability. Effective ideas management encourages employees to contribute their suggestions. There is a reward for suggestions that are put into practice. Employees, teams and areas are trained for existing and new professional and social challenges in working life by means of lifelong learning. 5. Efficient working structures Working structures and processes are geared towards maximizing efficiency and productivity. Continuous value generation and zero waste are achieved through development of the organization, the ability to adapt, and the best standards and processes.

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78 Press Guide

Technology development is introducing the latest technological findings and methods to press production, while value analysis is reducing production costs

New technologies and methods are lending greater force to Heidelberg production. Defining the most cost-effective production methods for offset printing systems is the key task of technology development. In total, around 40 employees in the technology consulting, value analysis and

knowledge management sections and in the technology projects are identifying new findings and methods, putting them into practice in production, and working together with the development, manufacturing and assembly departments to design series applications.

Examples of technology development

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Knowledge management is a key component of this process. Regular workshops and in-house fairs are therefore held with experts from higher education and suppliers. Other key areas of technology development are value analyses of existing production workflows and products to determine how functions can be enhanced and costs cut in the production and product development process. In addition, selected technology projects for materials and surfaces are carried out with internal and external specialists. The aim is to develop enhanced functional surfaces and materials and achieve improvements in related areas such as wear and corrosion. Success only comes about when ideas are realized “It is not the idea that is the innovation, but rather the product that enters series production,” underlines Frank Schaum, head of Technology Development. “Cost leadership and technology leadership are interdependent. We operate both supply- (technology push) and demand-oriented (market pull). We can only safeguard the site if

we bring together the know-how correctly in house. The key is for development, production, product management and service to work together from the very outset.” The ideas for technology development come from specialist lectures and scientific publications, research commissions, doctoral theses and dissertations, specialist bodies, the Heidelberg development network, production in Amstetten, Brandenburg and Wiesloch-Walldorf, from development and supply partners or the Heidelberg staff suggestion scheme and from systematic inspections of assemblies and analyses of groups of goods together with Heidelberg Purchasing. Our customers also contribute ideas and suggestions directly. The more in-depth the analysis, the more important it is to have highly qualified specialists such as material technologists and engineers. “Our focus is not only on the world of printing, but on technological advances across the whole market, whether in the automotive industry or in aircraft engineering,” says Dr. Monika Blümm, head of Technology Projects.

Range of themes: “Functional surfaces”

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80 Press Guide Better, Faster, Cheaper

Examples of this include the development of thermal spray coatings to develop more environmentally friendly, extremely high-quality coating systems for functional surfaces, and the development of the structuring and modification of surfaces to enable safe transportation of the sheet through the press. “We need people with endurance and drive who work on their own initiative. The ultimate goal is always to transfer the concept to series production. And that requires real hard graft,” says André Kreller, head of value analysis and knowledge management. Precisely this expert knowledge and endurance were needed to develop a new platform for the water containers of the dampening system across the different formats. In the past, they were produced from stainless steel and provided with plastic insulation to ensure that the water remained at 80 °C. Fittings had to be attached by means of welding, for example, which is a timeconsuming procedure. Now the insulation foam is hot-stamped onto a plastic container and various other functional elements are integrated in the plastic mold. This new technology also enables other functional enhancements. To achieve this, it passed all the way from design and testing to production and practical checks to ascertain whether it could meet the extensive quality requirements of live printshop operation.

The methods and processes devised in Technology Development are used to ensure that the latest production insights are also incorporated into ongoing developments, such as the new Heidelberg very large format press. “It is hugely important for us to get involved in development at an early stage, as only then can we pave the way for the most cost-effective technologies. We work together with the responsible developer to find the version that offers the greatest reliability in production and also minimizes costs,” says Dr. Claus Mühlhan, head of technology consulting.

Function integration, water pans

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Better, Faster, Cheaper Press Guide 81

Basic development work in the laser laboratory.

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82 Press Guide

People are a key success factor – Heidelberg attaches great importance to training, while demographic change is increasing competition for the workers of tomorrow.

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Learning from the Bottom Up Press Guide 83

Presses are high-tech machines. A networked system of control and motion technology incorporates many thousands of precision parts. But the challenge is not only to understand the mechanical and electronic anatomy. The materials, technologies, software, hardware, processing and assembly processes involved in constructing a press are subject to constant change. As a result, the job profiles and requirements in the highly complex and extensively automated production cells and assembly lines also change constantly. Training is therefore a key concept for company success.

The majority of shop-floor employees – up to 90 percent of trained specialist staff – are recruited from the company’s own trainee program. On September 1, 2006, 196 young people began their training at Heidelberg. In total, Heidelberg has 730 trainees and students. Exchanges take place regularly in the production network. Brandenburg is responsible for training mechatronics engineers for the Heidelberg Germany service and sales organization. Following basic training, the young specialist employees gain experience by taking on a variety of service duties at home and abroad.

Training at Heidelberg:
? ? ? ? ? ? Training at six sites: Amstetten, Brandenburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Ludwigsburg, and Wiesloch-Walldorf Investment per year: Approx. 15 million Euro 11 career paths 6 vocational college courses 780 trainees and students in total. They are joined each new training year by approx. 200 young people. Percentage of trainees of total workforce: Approx. 6 percent

Employees who have acquired experience and know-how “from the bottom up” at Heidelberg are essential for developing and manufacturing leading technology for the global market. For this reason, Heidelberg has traditionally attached great importance to training. The proportion of trainees is at a constant level of six percent.

Teamwork, IT, networked processes – training content and job profiles are undergoing rapid change.

Project-related and independent The traditional job profiles in industry have changed dramatically. In the past, there was a clear overview of work content. Nowadays, employees are confronted with work processes that involve far greater scope and a far more integrated approach, and which therefore demand a different way of thinking. During their two-year basic training, the young people practice and train on a project- and processrelated basis. Learning centers have been set up for this in production. In these, trainees are involved in current projects and learn to use their tools step by step in real conditions and under the direct instruction of a specialist worker. For example, they learn how to assemble a cylinder. Or how the material flow functions using the Kanban system. Or how to optimize their own workstations optimally, question things and initiate improvement processes.

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84 Press Guide Learning from the Bottom Up

“We encourage the young people to reflect on changes. During training, our chief aim, alongside imparting technical skills, is to develop their ability to think and act independently,” underlines Werner Bader, head of Vocational Training at Heidelberg. “The trainees should be capable of assessing themselves, working on their strengths and weaknesses, and setting their own learning targets.” Training is conducted not only directly on the product, but also with a view to positions that might be taken on in the future. Each trainee can specify two preferred areas – be it manufacturing, assembly or logistics. They then have the chance to learn their job at their future workstation, and are ready to take on all aspects of a role if they are offered a position. At the same time, a process of socialization takes place on site. Trust is built, and the young employees develop a sense of identification and loyalty. Heidelberg has received several awards for this training concept, including the “Training Oscar” awarded by Wirtschaftsjunioren Deutschland. Fewer applicants However, demographic change is increasing competition for the workers of tomorrow. By 2011, the number of schoolchildren is set to fall by an average of around 10 to 15 percent and the number at high schools by more than 20 percent. More and more young people prefer further education, while demand for vocational training is tending to decrease. And there are fewer suitably qualified applicants. To safeguard the supply of specialist recruits, Heidelberg encourages an interest in vocational training among young people at an early age – and in the many vocational development possibilities offered by a large company. The trainers visit schools, and trainees talk about their onthe-job experiences. The company offers taster days and internships. Particular learning topics are relocated from the school classroom to the workshop. Once a year, schoolchildren who are interested come to the company with their parents and experience “live training”.

At the “Girls’ Day”, schoolgirls are encouraged to pursue careers in engineering. The WieslochWalldorf factory alone has around 350 trainees a year. Almost one in every two people who obtain a training place at Heidelberg has previously completed an internship.

During the “Girls’ Day” on April 26, 2007, 145 girls visited the training center at the Wiesloch-Walldorf site of Heidelberger Drcukmaschinen AG.

In the last few years, Heidelberg has also been increasingly using the German “Entrance Qualification for Young People” (EQJ). Many young people are tired of school but want to learn something practical. In 2006, Heidelberg was able to prepare 17 young people across Germany for training during a six-month internship organized in partnership with the vocational school. Heidelberg provides training in Germany at its six sites in Amstetten, Brandenburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Ludwigsburg and Wiesloch-Walldorf and invests around 15 million Euro a year in this. Heidelberg provides eleven different career paths and six vocational college courses in technical and commercial careers. The range of careers includes everything from industrial engineering to electronics engineering and from IT sales to printing.

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Learning from the Bottom Up Press Guide 85

Trainees at Heidelberg (status: September 30, 2006)
Germany-wide Site Wiesloch-Walldorf Total training places Total Electronics engineers for equipment and systems Mechatronics engineers IT specialists in application development Industrial engineers IT commercial personnel Technical illustrators Engineers (with diploma from vocational academy) specializing in IT 1 Engineers (with diploma from vocational academy) specializing in mechanical engineering Business IT specialists (with diploma from vocational academy) Media information officers (with diploma from vocational academy) Engineers (with diploma from vocational academy) specializing in mechatronics Trainees (participating in technical university program) Trainees/EQJ* Total Printers Media designers Trainees Total Foundry engineers Industrial engineers Industrial electronics engineers Industrial commercial personnel Mechatronics engineers Model-making engineers Engineers (with diploma from Technical University of Ulm) specializing in production technology Materials tester Trainees Total Industrial engineers Mechatronics engineers Vocational academy students Total Industrial engineers Mechatronics engineers Engineers (with diploma from vocational academy) specializing in mechanical engineering Engineers (with diploma from vocational academy) specializing in e-technology EQJ* Total Industrial engineers Industrial commercial personnel Mechatronics engineers Engineers (with diploma from vocational academy) specializing in mechanical engineering Trainees
*EQJ=German “Entrance Qualification for Young People”

784 492 65 88 6 208 42 19

18 6 7 2 16 14 16 11 3 2 121 8 58 14 4 20 8 2 2 5 83 34 48 1 36 14 12 4 3 2 36 21 3 7 2






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86 Press Guide

The Heidelberg tree of key figures makes it possible to evaluate requirements and criteria and therefore determine the progress that has been made. The quality concept is already an integral part of development and design. The quality of work includes the avoidance and speedy elimination of sources of error.

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Quality from the Outset Press Guide 87

The name Heidelberg stands for quality. Quality means a whole lot of different things to different people. From its customer’s point of view, Heidelberg delivers quality when its products and services meet or exceed expectations. For a manufacturing company that makes strict quality demands of internal and external suppliers and wants to improve continuously, quality has to be determined using measurable KPIs. These can be used to measure the current status and progress and thus give the organization the necessary direction. Quality refers to processes and their results. Certain requirements are made of this quality. Quality can be measured, for example, by the number of errors per machine (ppm – parts per million), the percentage of error-free press installations at the customer site (first pass yield), the service hours incurred after four or seven months after installation at the customer site, or the number of system errors that have come to light following delivery of the machine. In total, these produce a measure of the factory’s overall quality performance.

There is no practicable mathematical method of calculation that takes into account the assembly of several thousand parts and components in different press versions depending on the specific customer requirements, the ongoing innovations and improvements to individual parts, or the continuous optimization of the manufacturing and assembly process. Working methods and processes have to be revised and modified continuously. Measuring tolerances on a scale of a thousandth of a millimeter also involves going to the limits of what’s technically possible. Press construction requires exact, repeat-accurate adjustment of high-precision individual parts. To achieve this, you need suitable tools, absolutely precise measuring technology and above all skilled employees who understand the complexities of manufacturing and assembly at Heidelberg.

Measurability is a prerequisite for systematic improvement
Error (ppm) rate (faulty products identified in production and assembly) Escalated cases Warranty and allowance (W&A) per machine 4-/7-month statistics Delivery quality Error rate Number of product quality (PQ) points SSU + customer Assembly

External suppliers

Internal suppliers

11 KPIs for controlling quality

Error costs (primarily reworking)

Error (ppm) rates (faulty products identified in assembly)

Error costs (primarily rejects)

Adherence to delivery dates

Dispatch checks: Error-free checked components (FPY)

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88 Press Guide Quality from the Outset

Press quality is complex and requires teamwork Quality begins in the mind. A common understanding of quality is an integral part of design. After all, it has to be possible to achieve and maintain quality in parts manufacture and assembly. Representatives from manufacturing and assembly work closely with developers from the outset. They define the quality-relevant characteristics that are crucial for evaluating the performance of the machine and that have to be taken into special consideration during product creation. When the functional prototype is created and when series production commences, the results of this performance evaluation are analyzed in teams, weaknesses are communicated to the relevant functional units, and troubleshooting measures are introduced. “Quality relates to all aspects of activity and is expressed not only in the perfection of products and services, but also in the reliability of the processes and control mechanisms,” explains Lothar Stein, head of the central quality department. “Quality is also reflected in how quickly organizational problems are identified and resolved.” The department has around 150 employees spread across several organizational

units. Their duties comprise the description and monitoring of the quality processes, coordination of testing equipment management, running of the measuring, material and press measuring laboratory, and further development of the quality management system. Moreover, the quality department is responsible for planning and conducting internal audits, defining print forms and printing materials for print tests, performing quality control, supporting external suppliers, and conducting incoming goods checks. Because of the complexity of presses and the wide array of technologies used, Heidelberg has created interdisciplinary management teams that meet at regular intervals. The aim of this control process is to identify quality-critical areas and to process them immediately by carrying out an efficiency check or defining preventive measures to avoid any recurrence of the problem. The criteria that are important for customers and the compliance with these criteria are clearly defined for new developments in quality planning.

Checking a cylinder
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Quality from the Outset Press Guide 89

The criteria are upheld either by describing a “capable” process or by implementing appropriate test methods that further safeguard the process. No test system alone, no matter how sophisticated, can discover all the errors that may have occurred in the preceding steps. Heidelberg has described all these principles in its zero error strategy, which makes up one of the five pillars of the Heidelberg Production System HPS. The experience and expertise of Heidelberg staff play a key role in achieving the aims of this zero error strategy. Heidelberg relies on the principle of worker self-checks in which the employee is expected to monitor the results of his own work. Even during the training of Heidelberg employees, great importance is attached to employees taking responsibility for their own work and the consequences of passing on faulty products. Heidelberg has enjoyed excellent success with this and remains true to this principle. Testing equipment must be tested Testing equipment changes over time. Even setting gages made of hardened steel wear out and might then deliver incorrect readings when measurements are being taken on a scale of a hundredth of a millimeter. Testing equipment management ensures that the same testing equipment is available for the same processes and that these undergo regular monitoring and resetting if necessary. It is not possible to purchase suitable testing equipment on the open market for many of the measurements in press construction. In these cases, Heidelberg develops its own solutions with the help of specific cooperation partners. In the central measuring laboratory, it is possible to determine accuracies that push the very limits of measuring technology. 3-D coordinate measuring instruments can be used to determine spatial dimensions, there are cylinder form testing stations, measuring equipment for surface roughness, optical processes for assessing surface topographies or equipment for checking bearings.

Every cylinder is checked Initially, quality checks involve costs. However, poor-quality parts resulting from inadequate quality checks can have much higher financial consequences. Many processes are so reliable that taking samples is sufficient. In the case of particularly critical points that might restrict the quality of the entire machine, risk management requires 100-percent checks. Surfaces in the paper guidance system or the printing unit are crucial for the quality of the print image in offset. Unevenness has a direct impact on the quality of the print image on the paper. For that reason, the radial run-out and surface properties of all cylinders are checked. Previously, it was the trained eye of the checker, whereas now it is an optical checking system developed in-house that identifies “every dust particle” on the surface and aids the checker. The throughput time per cylinder is 30 minutes.

Cylinder test equipment

The surface adhesion of functional layers is also important. If this layer on the cylinder comes off, the press can no longer print. Heidelberg has developed special checking procedures for this that ensure the quality of adhesion on 100 percent of the cylinders at a reasonable cost. So, yes, there is a cost – but in the event of damage a finished press would have to be completely taken apart at the customer’s site and repaired. For a large press, the cost might run into hundreds of thousands, not to mention damage to the company’s image.
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90 Press Guide

New planning system takes capacities into account and makes production transparent

When does manufacturing of the clamping bar series need to begin if it is to be ready on time in assembly and the delivery deadline for the presses is to be met? Which processing centers have absolutely no capacities at this time? If the required quantity cannot be procured in this time, can another order be postponed without holding up the flow of production at the next station in the process chain? When the forecasts and orders from the Heidelberg production network are broken down into the individual manufacturing and assembly areas, the triggered orders have to be channeled down to the individual assembly groups and machine tools – an integrated system that enables production to take place synchronously to customers’ requirements. A new program, the Advanced Planner and Optimizer (APO), helps planners in production. It was introduced as a pilot project in Brandenburg.

It is not only the orders that are stored in the networked production planning system, but also details of the complete machine park and equipment capabilities, capacity levers and even the dates for the maintenance intervals. The work teams report completion of the tasks to the system. Nevertheless, changes can take place at short notice every day. The customer might want a different press version, specific parts have to be prioritized, or a higher quantity of particular rotational parts might be required. APO knows when particular presses are in use, simulates the capacity utilization, and calculates the optimal utilization again every night. Thousands of parts requiring an average of seven different operations are channeled through the assembly lines – a person would not be capable of identifying all the effects from every angle.

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APO Works Out the Best Plans Press Guide 91

APO cannot eliminate production bottlenecks, but it can make production transparent by calculating backwards from the delivery date, storing the technical and staff capacities in production – including more than 250 presses and several hundred specialist workers with shift models and breaks – and displaying the “red list” of over-occupied presses on the monitor. And all this completely objectively. The planner responsible can identify the bottleneck in the production flow in the same way as on a thermal heat image. The orders that are in planning but not yet provided with material are marked blue. The makeready time is green, while orders that have commenced are marked by a triangle. In other words, the current production status of the factory is identifiable at a glance. With its elaborate planning logic, APO fills the workstations with the most pressing orders, sends tasks to alternative systems if required and ensures the deadlines are met. The workshop therefore has a continuous view of which capacities have to be provided to meet the delivery dates. This also functions as a realistic planning tool for any new investments in machines. APO then computes a few thousand versions each day to determine the best solution.

The entire production chain in view at all times APO is crucial, but it is only part of the SAP-based network for production planning and control that is a key tool for Heidelberg production in view of the market fluctuations, the wide range of customer requirements and the increase in part diversity. It reduces reaction times in the production system, supports synchronous production and shows where production is overloaded. And that is a key advantage of the system – it is not a question of running presses to their full capacity. If there is a bottleneck in the chain and this information does not arrive, the presses produce more than is currently required and the store is filled. It is rather a question of optimizing all the production halls at the sites in the production network as a whole. By taking this global approach, Heidelberg is leading the way in the world of mechanical engineering, which has to manage high production volumes and an ever expanding range of parts.

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92 Press Guide

A new generation of products in Wiesloch-Walldorf – Heidelberg is extending its portfolio upwards by introducing the “very large format”. The new assembly hall 11 for Speedmaster XL 145 and XL 162 is one of the largest inputs of funds into the Wiesloch-Walldorf production site in the last ten years, costing around 45 million Euro.

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New Press. New Format. New Markets. Press Guide 93

Side view of hall 11

The new presses will be able to print a paper format twice the size supported by existing Heidelberg presses. It will then be possible to position up to 40 A4 pages on a single sheet. By introducing the Speedmaster XL 145 and Speedmaster XL 162 large-format presses, the global market leader is extending its existing portfolio upwards and tapping into additional markets. The new format classes are set to be unveiled at drupa 2008 in Dusseldorf. The new presses are being developed in Heidelberg and will then be assembled in the new hall 11 in Wiesloch-Walldorf. The first foundations were laid on May 15, 2006. The hall measures 35,000 m2 (376,740 sq ft) – equivalent to almost five soccer fields – and will be used to assemble the new generation of largeformat presses. Heidelberg is investing around 45 million Euro in this project, which is one of the largest inputs of funds into the WieslochWalldorf site in the last ten years. In addition to optimal infrastructure, the Wiesloch-Walldorf site features highly-qualified staff. The new production hall is equipped with highly flexible logistics and optimal assembly structures for the product. The new hall also enables close cooperation between development, production, service and sales under a single roof. The architecture of hall 11 matches the products manufactured in Wiesloch-Walldorf. The exterior is designed like a press, with paper feeder,

printing units, and paper delivery. Heidelberg’s mission will be reflected in the hall, representing the quality of the presses produced there and the company’s commitment to innovation. Construction will be completed by August 2007. Assembly work is scheduled to start in September 2007 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the Wiesloch site. Currently the world’s largest and most advanced printing press factory, it was officially opened in 1957. The very large format is a new world not only in terms of the formats but also the dimensions and weights. A complete printing unit is 3.4 meters (11.15 ft) high, 2.5 meters (8.20 ft) wide and weighs 24 tons in total. A printing cylinder on its own weighs 4.5 tons. Here too, however, the high precision required to ensure Heidelberg quality applies without exception. “To ensure the availability and quality of key press components, such as cylinders, Heidelberg has invested systematically in its machine park. Among other things, in a complete processing center that allows an impression cylinder to be manufactured in a few clamping operations. Integrated measuring systems enable geometric amendments to be incorporated directly during processing via press control,” explains Robert Süss, head of production of the very large format.

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94 Press Guide New Press. New Format. New Markets.

Facts and figures for the new hall 11 in Wiesloch:
Area: Hall dimensions: Crane requirements: Floor: 35,000 m2 (376,740 sq ft) Length 260 m (850 ft), width 135 m (443 ft), height 17 m (56 ft) 6 bridge cranes, each with a lifting capacity of 50 tons, and 12 wall traveling cranes, each with a lifting capacity of 3.2 tons 45 cm (17.72 in) thick reinforced concrete floor

Heidelberg sheetfed offset format classes Small format: Medium format: Large format: Large format 6: Large format 7b: 30 cm ? 50 cm (11.81 in ? 19.69 in), since 1962 50 cm ? 70 cm (19.69 in ? 27.56 in), since 1974 70 cm ? 100 cm (27.56 in ? 39.37 in), since 1975 75 cm ? 105 cm (29.53 in ? 41.34 in), since 2004 106 cm ? 145 cm (41.73 in ? 57.09 in), planned as of 2008 120 cm ? 162 cm (47.24 in ? 63.78 in), planned as of 2008

View of the future final assembly area in hall 11

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New Press. New Format. New Markets. Press Guide 95

A six-color press with coating unit weighs around 200 tons. This is an extreme load for the production hall in Wiesloch-Walldorf, which is consequently provided with a 45 cm (17,72 in) thick reinforced concrete slab floor and a crane system with a capacity of 50 tons. The guidelines of the Heidelberg Production System HPS were taken into account in the production layout of hall 11 from the outset. For example, the store, module assembly and final assembly are arranged in accordance with the material flow – 80 percent of the material flows from the store to the neighboring module assembly, while the remaining 20 percent flows directly to final assembly.

“We can only get our ambitious project up and running under these ideal conditions and with the highly qualified staff we have at our disposal at this site,” adds Süss. In total, the very large format comprises around 10,000 part numbers. In accordance with the Heidelberg platform strategy, existing components from other press series are also used. Around 100,000 mechanical, electronic and pneumatic parts are installed in a six-color press with coating unit.

Layout of the new production hall

Modular structure of the very large format press

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96 Press Guide New Press. New Format. New Markets.

The modular structure of the press offers key advantages for manufacturing, assembly, and service. The printing unit, for example, consists of a printing module and an attached module for the inking and coating units. The modular structure enables parallel workflows in assembly and thus reduces the throughput time. It is therefore possible to produce the side frames on the existing automated production systems in Amstetten – which ensures cost-effective, highquality production.

Each press is test-printed in final assembly prior to delivery, then dismantled into feeder, delivery and individual printing units, loaded, and dispatched to the customer using heavy goods transportation.

Sample calculation for folding carton packaging: In the 3b format (100 cm ? 70 cm, or 39.37 in ? 27.56 in), 4 repeats can be nested on a sheet of cardboard, whereas 9 repeats can be accommodated in the 7b format (162 cm ? 120 cm, or 63.78 in ? 47.24 in). This offers significant cost advantages over smaller formats when working with large runs.

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New Press. New Format. New Markets. Press Guide 97

Interior view of hall 11 (skeleton, May 2007)
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98 Press Guide

In the Qingpu industrial zone near Shanghai, China, folders, small- and medium-format presses are assembled for the Chinese market – in-depth training and mentors for future specialists – for the time being, most components will be produced in Germany – in the medium term, more parts will be obtained locally

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First Heidelberg Production Site in Asia Press Guide 99

Assembly hall in Qingpu

China has the fastest growing printing industry in the world, with sales by the almost 100,000 printshops currently growing at a rate of 15 percent a year. Investment is also growing in tandem with sales. By 2008, China will be the world’s largest single sales market for printing presses. Heidelberg already earns some ten percent of its total sales in China. China is now the third largest sales market, after Germany and the U.S. Heidelberg has approximately 600 employees in China, the majority of whom work in sales and service. Several factors persuaded Heidelberg to establish its own assembly site in China – its first in Asia. These include China’s incredible market growth, logistical factors, and the benefits of being close to the market. Production of the KHC 78 and KHC 66 folders began in September 2005 in a temporary hall in the Qingpu industrial zone on the western side of Shanghai. A new building with a 5,000 m2 (53,800 sq ft) manufacturing hall was constructed at the same time.

In April 2006, the team moved premises. Since then, the folder series – which has been standardized specifically for the Chinese market – has been assembled in the new hall. For the time being, the key parts for this series still come from Ludwigsburg, the folder site in Germany. In the medium term, Chinese suppliers will provide 80 percent of the parts. The folders are aimed at the Chinese market. In the current financial year, around 250 folders will leave the Qingpu plant. In a second project, the assembly of a series of small-format presses – the Printmaster PM 52 – began in summer 2006. These presses will also be produced exclusively for the Chinese market. The new site in the Qingpu industrial zone has been built to state-of-the-art standards, the first development phase comprising buildings with a area of 6,200 m2 (66,750 sq ft). The assembly hall is laid out on one level. Directly alongside it are office buildings, social rooms and a 300 m2 (3,230 sq ft) demo center.

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100 Press Guide First Heidelberg Production Site in Asia

The construction of a second, 11,000 m2 (118,404 sq ft) assembly hall was completed directly next to the first in spring 2007. Press assembly will be concentrated in this building, while assembly of the folders will be extended in the smaller hall. In addition to setting up folder production, preparing production of the Printmaster PM 52, and developing a local purchasing network, with the accompanying search for suppliers and approval of suppliers and parts that this involved, the focus was also on recruiting and training staff. Chinese specialists underwent systematic training in assembly in Wiesloch-Walldorf. Meanwhile, German specialist and management staff trained employees in Qingpu in assembly processes, organization, synchronization and quality requirements. Heidelberg currently employs around 130 employees in Qingpu. In the medium term, that figure is set to increase to 200. When it comes to on-site expansion, Heidelberg has a large number of well-trained experts and technicians available.

Training and know-how transfer Since February 2007, eleven Chinese employees have been in Wiesloch-Walldorf to learn the various stages involved in assembling a press. The training concept introduces Chinese employees to increasingly complex work content. They have already gathered some initial experience in set-up, assembly and operation of the first PM 52 presses. This know-how will now be developed and extended further in WieslochWalldorf. After their five-month stay in Wiesloch-Walldorf, they will return to Qingpu, where they will help German instructors train other Chinese employees. “In this way, they are helping us to reach our training objectives in China efficiently. Depending on their suitability and performance, they can then be trained for more advanced specialist and management duties following their training in Germany,” says Michael Karthaus, who heads the China project at Wiesloch-Walldorf.

Assembly of folders in Qingpu

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First Heidelberg Production Site in Asia Press Guide 101

Assembly of presses in Qingpu

The Chinese employees will return to China in July 2007 to begin work. The German mentors will be on site for a further three months, after which a second mentor will also be sent to China for three months. If required, another two threemonth deployments will follow. The Chinese employees will be supported and trained for around one and a half years. This in-depth training program guarantees that the presses are of high quality no matter where they are produced. At the start of 2007, the first incomplete printing units for the Printmaster PM 52 arrived in China. The printing units in this consignment were constructed up to the penultimate section of the printing unit line. The consignment also included the remaining individual parts and assemblies for final construction of the presses in the new plant in Qingpu.

Only standard presses (Printmaster PM 52-4) without variants are assembled in Qingpu. Assembly began with six presses per consignment, and this will later be increased to twelve. It takes eight weeks for the crates – which are specially designed to fit the container – to reach their destination by truck and ship. In addition to sea transportation, this time also includes the times required for customs clearance and within China. Initially there are 289 part numbers with around 3,500 individual parts. Later, these figures will rise to around 700 part numbers and a total of around 11,000 individual parts. The Qingpu factory now also assembles the Printmaster PM 74 standard press for the Chinese market.

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102 Press Guide

Heidelberg Postpress rounds off the production line in offset printing with finishing systems and produces saddlestitchers, perfect binders, thread-sealing machines, folders, mailing systems, die-cutters and folder gluers

Through cutting, folding, perforating, die-cutting, gathering, wire binding, thread sealing, folding-carton gluing and perfect binding, print products are given the final touch in the postpress stage. They take on their final shape as brochures, paperbacks or folded leaflets, and are augmented and enhanced with product samples, reply cards, or unusual folds. Heidelberg regards this market sector as a strategic division that enables it to supply complete solutions for the entire added value chain in offset printing. The functions and accuracy requirements of a press are far more complex than for a folder or a die-cutter. Nevertheless, folding is anything but a straightforward matter. Here too, tolerances down to hundredths of a millimeter are needed

when folding sheets of paper. Complex, concertina-like folds, such as those used for a twelve-page leaflet, require technologically demanding solutions. Traditional series production is only possible with limitations. Every second or third press has to be tailored to specific customer requirements. Consequently, the postpress division is more diverse and decentralized. The main functions, such as research and development, assembly, quality assurance, product management, controlling, HR and facility management, are concentrated at each of the major sites.

The Dymatrix die-cutter is produced at the M?nchengladbach site.
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Perfect End Results Press Guide 103

for finishing print products. Key parts for the machines are initially being supplied by German production sites. However, in the medium term, approximately 80 percent of parts are to be sourced from local Chinese suppliers. For the time being, the folders are aimed at the Chinese market. Heidelberg Postpress employs around 1,350 people across all the sites. Some 780 staff in the sales and service units are also assigned to Postpress, and the division has around 500 suppliers. “90 percent of the parts and components for postpress machines are produced by external cooperation partners. At our main sites, we concentrate on planning and assembly and operate a system of strategic supplier management,” explains Dr. Friedrich Denkhaus, head of Postpress. “We introduce continuous improvement processes into our partner companies’ manufacturing processes and launch innovation and development processes.” The inspiration for these comes from various sources. The purchasing and production consulting sections at Heidelberg are in regular contact with internal and external suppliers. Value analysis projects, which are also conducted with external consultants, examine new machine designs down to the very last screw and determine more cost-effective methods of production without losing customer benefits. Heidelberg often provides suppliers with newly developed casting tools, molds or even processing machines. Many suppliers have specialized in Heidelberg components and are pressing ahead with improvement processes, such as the changing over from aluminum frames to castiron frames, which simplifies manufacturing and cuts down on the number of production steps and costs.

Folder production at the Ludwigsburg site

Heidelberg Postpress has three sites in Germany. Ludwigsburg develops and produces folders, deliveries and mailing systems. Leipzig develops and builds saddlestitchers, perfect binders, thread-stitching machines, thread-sealing machines and folders. M?nchengladbach produces die-cutters, embossing machines and folder gluers for the packaging industry. Other production sites for small folders, saddlestitchers, perfect binders and for sales of paper drilling and cutting machines for the North American market are located in Sidney, Ohio. Heidelberg produces folder gluers for the international market in Nové Mesto (Slovakia) and supplies M?nchengladbach with mechanical components and preassembled units. Various saddlestitcher subassemblies are also manufactured here for the Leipzig site. Mailroom systems are produced in Eksj? (Sweden). At the end of September 2006, Heidelberg unveiled its new assembly hall in Qingpu near Shanghai, China, its first plant in Asia. Production started at the site back in spring 2006. Since then, assembly work in the Qingpu industrial zone, which is situated on the western edge of Shanghai with its 13 million inhabitants, has focused primarily on a specific series of folders

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104 Press Guide Perfect End Results

Close networking The different plants in the Heidelberg Postpress division function as independent units. However, there is an extensive purchasing network, and close cooperation exists between research and development staff, purchasing, quality standards and information technology. There is also in-depth exchange of experience about best practices which finds its way into the production workflows at all the plants. For example, side frames have been produced up to now using a material which took a long time to straighten before and after processing on CNC machines. In future, this will be replaced by a material which is more expensive but which can be cut using a laser. This eliminates many straightening processes and any distortion of the material. Assembly takes place in manufacturing islands or on the line. The parts are supplied from the preassembly areas, which are located parallel to assembly. Manufacturing is synchronized mainly using Kanban parts supply. The vertical range of manufacture and production figures for each press type are not comparable with series production. Folder gluers are practically one-off designs and not “one-size-fits-all” solutions. Often, they are highly complex mailing systems with card inserters or inline inkjet personalization systems. Essentially, the aim is to asse

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