当前位置:首页 >> 英语学习 >>

联考基础班英语资料—难句分析—曹老师


学苑中心培训系列教材

内部资料

翻版必究

第一章 简单句与复合句
1.1 简单句的五种句型

大家知道,英语的句子结构是非常有规律的,一个完整的句子都是由两部分组成: 陈述对象+陈述内容 这里的陈述对象一般是由名词或相当于名词的成分来充当,用语法术语来说叫做主语。而陈述内容则是说 明主语怎么样了,都是用动词来表达,我们称之为谓语。因此,一个完整的英文句子就是: 主语+谓语 有了主语和谓语动词之后,一个句子的基本骨架结构就成形了。但意思往往还不完整,还需要在动词后面 接其他成分。具体要接什么成分,这是由谓语动词决定的,动词决定了一个句子是否有宾语,或者有几个宾语, 或者是否需要补足语以及状语。因此,我们可以说,谓语动词决定了一个句子的骨架结构。这就给我们两点启 示:一、关于读难句,我们今后在分析复杂难句结构时,首先就要找到句子谓语,包括主句的谓语以及各个从 句的谓语;二、关于写句子,在构造句子时,一定要知道谓语动词的用法特点,比如该动词后面能接宾语吗? 接什么形式的宾语?接不定式作宾语还是动名词作宾语?等等,这些问题无不由谓语动词决定。所以,在下列句 型分析中,我们要特别注意每一种句型的谓语动词特点。 根据动词后面是否有宾语和补语,我们可以把句子分为五种,即构成英语简单句的五种基本句型。具体如 下: 1.1.1 句型一:主语+系动词+主语补足语(或者称作表语) 该句型的谓语动词是系动词(如 be 或其他系动词),所谓系动词(Linking Verb),又叫连系动词,顾名思义,这 种动词并没有具体的动作,只是起连接主语和后面成分的作用。这种动词后面所接的成分是用来说明主语的特 点,表明主语的性质特征,因此,我们称之为主语补足语或表语(能表示主语特征的成分)。请看例句: (1)Vitamins are organic compounds. 维生素是一种有机化合物。 (2)Vitamins are organic compounds necessary for the normal growth of life. 维生素是一种有机化合物,是生命正常生长所必不可少的。 (3)Vitamins are organic compounds necessary for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals,including man.晴天 维生素是一种有机化合物,是所有动物(包括人类)的正常生长和生命延续所必不可少的。 (4)Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals,including man. 维生素是一种有机化合物, 尽管在饮食中含量很少, 但却是所有动物(包括人类)正常生长和生命延续所必不可少 的。 比较上面各句,我们发现,尽管最后一句话显然要比第一句复杂得多,但是基本句型并没有改 变,其核心结构依然是 Vitamins are organic compounds 这一主系表句型。 1.1.2 句型二:主语+谓语 该句型谓语动词是不及物动词(Intransitive Verb),所表示的动作没有作用对象,其本身意思 完整,其后不需带宾语。请看例句: (1)This trend began during the Second World War. 这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间。 (2)This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to this conclusion.

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第1页

学苑中心培训系列教材 这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出这样的结论。 (3)This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

内部资料

翻版必究

这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。 (4)This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establish. ment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. 这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府要向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是 无法详尽预见的。 1.1.3 句型三:主语+谓语+宾语 该句型谓语动词是及物动词(Transitive Verb),这种动词告诉我们由主语发出的动作所作用的对象是什么,这 里所作用的对象就是我们通常称之为宾语,即宾语是主语动作的承受对象。因此这类动词是带有宾语的。英文 中绝大多数动词都是及物动词。请看例句: (1)The emphasis helped to obscure the great importance. 这种强调模糊了这一重要性。 (2)The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen helped to obscure the great importance. 学者和政治家们的这种强调模糊了这一重要性。 (3)The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance. 学者和政治家们强调美国边疆消失的假设,这种强调模糊了这一重要性。 (4)The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences oJ international trade. 学者和政治家们强调美国边疆消失的假设,这种强调模糊了国际贸易的条件和后果方面发生变化的巨大作用。 (5)The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences of international trade that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth centu-ry. 学者和政治家们强调美国边疆消失的假设, 这种强调模糊了在 19 世纪后半期发生在国际贸易的条件和后果两方 面的变化的巨大作用。 1.1.4 句型四:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 该句型谓语动词是双宾动词(Dative Verb),这种动词后面所接成分有人又有物。一般来讲, 这里的“人”表示动作的接受者,称作间接宾语(Indirect Object)。“物”表示动作作用的对象,是动作的承受 者,称作直接宾语(Direct Object)。间接宾语和直接宾语合起来叫作双宾语。请看例句: (14)Her work won her the Nobel Prize in 1983. 她的作品为她赢得了 1983 年的诺贝尔奖。 (1 5)Her work in genetics won United States scientist Barbara McClintock the Nobel Prize in 1983. Barbara McClintock 在遗传学领域的研究成果,为她赢得了 1983 年的诺贝尔奖。 Her work in genetics won United States scientist Barbara MCClintock the Nobel Prize in 1983. 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语 时间状语,修饰 won
第2页

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力

学苑中心培训系列教材 1.1.5 句型五:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

内部资料

翻版必究

该句型谓语动词是宾补动词(Factitive Verb),这种动词后面接宾语,而此宾语后又接补充说明宾语的补足语 (Object Complement)。宾语和宾语补足语合起来叫作复合宾语。请看例句: (1 6)Willa Cather considered this novel her best work. Willa Cather 认为这部小说是她最好的一部作品。 (1 7)Willa Cather considered her novel of life in nineteenth—century Nebraska,My Antonia her best work. Willa Cather 认为她的那部描写了 19 世纪内布拉斯加州生活的小说《我的安东尼奥》是她最好的一部作品。 1.1.6 区分双宾语和复合宾语 区分这两种宾语的方法很简单,就是在宾语后面加上 be 动词,若能构成一个语义通顺的句子,则是补足语。 (18)a.I made John our chairman. b.I made John a cake. a.我选了约翰当我们主席。 b.我给约翰做了一块蛋糕。 (19)a.She will make him a good husband. b.She will make him a good wife. a.她会把他变成一个好丈夫的。 b.她会成为他的一个好妻子的。 (20)Recent technology gives computers both audio and video capability,making them multimedia machines with interactive potential. 近几年的技术发展,让计算机具备了视听功能,这就使得它成了能与我们人类交互的一个多媒体机器。 ‘

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第3页

学苑中心培训系列教材 1.2 从简单句到复合句:三大从句

内部资料

翻版必究

句子充当主语 主语
名词从句

宾语 表语

句子充当宾语 句子充当表语

同位语 句子充当同位语 定语 状语 句子充当定语 句子充当状语
定语从句 状语从句

从上表我们看出,谓语是不能用句子来充当的,否则就会有“谓语从句”了。而其他成分可以用句子来充当, 于是便有了各类从句。具体分类如下:

1.3 从句具体说明 1.名词从句:包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。我们知道,名词在英语中可作主语、宾语、 表语、同位语四种成分,因而这四种从句在句子中的功用相当于名词,故将此四类从句又统称为名词从句。 2.形容词从句:或叫关系从句(Relative Clause),或叫定语从句。因为形容词最大特点就是在句中起限制或修饰 作用,用作定语,故常称定语从句。 3.副词从句:副词在英语中常用来修饰动词、形容词、副词,用作状语,故又称为状语从句。

第一章自测题(题目及答案解析)
选择最佳答案 1. Willa Cather considered her novel of life in nineteenth-century Nebraska, My Antonia A. was her best work C. her best work it was B. her best work D. being her best work

2. The photographs of Carrie Mae Weems, in which she often makes her family members , are an affectionate and incisive representation of the African American experience. A. are her subjects C. are subjects chief Donehogawa A. as was Commissioner C. was Commissioner A. that a strong influence on her work C. a strong influence on her work A. it is of use C. it useful of Indian Affairs. B. Commissioner D. him Commissioner B. as strong influence on her work D. was a strong influence on her work in optical instruments. B. it is useful D. it uses of the United States.
第4页

B. her subjects D. which her subjects

3. One of Ulysses S. Grant's first acts as President of the United States was to name the Seneca

4. The novelist Edith Wharton considered the writer Henry James

5. The sapphire's transparency to ultraviolet and infrared radiation makes

6. In 1993 the Library of Congress appointed author Rita Dove www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力

学苑中心培训系列教材 A. as was poet laureate C. poet laureate A. won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 B. and the Nobel Prize for Literature won in 1954 C. in 1954 won the Nobel Prize for Literature for this work D. a work that won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 8. Her work in genetics won United States scientist Barbara McClintock A. was the Nobel Prize C. the Nobel Prize B. the Nobel Prize was D. for the Nobel Prize B. was poet laureate D. and poet laureate

内部资料

翻版必究

7. In 1952 Ernest Hemingway published The Old Man and the Sea,

in 1983.

1.B【解析】谓语动词 considered 是一个宾补动词,所以其后面要接宾语和宾语补足语。这里宾语是 her novel of life in nineteenth—century Nebraska,My Antonia,宾语补足语是 her best work。 2. B 【解析】 谓语动词 makes 是一个宾补动词, 所以其后面要接宾语和宾语补足语。 这里宾语是 her family members, 宾语补足语是 her subjects。 3. 【解析】 B 动词 name 表示 “任命” 是一个宾补动词, 所以其后面要接宾语和宾语补足语。 这里宾语是 the Seneca chief Donehogawa,宾语补足语是 Commissioner of Indian Affairs。 4. C 【解析】 谓语动词 considered 是一个宾补动词, 所以其后面要接宾语和宾语补足语。 这里宾语是 the writer Henry James,宾语补足语是 a strong influence on her work。 5.C【解析】谓语动词 makes 是一个宾补动词,所以其后面要接宾语和宾语补足语。这里宾语是 it,宾语补足 语是 useful。 6.C【解析】谓语动词 appointed 是一个宾补动词,所以其后面要接宾语和宾语补足语。这里宾语是 author Rita Dove,宾语补足语是 poet laureate of the United States。 7.D【解析】这里整个名词短语 a work that won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 是 作同位语,补充说 这个名词短语的中心词 work 后面带有一个定语从句 that won him the Nobel 明 The Old Man and the Sea 这部小说。 Prize for Literature in 1954。定语从句的谓语 won 带有一个双宾语,him 是间接宾语,the Nobel Prize for Literature 是直接宾语。 8.C【解析】谓语 won 带有一个双宾语,United States scientist Barbara McClintock 是间接宾 语。the Nobel Prize 是直接宾语。

第二章 名词短语及定语结构规律
2.1.1 名词短语的功能 名词短语是英语造句中不可或缺的元素。比如简单句的主语(如 1 句)、宾语(如 2,3,4 句)或表语(如 5 句)通常由名词短语来充当。另外,英文中介词不能单独使用,其后面必须接宾语,所接的宾语也往往是名词短 语(如 6 句)。总之,名词短语是英文句子的重要组成部分,复杂的难句都是充斥了大量复杂的名词短语。 (1) These red roses are for you. (2) I have three close friends. (3) I really need a new computer. (4) I can’t find the best answer. (5) He is my best friend. (6) There are some red roses on that small table. 2.1.2 名词的修饰语

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第5页

学苑中心培训系列教材

内部资料

翻版必究

名词短语是由名词与它的修饰语一起构成的。名词的修饰语与名词的位置关系不外乎两种,一是在被修 饰名词的前面,我们称之为前置定语或定语;二是在被修饰名词的后面,我们称之为后置定语。

2.2 后置定语的种类 2.2.1 介词短语在名词短语中作后置定语 介词是英语造句的重要逻辑纽带。我们常常用介词短语作后置定语来修饰一个名词。 (7 )A man has a good education. (8 ) a man who has an education (9 ) a man having an education (10)a man with a good education 从以上例子我们还看出,中文里的动词表达(比如上述例子中“受过”)往往可以转换为英语里的介词(比如 上例中的“with”)来表达,即用介词短语作后置定语。请比较下列例子中汉语和英语表达: (11)the road to London 去伦敦的路 (12)A day without you is like a day without sunshine. 没有你的日子就像生活中没有阳光。 (13)shameful crime against humanity 对人类犯下了可耻的罪行 (14)The present for John cost a great deal. 送给约翰的礼物花费了不少钱。 (15)the girl with a funny hat 戴着一顶滑稽帽子的姑娘

(1 6)For example,with small classes,teachers can identify and remedy incipient problems among students at risk for low achievement. 错误理解: For example,with small classes.Teachers can identify and remedy incipient problems among students |状语 ──────→at risk for low achievement. 正确理解: For example,with small classes.teachers can identify and remedy incipient problems among students | 后置定语 ─────→at risk for low achievement. 例如,小班上课,对于学习成绩有可能滑坡的学生,一旦他们中出现问题,教师就能够及时发现并予以补救。 2.3.2 分词短语在名词短语中作后置定语 (1 7) that short fat man walking through the shop 从商店穿过的那个矮胖子 (1 8) the six Cuban nationals held in custody by rebel soldiers

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第6页

学苑中心培训系列教材 被反叛军人扣押的六名古巴人 (1 9)The effort required to lift these weights is considerable. 需要费很大的努力才能举起这些重物。 在考研英语的篇章中,出现大量分词作后置定语的句子。请看真题例句: (20)It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes A.taking 【正确答案】A 我们很容易把人们之间交流减少归咎于快节奏的现代生活和快速变化的外部世界。 2.3.3 不定式(短语)在名词短语中作后置定语 place in our ever-changing world. B.to take C.take D.taken

内部资料

翻版必究

1.主谓关系: 所谓主谓关系,就是指被修饰的名词在逻辑意义上充当不定式的主语。请看例句: (21)The man to help you is Mr.Johnson. 能够帮你的人就是约翰逊先生。 (22)Have you got a key to unlock this door? 你有能够打开这个门的钥匙吗? 2.动宾关系: 所谓动宾关系,就是指被修饰的名词在逻辑意义上充当不定式的宾语。请看例句: (23)They say a person needs just three things to be truly happy in this world—someone to love,something to do and something to hope for. 人们常说,一个人有了三样东西,他就会真正感到幸福:有人爱,有事做,有希望。 (24)We had a long journey to make before nightfall. 在天黑前,我们还有很长的路要赶。 3.同位关系:所谓同位关系,就是指不定式短语的内容是对被修饰的名词作进一步补充说明。请看例句: (25) The need to love and to be loved seems universal. Maybe this is one trait that separates human beings from other animals. 爱与被爱的需要似乎是人类普遍的特性,或许正是这一特性把人和动物区分开了。 2.3.4 形容词短语在名词短语中作后置定语 (26) a.a typical mistake b.a mistake typical of beginners of English a.一个典型的错误 b.一个英语初学者会犯的典型错误 (27) a.the popular songs b.the songs popular in the 1970s a.这些流行歌曲 b.这些在二十世纪七十年代流行的歌曲 2.3.4.1“形容词+补足语”构成的形容词短语 这类形容词短语因其后的补足语不同,又可以分为三小类,即“形容词+介词短语”,“形容词+不定式短语”, “形容词+动名词短语”。请看例句: 形容词+介词短语 (28) a jacket similar to yours 一件与你的类似的夹克 (29) A campaign on the harsh terrain of a nation as large as California could be longer and more difficult than some predict.

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第7页

学苑中心培训系列教材 能要长,困难可能要大。 我们来分析下面这个例句:

内部资料

翻版必究

在一个和加利福尼亚州一样大的充满险恶地形的国家进行战争意味着战争的时间比预想的可

(30)There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. 所谓方法是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史探究中各个具体领域适用的研究手段,人们对此 意见不一。 形容词+不定式短语 (31)parents eager to support their children’s efforts 非常乐意支持孩子的父母们 (32)Students brave enough to attempt the course deserve to succeed. 对于敢于尝试学这门课的学生,成功是应该的。 形容词+动名词短语 (33) a waiter busy serving the guests 忙于服务客人的服务生 我们还可以在形容词后面接一个 that 从句来构成形容词短语。请看例句: (34)If a diamond is heated without oxygen, will turn to graphite, form of carbon so soft that it is used as a lubricant. it a 金刚石在无氧下加热,就会变成石墨。石墨是一种碳,它极软,可以作为润滑剂。 If a diamond is heated without oxygen, it will turn to graphite, a form of carbon 中心词 graphite 名词短语,作 graphite 的同位语 条件状语从句 主句

so soft that it is used as a lubricant. 形容词短语,后置修饰 carbon (35)Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals,including man. 维生素是一种有机化合物, 尽管在饮食中含量很少, 但却是所有动物(包括人类)正常生长和生命延续所必不 可少的。 Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of lire of animals,including man. (36) a.a man taller than John b.a taller man than John 比约翰个子要高的男子 2.3.4.2 多个形容词并列构成的形容词短语 (37)He bought a set of furniture,simple and beautiful. 他买了一套家具,既简朴又美观。 (38)All countries,large or small,should be equal. 所有国家,不论大小,都一律平等。 (39)Each person has his or her own purpose and distinct path,unique and separte from anyone else’s. 人各有志,每个人的人生目标和道路都是独特的,各不相同。 2. 3. 5 定语从句在名词短语中作后置定语 形容词短语的中心词 necessary 分隔形容词短语的介词短语 形容词短语中的介词 for,与 necessary 构成搭配 短语 主系表句型 形容词

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第8页

学苑中心培训系列教材 Hathaway’s Cottage,Shakespeare’s birthplace and the other sights.

内部资料

翻版必究

(40)There are the townsfolk who largely live off the tourists who come,not to see the plays,but to look at Anne 主要依靠游人为主的当地镇民。游人来到 Stratford 不是来观看戏剧,而是来观看莎士比亚的出生地 Anne Hathaway 小屋和其他景色。 There are the townsfolk who largely live off the tourists who come,not to see the plays,but to look at Anne Hathaway’s Cottage,Shakespeare’S birthplace and the other sights. (41) the girl who was standing in the corner (42)the girl standing in the corner (43) the girl in the corner 2.3.6 同位语从句在名词短语中作后置修饰语 (44)Such behavior is regarded as“all too human”,with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. 这样的行为被认为是“人之常情”,这句话的潜台词就是其它动物不会将这种不满情绪发挥到如此地步。 (45) a rise in interest rates (46) the mother of three little children (47) the killer of seventeen—year-old Maria Nixon (48) The decision to go ahead was not a popular one. 2.3.7 其他特殊后置定语 名词后面的修饰语除了上述常见的六大类外,还有其他一些特殊后置定语,这包括后置的副词短语作定语,以 及后置的名词短语作定语等。 作后置定语的副词通常是表示地点和时间的副词。一些表示地点的副词通常置于名词短语后面作定语。 (49) the house nearby (50) his trip abroad (51) the way ahead (52) The road back is dense with traffic. (53) The way out was hard to find. (54) The people behind were talking all the time. 一些表示时间点的副词也可以作后置定语,比如: (55) their stay overnight (56) the meal afterwards (57) the day before 有些表示大小、年龄等度量的名词短语可以作后置定语: (58)A man the size of a giant came up to me. (59)Somebody her age shouldn’t do such strenuous exercises. 当然,对于这样特殊的后置定语,一般比较少见,读者只需了解即可。 There be 句型 作主语的中心词 townsfolk 修饰 townsfolk 的定语从句 修饰 tourists 的定语从句

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第9页

学苑中心培训系列教材 2.3.8 定语规律

内部资料

翻版必究

介词短语 分词短语
限定词+形容词+中心名词+6 类右置定语

不定式短语 形容词短语 定语从句 同位语从句

2.4 并联定语 2.4.1 并联定语的类型 2.4.2 并联定语的个数 2.4.3 并联定语的语序 2.4.1 并联定语的类型 (60)The gift of the estate to the National Trust meant more people could visit it. 把这个不动产赠给国家基金会,这就意味着有更多的人可以参观它。 The gift of the estate to the National Trust meant more people could visit it. 主语中心词 gift gift 的并列定语 1 gift 的并列定语 2 谓语 宾语从句 主语

(61)In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected. 在工业化组织结构中,工厂对于对工人的生理及心理方面的影响完全被忽略了。 In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected. 主语中心词 influence influence 的并列定语 1 influence 的并列定语 2 句子谓语 状语 句子 主语

名词+介词短语+分词短语 (62)A man without an education,many of US believe,is an unfortunate victim of unfavorable conditions deprived of one of the greatest twentieth—century opportunities. 我们很多人相信,一个没有受过教育的人,是逆境中的不幸牺牲品,他们被剥夺了 20 世纪最优越的机会之一— —教育。 A man without an education, many of us believe, is an unfortunate victim of unfavorable conditions deprived of one of the greatest twentieth century opportunities. victim 的并列定语 2 表语中心词 victim victim 的并列定语 1 句子主语 插入语 表语部分

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 10 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 名词+不定式+形容词短语 (63)There is always something to come better than what we see. 将来总有一些东西比我们眼前的东西更加美好。 There is always something to come better than what we see. 名词+分词短语+分词短语 主语中心词 something something 的并列定语 1 something 的并列定语 2

内部资料

翻版必究

There be 句型 主语部分

(64)A government train carrying oxen traveling through the northern plains of eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm and had to be abandoned. 一辆载牛的政府列车,穿行在美国怀尔明州东部的大平原北面,在途中突然遭遇暴风雪,而被迫停驶。

A government train carrying oxen traveling through the northern plains of

主语中心词 train train 的并列定语 l train 的并列定语 2

主语部分

eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm and had to be abandoned. 名词+介词短语+定语从句

谓语部分

(65)Changes in the social structure may indirectly affect juvenile crime rates.For example, changes in the economy that lead to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment in general make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. 社会结构方面的变化也许在间接地影响青少年犯罪率。比如,经济方面的变化使得青年的就业机会更少、总的 失业率上升,这就会使得赚钱的工作日益难找。 For example,changes in the economy that lead to fewer job opportunities for youth and 主语中心词 changes 修饰 changes 的并列定语 1 修饰 changes 的并列定语 2 谓语 主语

rising unemployment in general 1 make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. (66)The mineral elements from the soil that are usable by the plant must be dissolved in the soil solution before they can be taken into the root. 土壤中可供植物利用的矿物成分,必须溶解在土壤中才能被植物的根部吸收。 The mineral elements from the soil that are usable by the plant 主语中心词 elements 介词短语,修饰 elements 的并列定语 1 定语从句,修饰 elements 的并列定语 2

主语部分

must he dissolved in the soil solution before they can be taken into the root. 名词+形容词短语+定语从句

谓语部分

(67)Today,stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn,among other things,that you might--surprise!--fall off. 现在的梯子带有几英寸长的警告标签,除了警告你其他可能发生的意外之外,还警告你可能摔下来——这种警 告真是莫名其妙。

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 11 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 Today,stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn,among other things, that you might—surprise! 一 fall off. 宾语从句 作定语从句谓语 warn 的宾语 带有两个后置定语

内部资料 主谓宾结构,其中宾语 labels 修饰 labels 的并列定语 1 修饰 labels 的并列定语 2

翻版必究

名词+不定式短语+定语从句 (68)No plan should ever be so rigid that it is unable to adapt to changing circumstances.As your career develops,opportunities will arise and,you will have choices to make that may lead you down quite different paths from those which you originally planed. 要计划,但不要僵化,也就是说计划要有灵活性,要随着形势的改变而改变。随着职业的发展,机遇会不断产 生,这时,你可能会选择一个完全不同于以前设定的职业方向。 you will have choices . to make that may lead you down quite different paths from those which you originally planed 名词+分词短语+定语从句 (69)What should doctors say,for example,to a 46 一 year—old man coming in for a routine physical checkup Just before going on vacation with his family who,though he feels in perfect health,is found to have a form of cancer that will cause him to die within six months? 比如,一个 46 岁的男子,在其与家人出度假之前进行常规身体检查时,尽管他自我感觉健康良好,但医生却发 现他患有某种癌症,不超过 6 个月就将死去。这时,医生该怎么对他讲呢? What should doctors say,for example,to a 46 一 year—old man coming in for a routine physical checkup just before going on vacation with his family who,though he feels in perfect health,is found to have a form of cancer that will cause him to die within six months? 并列定语 1 的结构图示: coming in for a routine physical checkup just before going on vacation with his family 并列定语 2 的结构图示: who, though he feels in perfect health, is found to have a form of cancer that will cause him to die within six months 名词+定语从句+定语从句 (70)I would appreciate any ideas you might think of that would be especially appropriate for Chinese students. 如果你能够想出任何与中国学生尤其相关的主意,我将非常感激。 关系代词 who,做主语 插入的状语从句 定语从句的谓语 修饰 cancer 的定语从句 分词短语 时间状语 修饰 man 的并列定语 2 中心词 man 修饰 man 的并列定语 1 修饰 those 的定语从句 1 宾语 choices 修饰 choices 的并列定语 l 修饰 choices 的并列定语 2

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 12 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 I would appreciate any ideas you might think of that would be especially appropriate for Chinese students. 中心词 ideas

内部资料 修饰 ideas 的并列定语 1 修饰 ideas 的并列定语 2

翻版必究

(71)There are probably no questions we can think up that can't be answered,sooner or later,including even the matter of consciousness. 我们能够想得出来但却解决不了的问题,这样的问题迟早可能都不会存在的,即使像意识这样的问题。 There are probably no questions we can think up that can't be answered sooner or later including even the matter of consciousness. 名词+介词短语+同位语从句 (72)The statement by the driver of the vehicle that he did not see the lorry was rejected by the Court. 该汽车司机说自己没有看见卡车,但法庭对此并不相信。 The statement by the driver of the vehicle that he did not see the lorry was rejected by the Court. 2.4.2 并联定语的个数 (73) the man and woman in the corner nearest the door talking to John 坐在角落里的、靠门最近的、正在和约翰谈话的那对男女 (74)The statement by the driver to the police about the incident was crucial. 这位司机对警方所作的有关这个事件的陈述,是非常关键的。 The statement by the driver to the police about the incident was crucial. 主语中心词 statement 的并列定语 l statement 的并列定语 2 statement 的并列定语 3 句子谓语 句子主语 主语中心词 statement 修饰 statement 的定语 补充说明 statement 的同位语从句 句子谓语 句子 主语 There be 句型中的主语 questions 修饰 questions 的定语从句 1 修饰 questions 的定语从句 2 修饰主句 there be 的时间状语 修饰 questions 的分词短语

(75)Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties. 社会资助是由人与人之间的资源交换所构成的,而这种交换乃是建立在他们的人际关系基础之上的。

Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties.

主谓宾结构 exchange 的并列定语 1 exchange 的并列定语 2 exchange 的并列定语 3

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 13 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 2.4.3 并联定语的语序 名词+定语从句+分词短语

内部资料

翻版必究

(76)But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, it is critical that our nation and the world and base important policies on the best judgments that science can pro-vide concerning the future consequences of present actions. 但是,关于我们目前的行为在未来所可能产生的后果,对此,科学确实能为我们提供最佳判断,而世界各国(包 括我们自己国家)应该根据这一最佳判断来制定重大的政策,这一点非常重要。 it is critical that that our nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present 主句 主语从句

主语从句的主谓宾部分,其中 judgments 是介词 on 宾语 修饰 judgments 的定语从句 修饰 judgments 的分词短语

actions 2.5 串联定语 (77)The rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird is remarkable. 蜂鸟的振翅速度极为惊人。 (78)Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development. 行为主义者的观点是:如果一个小孩是在有许多刺激物的环境中长大,而这些刺激物又能培养其做出适当反应 的能力,那么他就会有比较高的智力发育水平。 Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for 宾语从句的主语中心词 child 修饰 child 的定语从句 修饰 environment 的定语从句 修饰 stimuli 的定语从句 宾语从句的谓语 主句中的主谓 宾语从句的 主语部分

appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

2.6 串、并联混合型定语 (79)There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic. 我们能够想得出来但却解决不了的问题,这样的问题迟早可能都不会存在的,即使像意识这样的问题。
There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that J read recently 中心词 remark 介词短语,修饰 remark 修饰 book 的并列定语 1 修饰 book 的并列定语 2

giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic. 分词短语,修饰 remark 分词短语的结构图示: Giving What 由 what 引导宾语从句,且 what 作从句的主语 分词 giving 宾语从句作 giving 的宾语

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 14 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 he thought was a reason for this American characteristic 插入语 宾语从句的谓语部分

内部资料

翻版必究

2.7 名词与其后置修饰语的分隔结构 2.7.1 名词与定语从句被谓语分隔 2.7.2 名词与同位语从句被谓语分隔 2.7.3 名词与作定语的介词短语被谓语分隔 2.7.4 名词与作定语的分词短语被谓语分隔
2.7.1 名词与定语从句被谓语分隔 (80)The UN passed a resolution for Iraq to withdraw.When Iraq ignored this resolution it resulted in a 6 week invasion by a UN force,virtually wiping out the Iraqi military. A ceasefire was arranged which allowed the Iraq government to remain in control. 联合国做出决议,要求伊拉克撤军。由于伊拉克对此置之不理,联合国部队随即对伊拉克实施了为期六周的强 行入侵,最终几乎使伊拉克的军事力量彻底崩溃。后来签订了停火协议,协议同意伊拉克政府继续当政。 A ceasefire was arranged which allowed the Iraq government to remain in control. 主语中心词 ceasefire 谓语 修饰 ceasefire 的定语从句 主语

(81)It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. 不过,可以预见的是,将来会经常有问题出现,需要科学给出特定回答的. It can be predicted,however,that from time to time questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. It 引导的主语从句句型 从句的主语中心词 questions 谓语 修饰 questions 的定语从句

2.7.2 名词与同位语从句被谓语分隔 如果一个名词做主语,并且它后面还带有一个同位语从句,此时我们通常把这个同位语从句置于谓语后面, 而不是放在名词后面,因而造成先行名词与同位语从句的分隔,结构是“做主语的先行词+谓语部分+同位语从 句”。这种被分割开来的情形在阅读文章中是常见的,遇到时一定要认真分析,才能正确理解句子意思。请看 例句: (82)Dreary months dragged by before the tragic news reached her that her beloved brother had been killed for anti-Nazi activities. 在狱中捱过数月苦闷的日子后,突然一天传来噩耗:她敬爱的哥哥在反法西斯活动中被杀害。 Dreary months dragged by before the tragic news reached her that her beloved brother had been killed for anti. Nazi activities. 时间从句的主语中 心词 news 时间从句谓语 补充 news 的同位 语从句
第 15 页

主句主语 before 引导的 时间状语从句

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力

学苑中心培训系列教材 (83)Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old. 有证据表明,六个月的婴儿就能辨别出特定的说话声音。 Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old. 2.7.3 名词与作定语的介词短语被谓语分隔 主语中心词 evidence 谓语 补充 evidence 的同位语从句

内部资料

翻版必究

主语

(84)Protests and demonstrations are being staged in the US,where opposition is mounting to the construction of a $70 billion nuclear waste storage plant near the Mexican border. 美国正在不断举行抗议集会和示威游行,人们反对在靠近墨西哥边境建造一个价值 700 亿美元的核废料储存厂 的呼声日益高涨。 opposition is mounting to the construction of a $70 billion nuclear waste storage plant near the Mexican border 2.7.4 名词与作定语的分词短语被谓语分隔 (85)Just as on smoking,voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete,that it's OK to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. 正如现在对抽烟问题的看法一样,来自很多地方的声音坚持强调说,科学关于全球变暖的证据不足,因而认为 在还没有确切证据之前,人们可以把烟尘释放到空气中。 voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete that it's OK to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure 分词 insisting 分词 insisting 的宾语从句 1 分词 insisting 的宾语从句 2 主语中心词 voices 主语 谓语 修饰 voices 的分 词短语 主语中心词 opposition 谓语 to 与 opposition 是固定搭配,to 短语作后置定语,修饰 opposition 主语

第二章自测题(题目及答案解析)
判断下列句中不定式与被修饰名词之间的逻辑语义关系,并将句子译成中文。 1.He is not a man to act carelessly. 2.I need a box to hold my chessmen. 3.I don't think he is the best man to do the job. 4.He is the best man to choose. 5. 1 were abroad, travel around the country as much as I could and try to find as many people as possible, only If I'd not to practice the language on hut to have discussions with, and I'd hope to make some real friends. 翻译下列句子,注意其中形容词短语的修饰用法。 6.I know an actor suitable for the part. 7.They have a house larger than yours. 8.many brave soldiers willing to volunteer

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 16 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 9.The boys easiest to teach were in my class.

内部资料

翻版必究

10.American life has always had its element of change,of movement,some say of restlessness,and this is still so now.In some states only one house in five has people living in it who have been there for more than five years. Now there is movement,short and long,in every direction. 11.We can easily point to inequalities,social and economic,but there is still a deep-seated belief that,no matter what his wealth or his job,each man is fundamentally equal with every other. 12.John was a ranchman,big,quiet,unlettered and strong as a horse.He had begun with fifty head of sheep.Ambitious and frugal,in ten years he owned two thousand ewes and ample pasture for them. 13.An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education,justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. 14.Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution:they“look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship,as at something wholly beyond his comprehension.” 1 5. Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, whereas others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers.This may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generate particular smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells which sense smells and send messages to the brain. However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell at first can suddenly become sensitive to it when exposed to it often enough. 16.A:I'd like to return this bikini. B:Sure.You can exchange it for anything in this store of equal value. 1 7.The advent of TV spawned a huge advertising industry that employs millions of people world wide.It provided an avenue for creativeness for many people that is virtually incomparable to any other industry. 18.Besides,this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations. 1 9.The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener 45 interfere with his comprehension. A.who B.as C.which D.what 20.Despite much research,there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that is A B C not fully understood. D 21.I really enjoyed that movie last night.It won't win any prizes, but it has two funny guys in it that are worth watching just for laughs. 22.The effects of rapid travel on the human body are much greater than we realize. 23.The best network solution for home use may be a combination of a wired network with a wireless network. 24. Two US Army veterans of the Gulf War were convicted in the bombing plot, which officials believe was carried out to protest an attack by federal authorities two years earlier on a Texas religious cult that left 7 6 people dead. 翻译下列句子 25.The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people in-volved in prominent cases such as the trial of Rosemary West. 26.Very little architecture is created that does not have a practical function.In that sense, it is hard to distinguish between it being a“Fine Art” and an“Applied Art”. 27.Smart cars have already been built which can monitor one's driving and the driving condi- tions nearby. 28.When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty—five miles south of London,they were not taken seriously. 29.As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 17 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 30.Concerns were raised A.what B.when 49 court to ensure guilty verdicts. C.which D.that 自测题答案与解析 1.He is not a man to act carelessly. 他不是一个做事马虎的人。 2.I need a box to hold my chessmen. 我需要一个能装棋子的盒子。 3.I don't think he is the best man to do the job. 我觉得他并不是做这个工作的最佳人选。 4.He is the best man to choose. 主谓关系:由他来做出选择是最好的。 动宾关系:他是最佳的人选。

内部资料

翻版必究

witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in

5.If 1 were abroad,I'd travel around the country as much as 1 could and try to find as many people as possible,not only to practice the language on but to have discussions with,and I,d hope to make some real friends. 我要是出国,会尽量地周游这个国家,设法尽可能多地结识一些人,不仅以他们作为语言实践的对象,而 且要和他们讨论问题。我希望结识一些真正的朋友。 I'd travel around the country as much as I could and try to find as many 中心词 people people as possible, not only to practice the 并列定语 1:不定式短语作定语修 language on 饰 people,on 的宾语是 people but to have discussions 并列定语 2:不定式短语作定语修 with, 饰 people,with 的宾语是 people 并列谓语 1:travel 与 try 并列 并列谓语 2:try 与 travel 并列

6.I know an actor suitable for the part. 我知道有个演员适合演这个角色。 7.They have a house larger than yours. 他们有个房子比你的大。 8.many brave soldiers willing to volunteer 许多英勇的志愿兵 9.The boys easiest to teach were in my class. 最容易教的男生在我们班。 10.American life has always had its element of change,of movement,some say of restlessness,and this is still so now. some states only one house in five has people living in it who have been there for more than five years. In Now there is movement,short and long,in every direction. 美国人的生活向来充满了变的成分,运动的成分,也有人说是不安于现状的成分,而现在仍然如此。在有 些州,5 栋房子中只有一栋连续住同一批人超过了 5 年。现在人们仍向着四面八方迁居,远近不一。 11.We can easily point to inequalities,social and economic,but there is still a deep—seated belief that,no matter what his wealth or his job,each man is fundamentally equal with every other. 指出人们社会的和经济的不平等很容易,可人们仍深信,不管其财产或工作如何,人与人之间根本上是平 等的。 12.John was a ranchman,big,quiet,unlettered and strong as a horse.He had begun with fifty head of sheep.Ambitious and frugal,in ten years he owned two thousand ewes and ample

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 18 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 pasture for them.

内部资料

翻版必究

约翰是一个牧场主,他身材高大,寡言少语,目不识丁,健壮如牛。他靠 50 头羊起家,经过十年的艰苦奋 斗和节俭,他现在已拥有了两千头母羊和充足的牧场。 13.An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education. justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. 目的在于使学生胜任某种工作的教育是技术教育,它存在的理由与法律所规定的普及教育之间有巨大的差 距。

An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job education is a technical education。 justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law.

主语中心词 education 定语从句,修饰

主语部分

谓语及表语部分 中心词 reasons 形容词短语,修饰 reasons 分词短语,补充说明 education

14.Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution:they“look at an organi( being as a savage looks at a ship,as at something wholly beyond his comprehension.” 达尔文有句话描写那些不懂得进化论的人们:他们“看待一种生物,像野蛮人看着船一样,把它视为他们 完全不能理解的东西”。 15. Strangely,some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another。 whereas others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers.This may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generate particular smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells which sense smells and send messages to the brain.However,it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell at first can suddenly become sensitive to it when exposed to it often enough. 奇怪的是,有人发现,他们能闻到一种花香,但闻不到另一种花香,而别的人却能闻到这两种花香。这也 许是因为有些人的鼻子 q-不具有产生特定的嗅觉感受器所必需的基因。这些嗅觉感受器是察觉气味并把信息传 送到大脑的细胞。但是人们发现,甚至起初对某一种气味不敏感的人也能在接触足够多这种气味的时候突然变 得对这种气味敏感了。 16.A:I’d like to return this bikini. B:Sure. You can exchange it for anything in this store of equal value. A:我想把这件比基尼换掉。 B:行,你可以随便换店内的任何一件等值物品。 You can exchange it for anything in this store of equal value. 主谓宾结构 中心词 anything anything 的并列定语 1 anything 的并列定语 2

17.The advent of TV spawned a huge advertising industry that employs millions of people world wide.It provided an avenue for creativeness for many people that is virtually incomparable to any other industry. 电视的出现催生了广告产业的巨大发展,世界范围内有数百万的广告从业人员。电视广告为人们的创造才能 提供了一个施展的途径,这一点是任何其他行业所无法比拟的。 It provided an avenue www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力

中心词 avenue
第 19 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 for creativeness for many people that is virtually incomparable to any other industry. 修饰 avenue 的并列定语 1 修饰 avenue 的并列定语 2

内部资料

翻版必究

18.Besides,this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread overso many states and involves so many international corporations. 此外,在我们这样大的国家里,且经济分布在如此众多的州中,又涉及如此多的跨国公司,要培养出所 需数量的每种专业技术人员是不太现实的。 this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations 19.The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener 45 interfere with his comprehension. A.who B.as C.which D.what【正确答案】C 说话人的用词可能会引起听者的不利反应,这就会影响听者的理解。 20.Despite much research,there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that A is not fully understood.【正确答案】C,改为 are。 C D 人们已经对昆虫进行了大量的研究,但是对其生命周期中的某些方面还没有完全了解。 21.I really enjoyed that movie last night.It won’t win any prizes,but it has two funny guys in it that are worth watching j ust for laughs. 我很喜欢昨晚看的那个电影。这个电影不见得会得什么奖,但是那两个滑稽的角色值得一看,非常好玩。 22.The effects of rapid travel on the human body are much greater than we realize. 快速旅行对人体的影响比我们意识到的要大得多。 The effects of rapid travel on the human body are much greater than we realize. 主语中心词 effects 的并列定语 1 effects 的并列定语 2 句子谓语 句子主语 B 中心词 country 修饰 country 的并列定语 1 修饰 country 的并列定语 2

23.The best network solution for home use may be a combination of a wired network with a wireless network. 所以说,最好的家庭联网方式是有线网和无线网的结合。 The best network solution for home use may be a combination of a wired network with a wireless network. 主系表结构 、 combination 的并列定语 1 combination 的并列定语 2

24.Two US Army veterans of the Gulf War were convicted in the bombing plot, which officials believe was carried out to protest an attack by federal authorities two years earlier on a Texas religious cult that left 76 people dead. 两名参加过海湾战争的美国老兵,被指控企图制造炸弹袭击。有官员称,这次袭击是为了抗议两年前联邦 当局曾对德克萨斯州的一个狂热宗教组织实行打击,当时造成了 76 人死亡。 which www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力

定语从句的关系代词
第 20 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 officials believe was carried out to protest an attack by federal authorities two years earlier on a Texas religious cult that left 7 6 people dead 定语从句的插入语 定语从句的谓语部分 attack 的并列定语 1 attack 的并列定语 2 attack 的并列定语 3

内部资料

翻版必究

25.The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up peo pie involved in prominent cases such as the trial of Rosemary west. 政府禁止报界向重大案件(如对 Rosemary West 的审判)的目击者付钱以收买他们。 The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases such as the trial of Rosemary West. 中心词 payments 修饰 payments 的并列定语 1 修饰 payments 的并列定语 2 分词短语,修饰 newspapers 分词短语,修饰 people

26.Very little architecture is created that does not have a practical function.In that sense, it is hard to distinguish between it being a“Fine Art’’and an“Applied Art”. 很少有哪个建筑物不具备实用功能的,这样一来就很难分辨“美艺术”与“应用艺术”之间的区别了。 Very little architecture iscreated that does not have a practical function. 主语中心词 architecture 谓语 architecture 的定语 主语

27.Smart cars have already been built which can monitor one’s driving and the driving conditions nearby. 能监控行车过程以及周围行车状况的智能汽车已经研制出来。 Smart cars have already been built 主语中心词 cars 谓语 主语

which can monitor one’S driving and the driving conditions nearby. cars 的定语 28.When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty—five miles south of London。they were not taken seriously. 当伦敦动物园收到通知,说在伦敦以南 45 英里处发现一只美洲狮,这份通知并没有引起人们重视。 When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty—five miles south of London they were not taken seriously. When 从句主语中心词 reports 谓语 补充说明 reports 的同位语从 句 主句 When 引 导的时间 状语从句

29.As a logical consequence of this development,separate journals have now appeared aimed mainlv towards either professional or amateur readership. 这样发展的必然结果是出现针对专业读者和业余读者的不同杂志。 separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership 主语中心词 journals 谓语 修饰 journals 的分词短 语 主语

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 21 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 30.Concerns were raised 49 in court to ensure guilty verdicts. A.what Concerns were raised that witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ensure guilty verdicts B.when C.which D.that 【正确答案】D

内部资料

翻版必究

witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories

人们日益担心,证人可能会因此而受到鼓励,在法庭上夸大其词以保证陪审团对被告做出有罪的判决。 主语中心词 concerns 谓语 补充 concerns 的同位语从句

第三章 尾重原则与右行原则
3.1 尾重原则

所谓尾重原则,就是指英语里有这样一种倾向:把复杂的句子成分放在句末。 (1)The rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird is remarkable. (2)Remarkable is the rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird. (3)The rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird,which normnII lives in North America and has beautiful feathers,is remarkable. (4)Remarkable is the rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird,which normally lives in North America and has beautiful feathers. (5) a. I lent a useful book with all kinds of tour information about China such as p1aces of interest,accommodation,transportation,prices,etc.to Brian. b. I tent Brian a useful book with all kinds of tour information about China such as places of interest,accommodation,transportation,prices,etc. (6) a. I lent the person that I met in our literature class last term a book. b. I lent a book to the person that I met in our literature class last term. (7)Tropical rain forests are also home to a great variety of animal species as well as tribes of native people. (8)Tropical rain forests are also home to tribes of native people as well as a great variety of animal species. (9)Tropical rain forests are also home to a great variety of animal species as well as tribes of native people having little contact with modern civilization. 热带雨林不仅栖息着各种动物物种,也是当地土著居民的家园,这些土著人对现代文明知之甚少。
3.2 右行原则 我们现来分析这样一个句子——“蜂鸟翅膀的振动速度极为惊人”,将其拆解如下: (10)速度极为惊人 (11)振动速度极为惊人

(12)翅膀的振动速度极为惊人 (13)蜂鸟翅膀的振动速度极为惊人 (14)The rapidity is remarkable. (15)The rapidity of the motion is remarkable. (16)The rapidity of the motion of the wing is remarkable. (17)The rapidity of the motion of the wing of the hummingbird is remarkable. (18)the hummingbird 而不说: (19)hummingbird the’

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 22 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 蜂鸟是非常美丽的,我们若用形容词 beautiful 来描述,则要说: (20)the beautiful hummingbird 而不说: (21)the hummingbird beautiful.or hummingbird the beautiful (22)the beautiful hummingbird that lives in North America (23)the beautiful hummingbird living in North America (24)the beautiful hummingbird in North America (25)the beautiful that lives in North America hummingbird。 (26)the beautiful living in North America hummingbird” (27)the beautiful in North America hummingbird (28)生活在北美洲的美丽的蜂鸟 (29)热烈欢迎改革开放中的农村青年人口问题全国学术研讨会的代表

内部资料

翻版必究

我们现在来比较一下汉语的定语是如何层层在左边叠加的,以及英语又是如何层层往右扩展的。 “左行”的中文 热烈欢迎代表 热烈欢迎全国学术研讨会的代表 “右行”的英文 A warm welcome to the delegates A warm welcome to the delegates of the Nationwide Symposium 热烈欢迎问题全国学术研讨会的代表 A warm welcome to the delegates of the Nationwide Symposium on the issue 热烈欢迎青年人口问题全国学术研讨会 的代表 A warm welcome to the delegates of the Nationwide Symposium on the issue of youth migration

“左行”的中文 热烈欢迎农村青年人口问题全国学术研 讨会的代表

“右行”的英文 A warm welcome to the delegates of the Nationwide Symposium on the issue of youth migration from the countryside to the cities

热烈欢迎改革开放中的农村青年人口问 题全国学术研讨会的代表

A warm welcome to the delegates of the National Symposium on the issue of youth migration from the countryside to the cities as a result of the opening—up and reform policies

(30)中国共产党的优秀党员,伟大的共产主义战士,杰出的无产阶级革命家,我党经济工作的卓越领导人,中 国共产党第七届、八届、十一届中央委员,第八届中央政治局候补委员,国务院原副总理,原中共 q-央顾问委 员会常务副主任某某同志。因病医治无效,于 2007 年月 5 日 20 时 30 分在北京逝世。 (3 1)This is the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack bu

第四章英汉表达差异
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 英语多长句,汉语多短句 英语多前重心,汉语多后重心 英语多物称,汉语多人称 英语多被动,汉语多主动 英语多抽象,汉语多具体 英语多代词,汉语多名词

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 23 页

学苑中心培训系列教材

内部资料

翻版必究

4.1 英语多长句, 汉语多短句 (1)There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic. 我最近看过一本书,它是由一个英国人写的,我还记得书里有一句十分有趣的话,作者认为这句话说明了美国 人为什么是这种性格。
There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic。. (2)在我最近看过的一本由英国人写的书里面有一句十分有趣的话他认为给出了美国人这种性格的理由。这样的 译文显然生涩许多,有些啃不动。 (3) She resembles her mother in the way that she moves her hands when she talks. (4) 她说话时打手势的动作像她妈妈。 (5) 我的一个朋友在她男友医院病房里怀孕了当他正从一场导致他半身瘫痪的严重的汽车事故中恢复的时候。 (6) 我有一个朋友,她的男友发生了一次严重的交通事故,结果导致半身瘫痪。不可思议的是,就当他在医院病 房恢复时期,他居然还使她怀孕了。 (7) One of my friends got pregnant in her boyfriend’s hospital room while he was recovering from a terrible car accident that left him partially paralyzed. (8) a terrible car accident—that left him par—tially paralyzed (9) 一场导致他半身瘫痪的严重的汽车事故 (10) 发生了一次严重的交通事故,结果导致半身瘫痪 (11) Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data. (12)描述统计学是一种工具,用于对大量数据的特性或进行描述,或进行总结,或为易于理解而进行归纳。不借 助于该工具,这些数据就难以处理。 Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data. 4.2 英语多前重心.汉语多后重心 (13)a.One of my friends got pregnant in her boyfriend’s hospital room while he was recovering from a terrible car accident that left him partially paralyzed. 4.2.1 时间顺序 (14)a.我昨天刚刚跑完步,所以当时你来看我时,我满头大汗的。 b.I was soaked in sweat when you saw me yesterday because I had been running. 4.2.2 逻辑顺序 1.英语先结果后原因 (15) a.也许,生活并非总像表面上看起来的那样,所以才会出现困惑。 介词短语被前置,这里 to 只与 reducing 构成搭配 上面三个动词的共同宾语 主系表结构 这里三个动词并列,共用一个宾语 介词短语作定语 修饰 tool 中心词 remark 介词短语,修饰 remark 修饰 book 的并列定语 1 修饰 book 的并列定语 2 分词短语,修饰 remark

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 24 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 b.Perhaps the confusion arises because life is not always what it seems.

内部资料

翻版必究

(16) a.由于要修建道路和公路,很多土地被铺上沥青,这就造成大量的土地日益遭到破坏。 b.Destruction of the land will increase as it becomes covered with asphalt for more 2.英语先结论后叙事 (17) a.中国现已能够用仅占世界百分之七的耕地,养活了占世界百分之二十二的人口,使十一亿人民基本解决 了温饱问题。 b.Now China has solved the problem of food and clothing to a point where it has managed to feed its.billion people,22 percent of the world’s total population.With only 7 percent of the world’s cultivated land. 3.英语先结果后叙事: (18) a.社会上的人们花费太多的时间听别人讲话及被动地与别人谈话, 以至于到了几乎丧失自己说话的欲望和说 话的能力。在这样的社会里,人们之间的交流越来越少。 b.Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itseIf. (19) a.昨天,据一位官员透露,一架载有 8 人的直升机在卸下食品和其他供应物品后失踪。这些物品是为马尼 拉供水工程挖掘隧道的工人们提供的。 b.A helicopter carrying eight people was reported missing after it unloaded a cargo of food and other provisions for workers digging a major tunnel for a water supply project for Manila, official said an yesterday. 4.英语先表态后叙事 (20) a.我原来计划今年二月访问美国,后来不得不推迟,这使我感到很扫兴。 b.It was a keen disappointment that I had to postpone the visit that I had intended to pay to America in February. (21)a.当我听说你提前一个月就完成了研究项目,我感到很震惊。 b.I was shocked when I heard you’d finished your research project a whole month early. (22)a.关于什么是货币以及怎样计量货币,对此问题经济学家们之间存有分歧。 b.There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money is measured. (23)There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. 所谓方法是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史探究中各个具体领域适用的研究手段,人们对此意见 不一。 being talked to that it has roads and highways.

4.3 英语多物称.汉语多人称 (24)There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. 所谓方法是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史探究中各个具体领域适用的研究手段,人们对此意见 不一。 (25)Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips,computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools,relaxation will be in front of smell-television,and digital age will have arrived. 儿童将与装有个性化芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍,具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工作伙伴而不是工具,人们将在气 味电视机前休闲,届时数字化时代就来到了。 (26)Actually,it isn’t,because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have. 这种问法不恰当,因为这种问法是假定了人们对人权有共同的认识,而这种共同的认识世界上是没有的。 www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 25 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 4.3.1 如何转换视角:变人称为物称 1.利用形式主语 it 常用的句型如主语从句(It…that…)或不定式结构(It…to do…)。 (27)It occurs to sb that 某人想到…… It has never occurred to me that he is the murderer. (28)It dawns upon/on sb that 某人突然明白…… (29)It came as a big surprise that I was still able to fight for our cause.我很惊讶……

内部资料

翻版必究

(30)Suddenly,it didn’t matter whether he was a musical genius or he had conquered blindness and poverty. 他是音乐天才也好,他战胜了失明和贫穷也好,突然间都变得不重要了。 It is adj.to do 句型 (31)It’s impossible for us to grasp English overnight. 2.There be 句型 (32)There is a popular belief that…(人们普遍认为……) There is a popular belief among parents that schools are no longer interested in spelling. (33)There is much discussion today about sth. There is much diSCUSsion today about whether fast economic growth is desirable. (34)There has been a bond between this man and this woman for quite some time now. 男人和女人之间长期以来建立起了某种关系。 3.主动句变被动句 (35)a.We know very little about the nature of human beings. b.Little is known about the nature of human beings. (36)a.We may think more of the elderly who live apart from their children. b.More thought may be given to the elderly who live apart from their children. 4.被强调的时间前置做主语 (37)September, 2001 started out as an ordinary day,but what happened that morning will be forever etched in our memories. (38)A:What’s the temperature today? B:It’s 25 below zero. A:How dreadful! How long do you think this bad weather will last? B:Another month and half should see us through the worst of it.But don’t you remember Shelley’s line in his Ode to the West Wind:If winter comes,can spring be far behind? (39)June 19,1999 began as a usual Saturday morning with us on the road,me looking for the signs and Fred trying to find addresses. 1999 年 6 月 9 日,像以往的每个周六一样,我们又上路了。我寻找各种招牌,男友弗莱德则努力寻找它们的位 置。 (40)I have always loved yard sales.Saturday mornings would find me in my car,newspaper in hand,hunting down sites.My boyfriend wasn’t a big fun,but still he drove me up and down the streets of different neighborhoods while I looked for bargains. 我一直都很喜欢庭院销售。每逢星期六早晨,我都会坐在车里,手里拿着报纸,到处寻找出售廉价货品的庭院。 我男朋友对此并不热哀,但是他依旧会开车带我到不同的居民区、不同的街道寻找便宜货。 4.3.2 常用物称的写作必备句型 1.某人想到…… A.Has it ever occurred to you that…? B.Has it ever dawned on you that…? C.It strikes somebody that…

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 26 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 D.An idea came to sb that…

内部资料

翻版必究

(41)Has it ever occurred to you that your professors and other school personnel have certain goals for your growth and maturity during your college years? Has it ever dawned on you that certain developmental changes will occur in your life as you move from adolescence to young adulthood? (42)It occurred to Anna that money couldn’t make up for all that she had suffered in the past ten years. 安娜突然想到,钱不可能弥补她在过去十年中所受的苦。 2.不同的人对……持不同的态度 A.Attitudes towards sth vary from person to person. (43)Attitudes towards Sister Furong vary from person to person. 3.人们普遍认为…… A.It is widely/commonly thought/believed/held/accepted that… (44)It is widely/commonly thought/believed/held/accepted that birth control is quite necessary in China. (45)However,it is generally accepted among psychologists that most of us fail to do justice to ourselves. 4.越来越多的人意识到…… A.There is a growing agreement/awareness that... (46)There is a growing agreement/awareness that women should enjoy full equality with men. 5.人们日益担忧…… A.There is a growing concern that... B.Concern is growing about sth that... C.Concerns are raised that… (47)Concerns were raised that witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ensure guilty verdicts. (48)On the other hand concern is also growing about the possibility of a new economic order that resource—rich nations of the Third World would combine to set high commodity prices. 6.人们存有分歧…… A.There is disagreement among somebody over/about sth. B.There is a wide controversy among sb over sth. (49)There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money is meas ured.

4.4 英语多被动.汉语多主动 It must be pointed out that…必须指出…… It must be admitted that…必须承认…… It is imagined that…人们认为…… It can not be denied that…不可否认…… It will be seen from this that…由此可知…… It should be realized that…必须认识到…… It is(always)stressed that…人们(总是)强调…… It may be said without fear of exaggeration that…可以毫不夸张地说…… (50)And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes,and that they have to be acquired by a sort of speciaI training.

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 27 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 才能掌握。 (51)On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but

内部资料

翻版必究

许多人认为,普通人的思维活动根本无法与科学家的思维过程相比,认为这些思维过程必须经过某种专门训练

only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the others with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information, which they possessed. 总的来说,得出这种结论是有一定程度把握的,但是必须具备两个条件:能够假定这个孩子对测试的态度和与 他比较的另一些孩子的态度相同;他也没有因为缺乏别的孩子所具有的有关知识而被扣分

On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, 主句 but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the others with whom he is being compared, 定语从句,修饰 the others,其中 compared 与 with 是固定搭配 条件从句 2 条件从句 1

and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed.

(52)Comments are often made about activities which are relatively easy and satisfying like arranging flowers;but not about jobs which are hard and dirty,like scraping floors. 人们往往对那些做起来相对较容易而且结果会令人满意的活动作出评论,例如插花;但对那些既苦又脏的活, 却不加评论,例如擦洗地板。 Comments are often made about activities which are relatively easy and satisfying like arranging flowers; but not about jobs which are hard and dirty,like scraping floors. 主语中心词 comments 并列定语 1: 修饰 comments 的介词短语 并列定语 2: 修饰 comments 的介词短语 主谓结构: 使用的是被动语态, 中心词后边带有两个介 词短语作定语

4.5 英语多抽象.汉语多具体 (53)Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for a11.people will have to accept more“unnatural food”. 除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度:使地球能为所有人提供足够的饮食,否则人们将不得不接受 更多的“人造食品”。 (54)Galileo’s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the Earth. 伽利略最光辉的业绩在于他在 1609 年第一个把新发明的望远镜对准太空, 以证实行星是围绕太阳旋转而不是围 绕地球。
主句的主语+系动词 Galileo’s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on 表语从句 the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than 动词 prove 的宾语从 around the Earth. www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力


第 28 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 (55)It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and in-

内部资料

翻版必究

ternal criticism of sources,and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques. 这种谬论同样存在于历史传统派和历史社科派:前者认为历史就是史学界内部和外部人士对各种史料来源的评 论;后者认为历史的研究是具体方法的研究。

4.6 英语多代词.汉语多名词 (56)He told us how he dealt with the self—interest of countries to bring them into a kind of international accord where everyone seemed to benefit. 他告诉我们他是如何处理各国这问的利益关系的,即让各国达成一种彼此均受益的国际协定。

第四章自测题(题目及答案解析)
翻译下列句子,注意体会英汉语言表达差异。 1. During this transfer. traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study. 2.This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in.a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50%took a loss in 1989. 3.President Clinton was evacuated from a Washington hotel along with about 800 people attending a business awards ceremony on Friday after a small fire broke out in the laundry room. 4.The two teenagers were arrested for public lewdness and possession of marijuana when they were found naked,each smoking a joint,sitting on the edge of the fountain in the town square. 5.Once upon a time two brothers who lived on adjoining farms fell into conflict.It was the first serious rift in 40 years of farming side by side,sharing machinery,and trading labor and goods as needed without a hitch. 6. Always the college professor, father had carefully avoided anything he considered too sentimental, I knew how my so moved he was to write me that,after having helped educate many young people,he now felt that his best results included his own son. 7.How much easier,how much more satisfying it is for you who can see to grasp quickly the essential qualities of another person by watching the subtleties of expression,the quiver of a muscle,the flutter of a hand. 自测题答案与解析 1.During this transfer,traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study. 【译文】 在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。 2.This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in.a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks rio less than 50%took a loss in 1989. 这一点足以证明,要在电视行业里生存下来并非易事。统计数字尤其说明了这一事实,在 80 个欧洲电视网 中,多达一半在 1989 年亏损。

This alone demonstrates that the television business is not 3n easy world to survive in, a fact 同位语中心词 fact www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力

主句 宾语从句 宾语从句的同位
第 29 页

学苑中心培训系列教材 underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50%took a loss in 1989. 分词短语,修饰 fact 定语从句,修饰 statistics

内部资料

翻版必究

3.President Clinton was evacuated from a Washington hotel along with about 800 people attending a business awards ceremony on Friday after a small fire broke out in the laundry room. 【译文】 周五,克林顿总统参加了在华盛顿的一个酒店举行的商业颁奖仪式,随后该酒店的洗衣房发生 了小小的火灾,于是他和在场的 800 人一起从那里撤离。 4.The two teenagers were arrested for public lewdness and possession of marijuana when they were found naked, each smoking a joint,sitting on the edge of the fountain in the town square. The two teenagers were arrested for public lewdness and possession of marij uana when they were found naked, each smoking a joint,sitting on the edge of the fountain in the town square. 裸露和携带大麻为由把他们抓了起来。 5.Once upon a time two brothers who lived on adjoining farms fell into conflict.It was the first serious rift in 40 years of farming side by side,sharing machinery,and trading labor and goods as needed without a hitch. 【译文】 40 年来,他们并肩耕耘,共用生产机械,需要时互换劳力和物品,一切都很顺利,这是他们之 间第一次出现裂痕。 6.Always the college professor,my father had carefully avoided anything he considered too 8entlmental,so I knew how moved he was to write me that-after having helped educate many young people,he now felt that his best results included his own son. 【译文】 身为大学教授的父亲向来特别留意避免使用任何过于感情化的文字,因此,当他信中写道,在 教了许许多多的年轻人之后,他现在认为自己最优秀的学生当中也包括自己的儿子时,我就知道他是多么地感 动。 7.How much easier,how much more satisfying it is for you who can see to grasp quickly the essential qualities of another person by watching the subtleties of expression,the auiver of a muscle,the flutter of a hand. 【译文】 对于你们有视觉的人来说,通过观察一个人的细微的面部表情变化、肌肉的颤抖和挥动的手势, 就能迅速捕捉到他的基本特征,这该是多么容易、多么令人满足的事情啊! 分词短语,表示补充说明 【译文】 一个警察发现两个青少年正坐在广场喷泉池边沿吸食大麻,而且还是光着身子的,于是以当众 主谓结构 原因状语 时间从句

时间从句的主谓结构,naked 是补足语

www.xycentre.com
智力服务于中国,提高企业与个人整体竞争力 第 30 页


赞助商链接
相关文章:
更多相关标签: