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研究生英语课文讲解及课后习题答案Unit1


Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Warm-up Activities Additional lnformation for the Teacher’s Reference Text An Image or a Mirage Further Reading

Speaking Skills
Additional Work

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Warm-up Activities 1. What do you think is the distinction between an image and a mirage? An image is a general impression that a person, firm, product, etc. gives to the public. A mirage is an optical illusion caused by hot air conditions, especially that of a sheet of water seeming to appear in the desert or on a hot road. It also means figuratively an illusion or hope that cannot be fulfilled. In the text the author defines “mirage” as an illusion, which means “false impression”. So we can roughly say that an image is a true impression whereas a mirage is a false one.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

2. Have you ever heard about the expression “eye contact”? Eye contact is a nonverbal communication strategy. In some cultures, when two people are in conversation, they usually look each other straight in the eye to show their sincerity and honesty. For instance, Southern Europeans look at each other more than Northern Europeans and Americans. An Italian might think that an Englishman is cold and an Englishman might think that an Italian is very friendly.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

3. Can you think of some words or expressions which can be used to describe the virtue of honesty? For example: unassuming, diligent, look somebody straight in the eye, shake hands with somebody forcefully, tell the truth, have a clean-cut image, be willing to help other people, keep one’s promise, never talk with a glib tongue, have a magnetic speaking voice, etc.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Additional lnformation for the Teacher’s Reference 1. Robert L. Shook Robert L. Shook (1938 —) is chairman of the Board of American Executive Corporation, American Executive Life Insurance Company, and Shook Associates Corporation. After graduating from Ohio State University, he embarked on a business career and became a successful salesman. Later he began to write. His works are all about how to create and project an image which inspires trust and faith, and how to acquire the traits of charisma, charm, grace and style which are necessary to be a winner. His best books include: How to Be the Complete Professional Salesman (with Herbert M. Shook), Total Commitment (with Ron Bingaman), and Winning Images.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Winning images was first published by Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. in 1977. Based on the theory that nothing succeeds like the appearance of success, Robert L. Shook presents in this 21-chapter book the components of the winning image, and in clear, step-by-step instructions shows the reader how to select, and then systematically create, the “right” image for him or her as well as for his or her business. This book offers helpful tips to everyone aiming for the winner’s circle. Whether you are just starting out in a new career, struggling alone, or already established, you’ll learn how to play from a position of strength, with the psychological advantage of knowing that your image is helping you to the fullest.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

2. Hollywood Hollywood is a district within the city of Los Angeles, California, U. S., whose name is synonymous with the American motion-picture industry. Lying northwest of downtown Los Angeles, it is bounded by Hyperion Avenue and Riverside Drive (east), Beverly Boulevard (south), the foothills of Santa Monica Mountains (north), and Beverly Hills (west). Since the early 1900s,when movie-making pioneers found in Southern California an ideal blend of mild climate, much sunshine, varied terrain, and a large labour market, the image of Hollywood as the fabricator of tinseled cinematic dreams has become worldwide. An adobe was the first house built (1853)

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

on the site near Los Angeles, which was then a small city in the new state of California. Hollywood was laid out as a real-estate subdivision in 1887 by Horace Wilcox, a prohibitionist from Kansas who envisioned a community based on his sober religious principle. His wife, Daeida, named the area after the home of a friend in Chicago. In 1910, because of an inadequate water supply, Hollywood residents voted to consolidate with Los Angeles. In 1908 one of the first storytelling movies, The Count of Monte Cristo, was completed in Hollywood after its filming had begun in Chicago. In 1911 a site on Sunset Boulevard was turned into Hollywood’s first studio, and soon about 20 companies were producing films in the area. In 1913 Cecil B, de

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Mille, Jesse Lasky, and Samuel Goldwyn produced the Squaw Man in a bam one block from present-day Hollywood Boulevard and Vine Street, and more box-office successes soon followed. Hollywood had become the centre of the United States’ motionpicture industry by 1915, as more independent filmmakers relocated there from the East Coast. For more than three decades, from the silent screen through the advent of the talking picture, such men as D. W. Griffith, Goldwyn, Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Louis B. Mayer, Darry F. Zanuck, and Harry Cohn served as overlords of the great film studies 20th Century-Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount, Pictures, Columbia, Warner Brothers, and others. Among the writers who

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

were fascinated with Hollywood in its “golden age” were the novelists F. Scott Fitzgerald, Aldous Huxley, Evelyn Waugh, and Nathanael West. After World War II, film studios began to move outside Hollywood; and location filming around the world emptied many of the famous lots and sound stages or turned them over to television show producers. With the advent of television, Hollywood began to alter its functions. By the early 1960s it had become the source of much of American network television entertainment. Among the features of Hollywood, aside from its working studios, are the Hollywood Bowl (1919; a natural amphitheatre “Symphonies Under the Stars” has taken place since 1922), the

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Pilgrimage Play Amphitheater and Greek Theatre in Griffith Park, Mann’s (formerly Grauman’s) Chinese Theater (with footprints and handprints of many stars in its concrete forecourt), and the California Art Club. Many stars, past and present, live in neighbouring communities such as Beverly Hills and Bel Air, and the Hollywood Cemetery contains the crypts of such perform of the gilded past as Rudolph Valentino, Douglas Fairbanks, and John Gilbert. Hollywood Boulevard, however, once a chic thoroughfare, became rather tawdry in the late 20th century, with the demise of old studio Hollywood.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

3. James Bond James Bond is a fictional British secret agent with the code name 007 (pronounced double 0 seven). He is the central character in numerous movies by Charles Broccoli. These include Goldfinger and Tomorrow Never Comes. In the last 30 years these have all been made into movies. There have been 5 actors who have brought the legend to the screen including Sean Connery and most recently Pierce Brosnan.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

4. Goldfinger

Goldfinger is one of the 21 James Bond films, named
after the villain. Goldfinger is a gold-obsessed master criminal attempting to rob the famous American gold bank Fort Knox.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Main idea of the Text Introduction to the Author and the Article An Image or a Mirage? Notes Phrases and Expressions Exercises

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Main idea of the Text This selection is chosen from Chapter 17 of Winning Images by Robert L. Shook, an American writer and businessman. It depicts, as the title suggests, the identification of varied mirages as opposed to a winning image. The author mentions four factors which influence people’s judgment of human honesty. Namely, eye contact, a firm handshake, a clean-cut appearance, the ability to speak well in public, and the effect produced on the listener by the sound of a name. These elements are thought to be the constituents of a winning image, and are commonly used by most people as criteria of judging integrity and personality. By citing examples respecting each of these elements, the author argues that all

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

these factors are merely “window dressing” and that the criteria involved are sometimes invalid and misleading. In doing so, he encourages the reader to look further into a person than what he or she sees at face-value. Fundamentally he wants the reader to look deeper as the qualities a person shows may not truly represent his or her actual personality.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Introduction to the Author and the Article Robert L. Shook (1938 - ) is an American author and businessman. After he graduated from Ohio State University, he embarked on a business career and became a successful salesman. Later he began to write. His works are all about how to create and project an image which inspires trust and faith, and how to acquire the traits of charisma, charm, grace and style which are necessary to be a winner. Among his best books are How To Be The Complete Professional Salesman, Total Commitment and Winning Images. In Winning Images he

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

presents the components of a winning image, and in clear, stepby-step instructions shows the readers how to select, and then systematically create, a right image for them as well as for their business. This selection is chosen from Chapter 17 of Winning Images, in which he encourages the readers to look further into a person than what one sees at face-value. Fundamentally he wants the readers to look deeper as the qualities a person shows may not truly represent his or her actual personality.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Text An Image or a Mirage? Robert L. Shook

There is a distinct difference between a winning image and a mirage. A mirage is an illusion, and in your quest for a winning image, you must be capable of identifying such mirages.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

One of the common misread images stems from what people think about eye contact. How many times have you heard, “You can tell he’s an honest man because he looks you straight in the eye.” Evidently, many people must believe that a dishonest man feels so ashamed that he’s not telling the truth that he can’t even face them directly. But what about an honest individual who is too shy to look straight at you? Furthermore, a good can artist knows that many people judge integrity by the way one looks at them, so he deliberately includes eye contact in his act. Because you can’t count on eye contact as an infallible test, you should never use it to evaluate another person’s honesty. Nonetheless, since most people do judge others by this criterion, be sure that you always look them squarely in the eye.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Evaluating a man’s honesty by the way he looks at you makes no more sense than judging his integrity by the way your dog or cat reacts to him. Yet how many times have you heard a dog’s master say, “That’s interesting — Thor doesn’t take to strangers very often. He’s a good judge of human nature, and the fact that he’s friendly with you tells me some good things about you.” Once when I was in the home of a m prospect, his cat, Tiger, took such a liking to me that he sat on my shoulder during my entire sales presentation. When I was finished, my prospect’s wife said, “Mr. Shook, Tiger only does that with members of our immediate family. You must be a very honest person for her to be so friendly to you.”

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

The truth of the matter was that I refrained from pushing

the cat off because I was afraid she’d rip my suit or scratch
my eyes out. However, I replied, “Yes, ma’am, Tiger obviously has some kind of instinct that enables her to accurately judge humans. She sure is a good judge of character.” Even though Tiger happened to be right in my case, I personally put very little faith in an animal’s instinctual ability to judge people. I’d say his reactions have more to do with odors and body movement.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Some people judge another person by the way he or she

shakes hands. A good, strong grip represents character, while a
“dead fish” handshake! is a bad sign. 1, too, dislike the flabby handshake with no life to it, but I am careful not m to use it as a basis for judging an individual. Again, it’s too easy for a con artist to put a hearty handshake into his act. Though you should give a firm handshake so you’ll immediately create a good impression, don’t place too much weight on the next fellow’s grip; it doesn’t tell you anything concrete about him.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

There’s certain clean-cut appearance that creates an honest image. For example, a blond, blue-eyed young man with a boyish grin and a look that typifies the boy-next-door, AllAmerican type’ will almost always inspire confidence in mothers. There is no logical reason for placing such blind faith in a man simply because of the way he looks, yet most people do make such quick judgments. Conversely, the seedy man with dark oily skin, greasy black hair, and a moustache is not considered honest-looking. Similarly, a woman may have them looks which are usually associated with those of a streetwalker, whereas a high-priced call girl may look refined and refreshing. Naturally, clothes and — in the case of women — cosmetics,

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

have a great deal to do with such aforementioned appearances, but unfortunately a person’s m natural looks, over which he or she has little control, play an important part in the judgments most people will make. I pity the hard-working, honest salesman who was born with the looks that make people automatically think, “He’s not the kind of man I’d want to buy a used car from!” On the other hand, a very devious individual may look like the type you can trust. How can you be sure that the hitchhiker who looks so clean-cut is any less dangerous than the one who, because of his appearance, looks like a risk? And how can you be sure that this one really is a risk? The point is that we are most often being completely unreasonable in making such snap decisions.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

On a larger scale, voters often react favorably to a politician simply because of his clean-cut appearance. His opponent is often judged negatively because he has not been blessed with natural looks that generate trust. This kind of judgment is erroneous, and the consequences can produce devastating results. Granted, many people vote for a candidate strictly because of political issues, but the clean-cut image can tip the scales in favor of the wrong man in a close election. We make snap judgments about people on the basis of how they express themselves. To revert to politics, many voters

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

judge a candidate’s ability by the way he makes a public speech. But though a candidate may be an effective speaker, he may not be capable of doing the job for which he is running. I know many highly talented men who simply have not developed an ability to speak well in public, but who are excellent in communicating with others on a one-to-one basis. The ability to express yourself strongly is always important, but we are too often wrongly impressed by the man who comes across as eloquent, since it is always possible that this virtue is only “skin-deep.” Yet it is easy to imagine a politician with a clean-cut look and a magnetic speaking voice romping all over his unassuming but better qualified opponent. He wins solely because his image is convincing.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

After many years of interviewing and hiring salesmen, I have reached the conclusion that the man with the glib tongue doesn’t necessarily become the top producer. Though there is a definite advantage in having a “natural” selling personality, more often than not the salesman with good working habits, proper motivation, and commitment is the one who becomes the best in his company. Too often, the sales manager who hires salesmen simply because of their extroverted and flamboyant personalities will have a high turnover.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Another influencing factor is the effect produced on the listener by the sound of a name. At some time or another, we’ve all been guilty of hastily forming an unwarranted opinion when we hear a “winning name” as opposed to a “losing” one. Hollywood recognized this fact long ago when the studios began changing the stars’ real names. One of my favorite movie lines is James Bond’s response to Pussy Galore’, the heroine in the movie Goldfinger. Meeting her for the first time, he can only exclaim, “I must be dreaming!” Had her name been Harriett Finkelstein, the audience would never have been able to appreciate one of the screen’s all-time great names! Yet, no matter how great a name is, using it as a criterion in evaluating character is just as illogical as determining a person’s value by a handshake.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

The beautiful, sexy redhead isn’t always the best bed partner, nor is the big, strong man, whom we usually expect to be the hero, always braver than the small, frail man on the battlefield. Likewise, there is no sound reason for believing that the out-of-town attorney or consultant is any more of an expert than the local man. Just because your dentist has to book you six months in advance does not automatically mean that he does the best root-canal work. Nor will the insurance agent who drives a Mercedes’ necessarily give you better service than the agent who drives a Ford sedan. Having to go through a main switchboard, a receptionist, and a private secretary before you get to speak with your attorney is no

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

indication of his legal abilities. I also hope you don’t withdraw all your savings from Fourth Bank and deposit them with Third Bank just because their new home office building is several stories taller. It is equally unreasonable to assume that a hospital-clean restaurant serves the best food. True, all these factors are nice window dressing, and they shouldn’t be completely ignored, but other more important factors must be considered before you make any final decisions about those with whom you’ll do business.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Many images are only mirages that we have been conditioned to accept as the real thing. So don’t be fooled the next time somebody tells you that Truman Blue is a great guy because of his wonderful smile, the way he looks people straight in the eye when he talks to them, his firm handshake, and his remarkable rapport with pets!

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Notes a “dead-fish” handshake: a cold, limp handshake

the boy-next-door, All-American type: an idealistic figure who represents traditional values, such as dependability, honesty and moral virtue
James Bond: a fictional British secret agent with the code name 007 (pronounced double 0 seven). He is the central character in numerous films by Charles Broccoli. These include Goldfinger and Tomorrow Never Comes. In the last 30 years these have all been made into movies. There have been 6 actors who have brought the legend to the screen including Sean Connery, Pierce Brosnan and most recently Daniel Craig.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Notes Pussy Galore: This name is a double entendre. “Pussy” is a euphemism for the female sexual organ, and “Galore” means “abundant.” Goldfinger: one of the James Bond films, named after the villain. Goldfinger is a gold-obsessed master criminal attempting to rob the famous American gold bank Fort Knox. Harriett Finkelstein: a fictional name of a woman who is bland and sexless a Mercedes: an expensive German car a Ford sedan: an American car

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Notes

Fourth Bank: a bank the author has invented to emphasize his point (same with Third Bank) Truman Blue: a fictional American name which is used to indicate a person who is very patriotic eye contact: In English-speaking countries, it is generally considered to be a polite behavior to look at each other straight in the eye when two people are in conversation. Eye contact has thus become a nonverbal communication strategy in social interactions. Those who fail to employ this technique are usually regarded as impolite or lack of honesty.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Notes eye contact: In English-speaking countries, it is generally considered to be a polite behavior to look at each other straight in the eye when two people are in conversation. Eye contact has thus become a nonverbal communication strategy in social interactions. Those who fail to employ this technique are usually regarded as impolite or lack of honesty.
immediate family: family members that are most closely related to one another, i. e. parents, children, brothers and sisters

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Notes street-walker v. s. call girl: A street-walker ( also known as street-girl) IS a prostitute who looks for customers on the streets while a call girl is one who makes appointments by telephone. Other terms for prostitutes include hooker, whore, harlot, etc. on a one-to-one basis: in a person-to-person conversation a natural selling personality: an innate ability to sell goods a high turnover: a high rate at which workers are hired by a firm to fill the places of those who have left in a particular period of time

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Notes all-time great names: the greatest names ever known a hospital-clean restaurant: a restaurant which is as clean as a hospital; a clean and hygienic restaurant

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Phrases and Expressions in quest for: trying to find; seeking what about: what do you think about (sth.) stem from: arise from; have as its origin or cause take to: start to like count on: rely on with confidence

take a liking to: be fond of
have to do with sb. (sth.): be connected with or related to sb. (sth.) tip the scales: give a slight advantage to sb. or sth.

be blessed with sb. (sth.): be fortunate in having sb. (sth.)

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Phrases and Expressions revert to: talk about again; go back to (a former subject of conversation) come across: make an impression of the specified type more often than not: very frequently as opposed to: in contrast to

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Translation of the Text
形象还是表象?

罗伯特·L·舒克
成功的形象和表象之间有明显的区别。表象是一种虚假的现象, 要想寻求成功的形象,你必须能够识别这类表象。 有一种形象常被误识,其根源在于人们对目光接触的看法。“他 直视你的眼睛,一定是个老实人。”这类话你不知听过多少遍了。显然, 许多人一定认为,不老实的人说假话会感到惭愧,甚至不敢面对别人。 可是,假如一个老实人因为怕羞而不敢直视你呢?再说,骗人的老手知 道,人们通常判断一个人是否诚实,主要看这个人如何打量他们,所以 他会故意把目光接触纳入其行为。既然你不能指望靠目光接触来做出绝 对可靠的判断,那么你最好别用这个办法评价别人是否诚实。不过,既 然大多数人的确都用这个标准判断他人,你一定要经常直视他们的眼睛。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

根据对方是否注视你的眼睛来评判他是否诚实,与根据你的狗或 猫对来客的反映来判断这位客人的人品一样,是毫无道理的。可是,你 不止一次听到狗的主人说:“真有意思! ——索尔是不大喜欢陌生人的。 他判断人品很在行。他对你友好,这让我知道你身上有优点。” 有一 次,我来到一个可能成为我客户的人的家中,他的猫“虎仔”对我如此 欢喜,在我对产品进行推销的整个过程中,它竟然一直趴在我肩上。我 讲完之后,女主人说道:“舒克先生,虎仔对我们自家人才会这样。一 定是因为你为人忠厚,它才对你那么友好。” 其实,当时我没把那只猫推开,是因为担心它会撕破我的衣服或 抓出我的眼珠。但我却回答说:“是呀,夫人,虎仔显然具有某种本能 能对人进行准确的判断。它的确善于判断人品。” 虽然,对于我的情 况来说,虎仔碰巧判断正确,但我个人并不相信动物具有判断人类的本 能。依我看,动物对人所做出的反映更多是与人的体味和身体动作有关。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?
有些人根据他人的握手方式来判断对方。得体而有力度的握手表 现一个人的个性,而“死鱼”般软绵绵的握手方式则不是好迹象。我也 不喜欢握手时那种软弱无力毫无生气的样子,但却谨慎小心,不把它作 为判断人的标准。再说,骗人的老手在与人握手时很容易装出热情有力 的样子。虽说握手时你应该用力,这样就立刻留给对方一个良好的印象, 但下次有人紧握你的手时,你别太当真,因为这并不能告诉你关于他的 具体情况。 某些整洁清秀的外表会塑造诚实的形象。譬如,金发碧眼的年轻 人,面带稚笑、一脸典型的邻家男孩的表情,这种地道的美国人的特征 几乎总能激起别人的信赖。单凭外表盲目相信别人,从逻辑上讲毫无道 理。然而,大多数人的确就这样草率判断别人。相反,皮肤油黑、毛发 油腻、留着小胡须、脏兮兮的男人,不会被认为看上去老实。同样,某 个女人的长相可能让人联想到街头妓女,而开价很高的应召女郎看上去 可能会显得娴静清新。以上所谈的外表问题自然与着装 ——如果是女 性的话——与化妆品有很大的关系。但不幸的是,不为人所控制的、

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

与生俱来的外貌在大多数人的判断中起着重要的作用。我很同情那些勤 奋而又老实的推销员,他们天生的那幅相貌让人不由自主地这样想: “这种人的二手车我可不想买!” 另一方面,一个阴险的人也许看上 去像那种可信之人。仅仅因为外表,你怎能断定一个看上去像个危险分 子的搭车人,比一个整洁清秀的搭车人更危险吗?你怎能肯定这个人就 一定是个危险人物呢?问题在于,我们往往毫无道理地草率做出这样的 决定。 从更大的范围上讲,选民们往往仅因为某个政客的外表整洁清秀 而对他做出有利的反应。其竞争对手经常被否决,则是因为上苍没有赐 给他取信于人的外表。这种判断是错误的,其后果可能是灾难性的。诚 然,许多选民投票选某位候选人完全是出于政治原因,但在势均力敌的 选举中,整洁清秀的形象可能会有利于不该当选之人,从而使他占据上 风。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

我们常常根据一个人的表达能力而做出轻率的判断。再回到政治 话题上来,许多选民仅仅根据候选人公开演讲的方式就对他的能力做出 判断。然而,一个候选人可能非常善于演说,他却未必胜任其所竞选的 职位。我认识许多才能杰出的人物,他们只是尚未培养出在公开场合演 讲的才能,但在与别人一对一的交流中却表现极为出色。充分表达己见 的能力固然重要,但我们对于那些让人感觉善于辞令的人,往往产生错 误的印象,因为很多情况下这种优点仅仅只是“表面现象”而已。不难 想象,一位外表整洁清秀、讲话娓娓动听的政客会轻而易举战胜一位不 张扬却更为合格的对手。他之所以取胜仅仅是因为其形象令人信服。 经过多年面试和聘用销售人员之后,我得出这样的结论: 油嘴滑 舌的人未必是顶级的生财人。“天生”就会做生意的人固然有一定的优 势,但很多时候,具有良好的工作习惯、正当动机和奉献精神的那种推 销员却成了公司里最出色的人。通常,如果销售经理聘用一些性格外向 而又善于炫耀自己的销售人员,就会造成人员变动率的上升。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

姓名的听觉效果对听者产生的效应也是一个重要的因素。有时, 我们听到一个相对于“难听”而言的“动听”名字,就匆忙形成毫无根 据的看法,这实在是惭愧。好莱坞制片厂很久以前就意识到这一点,于 是便更改影星的真实姓名。我最喜欢的一句台词,就是电影《金手指》 中詹姆斯·邦德对女主角Pussy Galore说的话。初次遇见她时,他不 禁惊叹道:“我一定是在做梦吧!” 假如女主角的名字叫做Harriet Finkelstein,观众恐怕将永远欣赏不到银幕上最叫座的那样一个盛名。 然而,不管一个人的名字多么了不起,以此为标准去评价一个人的个性, 和以握手方式评定一个人的价值一样,同样不合逻辑。 漂亮性感的红发女郎未必就是床笫之欢的最佳搭档,高大健壮的 男人也未必如此。然而,我们往往认为这种男人个个都是战场上的英雄, 总比那些瘦小的男人更加勇猛。同样,认为外地律师或顾问比本地的更 专业,理由也欠妥。仅仅因为你看牙医得提前半年预约,未必表明他最 擅长口腔业务。开梅赛德斯车的保险代理人提供给你的服务未必比

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

开福特车的更为周到。在与你的律师通话前,先打总机,再找接待员, 然后找私人秘书,并不能说明这个律师打官司的能力。我还希望你们不 要因为第三银行新建的总部办公大楼比第四银行的高出几层,就把全部 存款从第四银行转入第三银行。认为清洁卫生的餐馆提供美味佳肴也同 样没有道理。确实,所有这些因素都是漂亮的门面装饰,不能完全忽视。 不过,在你最终抉择生意伙伴之前,必须要考虑到比之更为重要的其他 因素。 许多形象只不过是表面现象,我们却习惯上把它们当作真实情况 去接受。下次,有人对你说: 杜鲁门·布鲁是个了不起的家伙,因为 他笑容可掬,与人交谈直视对方眼睛,和人握手很有力度,而且对宠物 极有感情。这时你可别上当受骗噢!

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

... in your quest for a winning image, you must be capable of identifying such mirages. in search of a winning image, you must be able to recognize such false Impressions

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

One of the common misread images stems from what people think about eye contact. One of the common misunderstood images is due to people’s opinion of eye contact; People who use eye contact as a criterion often interpret a person’s image wrongly.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

... a dishonest man feels so ashamed that he’s not telling the truth that he can’t face them directly. ... if a dishonest man does not tell the truth, he will feel ashamed and therefore does not have the courage to face other people directly.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

… so he deliberately includes eye contact in his act. … so he intentionally looks other people straight in the eye.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Evaluating a man’s honesty by the way he looks at you makes no more sense than judging his integrity by the way your dog or cat reacts to him. Judging a man’s honesty by the way he looks at you is as illogical as judging his integrity by the way your dog or cat responds to him; It is unreasonable to judge a person’s integrity on the basis of your pet’s response to him, and it is equally unreasonable to judge his honesty by eye contact.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Even though Tiger happened to be right in my case, I personally put very little faith in an animal’s instinctual ability to judge people. Although the cat’s judgment of my integrity was coincidentally correct, I myself hardly believe that an animal has a natural ability to judge human integrity.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

don’t place too much weight on the next fellow’s grip ... don’t attach great importance to a person’s handshake next time ...

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

he has not been blessed with natural looks that generate trust. ... he is not fortunate enough to be born with the kind of appearance that makes people trust him.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

... the clean-cut image can tip the scales in favor of the wrong man in a close election. ... in an election in which two candidates have almost an equal opportunity to win, the one with a clean-cut appearance may have more voters than the other who might be more competent.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

To revert to politics. Let’s come back to the topic of political election.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

this virtue is only “skin-deep”. this merit or advantage does not have a long-lasting effect

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Just because your dentist has to book you six months in advance doesn’t automatically mean that he does the best root-canal work. The fact that your dentist has to make an appointment with you six months ahead of the actual checkup does not necessarily mean that he is most skilled at dealing with dental diseases.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

in quest for — trying to find; seeking Examples: Every weekend he would go to the city library in quest for books and periodicals on cultural heritage for his research project. The president went on to say that he was going to Europe in quest for a potential investor so as to establish a joint venture.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

stem from — arise from; have as its origin or cause Examples: They all think that the present wave of strikes stems from discontent among the lower-paid workers rather than the poor working conditions. People living in that area still observe the customs which stemmed from circumstances that have long since changed.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

integrity n. — quality of being honest and morally upright Examples: He’s a man of integrity; he won’t break his promise. He was praised by all his colleagues for his fairness and high integrity.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

count on — rely on with confidence Examples: The old couple liked their daughter-in-law very much, for she seemed a strong woman who could be counted on to produce an heir. Susan’s father told her that Sam was an honest man and could be counted on for everything in the future if she married him.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

infallible adj. — never failing; always effective; incapable of making mistakes or doing wrong Examples: As a journalist, Jack Smith has an infallible nose for a story. Although he was experienced, he was not always infallible in everything he did.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

squarely adv. — so as to form a right angle; directly centered

Examples: Her hat was set squarely on her head. They faced each other squarely as if ready for a fist fight.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

make sense — have an understandable meaning

Examples: These words are jumbled up and don’t make any sense at all. The letter was so badly written that I couldn’t make any sense of it.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

take to — start to like

Examples: Jean said that she had taken to the young professor since she attended his lecture the first day at college. He didn’t take to classical music very much until he went to the concert with some of his colleagues a year ago.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

take a liking to — be fond of

Examples: The old man has taken a strong liking to fishing even since his retirement from the company three years ago. Jack said that he had taken a strange liking to the middle-aged woman the moment he saw her on the deck.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

refrain from — keep oneself from

Examples: For better health I suggest you should refrain from drinking and eating too much. Please refrain from smoking during the presentation.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

rip vt. — divide or make a hole in (sth.) by pulling sharply

Examples: I tried not to rip the paper as I unwrapped it. He ripped the letter across and threw the halves into the basket.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

have to do with — be connected with or related to somebody or something Examples: This book has to do with English teaching methodology; you should read it over carefully before you write the lesson plan. All the participants in the discussion knew that what he was talking about had nothing to do with the topic.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

conversely adv. — if turned the other way around; oppositely Examples: You can add the fluid to the powder or, conversely, the powder to the fluid. Malaysia and Indonesia rely on open markets for forest and fishery industry. Conversely, some Asian countries are highly protectionist.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

seedy adj. — shabby-looking; disreputable Examples: We were staying in a seedy hotel close to the red light district. Mrs. Black, a mother of two kids, is a very seedy woman; she does not like everything neat and arranged in an orderly way.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

aforementioned (also aforesaid) adj. — (esp. in legal documents) mentioned or referred to earlier Examples: The aforementioned person was acting suspiciously. The aforementioned Mr. Boylett had been based on a real-life member of the staff at Radley.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

devious adj. — cunning; dishonest Examples: The government was very devious by incorporating the two acts together. He was not a man of good character, and we found that he was as devious as his adversary was ruthless.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

snap adj. — done suddenly without allowing time for careful consideration or preparation Examples: Don’t make any snap decision until you’ve calmed down. The opposition is worried that a snap election will be held before they can get organized.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

be blessed with — be fortunate in having somebody or something Examples: China is blessed with abundant natural resources, which IS one of the advantages to foreign investors. According to the whether forecast, most parts of the coastal areas m the country would be blessed with timely rains in a couple of days.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

erroneous adj. — (of a statement, a belief, etc.) incorrect Examples: We must learn to conquer erroneous ideas through debate and reasoning. Some people have the erroneous notion that one can contract AIDS by giving blood.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

devastating adj. — very destructive Examples: A smouldering cigarette can kindle a devastating bushfire. It is sometimes believed that extramarital affairs do have a devastating effect on marriage.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

granted adv. — (used to admit the truth of a statement before introducing a contrary argument) yes (but) Examples: Granted, it’s a splendid car, but have you seen how much it costs! “We’ve been very successful this year.” “Granted. But can we do it again next year?”

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

tip the scales — give a slight advantage to somebody or something Examples: The injury to their best player tipped the scales in the opposing team’s favor. And that could account for their loss of the game. His work experience in a joint venture tipped the scales in his favor in the job interview and he was finally accepted by the foreign-funded company.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

in favor of — in sympathy with; in support of Examples: Is the government in favor of the death penalty or against it? He refused a job in government in favor of a university appointment.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

revert to — go back to Examples: The conversation kept reverting to the subject of money. He’s stopped taking drugs now, but he may revert to taking them again.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

come across — make an impression of the specified type Examples: He came across to the voters as being honest, sincere and hard-working. When sober he can come across as an extremely pleasant and charming young man.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

eloquent adj. — (of speech or writing) well expressed and effective in persuading people

Examples: I heard him make a very eloquent speech at that dinner party. The defense lawyer made an eloquent plea for his client’s acquittal.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

skin-deep adj. — not deeply felt or lasting Examples: His political commitment is only skin-deep. Ralph crammed for the test and got a good grade, but his knowledge of the lesson is only skin-deep.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

romp vi. — play nosily and roughly with a lot of running and jumping; succeed easily (in a test, etc.)

Examples: They were watching dogs and little children romping happily in the garden. Being a hard-working student, Jack romped through the examination without the least effort.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

unassuming adj. — (of a person) quiet and showing no desire for attention or admiration

Examples: He is so unassuming that some people fail to realize how great a man he really was. You would never guess that he holds an important position in his firm he is so unassuming.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

more often than not — very often; frequently Examples: More often than not, he goes to see his divorced father who lives in an apartment in the neighboring town. More often than not when she is troubled with personal affairs, she will turn to her supervisor for help.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

flamboyant adj. — showy, very confident and extravagant Examples: He wears flamboyant clothes more suited to a rack star than a literary figure. The singer is very popular with the general public, but he is often regarded as being too flamboyant on stage.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

unwarranted adj. — lacking a good reason; unnecessary and unjustified Examples: Any attempt to discuss the issue of human rights was rejected as an unwarranted interference in the country’s internal affairs. He accused the police of using unwarranted brntality.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

rapport n. — sympathetic and harmonious relationship Examples: The success depends on good rapport between the interviewer and the interviewee. The two countries have established a good rapport after years of communication.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

as opposed to — in contrast to Examples: The juvenile offender’s misbehavior should be well treated, as opposed to being punished. I am here on business as opposed to a holiday.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Exercises I. Comprehension questions 1. Why does the author think eye contact unreliable as a criterion in evaluating a person’s honesty? 2. Why doesn’t the author believe that an animal like a dog or a cat is a good judge of a person’s character? 3. The author mentions two ways of shaking hands in the text. Which one does he prefer? Does he use it as a basis for judging a person? 4. Does the author really think that a certain clean-cut appearance can create

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

5. Why is the opponent of a favorable clean-cut politician often judged negatively? 6. What kind of salesmen will a sales manager hire in order to make big profits? 7. Why did the studios in Hollywood change the stars’ real names? 8. How many factors does the author mention in this selection which influence people’s judgment about a person’s honesty? What are they?

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

II. Topics for Discussion

1. The author states that snap judgments about people are often made on the basis of how they express themselves. How far do you agree with him on this point? 2. What qualities do you think are indispensable to an honest person? 3. “Well to judge depends on well to hear.” What do you think of this popular saying? Give examples to support your argument. 4. By what means do you usually judge a person’s honesty? Are they feasible in your practice?

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

III. Vocabulary

A. Replace the italicized parts in the following sentences with words or phrases from the text that best keep the original meanings.
1. ( unassuming ) Despite her wealth and position, Linda still remained modest about herself and lived in the same one-storeyed house as before.

2. ( stemmed from ) People living on the island still observe the customs which arose from circumstances that have long since changed.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

3. (

infallible )

One of the good things about the antique dealer is that you can always rely on his unerring ability to spot a fake. It was impossible to tell whether the young man developed a liking for his he gave the feeble pretty cousin or not. George was an experienced and smart car salesman, and he could recognize an easy potential customer when he saw one.

4. ( had taken to )

5. (

prospect )

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

6. ( flabby

)

When I asked him why he hadn’t come to the meeting, he gave the feeble excuse that he’d forgotten what time it was. Most times when I make the effort to visit Katharine, I wonder why I have even bothered. Disappointingly, he was not a man of good character, and we found that he was as deceitful as his adversary was ruthless.

7. ( More often ) than not

8. ( devious

)

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

9. ( tipped the ) scales in her favor
10. ( rapport

Her rich experience in language teaching gave her a slight advantage and she finally got the long-cherished position.
) After working with Jane for many years, we knew each other very well and established a good relationship.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

B. Find the words from the text that are most nearly opposite in meaning to the words in bold type in the following sentences. 1. ( instinctual ) Your anxiety is learned reaction, and it is nurtured and sustained by the events of your everyday life. ) The accused vicar wrote a letter to the Archbishop, in which he claimed to be his distant relative.

2. ( immediate

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

3. (

deposit

)

The instruction says that you must present your credit card if you want to withdraw any money from the bank. Owing to the financial crisis in some Asian countries, the once robust economy now lies in ruins. Mrs. Baden, a mother of four children, is still very tidy and likes everything to be neat and arranged in an orderly way.

4. (

frail

)

5. (

seedy

)

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

6. ( magnetic )

I have no idea of why the lovely young man made friends with these pale, nerveless and dull people. Studies conducted in recent years have shown that women often become introverted during the period of pregnancy. Since your wife is sick, you’d better cancel the theatre tickets and get your money back.

7. ( extroverted )

8. (

book

)

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

9. ( unwarranted )

I didn’t understand why she took such a view on sexist language, and I couldn’t even call it a justifiable Women’s Lib attitude. ) It would be most ungracious and impolite to refuse a simple invitation to supper with your boss.

10. ( refined

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

C. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each of the following sentences.
1. My husband, because of his own professional ___ , goes to D Cambridge every week. A. judgments C. personalities B. criteria D. commitments

2. While looking for the address book, Mr. Hailey ___ some C of his old love letters in his wife’s drawer. A. came about C. came across B. came up with D. came out with

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

B 3. Mrs. Bush, head of the intelligence department, is ___ talent and boundless energy.

A. capable of C. associated with

B. blessed with D. recognized as

4. The audience are deeply impressed by the leading character A of the feature film that looks ___ at social problems.
A. squarely C. accurately B. obviously D. deliberately

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5. The Prime Minister has decided to take advantage of his popularity in the opinion polls, and called ___ a election A for next month.

A. capable of C. associated with

B. blessed with D. recognized as

6. The audience are deeply impressed by the leading character D of the feature film that looks ___ at social problems.
A. snap C. magnetic B. clean-cut D. convincing

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

7. Mr. Potter was not only quick at turning a phrase, but also C ready with ___ promises. A. concrete C. glib B. individual D. greasy

8. Malaysia and Indonesia rely on open markets for forest and B fishery products. ___ , some Asian countries are highly protectionist. A. Deliberately C. Evidently B. Conversely D. Naturally

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

9. According to legal provisions, the properties will either ___ the original owners or else be sold at auction. B A. commit to C. proceed to B. take to D. revert to

10. Malaysia and Indonesia rely on open markets for forest and D fishery products. ___ , some Asian countries are highly protectionist. A. blind faith C. good impression B. window dressing D. winning image

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

IV. Cloze Fill in the blanks with words from the following list. Use the words in their proper forms. Make sure that no word is used more than once. pay soul how once obtainable consider reward from mind you result one by know consequent what even deserve never judge such familiar concern run which

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Many people think it is difficult to build a winning image because there are no identifiable standards by (1) ______ they can which measure the results of their efforts. The intangible quality of image-building does not permit you to grasp anything concrete on a day-to-day basis, but in the long (2) ____ , tangible results run will definitely be evident. If you are one of those people who is overly (3) _________ concerned about the intangible quality of image-building, let me remind you that many of the products and services you are very 10 with are also intangible. Yet their value is evident. For example,

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

a successful salesman who sells a product (5) such as insurance, ____ education, securities, or mutual funds knows how to create need, (6) even though the prospect can’t actually see or touch (7) what ____ ____ he is buying. (8) ____________ , you must realize that (9) knowing _______ Consequently how to get results is what’s really important. (10) By now you __ should understand enough about winning images to learn how to ___ build (11 ) one. You’ll soon discover that you can accomplish outstanding results if you know what you want and (12) how to ___ get it. (13) once you reach this point, you must establish (14) ____ _________ _______ obtainable goals and then commit (l5) yourself to achieving them.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Perhaps my own experience in building a winning image will help you to relate to the process. Please keep in (16) mind that ____ when my father and I started our business fifteen years ago, we had very limited capital, and we were selling an intangible product. And even though we now have a winning image (l7) _____ coast to coast, we (18) never spent any money on from _____ ____ advertising (I firmly believe “it (19) pays to advertise,” but in our particular case we chose not to). Today, our company, Shook Associates Corporations, is (20) considered one of the finest _________ professional sales organizations in our industry.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

V. Translation

A. Translate the following paragraphs from the text into Chinese.
On a larger scale, voters often react favorably to a politician simply because of his clean-cut appearance. His opponent is often judged negatively because he has not been blessed with natural looks that generate trust. This kind of judgment is erroneous, and the consequences can produce devastating results. Granted, many people vote for a candidate strictly because of political issues, but the clean-cut image can tip the scales in favor of the wrong man in a close election.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

We make snap judgments about people on the basis of how they express themselves. To revert to politics, many voters judge a candidate’s ability by the way he makes a public speech. But though a candidate may be an effective speaker, he may not be capable of doing the job for which he is running. I know many highly talented men who simply have not developed an ability to speak well in public, but who are excellent in communicating with others on a one-to-one basis. The ability to express yourself strongly is always important, but we are too often wrongly impressed by the man who comes across as eloquent, since it is always possible

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

that this virtue is only “skin-deep.” Yet it is easy to imagine a politician with a clean-cut image and a magnetic speaking voice romping all over his unassuming but better qualified opponent. He wins solely because his image is convincing.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

B. Translate the following paragraphs into English.
如果你想给别人留下良好的形象,你首先得树立良好的自我形 象。一个具有失败自我形象的人永远无法在别人面前树立成功者的 形象。这种人也许能够暂时蒙蔽一些人,但他糟糕的自我形象最终 不可能使别人对他产生好感。从古至今,一些伟大的哲人说过: “你自认为是什么样的人就是什么样的人”。如果你想给别人留下 良好的印象,你自己必须先具有这样的形象,这是非常重要的。 无论你是谁,你拥有的任何有价值的东西都取决于你的自我形 象。你的幸福就建立在这一基础之上。人的生命只有一次,为了享 受生活,你必须拥有良好的自我形象。既然我们都可以选择如何想 象自己,我们就应该尽力往积极、良好的方面去想。在努力塑造良 好形象的时候,你必须从自我做起——否则,你致力于塑造的形象 只能建立在沙子一样的基础上。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

任何一个运动员都会告诉你,要想成为冠军,你必须把自己想 成是冠军。对许多人而言,这话听起来含糊其辞,但却蕴含着一个 基本的真理。尽管这可运用于生活的方方面面,但我仍将以体育竞 技为依据阐述我对自我形象的看法,因为体育竞技需要全力以赴, 这样才能如愿以偿。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

A.
从更大的范围上来说,选民们往往仅因为某个政客的外表整洁 清秀而对他做出有利的反应。他的竞争对手则因为没有生就一副令 人信任的外表而常常遭到否定。这种判断是错误的,可能会产生灾 难性的后果。就算许多选民投一位候选人的票完全是出于政治原因, 但本不该当选的人,如果他有整洁清秀的形象,就会增加他在势均 力敌的选举中的优势。 我们常根据一个人的表达能力而做出轻率的判断。再回到政治 这一话题上来,许多选民仅仅根据候选人所做的公众演讲就对他的 能力做出判断。然而一个候选人可能非常善于演说,但并不一定能 胜任他所竞选的职位。我认识许多才能杰出的人物,他们只是没有 培养自己在公众场合下演讲的能力,但在一对一的交流中却表现极 为出色。能充分地表达自己的见解,这种能力固然十分重要,但我

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

们对于那些让人感觉善于辞令的人,往往会产生错误的印象,因为 很多情况下这种优点仅仅是“表面现象”。不难想象,一位外表整 洁清秀、讲话娓娓动听的政治家会轻而易举地战胜一位谦逊但更为 合格的对手。他之所以取胜仅仅是因为他的形象令人可信。

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B.

If you want a winning image with others, your first concern must be a winning self-image. The individual who has a losing self-image will never be able to project a winning image to others. He may be able to fool some people for a while, but his poor self-image will eventually make it impossible for him to relate favorably to others. Throughout the ages, great philosophers have stated, “You are what you think you are.” It is imperative for you to have good image of yourself if you want to create the same impression on others.

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No matter who you are, everything worthwhile will depend on your own self-image. Your happiness will be based on it. You will live only one life, and in order to enjoy it, you must have a winning self-image. Since we can all choose how we want to think ourselves, we should try to have positive, winning thoughts. In your own attempt to build a winning image you must begin with the self — otherwise, the image you strive for will be supported by nothing but a sand foundation.

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Any athlete will tell you that you must know you’re a winner in order to be one. To many, this kind of message will sound like double-talk, but it contains an essential truth. Although you can apply this same message to anything in life, I will use athletics as the basis for illustrating my thoughts about self-images because sports involve physical exertion by which desired results can be achieved.

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Further Reading
Success Breeds Success

Main idea of Further Reading
Idiom Studies Exercises

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Further Reading Success Breeds Success Robert L. Shook

As the saying goes, nothing succeeds like success. People like to deal with a successful person. Why? Because there must be a reason why this person has achieved success, and the most obvious reason is that he is good at what he does. When given a choice, people want to deal with the best. Naturally, the very best way to create a success image is to do outstanding work. Your performance, and the reputation it creates, will inform the public of how good you really are. People will

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know this by your previous track record or simply by recognizing it upon seeing you in action. Just as it becomes quite obvious that a man is a professional tennis player when you see him play on the court, so will it become obvious that you are professional in your field when people see you perform. But many other image-building techniques are applicable in creating a success image, and these are the techniques that will be discussed in this chapter! Here we are not concerned with flamboyant ways to build your image, such as driving a big car, buying a home you can’t afford or belonging to country clubs that are beyond your budget. The winning-image-building techniques that follow are subtle and low-key.

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We can agree, I think, that everybody likes to deal with successful people who are winners. The more successful they are, the more business they will do because success does breed success. A recent experience I had with my dentist is a good illustration of this point. As I was on my way out of his office after getting my semi-annual checkup, his receptionist asked me if I would be available for another examination on June 23. Surprised, I replied, “Why next month? I thought I just received a clean bill of health’ and it wouldn’t be necessary for me to come back for another six months.” She laughed and said, “Mr. Shook, I’m not talking about next month. We’re completely booked up through June of next year.” I quickly

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answered, “In that case, you’d better put me down because if I don’t give you a date now, I’ll probably have to wait even longer!” Learning that my dentist was booked thirteen months in advance impressed me a great deal. His flourishing practice assured me that I must have the best dentist in town. Another experience I had with a dentist several years ago did not give me this same assurance. When I called to make an appointment, he told me he could see me the next morning at nine. Since I wouldn’t be able to make it at that time, he agreed to give me an eleven o’clock appointment, but after I checked my own schedule I saw that I couldn’t make it then, either. Finally, he consented to see me at ten. My immediate

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reaction to our conversation was to think that the poor guy had no patients from nine to twelve on that particular day. I figured that any dentist who was not solidly booked up for the following day must not have a thriving practice. Although I did keep the appointment, I was quite apprehensive about what kind of work he was capable of doing, since he did not seem to be in demand. As you can see, he created a very poor image, and once such a bad one is formed, he has two strikes against him in establishing the necessary confidence his patients must have in him.

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If your business is new, or if it has been in progress for several years but has not yet reached a satisfactory level, I strongly recommend that you closely adhere to the SuccessBreeds-Success Principle. The first lesson you should learn is always to appear busy. Never let your clients know how few appointments you may have; instead, create the impression that you are “solidly booked.” Whenever a prospect was not available to see me at a certain time, I would always say something like “Fred, I’m sorry we can’t meet on Tuesday morning at eight, but I can see you on Friday afternoon at two-fifteen or next Tuesday morning at nine-thirty.” I may not have had one single appointment for the next two months, but when I pulled out

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my appointment book and busily thumbed through it, my prospect got the impression that I had a busy schedule. More than likely, he felt fortunate to be able to see me on those dates I suggested. Occasionally, however, a prospect would say, “Sorry, Bob, I’m booked up on those dates, but I could see you on Thursday at two.” If I didn’t tell him that I couldn’t make it and give him another date, I would say, “Fine. I’m sure I can do some schedule-juggling in order to see you then. Please be sure to mark it down on your own calendar because mine is very tight!” Although I did not say it in these words, my message was quite clear, I am very successful, and therefore I am very busy.

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One of the best examples of the success-breeds-success technique is the professional man who actually does you a big favor by allowing you to be his client or patient. Doctors who have so-called closed practices are telling the public that they have all the patients they can handle, and therefore all others must be put on a waiting list. They are not, however, the only ones who close their practices. I know of many interior decorators who only sometimes give you the honor of paying them for their services if you’re not already a client. I also know a few Wall Street stockbrokers who practically run a financial report on you before they’ll permit you to give them your money to invest. These people are masterful at using the success-breeds-success image.

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Appearing to be busy is especially important for smaller businesses. I am always amused at how such firms will put their customers through a thorough cross-examination before allowing them to speak with the “top-dog.” After you go through a detailed explanation of who you are and why you are calling to the girl who answers the phone, she will transfer your call to her employer’s private secretary. The secretary will ask you the same questions again. By the time you get to speak with whomever you called, you’ve spoken to just about everybody in the office. Yet this technique does create an air of importance. Many people believe that the more receptionists and secretaries they must talk to in order to reach the party

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they’re calling, the more important he must be. Although it’s very acceptable for a really big executive to answer the phone personally, the small businessman who answers the phone himself creates an image of operating a small business. It is usually true that really small businessmen rarely have receptionists or secretaries to protect them. A second winning-image technique of the Success-BreedsSuccess Principle is to have a successful-looking appearance. If your shirt collar is frayed, your shoes not shined, your lapels out of style, or your tie unclean, you are evidently either unsuccessful and can’t afford to dress properly, or you are just a slob! With either of these images, you are definitely a loser.

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The Success-Breeds-Success Principle suggests that you decorate your office walls with symbols that enhance your image. Diplomas, certificates of academic degrees and the like are very effective in telling your prospect just how good you really are. So are any plaques and awards you have received. A friend of mine who is a prominent attorney decorated his office with beautifully framed eight-by-ten photographs of himself and different board members sitting around conference tables. Since he serves on many of his major clients’ boards of directors, people sooner or later either recognize a prominent businessman in one of the pictures or ask what the photographs represent. Such a leading question allows him to give his

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“spiel” about the companies on whose boards he serves (who says lawyers aren’t allowed to advertise! J. His pictures are very impressive, and I can’t help thinking that he must be very proud of such recognition. He must also be very good if he serves as a member of these companies’ boards. The success-breeds-success image is undoubtedly the most significant reason why many people in the arts are able to demand such high prices for their work. The artist, for example, who establishes the reputation of being expensive soon gets more for his work than many unknown artists who have as much or even more talent. Again, the secret is in his ability to build a winning image, not in his talent to paint on canvas. How many times have you seen a piece of modern art that resembles

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the work of a grade-school student but costs three times your annual salary, even though it may have taken the artist only one hour to produce? The most amazing thing about such art is that people actually buy it and then resell it at a high profit. It’s human nature to feel at times that the more you pay for services, the higher the quality of the work you receive. Most people think, “At those prices, I’ve got the best that money can buy.” I can remember a house painter who gave us an estimate less than half the price of the painting contractor who was supposedly the best in town. Instead of jumping for his services, my wife automatically became “gun-shy” and didn’t want to use him. “What kind of work can he do at such low prices?” she

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asked. Although I was going to supply the finest paint, she insisted, “His work will probably last for only a third of the time, so we’ll be better off in the long run if we pay the top price now.” I must admit that there is much to be said in favor of equating quality with the price tag of merchandise. For this reason it’s very important to price your services high enough so that you don’t scare people away. Doctors, attorneys, business consultants, accountants, dentists, or anyone else who must charge a fee for services rendered should very carefully analyze the fee schedule he or she decides to use. As pointed out, you can create a negative image by charging fees that are too low, and doing so will

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damage your practice, for you will do less business. Raising your fees to the price that makes you look expensive suggests that you are also good! Since the Success-Breeds-Success Principle is a means of advertising how good you really are, it also applies to publications concerning your company’s service. An expensive but effective technique of image-building is for a regional company to advertise in a national magazine, but on a regional basis. Most people are not aware of the fact that national publications such as the Wall Street Journal, Business Week, Fortune, Time, and Newsweek have lower rates for advertisements that appear only in magazines distributed in a particular section of the country. The average reader who sees

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such ads concludes, “WOWS, I didn’t realize that Columbus Widget Company is doing such a big job. Since they took a full-page ad in Time magazine, business must really be booming!” For companies doing business on a regional basis, ads of this type can be very worthwhile. When advertising in this manner, however, be certain you don’t pay for reaching a market so large you’re incapable of servicing it. Perhaps a friend of mine summed up the Success-BreedsSuccess Principle best when he confided to me, “You know, Bob, before I was successful, I used to make the same profound statements I make now, but nobody ever listened. As a matter of fact, they even used to laugh at some of my far-out ideas?

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Now they listen to me. And the very same people who used to practically ignore what I had to say are the ones who always agree with me now.” Excelling in your work is essential, but employing the Success-Breeds-Success Principle guarantees that you will obtain the image you seek. People want to deal with other people who are successful because they believe that those who have succeeded must be good at what they do, or they wouldn’t have achieved their present status. In order to be the best, you must show the public what you really are.

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Notes to Further Reading your previous track record: your past performance, achievements, or failure

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Notes to Further Reading in this chapter: It refers to chapter 8 of the book Winning Images by Robert L. Shook.

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Notes to Further Reading closed practice: medical practice limited to certain patients

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Notes to Further Reading the “top-dog”: the most important person in a company

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Notes to Further Reading eight-by-ten photographs: photographs which are eight inches high and ten inches wide

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Notes to Further Reading “gun-shy”: reluctant to take advantage of the apparently beneficial situation

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Notes to Further Reading Wow: ( interjection) used as a sudden remark expressing surprise or admiration

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Notes to Further Reading far-out ideas: uncommon or abstruse ideas

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... nothing succeeds like success. ( saying) success often leads to further successes

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... that are beyond your budget. that are beyond your financial capacity; that you cannot afford

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... I just received a clean bill of health. I just received the dentist’s report which said my teeth were in good condition

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... did not give me this same assurance . . . did not assure me in the same way as my recent experience did

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... he has two strikes against him . . . he is in an very unfavorable condition

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

I can do some schedule-juggling . I can manage to rearrange my schedule

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... because mine is very tight . because my calendar is marked tightly; because I have too many appointments

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... who practically run a financial report on you. who actually asked you to report to them your financial status

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... symbols that enhance your image . symbols that make you appear more impressive and successful

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... there is much to be said in favor of equating quality with the price tag of merchandise . . . there is much truth in the opinion that the quality of a product is equal to its price offered

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Paraphrase of Difficult Sentences

... to advertise in a national magazine, but on a regional basis ... to advertise in a national magazine which is regionally distributed

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Translation of Further Reading
成功孕育成功

罗伯特·L·舒克
常言道,一事成功事事顺。人们喜欢与成功人士打交道。原因何在? 因为成功之人定有其成功的原因,其中最明显的原因是他擅长所做之事。 如果可以选择的话,人们总想与佼佼者打交道。 自然,树立成功者形象的最佳途径是工作出色。你的表现以及由此 给你带来的声誉,会令公众了解你何等优秀。人们根据你以往的业绩或 者仅凭观察你的行动便会了解这一点。某人是否为职业网球选手,只要 看他在球场上打球便很清楚。同样,你对本职工作是否在行,人们看你 做事就会了解。要想树立成功者的形象,还有许多其他的形象树立技巧 都可以供我们借鉴,这就是本章将要讨论的问题。 我们暂且不谈靠炫耀来树立形象的方法,诸如开豪华轿车、购买无 力支付的房屋、超预算入乡村俱乐部等。下面要谈的一些成功形象树立 技巧微妙而又低调。

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人们喜欢与获胜的成功人士打交道,我想大家对此都会赞同。成 功人士越成功,其事业就越发达,因为成功的确能孕育成功。最近我 去看牙医的经历就是一个很好的例证。那天,我做完半年一次的口腔 检查后,正准备离开诊所,接待员问我6月23日是否有空再来做一次 全面检查。我很惊讶地答道:“为什么下个月还要来呢?我刚收到一 份一切正常的检查报告,半年以后再来检查,我看也没有必要吧。” 她却笑着说道:“舒克先生,我指的不是下个月。我们的预约已全部 排满到明年的6月份。” 我马上答道:“这样的话,最好把我登记上, 如果不把日子确定下来,我可能等的时间会更长!” 得知牙医的日 程已提前13个月预先排满,我感触很深。他门诊兴隆使我深信自己遇 到的一定是全市最棒的牙医。

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几年以前另一次看牙医的经历,就没能让我同样深信不疑。我打电 话预约时,他告诉我说次日上午9点可以见我。由于我没法安排那个时 间,他同意约在11点和我见面。我翻看了日程安排表后,发现那个时间 也没法安排。最后,他同意在10点见我。通电话时,我的即刻反映是那 可怜的家伙当天9点到11点之间根本就没有病号。当时我想,如果一个 牙医第二天没有预约满病人,他的生意一定不怎么兴隆。虽然我确实如 约而去,但却担心他究竟能做什么事情,因为他似乎不是患者所需要的 医生。你瞧,他留下了很差的形象。这样糟糕的形象一旦形成,他在建 立病人对他应有的信心方面,就处于不利的地位。 假如你的业务新开张,或者经营多年仍未达到满意的程度,我极力 推荐你严格遵守“成功孕育成功”这个原则。你首先要学会的是“看上 去似乎很忙”。千万别让客户知道你的预约寥寥无几;相反,要留给他 们一个“预约得水泄不通”的印象。

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每当某个客户无法在某个时间与我会面时,我总会说些诸如此类的 话:“很抱歉!弗莱德,我们不能在星期二上午8点见面,不过我可以 在星期五下午两点一刻或下周二上午9点半与你见面。”接下来的两个 月中,我可能连一次预约都没有。然而,当我拿出备忘录翻来翻去时, 客户就会觉得我日程繁忙。能在我提议的那些日子里与我见面,他一定 觉得很幸运。 然而,有时客户也会说:“很抱歉,鲍勃,我的日程已在那几天排 满了。不过,星期四两点我们可以见面。” 假如我不想告诉他说我不 能赴约,但又没法和他另约时间,我会这样说,“好吧,为了和你见面, 我肯定会把日程安排作些调整。请你务必在日历上做个记号,因为我的 日历已记得密密麻麻!”虽然话不见得要这样说,但我的意思很清楚: 我很成功,所以我特别忙。

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成功孕育成功这一技巧有许多典范。拿职业人士来说,他允许你做 他的客户或病号算是对你的恩典。拥有所谓“限额患者”的那些医生总 是告诉公众说,他们能处理的病号名额已满。因此,其他所有病号都必 须等候。然而,并不是只有他们才限制服务对象的名额。我听说过许多 搞室内装潢的人,如果你不是他们的老客户,他们只是偶尔看你的面子, 才让你得到他们的服务并付给他们费用。我还认识几个华尔街股票经纪 人,他们实际上先要了解你的财政情况,才同意你入股投资。这些人很 善于发挥成功孕育成功的形象作用。 让人觉得你很忙,这对于较小的企业来说,尤其重要。这类企业总 是先把客户仔细盘问一番,才允许客户与他们的“顶头上司”交谈,这 种做法让我觉得可笑。你得先向接电话的小姐再三说明自己的身份和来 历之后,她才会把你的电话转给老板的私人秘书。然后,秘书又是同样 一番盘问。等你最终与有关人士通话时,你几乎和公司所有的人都通了 一次话。不过,这种策略的确营造了一种重要的气氛。许多人认为,欲 达终极受话人,则必须先过接线员和秘书的关,关口越多,终极受话人

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的地位一定越重要。虽说真正的大行政官亲自接电话是合情合理的,但 小商人如果亲自接电话就会让人觉得是小本经营。事实上,真正的小商 人很少有接待员或秘书为他们遮拦。 “成功孕育成功原则”还包括另一个成功形象树立的技巧,那就是 要有一幅看上去很成功的外表。假如你的衬衣领口已磨损、你的鞋子没 有擦亮、你的衣服翻领已过时、或是领带不干净,一看便知,要么你一 事无成才穿不起体面衣裳,要么你就是个邋遢鬼。具有任何一种形象, 你肯定都是个败家。 依据“成功孕育成功原则”,我建议你用一些能增强形象的标志, 来装饰办公室的墙壁。毕业文凭、学历证书之类的东西,可以有效地向 客户说明你的真才实学。你获得的各类奖章和奖状可以起到同样的作用。 我有一位朋友是个著名的律师,他把自己和不同的董事会成员围坐桌旁 开会所拍的照片,放大到长宽分别为8 和10英寸,经过一番精美装裱后, 用来装饰自己的事务所。因为他为许多主要委托方的董事会服务,人们 早晚会从这些照片中的某一张中,认出某个商界名流;或者,人们

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早晚会问那些照片有何象征意义。这样一个具有引导性的问题,会使他 “夸夸其谈”自己就职的那些公司的情况(谁说不许律师做广告!)。 他的那些相片令人难忘。我不由得想到,能被别人认出来,他一定引以 为豪。假如他是这些公司董事会的一名成员,一定也很出色。 在美术界,许多人的作品开价很高,其中最主要的原因无疑是成功 孕育成功的形象在起作用。比如因“贵”而驰名的画家,其作品比旗鼓 相当或技高一筹的许多无名之辈更叫卖,其秘诀同样在于他具有树立成 功形象的能力,而并非泼墨作画的本领。某画家也许只需一小时便创作 出一幅现代作品,虽然看似出自学童之笔,价格却是你年薪的三倍。这 样的作品你见得多了吧?最令人叫绝的是,人们竟然把它买下来,然后 再以高价卖掉,从中获取利润。 认为所付劳务费越高,质量就越好,此乃人之常情。大多数人以为: “我以那样的价格买下来非常合算。”记得有位粉刷匠,曾给我们开过 粉刷墙壁的预算费,这个价格不及那位据说是全城最棒的粉刷承包商所

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

收费用的一半。我妻子并没有跃然接受他的服务,而是不由自主地“提 心吊胆”起来。她不想用这个人,于是问我:“收费这么低,他能干什 么呀?”虽然我打算提供最好的涂料,可她还是坚持说:“他干的活可 能只维持三分之一的时日,从长计议,我们还是出最高的价钱为好。” 我承认,认为商品质量等于其明码标价有一定的道理。鉴于此,尽可能 把你的劳务费定高,这一点很重要,这样才不会把人家吓跑。 医生、律师、企业顾问、会计、牙医或者任何必须收取应得劳务费 的人员,应该仔细分析他们所决定采用的收费额度。如前所述,收费过 低会造成负面形象。这种做法会影响业务,因为你的生意会越做越小。 提高价格,让别人觉得你“贵重”,这将表明你“很了不起”! 既然“成功孕育成功原则”是一个宣传你如何优秀的手段,就可以 用它来宣传你公司的有关业务。对于地方企业来说,树立形象有个代价 虽然很大但却行之有效的办法,即面向地方,在国家级杂志上刊登广告。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

大多数人没有意识到,有些国家级出版物,如《华尔街金融报》、 《商业周刊》、《财富》、《时代》、《新闻周刊》等,较之面向国 家某一特定地区发行的杂志,对广告的收费更低。一般读者看到这类 广告时就会下结论说:“哇,我没想到哥伦比亚·威吉特公司在做这 么大的生意。既然他们能在《时代》杂志刊登整版的广告,想必生意 很兴隆!” 对于业务范围只限于地方的企业来说,这种广告非常值得 去做。不过,做这种广告时,你千万不要付出代价去涉足一个大得让 你难以服务的市场。 我的一位朋友在总结“成功孕育成功”原则时,向我吐露的一番 话大概最精辟不过:“知道吗,鲍勃,我在成功之前,我经常讲现在 所说的这些大道理,可就是没人愿意听。实际上,他们经常取笑我的 想法太离奇。如今他们都听我的。以前常对我的话几乎置之不理的那 些人,现在总是赞同我。”

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?
你在工作中出类拔萃固然重要,然而,如果你运用“成功孕育成功” 原则,定会获得预期的形象。人们之所以愿意与成功者打交道,那是因 为他们相信,凡是取得成功的人一定能擅长其所做之事;否则他们不会 取得目前的地位。要想成为佼佼者,你必须要向公众展示你的真才实学。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Main idea of Further Reading This selection, chosen from Chapter 8 of Winning Images, demonstrates techniques of creating a success image. The author believes that success is the prerequisite for more successes. That is, the more successful one is, the more successes he will achieve. Based on this principle and his personal experiences, the author presents a number of techniques which are applicable to the building of a success image. He suggests that the reader should: 1) do outstanding work; 2 ) always appear busy; 3 ) have a successful-looking appearance; 4 ) demand a high price for his service, and 5 ) advertise his business in a national magazine.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

ldiom Studies 1. as free as a bird very free 像鸟一样自由自在的 2. as brave as a lion very brave 像狮子般勇敢的 3. as cunning as a fox very cunnmg 像狐狸一样狡猾的 4. as brown as a berry having skin tanned by the sun 棕色的 5. as blind as a bat unable to see well 有眼无珠的 6. as good as gold very good (小孩)很乖的

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

7. as strong as an ox very strong 很强壮的 8. as fit / fine as a fiddle very fit or in very good physical condition 身体极好的 9. as quick as a flash very quick( ly ) 快如闪电般的 10. as sure as fate very sure 千真万确的 11. as straight as an arrow very straight 笔直的 12. as cold as ice very cold 冰冷的

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

13. as pale as a ghost very pale 面孔像死人一样苍白的 14. as sound / clear as a bell in perfect condition / clear甘and easily heard 十分健全的 /极为清晰的 15. as fat as a pig very fat 肥得像猪的 16. as sour as vinegar very sour 很酸的 17. as smooth / soft as velvet very smooth 如丝绸般光滑/柔软的

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

18. as clean as a whistle very clean, without any dirt, marks etc 十分光滑的,十 分洁净的 19. as obstinate / stubborn as a mule very obstinate / stubborn 固执的 20. as sweet as honey very sweet 很甜蜜的

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Exercises I. Comprehension questions 1. Why do people like to deal with a successful person according to the author? 2. What does the author try to suggest by giving the example of his experience with his dentist? 3. What other techniques are applicable in creating a success image apart from doing outstanding work? 4. Why does the author think that appearing to be busy is especially important for smaller businesses? 5. For what reasons is it important for a businessman to price his service considerably high?

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

II. Topics for Discussion 1. Can you add some other practical ways of building a winning image based on your experience? 2. The author holds that charging lower fees than necessary will create a negative image. How far do you agree with him? 3. The author claims that a successful looking appearance is extremely important. Are you for it or against it? Cite examples to support your argument.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Speaking Skills
Talking About Impressions Oral Practice

More Useful Expressions

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Talking About Impressions We often make a value judgment about strangers within the initial stages of encounters. Invariably people will take into account the persons’ appearance, clothing, manners, as well as personal attitudes such as eye contact and verbal aptitude. We also make judgments about places we’ve visited. Practice the following dialogues with your partners and learn to describe impressions of persons and places.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Oral Practice Talking About Impressions of Persons A: How do you judge a man you meet? B: Well, I suppose it is on the face that for the most part we judge a person we meet. We draw our conclusions from the shape of the jaw, the look in the eyes, and the contour of the mouth, for example. A: But I wonder if we are more often right than wrong, anyway, you see sometimes “Beauty is only skin deep.”

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

B: Yes, I do agree. I often doubt whether people’s first impressions of a person are always right. I knew of a seemingly very nice gentleman. Both in appearance and manner, he suggested a very definite type. He had a quiet, dry humor, and was always neatly and quietly dressed in accordance with his age and position. The chief thing that struck others about him is his kindliness. His voice was gentle; his smile was benign; and there was something very pleasing in his mild black eyes. He was a man who attracted you because you felt in him a real love for his fellows. You would never have imagined him to be a very cruel person. However, he murdered a young girl a few days ago. A: So, never judge a man by his looks or by what he says, but by what he does!

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

A: In your opinion, what are the ingredients of a “success-type” personality? B: Well, I have found that an easy-to-remember picture of the successful personality is contained in the letters of the word “success” itself, that is, the “success-type” personality is composed of: S — Sense of Direction U — Understanding C — Courage C — Charity E— Esteem S — Self-confidence S — Self-acceptance.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Talking About Impressions of Places A: What impresses you most about New York? B: The Big Apple is really magnificent! Its wonders exceed all expectations — the fantastic skyline, marvelous restaurants, hotels, theaters, museums, sightseeing attractions, cultural centers, shops and architecture. And New York is a dynamic, heart-of-the-world city that changes its face almost daily, giving you fresh vistas, fresh viewpoints, fresh enjoyment at every turn, in all five places — I mean, the five boroughs of the city.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

A: What strikes you most about Mount Tai, the best known among the five renowned great mountains in China? B: As a perfect combination of culture and natural landscape, I’m most impressed by the beauty of each season here, bright flowers in full bloom covering the green slopes in spring; spectacular summer thunderstorms which are rarely seen elsewhere; clear rivers running across the mountains which are covered with red maple leaves in autumn; snowcapped mountains and frosted pine trees in winter that present a quiet grandeur spectacle of particular interest.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

A: How do you like the relics and scenic beauty in China? B: Fantastic! China is really one of the most attractive global travel destinations with its famous mountains and great rivers, places of historical interest and scenic beauty, such as the terra-cotta warriors and horses in Xi’an, beautiful mountains and rivers in Guilin, and the Great Wall or the Palace Museum in Beijing, which are only the tip of the iceberg.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

More Useful Expressions * First impressions count! * Never judge a book by its cover! * Persistence and determination alone are the key to success. * The most spectacular cave unparalleled elsewhere in the world. * In heaven there is the paradise, and on earth there are Suzhou and Hangzhou. * The temple has been a famous Buddhist monastery in southern Fujian, and attracted numerous pilgrims and worshippers of different times. * It has a long history dating back to the early period of the Tang Dynasty.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Additional Work
I. Idiom Studies II. Vocabulary Expansion III. Reading Appreciation IV. Translation of Proverbs

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

I. Idiom Studies In English there are many idiomatic comparisons like “as mad as a hatter” or “as poor as a church mouse.” Try to complete the following idioms and look up the dictionary if necessary. 1. as ____ as a bird free 2. as _____ as a lion brave

3. as _______ as a fox cunning
4. as ______ as a berry brown 5. as _____ as a bat blind

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

6. as _____ as gold good
7. as ______ as an ox strong 8. as ________ as a fiddle fit ( fine) 9. as quick as a flash _____ sure 10. as ____ as fate

11. as _______ as an arrow straight
12. as ____ as ice cold pale 13. as ____ as a ghost sound (clear) 14. as ___________ as a bell

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

15. as ___ as a pig fat
16. as ____ as vinegar sour 17. as smooth (soft) as velvet ___________ 18. as _____ as a whistle clean 19. as obstinate (stubborn) as a mule ________________

20. as sweet as honey _____

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

II. Vocabulary Expansion There are four choices marked A, B, C, and D under each of the following sentences. Choose the one that best completes each sentence. 1. The number of people who consult psychiatrists today is not, C as is sometimes felt, a ___ of increasing mental illness. A. revelation

B. syndrome C. symptom D. repugnance

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

2. That snake in not poisonous. It’s a completely ___ little B
garden snake. A. inoffensive B. innocuous

C. ingenious
D. incompatible

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

3. Evidence ___ to the trial must be submitted to the police. D
A. prevalent B. subsequent C. subordinate D. pertinent

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

4. University teaching may be ___ if the government increases C

the number of students without providing additional funding.
A. jeopardized B. patched C. improvised D. generalized

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

C 5. The child’s parents were ___ into accepting the demand of

the kidnappers’.
A. pleaded B. intoxicated C. intimidated D. besieged

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

6. The detectives ___ on the terrorists’ conversations by using B

secrete microphones.
A. overheard B. eavesdropped C. reflected D. mused

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

7. The two sides are so ___ to each other that there is no way A to work out a compromise. A. inimical B. reconcilable C. magnetic D. conducive

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

8. They tried to keep it quiet but eventually everyone learned

about the ___ meeting. A
A. clandestine B. intangible C. sedate D. squalid

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

9. Although Jack had moved away before the baseball season B ended, the most valuable player award was ___ his. A. dubiously B. duly C. excessively D. transiently

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

10. Many citizens appealed to the city government for enacting ___ laws to protect the consumers. C A. lavish B. equivocal C. stringent D. flabby

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

III. Reading Appreciation Read the stories about the origins of the following phrases. Kiss of Death Some years ago, during an election campaign in a large American city, one of the candidates was having a hard time. Just when he needed all the support, a well-known wealthy woman announced her support for him. This made things even worse. His followers described the woman’s act as a “kiss of death.” The reason was that the woman was not respected. It was known to many that her riches had come from very questionable businesses and dealings. Her support for the candidate could do more harm than good. So it was a “kiss of death.”

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Where did this phrase come from? The origin can be found in historical accounts in the Bible. According to a well-known story, Jesus was given away to the enemy by one of his followers, Judas. The act of the giving-away was a kiss. On the surface it appeared to be a show of deep love, but by doing so, Judas helped the enemy, who had been looking for Jesus, recognize him easily. Jesus was later nailed to a wooden cross and put to death. In present day usage, an act of pretended love that is really intended to do harm is often called a “kiss of death” or a “Judas kiss.” Sometimes the love or show of support may be real, not pretended, but if the person doing the act has a bad reputation or is strongly disliked, that act might also be regarded as a “kiss of death.”

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

The example shows how events from early Christian history have found their way into the English language. Among different religious beliefs, the Christian influence has been the strongest on the minds and thinking of English speaking people. It is natural that English speakers and writers often mention well-known characters and events from the Christian tradition.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

Lame Duck The expression “lame duck” can be heard in almost any American town or city, especially where people discuss politics. Most often, they use it to describe a politician who has come to the end of his power — a Congressman, for example, who has a few more weeks in office and will then be out of a job. There are a number of ideas as to where “lame duck” came from, although the picture is clear enough — a duck that has had its wing clipped or its web feet injured can no longer walk or waddle like a healthy one. The term seems to have crept into the American language some time after the Civil War of 1861 1865. One explanation is that it came from the language of

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

hunters who felt that it was foolish to waste powder or time on a dead duck. And a lame duck — even a sitting duck — is close to being a dead duck. Another explanation, however, says that the expression came from England. There it was used to describe a man who lost all his money in stocks, was cleaned out and could not pay his debts. He could do nothing but waddle off like a lame duck. And so the story goes. People showed little mercy for the poor fellow. But in the United States people took the phrase to describe a congressman who failed to get re-elected but still had a little time left in office until his successor was sworn in. In time the expression was used in a broader sense, generally describing

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

any man whose days of power were coming to an end. It has often been used to describe the position of an American president in the last two years or so of his second term. It is a difficult time for him, when Congress is ready to oppose him at every turn. It may refuse to work with him simply because his days in the White House are numbered. His sun is setting. It is not a happy time. It is like old age coming on. And people, like animals, are cruel to lame ducks, ready to drive them out. Their eyes are already toward the new leader, the new man in command.

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

IV. Translation of Proverbs

1. A fair face may hide a foul heart.
俊面藏坏心。(人面兽心。)

2. Beauty and folly are often companions.
美蠢结伴行。

Unit 1 An Image or a Mirage?

3. You may know the fox by its tail. 狐狸的尾巴藏不住。

4. No fine cloth can hide the clown.

漂亮衣服遮不住丑。


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