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阅读填空之信息整合


阅读填空之信息整合
教学目标:突破阅读填空题中改写信息的题目 重点和难点:找准原文信息,运用一定的技巧对信息进行整合,使之符合题目 词数,意义,语法等方面的要求 方法探究 一、用名词所有格形式“’s”代替介词 of 表所属关系。 如下面是从一篇关于 “Agricultural cooperatives”的文章中节选的一 段: Co-ops help to encourage thriftiness(节俭) on the part of members because any accumulated savings can help in improving the stands of living and productivity of the members. Agricultural co-ops have become a significant tool for assisting in the agricultural development of countries. The idea of co-ops has been invaluable in teaching people to help each other in times of crisis while at the same time improving their own livelihood and quality of life. 对应表格: Help to encourage thriftiness on the part of Uses/Functions members Assist in ___________________________ Teach people to spend economic crisis by helping each other 通过分析我们不难发现所填空格信息源于文中“Agricultural co-ops have become a significant tool for assisting in the agricultural development of countries.”但阅读填空受限于字数,所以我们可以利用名词所有格形式“’ s”代替介词 of 表所属关系来进行信息整合将文中信息“the agricultural development of countries”改为“countries’ agricultural development”。 1)the old-growing of the “baby boomers” --- _______________________________________ 2)the longer living of citizens --- _______________________________________

二、词性或词形的转换。 如湖南 2007 年阅读填空第 84 空: To get out of the difficult situation, host families are now making efforts to improve the quality of service. They are trying to making living conditions better, including broadband Internet service, private bathroom, and access to plenty of hot water for long showers. They are also providing students with structured family activities.(湖南 2007 年) 对应表格: 84. Service quality improvement Organizing structured family activities

结合原文和表格,我们发现 84 空信息句为:They are trying to making living conditions better, including broadband Internet service, private bathroom, and access to plenty of hot water for long showers.关键信息 为:making living conditions better。结合表格中平行结构的表达形式,第 84 空的答案可为:bettering living conditions。文中 better 为形容词,而 答案中 better 为动词。 1. For the first time ever, scientists have been able to create a chemical element that can fight cancer cells. Breakthrough _________ of a chemical element against cancer cells

2.School can have a well prepared and maintained website of their own where it can give all the detailed regarding admission criteria, fees, etc. _________________________ a school website well 2.The second advantage of globalization is that because there’ re so wide choices in the market, the competition increases.

Drive producers to improve their goods to survive the ____________ market 三、句子结构的转换 (一)后置定语等转化为前置定语 如 2005 年湖南卷第 81 空, One likely development will be a gradual change in the family unit。将信息句去掉无关紧要的词语,保留最关键,体 现本质的信息词汇 change in the family unit;再将后置定语 in the family unit 改为名词作定语前置,第 81 空答案为 family unit change. 再如: 原文信息:At the end, you can have the key people answer direct questions from parents. 对应表达:Get the key people to answer _________________. 解题思路:关键信息词为 direct questions from parents,考虑到字数将 后置定语 from parents 改为 parents’前置,所得答案为 parents’ direct questions。 (二)短语单词化 在提炼信息,进行整合时,我们可用单个的单词来代替短语在规定字数内 进行表达。如:(仅提供信息句及所设空) 1.We are not in favor of smoking in public places. We’ ________ smoking in public. re 解题思路:对照表格和原文信息,空白处所缺的表达应为 not in favor of, 所以我们可以用 against 来表达。 2) It is time to put an end to racial discrimination. --- It is time to ______ racial discrimination. 3) At no time should we make fun of others. --- We should ______laugh at others. (三)句子短语化

如 2007 年湖南卷第 87 空: 原文信息:One the other hand, students’ expectations have risen. They are becoming more demanding and asking for more than ever from their accommodation, as they come mainly from high socio-economic groups in their own countries. 对应表格: 87._____________ Students’ becoming more demanding 第 87 空在文中对应的信息为 students’ expectations have risen。而通过对 表格的分析,此处应属于综合概括性信息表达,要用名词或名词短语来表达。 所以,此处不仅涉及到上文提到的词性转换,还应将句子短语化。此空答案为 Rise in expectation。 1) The girl who had been caught stealing was set free at last. --- The girl _______________ was finally liberated. 2) While he was reading the book, he heard a loud noise. --- ______________, he heard a loud noise. 3) ?.The recent food abundance is partly because a strange sequence of two successful grain harvests in North America is now being followed by a third.? __________________ In North America Reasons for food abundance 4) Ears that are always red mean that a person may have a temper. Ears that are always cold and pale show a person is nervous. Kinds of ears 1. _________ cold and pale ears Character temperate 2. ____________

5) One likely development will be a gradual change in the family unit. ? The other likely development will be a change in the proportion of the nation's workforce.

--- one likely development will be _________, The other likely development will be __________________. 四 结构替代化 大体说来,我们有以下几种结构透析法: “符号替代法” 有时一些被人们普遍认同的符号可以替代一些单词,如¥,$,㎝,%,?等。如: 1) One dollar and eighty-seven cents was all Della had saved. --- _________was Della’s savings. 使用数字及符号“$1.87”,我们能简洁地表达与原句相同的意思。 2)Jack’s apartment is only one hundred and two square meters. --- Jack only has an apartment of ________. 使用数字及符号“102 ㎡”,我们同样简洁地表达了与原句相同的意思。 “间接替代法” 如 an 18-year-old girl 相当于说“a girl who is 18 years old”。又如: 1. China as well as some other countries won’t threaten any other country, for it never has the intention to invade other countries. --- _____________________like China won’t be threatening. 2.The judge punished those who had driven fast by fining 200 yuan each. --- ____________________ were punished by fining 200 yuan each by the judge. 2.单词转化(Word Transformation) u 单词缩略 Aimed at entering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, many students study very hard. ____________, many students work diligently.

u 单词合成 Since the early 1990s, China has been enjoying a boom in scientific and technological development. --- Since the early 1990s, China has boomed in ____________________.

实战演练 (12‘湖南)《系统集成》71 页

Homework: 《系统集成》专题 6

模拟训练 1,2


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