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高考英语一轮语法专题复习课件-名词性从句


一、名词性从句的定义、种类及引导词 在 句 子 中 起 名 词 作 用 的 句 子 叫 名 词 性 从 句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词性从句可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句 和同位语从句。名词性从句的引导词有: 连接词(5 个):that,if/whether(是否),as though 和 as if 连接代词(9 个):what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever 连接副词(7 个): when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however

1.主语从句:作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。 That she will do well in her exam is certain. 她将考得好是肯定的。 Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 2.宾语从句:作句子宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 He told us that he felt better. Tom wanted to know where the meeting would be held.

3.表语从句:作句子表语的从句叫表语从句。表语从句 位于系动词后。其基本结构为: 主语+系动词(be/seem/remain/look/appear, etc.)+表语从 句。 The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。 This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题所在。 常用的还有 The reason is that? 和 It is because 等结构。 The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

4.同位语从句 作名词同位语的从句叫同位语从句,同位语从句说明其前 面 的 名 词 (如 advice, demand, doubt, fact , hope, idea , information, message, news, order, problem, promise, question, request,suggestion,truth,wish,word 等)的具体内容。同位 语从句通常由 that 引导,不能省略。同位语从句有时可以不紧 跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。 The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。 I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回家。 He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 他从玛莉那里得知运动会推迟了。

二、考点荟萃 1.考点 1 形式主语 it 在含有主语从句的句子中的运用 用 it 作形式主语的结构有:1)It is +名词+从句 It is a fact that? 事实是?? It is an honor that? 非常荣幸?? It is common knowledge that ? ??是常识 It is common sense that? ??是常识 It is a surprise that? 令人惊奇的是?? It is a pity that? 遗憾的是??

2)It is +形容词+从句 It is natural that? 很自然?? It is strange that? 奇怪的是?? It is necessary that? 有必要?? It is important that? 重要的是?? It is obvious that? 很明显?? 3)It+不及物动词+从句 It seems that? 似乎?? It occurred to me that?我突然想起?? It happened that? 碰巧??

4)It +过去分词+从句 It is reported that?据报道?? It is believed that?人们相信?? It is known to all that?众所周知?? It has been decided that?已决定?? It has been proved that?已证实??

2.考点 2 形式宾语 it 在含有宾语从句的句子中的运用 it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语,而真正 的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 用 it 作形式宾语的结构有: 1)动词+it+宾补(形容词、过去分词或名词)+that 从句 I think it important that we should keep calm. He's made it clear that he won't agree to the plan. We find it necessary that we practise English daily. I heard it said that she had gone abroad. She made it a duty that she takes care of her sick mother.

2)介词/动词+it+that 从句的特殊结构(it 作引导词) You may depend on it that they'll support you. I take it that you don't agree with me. You can count on it that he is very smart. I shall see to it that he is taken good care of.

3.考点 3 名词性从句中 what 与 that 的区别 that 引导的名词性从句表事实,that 在从句中不充当句子 成分;what 引导的名词性从句表疑问或肯定,what 在句中充 当主语、宾语或表语。 I want to know what you are going to do tomorrow. What we need is more time. I know that you're better now. 4. 考点 4 名词性从句的语序应用陈述语序: 主语+谓语 He asked how much I paid for a violin.

5.考点 5 宾语从句的时态呼应 当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用 不同时态。当主句动词是过去时(could/would 除外),从句则要 用相应的过去时态;当从句表示的是客观真理、科学原理、自 然现象时,则从句仍用一般现在时态。 I know (that) he will study English next year.(从句用一般将 来时) I know he has studied English since 1998.(从句用现在完成 时) The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America.(从句用 过去完成时) The teacher told us that the earth goes round the sun.(从句用 一般现在时)

6.考点 6 that 不可省略的情况 1) 由连接词 that 引导宾语从句时,that 常被省去,但如果 从句是并列句时,第二个或以后几个分句前的 that 不能省略。 2) 从句作介词 but,except,in 等的宾语时 that 不可省。 3) 在主+谓+it (形式宾语)+宾补+that 从句(真正宾语) 的句型中不能省略。 4) that 引导的同位语从句、表语从句和主语从句。 We must make it clear that we mean what we say. We must never think we are good in everything and that others are good in nothing. I know nothing about him except that he is from the north.

7.考点 7 同位语从句和定语从句的区别 同位语从句对先行词起解释说明的作用,而定语从句对先 行词起修饰限制的作用。当用 that 引导定语从句,that 在从句 中作宾语时可以省略; 当 that 引导同位语从句时, that 一般不 能省略。 I had no idea that you were here.(that 引导同位语从句, 不能 省略) Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece?(that 引导定语从句, give 的直接宾语, 作 可以 省略)

8.考点 8 只用 whether 的情况,不用 if 的情况 1)在动词不定式之前。 I can't decide whether to stay here. 2)在 whether?or not 的固定搭配中。 I want to know whether it's good news or not. 3)在介词后,只能用 whether。 His father is worried about whether he lost his work.

4)同位语从句、表语从句,主语从句位于句首及宾语从句 放在句首表示强调时。 They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy.(同位语从句) Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved.(主语从句 位于句首) The point is whether we should lend him the money.(表语从 句) Whether this is true or not, I really don't know.(宾语从句放 在句首表示强调)

9.考点 9 疑问词+ever 和 no matter+疑问词的区别 1)疑问词+ever(无论??)可以引导名词性从句和让步状 语从句。 Whoever breaks the rule must be punished.(名词性从句,作 主语) Whoever breaks the rule, he must be punished.(让步状语从 句,作状语) =No matter who breaks the rule, he must be punished. 2)no matter+疑问词,只能引导让步状语从句 No matter who breaks the rule, he must be punished.

10.考点 10 宾语从句中的虚拟语气、否定前移 1)在 demand,order,suggest, decide,insist, desire, request, command 等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾 语从句常用“(should)+动词原形”。 I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 2)宾语从句的否定前移。think, believe, imagine, suppose 等 动词引导的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否 定式,即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。 I don't think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 I don't believe he will do so, will he? 我相信他不会这样做,是吗?

11.考点 11 名词性从句中的插入成分 1)用于陈述句的插入语结构。 含 think, suppose, guess, say, imagine, expect, believe 等动词 的插入语,直接将疑问词放在句子中间,不用逗号隔开。 2)用于疑问句的插入语结构。 含 think, suppose, guess, say, imagine, expect, believe 等动词 的疑问句, 后接含疑问词的宾语从句时, 要将疑问词放在句首。

三、名词性从句考点评析 在 2007-2009 三年的广东高考英语试卷语法填空题中, 分别考查了一个名词性从句: 2007:When I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to_______should have the honor of receiving me as a guest in their house.

【答案】who 由 who 引导的名词性从句,who 在句中 作主语,引导 as to 的宾语从句。

2008:One day, he came up with an idea ______ he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches.

【答案】 that 由 that 引导的同位语从句, 解释说明 an idea 的具体内容。
2009:She remembered how difficult______was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father.

【答案】it 作形式主语。

考查的是 remembered 的宾语从句,it 在句中

2008:One day, he came up with an idea ______ he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches.

【答案】that 由 that 引导的同位语从句,解释说明 an idea 的具体内容。
2009:She remembered how difficult______was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father.

【答案】it 考查的是 remembered 的宾语从句,it 在句 中作形式主语。

名词性从句历年来都是高考必考的语法项目之一,同学们 要学会熟练运用定语从句。

一、用适当的词填空。 1 . The companies are working together to create________they hope will be the best means of transport in what the 21st century. 2. She is very dear to us.We have been prepared to do ________ it takes to save her life. whatever that 3. The fact has worried many scientists ________ the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. whoever 4.Could I speak to__________is in charge of International Sales please? 5 . Tomorrow is Tom's birthday.Have you got any idea where ________the party is to be held?

6.Having checked the doors were closed,and________all that the lights were off,the boy opened the door to his bedroom. 7.Lei Feng was always thinking of________ he could help how others. What 8.________ is known to us all is that the 2008 Olympic Games took place in Beijing. 9. is obvious to the students ________ they should get well It that prepared for their future. 10. there any possibility ________ you could pick me up at Is that the airport?

11.________ he passed the examination or not was not our Whether concern. 12.Since you have seen both boxers, ________ do you think who will win? 13 . The little girl who got lost decided to remain ________she was and wait for her mother. where 14.The last time we had great fun was ________ we were when visiting the Water Park. Whichever 15.________team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships.

16.That is just ________ they are mistaken. where 17.—What did your parents think about your decision? what —They always let me do__________I think I should. 18.________makes this shop different is that it offers more What personal services. 19.Mary wrote an article on________the team had failed to why win the game. 20. There are so many kinds of dictionaries in the shop.I can't which decide ________ dictionary I should buy.

二、用名词性从句完成下面句子。 that the house was burnt down 1. news_______________________________(那栋房子 The 被烧毁) last night surprised everyone. 2.____________________________(他是否出过国)doesn't Whether he has been abroad or not make much difference. 3. Whoever comes here ____________________(无论谁来这儿) will be welcome. 4. one can be sure________________________________ No what man will look like (人类看上去将会是什么样) in million years. 5 . It is obvious to the students_____________________________________ (他们应该 that they should get well prepared for 为将来作好充分的准备)their future.

Where we are going to spend the weekend 6._____________________________________ (我们去哪 里过周末) has not been decided yet. 7.That is why I didn't come(我昨天没来的原因) yesterday. ______________ that we (should) protect local environment 8.His suggestion is_________________________________ (我们要保护当地的环境) while developing economy is highly thought of by government. What surprised me most 9._____________________ (让我最吃惊的) was that he wrote some of his best pieces after he became deaf. 10.You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this where I disagree is__________________ (我不同意之处).

三、根据短文意思,在横线上填上适当的词。 I am going to tell you 1.________ happened in my restaurant what today. This afternoon a poorlydressed gentleman came into my who restaurant.Nobody knew 2.________ he was.We were surprised that he finished two orders of food in a very limited time.We wondered 3.________ he was so hungry.We also doubted why 4.________ the man was able to pay the bill.The gentleman asked whether/if 5.________ we should mind waiting for just a few minutes.After whether/if that some time, we were shocked to see 6.________ he took out of a letter and a million pound banknote.

I asked Mr.Clements, the owner of the restaurant, whether/if 7.________ it was genuine.Mr.Clements said it was true because two of this amount had been issued by the Bank of England this year.He thought 8.________ the gentleman showed them couldn't be a what fake. Why 9.________ a gentleman with a million pound note was in rags and ate in our small restaurant was a big puzzle to all the people there.I really couldn't describe 10.________ excited I was how to meet such a millionaire.

四、基础写作。 根据以下信息,用 5 句话写一篇连贯的短文,尽可能运用 名词性从句。 假设你是一位心理辅导老师,你的一位学生因为考试成绩 不好而向你求助。针对他的情况,请你以 Marks Do Not Mean Everything 为题,写一篇短文开导他。

要点: 1.很多家长和老师把分数视为一切,这种情况很常见。 2.分数只是衡量学生某一段时期的学习成果。 3.成绩好坏并不意味着一个学生的优劣。 4.成绩可以通过自身的努力提高。 5.目前你会感觉辛苦,但将来你会感到快乐。 6.要学会调整心态,争取进步。 7.只要自己付出,就没有什么可后悔的。

【答案】 Marks Do Not Mean Everything It is usual that many students' parents and teachers consider marks as everything, but in fact, marks only show whether one gains more or less achievement in a certain period.It does not mean students who get high marks are top or excellent ones.What's more, marks can be truly improved if you work hard at your lessons.However hard you feel at present, you will be happy in the future, and that is why you should adjust your mind to reality and make up your mind to make progress.As a matter of fact, if you put your heart into your study, whatever the result is, there is nothing left for you to regret.


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