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英语:Unit1《Great scientists》Learning about Language & Using Language课件(新人教版必修5)

Section Ⅲ Learning about Language & Using Language


Ⅰ.Read the text and answer these questions. 1.What made Copernicus confused? _____________________________

_____________ 答案:His discover that the earth was not the centre of the solar system.

2.Why could Copernicus not tell anyone about his theory? ___________________________________________ 答 案 : Because the Christian Church would punish him. 3.How did Copernicus prove his theory? ___________________________________________ 答案:He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them.

4.What did Copernicus do in 1543? ___________________________________________ 答 案 : He showed his theory privately to his friends. 5.When did Copernicus publish his theory? ___________________________________________ 答案:He published it in 1543, when he was dying.

Ⅱ.Read the text and then find out the main idea of each paragraph. A.New observations didn’t agree with the old theory about the earth. B.Copernicus’s theory is the basis of modern science about the universe. C.Copernicus was puzzled as he found the earth was not the center of the solar system.

D.Copernicus’s new theory that the sun was the

center could explain all the phenomena.
E.Copernicus improved his theory by collecting

observations and using his mathematical

Paragraph 1________ Paragraph 2________

Paragraph 3________
Paragraph 4________

Paragraph 5________
答案:Paragraph 1~Paragraph 5:CAEDB


词汇精研 1 contribute vt.& vi. 捐献;贡献;捐助

品味经典 ①Many people contributed some money

to/towards the new church.

?1?contribute sth.to ...把??捐赠给??;给??投稿;为??贡献?? ?2?contribute to有助于;促成,导致?=lead to? ?3?contribution n.[C]捐献物;贡献物;捐款;投送的稿件 [U]捐献;贡献 make a contribution/contributions to ?doing? sth. 为??作贡献

②He contributed five million dollars to the Red Cross. 他向红十字会捐赠了五百万美元。 ③He contributed some articles to the newspaper. 他给报社投了几篇稿。 ④I’d like to thank all of you who contributed to building the hospital. 我想感谢你们所有这些为医院建设做出贡献的人。 ⑤His carelessness contributed to the accident. 他的粗心大意是造成这次事故的原因之一。

用devote,不用contribute,即contribute后不可 接one’s life或oneself。


⑥Many people contributed money to the poor boy,which contributed to his returning to school.A writer wrote a story about this and contributed it to a newspaper. 好多人给那个可怜的孩子捐钱,使他可以重返 校园。一位作家写了一篇关于此事的故事并把 它投到了报社。

牛刀小试 (1)(2011年湖州高二检测)Eating too much fat can ________ heart disease and cause high blood pressure. A.contribute to B.link to C.attend to D.devote to 解析:选A。考查动词短语辨析。句意:摄入太 多的脂肪会促使心脏病和高血压的发生。 contribute to有助于,促使;attend to处理;link 和devote都为及物动词,后须接宾语,且与句意 不符。

(2)Many illnesses ________ lack of exercise. A.result from B.lead to C.result in D.contribute to 解析:选A。句意:许多疾病是由缺乏运动引起 的。“前果后因”的结构和意义要选result from。 因为lead to,result in,contribute to都表示“前 因后果”的关系。

2 Apart from the construction mentioned
above,you have also learned the following phrases.


品味经典 ①Apart from math,she is good at English. 除了数学外,她还擅长英语。 ②Apart from a few faults,he is a faithful friend. 除了几个缺点外,他是个值得信赖的朋友。

自我探究 apart from 介词短语,意思为除……之外;此外。 ③Apart from my parents,I have no one to believe in. 除了我父母,我谁也不相信。(not including my parents) ④Apart from the cost,we need to think about how much time the job will take. 除了成本之外,我们还需要考虑这份工作要用多 少时间。(including the cost)

易混辨析 in addition,in addition to,apart from, except,except for,besides
副词短语,意为“加之,又,另外(包括 除去内容在内)”。There was an in earthquake and,in addition,there addition were tidal waves.除了地震之外,还有海 啸。 介词短语,意为“加之,除了??之外 in (包括除去内容在内)”。 He speaks addition French in addition to English.他除了英语 to 之外,也会说法语。

apart from


介词短语,意为“除去,除??以外”。 有双重意义,既可表示besides,也可表 示except或except for。 Apart from the cost,the dress doesn’t suit me.姑且不论 价格,这件衣服也不适合我。 是“除??之外”之意。指从整体中除 去一部分,被除去部分不包括在整体之 内。He likes everyone except me.除了我 以外,每个人他都喜欢。

是“除??之外”之意。被除去部分 与整体不是同一类,而是补充细节以 except 修复整体或使整体所述成立。The film for is good except for music.除音乐之外, 这部片子都好。 是“除??之外(还有)”被除去部分是 包括在整体之内的(=in addition to)。 There are three more visitors besides besides me.除我之外,还有三位访客。No one knows it besides me.(在疑问句、否定 句中=except)除我以外,谁也不知道 这事。(只有我知道)

牛刀小试 (1)(2011年宜春高二检测)________ being too large, the color and the style of the dress suit me well. A.Apart from B.As well as C.Besides D.Instead of 解析:选A。考查同义词或短语的辨析。根据句 意“除了太大,这件衣服的颜色和款式都适合我 ”。应选apart from。as well as也;besides除?? 外还;instead of代替,都不合题意。

用besides,except,apart from,except for填空 (2)Clarissa could think of nothing to say ________ that she was so sorry. (3)________ going swimming occasionally,I don’t get much exercise. (4)I cycle to work,________ when it rains. (5)The bus is empty ________ an old woman in it. 答案:(2)except (3)Apart from/Except (4)except (5)except for

3 Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.


品味经典 ①His argument does not make sense. 他的争论没有意义。 ②This sentence doesn’t make any sense.= This sentence makes no sense. 这个句子完全讲不通。 ③It makes sense to take care of your health. 注意身体健康是明智的。

自我探究 make sense意为有意义;讲得通;有道理。 归纳拓展 (1)make sense是不及物动词短语,可用于it makes sense (for sb.) to do sth.结构中。而make sense of是 及物动词短语。意为:理解,明白。 (2)lose one’s sense昏过去;发疯;失去理智 a sense of humor幽默感 There is no sense in doing sth.做什么没有道理/没有 必要

④Can you make any sense of the article at all?
你究竟能不能理解这篇文章的意思? ⑤There’s no sense in getting angry about it.


牛刀小试 (1)What’s the ________ of having a public open space where you can’t eat,drink or even simply hang out for a while? A.sense B.matter C.case D.opinion 解析:选A。本题所设的语境是:在不吃、不喝、 不动的情况下是什么感觉? sense感觉;matter问 题,麻烦;case情况,问题;opinion意见,看法。 四个选项中只有A项符合语境。

(2)(2011 年 汕 头 高 二 检 测 )What he said ________.He knows nothing about the intelligence economy. A.make some sense B.makes some sense C.make no sense D.doesn’t make any sense 解析:选D。考查make sense的用法。根据后句“ 他对知识经济一无所知”判断他说的话没有意义。 排除A、B。What he said是主语从句,用作单数。 排除C项。

4 His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged

him to publish his ideas,but Copernicus was



①He was cautious when he was riding the bicycle.


cautious adj.意为小心的;谨慎的。


be cautious about/of...对??小心谨慎 be cautious to do sth.做??小心谨慎 caution n.[U]小心;谨慎;警告


表示很注意细节,行为小心以避 免错误。 语气比careful强,指十分小心, 防止出危险或差错,带有迟疑、 提防的心理。

careful cautious

②The boss is cautious about making promises.
老板对承诺持谨慎态度。 ③He was careful to keep out of sight.


牛刀小试 (2011 年 湖 州 高 二 检 测 )I’ve always been very ________ about giving my address and telephone number to strangers. A.worried B.anxious C.careful D.cautious 解析:选D。考查形容词的辨析。根据句意“我 在给陌生人我的地址和电话号码时非常谨慎”可 知应选cautious。worried担心的;anxious焦虑的; careful小心的。

5 The Christian Church rejected his theory, saying it was against God’s idea...


①Jim was rejected by every college he applied to. 吉姆申请的每一所大学都拒绝了他。

自我探究 reject vt.拒绝;不接受;摒弃。

易混辨析 reject,refuse 用于正式场合,如外交或商业条款之 reject 类,另外还有“抛弃、剔除”之意。 后面接名词。 表示“拒绝他人的请求或拒绝自己不 想要的事物”,多用于refuse sth.; refuse refuse to do sth.;refuse sb.sth.的结构 中。

②They refused to bow to force.

③It is hard for me to reject some bad habits. 我很难改掉一些坏习惯

牛刀小试 单项填空 (1)Several hundred people applied for the position, but we had to ________ nearly all of them. A.reject B.give away C.turn out D.leave out 解析:选A。句意:虽然有好几百人申请这个职位, 但我们不得不拒绝几乎所有的人。reject拒绝。

(2)由于视力不好他被拒绝入伍。 He __________ by the army because of his bad eyesight. 答案:was rejected

句型巧析 6 Only if you put the sun there did the

movements of the other planets in the sky make




①Only if you made many mistakes did you know
the importance of following your parents’


自我探究 only位于句首修饰状语时,主句要用部分倒装, 即把主句谓语中的助动词、情态动词或系动词be 放在主语之前。 ②Only in this way can you solve the problem. 只有通过这种方式,我们才能解决这个问题。 ③Only she can do it well.只有她才能把这件事做 好。

易混辨析 if only,only if (1)if only但愿……,要是……就好了。常引导含 虚拟语气的条件句或感叹句。 (2)only if只要……,only if本身不是一个固定词 组。only是副词,用来修饰整个if从句。若用于 句首,后接从句,主句要部分倒装。 ④If only I were younger!要是我年轻点儿就好 了!

牛刀小试 (1)________ you eat the correct foods ________ be able to keep fit and stay healthy. A.Only if;will you B.Only if;you will C.Unless;will you D.Unless;you can 解析:选A。句意为:“只有正确饮食,你才能 保持身体健康。”only if引导的条件状语位于句首 时,主句要采取部分倒装。注意:unless引导状语 从句不用倒装结构。

(2)Only when I left my parents for Italy ________ how much I loved them. A.I realized B.I had realized C.had I realized D.did I realize 解析:选D。考查Only+时间状语置于句首引起 句子的部分倒装。因此排除A、B。又由于realize 在left之后,故不用过去完成时。

译文助读 COPERNICUS’ REVOLUTIONARY THEORY Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused.Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system.Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea.They

believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop,move backward and then go forward in a loop.Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others.This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it.

Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find an answer.He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them.But only his new theory could do that.So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.

In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends.The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary.He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth.He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars.His friends were enthusiastic and

encouraged him to publish his ideas , but
Copernicus was cautious.He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church,so he only

published it as he lay dying in 1543.

Certainly he was right to be careful.The Christian Church rejected his theory,saying it was against God’s idea and people who supported it would be attacked.Yet Copernicus’ theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built.His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity,which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe.Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong.Now people can see that there is a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac Newton , Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.

哥白尼的革命性理论 尼古拉· 哥白尼被吓坏了,他心里非常困惑。虽然 他曾经努力不去理睬那些数字,然而他所有的计 算都得出一个同样的结论:地球不是太阳系的中 心。只有把太阳放在中心位置上,天空中其他行 星的运动才能讲得通。然而他不能告诉任何人他 的理论,因为强大的基督教甚至会因为他提出这 样一个想法而惩罚他。他们相信是上帝创造了世 界,因此地球是很特殊的,它一定是太阳系的中 心。

问题就随之产生了,因为天文学家们曾经注意到 天空中的某些行星好像能停下来,向后运行,然 后再向前做环形运动。其他行星有时好像亮些, 有时好像又暗一些。假若地球是太阳系的中心并 且所有行星都围绕它运行,那么这种现象就非常 奇怪了。 哥白尼对这些问题苦苦思索了很久并竭力要找出 答案。他搜集了对星星的观察数据并利用他所有 的数学知识来解释它们。但只有他的新理论能解 释这一点。因此在1510年至1514年他对此进行研 究,逐步改进他的理论直至他认为完善为止。

1514年他私下让他的朋友们看了他的理论。他对 旧理论做的修改是革命性的。他把一颗固定的恒 星放在太阳系的中心,让行星围绕它运转,只有 月球仍然绕地球运转。他还提出地球在绕太阳运 转的同时也进行着自转,这就解释了行星运动的 变化以及星星的亮度变化。他的朋友们热心地鼓 励他把他的想法公诸于世,但哥白尼非常谨慎。 他不想遭到基督教会的攻击,所以他直到1543年 临终之前才公布了这一观点。

他小心当然是正确的。基督教会拒绝接受他的 理论,声称它违背上帝的旨意,那些支持它的 人要受到攻击。然而哥白尼的理论现在已成为 我们建立宇宙观的基础。他的理论取代了基督 教地心引力的说法,这种说法宣称物体掉到地 上是因为上帝把地球创造为宇宙的中心。哥白 尼表明这显然是错误的。现在人们可以看到他 的理论与艾萨克· 牛顿、阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦、史 蒂芬· 霍金的研究有着直接的联系。

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