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初中英语复习专辑(3)定语从句讲解与练习


初中英语复习专辑 3---定语从句的用法解析
【摘要】定语从句是一种形容词的关系从句。它由关系代词或关系副词引导(1)。初中英语中的定 语从句仅限于限制性定于从句,但对初中生来说,定语从句既是一个重点,也是一个难点。 【关键词】定语从句 先行词 关系代词 关系副词 一、英语中的定语从句与汉语中的定语位置不同。 在复合句中, 修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。 英语中的定语从句始终要放在被修饰的词之 后,而汉语中的定语则放在被修饰词之前。如: The man who / that I saw at the school gate yesterday is my English teacher. 先行词 定语从句 昨天我在校门口看见的那个人是我的英语老师。 二、英语从句中的句型结构比较复杂,有先行词、关系代词或关系副词。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行 词, 引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词或关系副词。 限制性关系分句和它的先行项的所指意义有着不 可分割的联系(2)。关系代词或关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,关系代词或关系 副词在定语从句中要充当一个成分。 关系代词在句中可作主语、 宾语或定语, 关系副词在句中作状语。 如: I am waiting for the boy who /that is wearing a red coat. (主语) 先行词 关系代词 我正在等穿着红色外套的那个男孩。 The dictionary that / which my sister gave me last Sunday is very expensive.(宾语) 先行词 关系代词 我姐姐上周星期天给我的那本字典很贵。 The woman is his mother whose name is Linda Brown. (定语) 先行词 关系代词 那个是他的母亲,名叫琳达·布朗。 That is the house where my father used to live.(状语) 先行词 关系副词 那是我父亲曾经居住过的房子。 三、初中英语中的定语从句关系代词或关系副词的具体用法。 1. who 指人(也可用 that),在定语从句中作主语,也可作宾语。如: Yesterday I helped an old man who / that lost his way. (主语) 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 Mr Wang is the man (who / that / whom )you met in the zoo this morning.(宾语) 王先生就是今天早上你在动物里遇到的那个人。 注意:关系代词 who 指人,作宾语时,可用 whom 代替;作宾语时,关系代词可省略。作其它成分,关 系代词则不能省略。 2. whose 指人,也可指物。在定语从句中作定语。 The boy whose mother is ill is staying at home to look after her today. 其母亲生病的那个男孩今天呆在家里照顾她。 I have a story book whose cover is red. 我有一本封面是红色的故事书。 3. which 指物(也可用 that),在定语从句中作主语,也可作宾语。如: Football is a game which / that is liked by most boys. (主语)

足球是被大多数男孩喜欢的运动。 I don’t believe the news which / that Tom won the game. (宾语) 我不相信汤姆赢得这场比赛的消息。 四、 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时, 可以和介词一起放在先行词与定语从句之间。 如: That is the place in which I lived for five years. =That is the place which / that I lived in for five years. 那就是我住过五年的地方。 Mr Zhang is the man for whom I am looking. =Mr Zhang is the man who / whom / that I am looking for. 张先生就是我正在找的那个人。 五、具体使用关系代词或关系副词需要注意的问题。 1. 先行词是地点时,如果该先行词做了定语从句的主语或宾语时,关系代词用 that 或 which. 如: The school that / which I used to study in is becoming better and better. (the school 作了介词 in 的宾语。) 我过去曾经学习的那所学校变得越来越好了。 先行词是地点时,如果该先行词不作定语从句的主语或宾语时,关系代词用 where. 如: The place where the accident happened isn’t far from our school. 事故发生的那个地方离我们学校不远。 (定语从句中的动词 happened 是不及物动词, 它不跟宾语, 而 the accident 又作了定语从句的主语, 因此该定语从句既不需要主语,也不需要宾语。) 2.只用 that,不用 which 的情况。 (1)前有序数词修饰时。如: This is the tenth gift that I received for my birthday. 这是我收到的第十个生日礼物。 (2)前有形容词最高级修饰时。如: That is the most exciting game that I have ever watched. 那是我曾经看过最令人兴奋的比赛。 (3)先行词是 all, little, few, something, anything, everything 等不定代词时。如: All that he told me is true. 他告诉我的一切是真实的。 (4)先行词被 the only 修饰时。如: The only thing that I can get is a pen. 我唯一能得到的东西就是一支钢笔。 (5)先行词既指人,又指物时。如: We talked about the people and the things that we were interested in. 我们谈论了我们感兴趣的人和事。 3. 只用 which,不用 that 的情况。 (1)定语从句是物时,定语从句由“介词+关系代词 which”引导。如: The thing about which the teacher is talking is very important. 老师正在谈论的那件事非常重要。 (2)先行词本身是 that, those 时,如: What’s that which is flying in the sky? 在天空中飞的那是什么? 总之, 我们作为初中英语教师要把初中英语中的定语从句讲解清楚, 帮助学生理解课文和阅读理解中 的定语从句, 帮助学生用定语从句进行正确的书面表达, 为以后更进一步的学习定语从句打下坚实的 基础。

例题分析
1. The bridge ____ a big ship can go has been built. A. under which B. under that C. in which D. on which

解析:考查定语从句随意性关系引导词。基本常识:定语从句随意性关系引导词由搭 配介词+which/whom 构成,先行词指人用前者,先行词指事/物用后者。定语从句引导 词的判断方法为将先行词想方设法放入从句,使从句成为一个完整且有先行词成分的 陈述句。 此句中,先行词为 the bridge; 从句为 a big ship can go, 二者构成的完整句 为 A big ship can go under the bridge. 因此, 答案为 A 2. The book ____ is torn is mine. A. the cover of which whose cover of B. the cover of that C. which the cover D.

解析:考查定语从句随意性关系引导词以及所属关系引导词。 此句

中先行词为 the book, 从句应为 cover is torn, 二者构成的完整句为 the cover of the book is torn. 因此随意性关系引导词结构为 the cover of which 或所属关系引导词结构 whose cover. 因此,答案为 A 3. He talked about the classmates and the school ____ he had visited. A. who B. that C. which D. about which

解析:考查先行词即指人又指物的定语从句相同意思引导词。定语从句相同意思引导 词基本要点, 无论限定性还是非限定性定语从句的主宾表引导词均为相同意思引导词。 限定性定语从句中, 相同意思引导词有一般引导词 who, whom, which 以及通用引导词 that. 先行词指人,作从句主语用 who, 作从句定语或作从句中介词的宾语均用引导词 whom, 先行词指物, 用引导词 which, 限定性定语从句中,作相同意思的引导词均可 以用 that 替代。此外,限定性定语从句中作宾语的引导词可以省略。非限定性定语从 句中,相同意思引导词只能为一般引导词 who/whom/which, 不能用通用引导词 that.

非限定性定语从句中,前一完整句在从句中作主宾表成分时,也要看作是定语从句相 同意思引导词, 先行词指事物的情况, 用引导词 which.此句中, 先行词为 the classmates and the school, 从句为 he had visited, 二者构成的完整句为 He had visited the classmates and the school. 所以不难发现先行词在限定性定语从句中作 visited 的宾语 使用,先行词既指人又指物。 因此,答案为 B 4. You have seen the girl ____ sister is a Chinese teacher. A. whom B. of whom C. whose D. of which

解析:考查定语从句所属关系引导词。此句先行词为 the girl,定语从句为 sister is a Chinese teacher,二者构成的完整句为 The girl's sister is a Chinese teacher. 先行词的 's 所有格构成的所属关系结构在从句中作定语。因此, 答案只能为 C. 定语从句固定关系引导词相关要点:先行词在定语从句中除作从句主宾表成分以外的 成分,均为相关意思引导词,其中包括固定关系引导词和随意性关系引导词。固定关 系引导词只有 when(时间关系),where(地点关系) ,why(先行词为 the reason,原因关 系)whose(所属关系,包括's 所有格关系和 of 所有格关系,由 whose 修饰的名词成 分前不能用冠词成分,whose 应为名词的前置性定语成分) ;随意性关系引导词为相关 搭配介词+which/whom 构成的引导词结构充当。 5. We should do all ____ is useful to people. A. / B. that C. it D. which

解析:考查限定性定语从句中先行词为不定代词的相同意思引导词。 此句中先行词 all 为不定代词,从句为 is useful to people,从句缺主语, 二者构成的完整句为 All is useful to people.为了便于理解,All =All the things/ everything.所以从句的完整句还可 以写成 Everything is useful to people; 或 All the things are useful to people. 因此,答 案为 B

定语从句专项练习题与答案详解
1. Nearly all the streets are in straight lines, ________ from east to west. Those ________ run from north to south are called avenues. A. running; that B. run; who C. running; who D. run; that

2. This is the case ________ he’s had all his money stolen. A. when B. where C. that D. on which

3. Mr. Smith will pay a visit to Beijing this autumn, ________ we will enjoy the Olympic Games in 2008. A. where B. when C. which D. how

4. The artist will not paint people or animals but he will paint anything ________ . A. that the little girl asks him C. for the little girl to ask him B. the little girl asks him to D. what the little girl asks him

5. —How did you get in touch with the travel agent, Robin? —Oh, that’s easy. I surfed the Internet and then called one ________ the telephone number is provided. A. which B. in which C. of which D. whose

6. October 15 th is my birthday, ________ I will never forget. A. when B. that C. what D. which

7. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ________ he can walk correctly and safely. A. when B. where C. which D. whose

8. There are several research centers in China ________ a certain disease called Bird Flu is being studied. A. which B. where C. when D. what

9. I hope that the little ________ I have been able to do does good to them all. A. which B. what C. that D. when

10. The time is not far away ________ modern communications will become widespread in China’s vast countryside. A. as B. when C. until D. before

11. ________ is known to everybody, Taiwan is a part of China. We must unify it. A. It B. As C. Which D. What

12. I shall never forget the day ________ Shen Zhou V was launched, ________ has a great effect on my life. A. when, which B. that, which C. which, that D. when, that

13. The bread my wife makes is much better than ________ you can buy at a store. A. that which B. one that C. that of which D. this of which

14. There is no such place ________ you dream of in all this world. A. that B. what C. which D. as

15. The humans are destroying nature day by day, ________ of course, will cause severe punishment from it sooner or later. A. who B. when C. on which D. which

16. Is this research center ________ you visited the modern equipment last year? A. where B. that C. the one that D. the one where

17. Some pictures of the river brought the days back to the old ________ they swam in it. A. when B. that C. who D. where

18. The man showed us so heavy a stone ________ no man can lift. A. that B. as C. which D. and


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