实意动词/行为动词(vt./vi) run sing learn say write
连系动词 am is are was were look sound seem get turn 助动词 do does did have has will 情态动词
can may must need dare 不定式 ( to do )
动名词 ( V-ing )
分词 ( V-ing / V-ed )
非谓语动词使用条件 一个句子当中，已经存在一个主句（谓语动词）, 又没有连词的情况下, 还有别的动词出现时。 She got off the bus, leaving her handbag on her seat. She got off the bus, but left her handbag on her seat.
名称 不定 式 动名 词 现在 分词 过去 主语 √ √ 宾 语 √ √ √
宾语 定语 状语 补足 语 √ √ √ √
1.作状语 2.作定语 3.作表语 4.作补语
过 去 分 词
He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. 2. He became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 3. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 4. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. 5. People absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease attacked the body quickly and soon the affected person died. 6. It came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. 7. He told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the water pump so that it could not be used. 8. He found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. 9. He suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. 10. Because they had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the Broad Street pump.
? 定语的定义 ? 什么词汇可以做定语 ? 定语的位置
分析句子，找出定语 1) The little boy needs a red pen. There is something wrong with the radio. 形容词 2) His bicycle needs repairing. Tom’s hair needs cutting. 3) Two boys are playing table tennis. 代词或名词所有格 Thirty students attended the party. 4) The hospital has twelve men nurses. 数词 They are talking about a maths problem. 5) The boy in the classroom is a friend of Mary’s. 名词 The boy in blue is Mike. 介词短语
6) The best boy here is Tom. 副词 The school there is a key middle school in our city. 7) He is sitting in the smoking room. V-ing He gave an inspiring speech yesterday. 8) The boy to write his letter is our monitor. 动词不定式 There is nothing to do today. 9) The pen bought by her is made in China. 过去分词 There are five boys left. 10) The girl you will know is Mary. 从句 There are five boys who will play the game.
1.定义：定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作 用的单词、短语或句子，汉语中常用“……的” 表示。
2.可以用做定语的有:形容词，数词，代词或名词所有 ? 格，名词，副词,介词短语，动词不定式，V-ing, 过去分词，从句。
3.定语通常位于被修饰成分前。若修饰 something, anything, everything, nothing构 成的复合不定代词或不定式、分词短语、从句 作定语时，则定语通常后置。
一、过去分词作定语的含义 eg：a lost animal a used stamp an injured finger a broken coin a lighted candle
一支点燃的蜡烛 结论1、过去分词作定语时：修饰词与被修饰词 完成和被动 之间：一般兼有__________的意义。
结论2：过去分词作定语时，有时只有 被动 __________ 意义。
spoken English written exercises
英语口语 书面练习 落叶 升起来的太阳 一名留学生 一名退休教师 一名逃跑的囚犯
fallen leaves the risen sun a returned student a retired teacher an escaped prisoner
结论3. 少数表示位移或状态改变的不及物动词的 完成 过去分词只有__________的意义
a broken heart a lost dog a risen sun a broken glass
a.单个的过去分词作定语时，位于它所修饰的 名词或代 __________ 词 前面
1. People exposed to cholera
= people who was exposed to cholera
2. the book recommended by Jack = the book which was recommended by Jack 3. the machines produced last year
= the machines which were produced last year
后置 b. 过去分词短语作定语：通常__________ ，其作 定语从句 用相当于__________。
Practice: 把过去分词做定语改为定语从句 1） The question discussed was very important. = The question ________________________ was which had been discussed very important. 注：本句中的过去分词作定语，既表被 动又表完成。
2） The United States is a developed country. = The United Stated is a country which has developed ______________________ .
注：本句中的过去分词作定语，只表示完成。 3） Have you noticed the bridge being built there? = Have you noticed the bridge which is being built ______________________ there? 注：本句中的过去分词作定语，表示被动的 动作正在进行。
There are 220 children studying in the art school.
The experience gained will be of great value to us.
? the changing world ? the changed world ? boiling water ? boiled water ? a developing country ? a developed country
（正在变化的） （变化了的） （正在沸腾的） （已经沸腾过的） (发展中的) （发达的）
a drowning man
a drowned man
a retired worker
退休工人 an escaped prisoner 逃犯
a developing country (发展中的国家)
a developed country （发达的国家）
现在分词作定语,修饰词与被修饰词之 正在进行 主动 间：表示动作__________, _______意义;
过去分词作定语,修饰词与被修饰词之间表示 完成 动作在谓语之前已_______,或具有 被动 ________意义.
1. 过去分词做定语的含义 2. 过去分词做定语的位置 3. 过去分词与现在分词做定语的区别 4. 高考链接
1.Do you know the boy ____(lie) under the big tree? 2. The woman _____(sell) vegetables has gone. 3.The wheat is watered by water _____(bring) from a pond. 4. He is a leader________ (respect) by the people.
Keys: 1. lying 2.selling 3. brought 4. respected
1. Linda worked for the Minnesota
Manufacturing and Mining Company, B ______ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known
解析：答案B。此处考查过去分词作后置 定语，3M与know之间是被动关系，故用过 去分词表示被动。
A 2. The disc, digitally ________ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded 解析：答案A。此处考查过去分词作后置 定语，disc与record之间是被动关系，故 用过去分词表示。
3. Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases D _______ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 解析：答案D。know与words，expressions， phrases构成动宾关系，故用过去分词表示 被动。
B 4. The flowers _______ sweet in the botanical garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt 解析：答案B。此处为现在分词作定语， 修饰flowers。smell为系动词，不能用于 被动语态，相当于which/that smells sweet。
1. 过去分词做表语的含义 2. 过去分词做表语的位置 3. 过去分词与现在分词做表语的区别
The cup is broken. She looked excited. be 动词 过去分词做表语,放在_________或
系动词 状态 _______的后面,说明主语所处的______, 主语 其逻辑主语就是句中的__________.
? 1. 最常见的是： be ? 2. 感官类： feel, smell, sound, look, taste,
? 3. 变化类： turn , become, fall ,get, go, grow,
? 4. 似乎类： appear, seem
? 5. 保持类： remain, , stay, keep, ……………..
The glass is broken. (是过去分词做表语) The glass is broken by the naughty boy. (是动词的被动语态) 结论：过去分词做表语,强调的是主语
所处的______,而动词的被动语态表示的 状态 动作 是一个_______.
ing作表语与-ed作表语有何区别？ 1. The result of the test is disappointing. I feel disappointed with the result of the test
2. The story is very interesting . He is interested in the book. 3. The result is quite surprising ! I am surprised at what he said.
? 归纳：V-ing 形式表示“令人……的”
? 归纳：V-ing 形式表示“令人……的” ?
V-ed 形式表示“某人感到……的 ? 常见的这类词有： ___________________________ __________________________ ________________________.
觉的”,修饰物.过去分词表被动, “人被引起某种感觉的”,修饰 人,人的音容笑貌.(分词形容词)
excited disappointing disappointed worrying worried
delighting delighted encouraging encouraged moving moved
interesting interested frightening frightened satisfying satisfied
1. 丢了钱他困惑不已。 got puzzled He ______________ about losing the money.
2、你为什么总是看上去很疲劳？这些日子睡得 好吗？ look so tired Why do you always _____________ ? Do you sleep well these days?
3.我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我原以为它能 好些。 was disappointed with I _____________________ the film I saw last night, I had expected it to be better.
4. 听 说 那 位 明 星 死 了 ， 人 人 都 很 惊 讶 。 Everybody was shocked ____________to hear the death of the famous film star．
5.要去动物园了，孩子们非常兴奋。 The children are really excited about ______________________ going to the zoo． 6.他的伤口感染了一种新病毒. became/was infected with His wound ______________________ a new virus．
一、Compete the sentences using the right form of the given verb.
bored 1. I had nothing to do. I was __________ (bore) and lonely. amazed 2. Jack looked even more _______ (amaze) than he felt. disappointing 3. The results were very _____________(disappoint). satisfied 4. I was thanked by the _____________ (satisfy) customer. dressed 5. The girl ___________ (dress) in red is my daughter.
organised 6. Last Monday our class went on an ____________ (organise) trip.
1. _____________ (开水) a broke cup 2. ________________ (一个破碎的茶杯) 3. three ____________________ (受伤的士兵) wounded soldiers built by my uncles 4.We lived in the house _________________ (我舅舅们修建的). taken 5. Any medicine ________(服用) without the advice of a doctor can cause trouble. 6. We spent two hours discussing the plan made by her __________________ (她制定的).
7. Most of the people invited to the party ___________________ (被邀请参加宴会的) were famous scientists. easily learned 8. Lessons _____________ (易学的)are soon forgotten. opened 9. The computer center ___________ (开办) last week is popular with the students .
1. Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases ____ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 2. As we joined the big crowd, I got ____ from my friends A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed 3. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ___ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay
4. The Olympic Games, ____ in 776 B. C. , did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing
5. If the building project ______ by the end of this month is delayed, the construction company will be fined. A. to be completed B. being completed C. completed D. is completed 6. The television is a ___ machine. A. newly-invented B. new-invented C. newly-invent D. newly-invention 7. ___ English is different from ____ English in many ways. A. Spoken, written B. Speaking, written C. Spoken, writing D. Speak, write
8. It is believed that if a book is_______, it will surely _______ the reader. A. interested; interest B. interesting; be interested C. interested; be interesting D. interesting; interest 9. Prices of daily goods ___ through a computer can be lower than some store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 10. Mr Smith, ____ of the ___ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring