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2013 考研英语(二)真题 Section I Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. ___1___ a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions have been___2___for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment would soon "revolutionize the very ___3___ of money itself," only to___4___ itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so___5___in coming? Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work___6___the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very___7___to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the___8___form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they___9___receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to___10___. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days___11___ a check is cashed and funds are___12___from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime. ___13___electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment may___14___security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information___15___there. The fact that this is not an ___16___ occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and___17___from someone else's accounts. The___18___of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to___19___security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic___20___that contains a large amount of personal data. There are concerns that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy. 1. [A] However 2. [A] off 3. [A] power [B] Moreover [B] back [B] concept [C] Therefore [C] over [C] history [D] Otherwise [D] around [D] role Use of English

4. [A] reward 5. [A] silent 6. [A] for 7. [A] imaginative 8. [A] similar 9. [A] collect 10. [A] give up 11. [A] before 12. [A] kept 13. [A] Unless 14. [A] hide 15. [A] analyzed 16. [A] unsafe 17. [A] steal 18. [A] consideration 19. [A] cope with 20. [A] chunk

[B] resist [B] sudden [B] against [B] expensive [B] original [B] provide [B] take over [B] after [B] borrowed [B] Until [B] express [B] shared [B] unnatural [B] choose [B] prevention [B] fight against [B] chip

[C] resume [C] slow [C]with [C] sensitive [C] temporary [C] copy [C] bring back [C] since [C] released [C] Because [C] raise [C] stored [C] uncommon [C] benefit [C] manipulation [C] adapt to [C] path

[D] reverse [D] steady [D] on [D] productive [D] dominant [D] print [D] pass down [D] when [D] withdrawn [D] Though [D]ease [D] displayed [D] unclear [D] return [D] justification [D] call for [D] trail

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1 In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.” Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today

is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker. In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job ,could earn an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment. Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared. There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average. In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to poet-high school education. 21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______. [A] the impact of technological advances [B] the alleviation of job pressure [C] the shrinkage of textile mills [D] the decline of middle-class incomes 22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to______ [A] work on cheap software [B] ask for a moderate salary [C] adopt an average lifestyle [D] contribute something unique 23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______ [A] gains of technology have been erased [B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed [C] factories are making much less money than before [D] new jobs and services have been offered 24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is_____ [A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution [B] to ensure more education for people [C] to advance economic globalization [D] to pass more bills in the 21st century

25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text? [A] New Law Takes Effect [B] Technology Goes Cheap [C] Average Is Over [D] Recession Is Bad Text 2 A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage. Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges. Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas .They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them , They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another. With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably. Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system. 26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____. [A] immigrate across the Atlantic [B] leave their home countries for good [C] stay in a foreign temporarily [D]find permanent jobs overseas 27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration system in the US ____. [A] needs new immigrant categories [B] has loosened control over immigrants

[C] should be adopted to meet challenges [D] has been fixed via political means 28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___ [A] financial incentives. [B] a global recognition. [C] opportunities to get regular jobs. [D]the freedom to stay and leave. 29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated __ [A] as faithful partners. [B] with economic favors. [C] with regal tolerance. [D]as mighty rivals. 30 which is the best title of the passage? [A] come and go: big mistake [B] living and thriving : great risk [C] with or without : great risk [D]legal or illegal: big mistake

Text 3 Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses. Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness. But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long. Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners

are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners. John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds. Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend. 31. The time needed in making decisions may____. [A] vary according to the urgency of the situation [B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction [C] depend on the importance of the assessment [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment 32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snap decisions____. [A] can be associative [B] are not unconscious [C] can be dangerous [D] are not impulsive 33. To reverse the negative influences of snap decisions, we should____. [A] trust our first impression [B] do as people usually do [C] think before we act [D] ask for expert advice 34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____. [A] critical assessment [B]‘thin sliced’ study [C] sensible explanation [D] adequate information 35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____. [A] tolerant [B] uncertain [C] optimistic [D] doubtful

Text 4

Europe is not a gender-equality heaven. In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family—friendly until women are part of senior management decisions, and Europe’s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male. Indeed, women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards. The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women-up to 60 percent. This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up. Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate Ladder fairy as they balance work and family? “Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But i like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,” according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions. I understand Reding’s reluctance-and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. Bur, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered. After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position— no matter how much “soft pressure ” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power--as, for example, Sheryl Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule. If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women—whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers—and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society. 36. In the European corporate workplace, generally_____. [A] women take the lead [B] men have the final say [C] corporate governance is overwhelmed [D] senior management is family-friendly 37. The European Union’s intended legislation is ________. [A] a reflection of gender balance [B] a reluctant choice [C] a response to Reding’s call [D] a voluntary action 38. According to Reding, quotas may help women ______.

[A] get top business positions [B] see through the glass ceiling [C] balance work and family [D] anticipate legal results 39. The author’s attitude toward Reding’s appeal is one of _________. [A] skepticism [B] objectiveness [C] indifference [D] approval 40. Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of ______. [A] more social justice [B] massive media attention [C] suitable public policies [D] greater “soft pressure”

Part B Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points) The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has ?60 a week to spend, ?40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning ?130,000 a I year working in corporate communications and eating at London's betft restaurants'" at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. "The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I'd lost. But it's still a day-by-day thing." Now he's living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He's feeling positive, but he'll carry on blogging - not about eating as cheaply as you can - "there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food" - but eating well on a budget. Here's his advice for economical foodies.

[A] Live like a peasant [B] Balance your diet [C] Shopkeepers are your friends [D] Remember to treat yourself [E] Stick to what you need [F] Planning is everything [G] Waste not, want not

41._____________________ Impulsive spending isn't an option, so plan your week's menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it's not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It's also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being-human, you'll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy. 42____________________________________________________________ This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them, there's not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you'll know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is pre-packed in the supermarket chiller. 43_________ You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer - that's not good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you'll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to "go off' will be cooked or juiced. 44___________________________________ Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fish-sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon you'll feel comfortable asking if they've any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, They will let you have for free. 45__________________ You won't be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant - ?1.75 a week for three months gives you ?21 - more than" enough for a three-course lunch at Michelin-starred Arbutus. It's ?16.95 there - or ?12.99 for a large pizza from Domino's: I know which I'd rather eat.

Section III Translation Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points) I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week. I’ve been able to do this since I was four. I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs my mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away reatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what

everyone does- try to put it to one side. I don’t think it’s harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesn’t make my emotions any more acute or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hospital the day before. I also remember that the musical play Hair opened on the Broadway on the same day- they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

Section IV Writing 47. Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale foe kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to 1) inform them about the details and encourage them to participate . 2) Don’t use your own name, use “Li Ming” instead. Don’t write your address.(10 points)

48 write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1)interpret the chart and 2)give your comments You should write about 150 words

2013 考研英语(二)答案 Section I use of English

1.【答案】A(However) 【解析】 空前作者讲到“鉴于电子货币的优势,你也许会认为,我们将快速步入非现金社会,实现完全电子支 付。”而空后说“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”这两句话语义是转折的,因此答案 A。 B. moreover 表递进 C. therefore 表结果 D. Otherwise 表对比 2.【答案】D (around) 【解析】由空格所在句的“but” 得知,句子前后是转折关系。事实上,这样的预测已经 二十年了,但迄今 还没有实现。A. off 停止 B. back 返回 C. over 结束,与后文均不构成转折,故答案选 D. around 出现。 3.【答案】B (concept) 【解析】空格所在的句子意思为例如, 1975 年《商业周刊》预测电子支付手段不久将“彻底改变货币本身 的____”将四个选项带入, 能够彻底改变的对象只能是金钱的概念 (定义) 而 A“力量”,C“历史”,D“角 , 色”,语义都不恰当,并且如果选择 role 的话,应该是复数 roles, 因为是金钱的作用不止一个,故答案 选 B。 4.【答案】D (reverse) 【解析】空格填入的动词跟前面的动词 revolutionize (变革)意思上应该是同义替换的,要选择含有变 革,彻底改变意思的词汇,四个选项中 A. reward 奖励 B. 抵抗 C. resume 重新开始,继续,都不合适, 只有 D 选项 reverse“颠覆”最为贴切,本句译为“电子支付方式不久将改变货币的定义,并将在数年后颠 覆货币本身。” 5.【答案】C (slow) 【解析】根据前面的句意得知,早在 1975 年就预测了无现金社会将到来,而实际上作者讲到“真正的无现 金社会很可能不会马上到来”,因此也得出这种变革是一个缓慢的过程,故答案选择 C。 A. silent 沉寂 的,B. sudden 突然的,D. steady 稳定不变的。 6.【答案】B (against) 【解析】上一段末句提出本段的论点,即人们进入无现金时代的速度缓慢的原因。因此本段应围绕纸币系 统不会消失来阐述。而且由句首的 Although 得知,空格所在句与前一句是转折关系。尽管电子支付手段可 能比纸币支付方式更加高效,然而以下几个方面解释了纸币系统“不会”消失的原因,故答案选 B,work against 妨碍,对?产生消极影响。A. work for 为?而工作 C. work with 与?共事,对?起作用 D. work on 从事?工作,对?起作用,都不合适。 7.【答案】B (expensive) 【解析】本句陈述的原因都是关于上句提到的传统支付方式的优点,即推广电子支付方式不利之处。所以 根据这个基调,得出选项 productive 不对,最后根据空后的内容推理出消极意思的选项 expensive,其他 选项意思放到空格处不合理,imaginative,意思是“虚构的、富于想象力的”;sensitive,意思是“敏 感的、容易受伤的”。故本题正确答案为 B。 8.【答案】D(dominant)

【解析】空格所在句译为...使得电子货币成为____支付方式,将四个选项带入,C, D 是比较恰当的,再 结合本文章的主旨,应该选择“占主导地位的,支配地位”这层意思的 D 选项。A. similar 相似的 B. original 原始的,独创的,都不合适。 9.【答案】B (provide) 【解析】 纸质支票支付能够____收据,这是和电子支付相比的一大优势, collect 收集收据, copy 复 A. C. 印收据,D. print 打印收据都和实际生活不符合。应该是 B. provide 提供收据。 10.【答案】A (give up) 【解析】该动词短语的宾语是前文的 something, 指代上文的 advantage,纸质支票支付能够提供收据这一 优势,肯定是消费者不愿放弃的。和优势相搭配的动词短语不能是 B. take over 接管,也不能是 C. bring back 拿回来,D. pass down 传递、遗传也不符合。A. give up 放弃一种优势,符合语境,为正确答案。 11. 【答案】A (before) 【解析】这里考查的是时间连词的应用。句子意思是“在支票兑换成现金之前要花上好几天”,符合句意 的只有 before,其它三项都不符合。 12. 【答案】D (withdrawn) 【解析】这里考查动词辨义。原文句子意思是“资金是从发卡机构的账户里提取的”,withdraw 有“提款、 取款”的意思,这里是指纸币从银行账户中“被取出”故为正确答案。 13. 【答案】C (Because) 【解析】这里考查的是连词的应用。从原文可以看出空后的两个句子在意思上存在着因果关系,“因为电 子支付是即付的,所以消除了客户的付款”。四个选项中只有 C because 可以表因果,其他三项均不能表 因果。故答案为 C。 14. 【答案】C( raise) 【解析】 这里考查的是动词辨析以及上下文语义衔接。[A] hide “隐藏,隐瞒”,[B] express “表达, 表示”,[C] raise “举起,提高,引发”,[D] ease “减轻,缓和”,四个选项中能和 concerns 构成 搭配的只有 raise,故正确答案为[C]。 15.【答案】C.(stored) 【解析】这句讲了 an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information__________ there. “一些黑客入侵电脑数据库并且更改_____信息”根据空前信息可知是入 侵电脑数据库,所以 information 是被储存在电脑数据库中的信息。 16.【答案】C.(uncommon) 【解析】此题考查一致性。空格所在句“The fact that this is not an__16_occurrence means that?” 中 this 指代上文中 that 从句的内容,即黑客能够获取电脑数据库和更改储存 的信息。因此 not an_16_occurrence 应该能体现这一行为的特征,而上文提到“We often hear media reports that?”, 其中的 often 正是对这一行为的特征解释,即 not an__occurrence 等于 often 的含义,对比选项,只有 C 选项 uncommon 符合,带入后意为“经常发生的事情”。 17.【答案】A (steal) 【解析】本题缺少谓语动词,通过语法结构可以看出,主语是 dishonest persons,并通过后面的其他人 的帐户,可以推定为答案是负向的,只有 A steal 符合题意,语义上也说得通,故为正确答案。

18.【答案】B.(prevention) 【解析】文章最后一段首句谈论电子付费方式的又一个缺陷:会引起安全和隐私问题。接下来就开始解释 这个现象。空格所在句提到“对这种欺诈的_18__绝非易事,而且一个新的电脑科学领域正在形成来_19__ 安全问题。”因此,本句在谈论对问题的解决应对。18 空格与 19 空格所填内容语意上应该是一致的。浏 览选项, 空只能选 prevention, 18 即防止这种欺诈行为发生并非易事, C 选项 manipulation 是“操纵” 而 的意思,D 选项 justification 意为“解释,证明??合理”,均不合理。 19.【答案】A.(cope with) 【解析】此空格解释同 18 空格,应选有“处理,解决”意思的选项,只有 A 选项 cope with 合适。B 选项 fight against 意为“对抗,抵制”,而宾语是 security issues,因此不符合。 20.【答案】D.(trail) 【解析】此空所在句提出了使用电子付费方式的又一个担心,即会留下__20_,空格后的定语从句解释了空 格内容,即它包含大量个人数据。浏览选项,只有 trail 符合,意为“痕迹”。B 碎片从语义上均说不通, C 路径有一定的干扰性,但相比较 D 而言,痕迹更为合适,故为正确答案

Section II Part A

Reading comprehension:

21.【答案】A the impact of technological advances 【解析】 细节理解题。 第一段第二行指出笑话是关于纺织厂自动化程度的, 后一句具体说明了笑话的内容: 工厂平均每天只有两个人,一人一狗。人的工作是喂狗,狗的工作是看机器,暗示了工厂所有的生产工作 都是由机器自动完成的。故这个笑话是用来说明技术进步的影响。 22.【答案】D contribute something unique 【解析】 事实细节题,通过题干“根据第 3 段,要想成为一个成功的雇员,一个人得??”, 我们可以定 位到文章第三段 Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.意为:因此,人人都需要有另外的 价值,异于常人的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。 ,我们可以得出,题干中“to be a successful employee”与第三段的最后一句话中的“that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment” 是 同 义 替 换 , “everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution”与 D 选项中的“contribute something unique”是同义替换,所以 D 选项正确。 23. 【答案】B job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed 【解析】细节理解题。根据题干定位到第四段,第一句 technology has been eating jobs(技术使工作机 会减少)也反映了该段的主旨。而根据题干 quotation 一词,我们读到引号里有“shed workers (解雇工 人)”、“roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared 可推断出 B 选项。 24. 【答案】B to ensure more education for people 【解析】细节理解题。根据题干 reduce unemployment 减少失业,可以定位到文章中最后一段,这段出现 了 与 之 类 似 的 表 达 “support employment” 促 进 就 业 ,而 题 干 表 述 “the most important” 与 文 章 “nothing would be more important than”相对应,指出促进就业最重要的是颁布类似于“G.I.Bill” 的法案来保障人们接受高等教育的权利,选项 C 与之吻合,故正确。A 项加速信息技术产业变革,C 项促进

经济全球化,均未提及,故排除。D 项是干扰项,虽提及要颁布更多法案,但颁布法案的目的实际是为了 保障教育,故也排除。 25.【答案】C Average Is Over 【解析】主旨大意题,主要考查考生根据文章内容凝练主旨大意的能力。从整个文章的脉络来看,第一段 以亚当?大卫森一篇论文中关于现代工厂自动化与仅需要一人一狗两个员工的一则笑话, 揭示了科技进步给 人们带来的影响。第二、三段是科技的进步引起工厂自动化水平提高,普通员工如果没有竞争力和突出优 势,就很容易失去工作,因此也对员工提出了更高的要求(extra-unique value contribution)。第四段就 是员工只有不断地提高自己的教育水平, 才能让自己脱颖而出。 最后一段点明主题, average is officially over。由此可见,全文一直在围绕这一宏观主线展开,这一主线也统领全文,所以正确答案为 C。 26.【答案】C stay in a foreign temporarily 【解析】词义猜测题。根据题干,首先定位到首段 birds of passage 是前面一句中的 1/4 的意大利移民的 昵称,他们只在美国居住了一段时间,但最终还是返回意大利。A 项的内容在首段首句有提及,但是它突 出强调的是横跨大西洋的移民,这也是一世纪前的情况,而如今 birds of passage 可能来自世界各个角落, 并非局限于大西洋两岸。B 项与段意不符,D 项文中未提及。 27.【答案】C should be adopted to meet challenges 【解析】推理判断题。根据题干可定位到第二段。解题关键可定位到“?, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond stick definitions of legal and illegal.?We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.” 意为“我们需要改变的是关于分类的思考 方式,突破合法和非法的严格限制。首先承认短暂移民者的存在,然后解决移民问题面临的挑战。 C 项 ” 高度总结了以上几点。A 项与原文意思不符。B、D 项在文中未提及。 28.【答案】D the freedom to stay and leave 【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,可定位到第三段。解题关键在于对“They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them .They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.” 的理解。意为“他们跟着机会走,来去自如。他们可以在一个地方立业,在另一个地方成家”。强调的是 工作机会,而不在乎工作地点。D 项是句意的高度概括。A 项是对原文的片面理解,吸引短暂移民者的不仅 仅是来自金钱的激励(financial incentives),还有工作机会和工作理念。B 项在文中未提及。C 项中的 regular jobs(一般工作)在文中未提及,是对文意的曲解。 29.【答案】C with legal tolerance 【解析】推理判断题。根据题干可定位到第五段。题干问到“根据作者的意思,我们(美国)应该怎样对待 这些短暂移民者?”在本段中,作者写道我们应该“Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding?意思是“我们应该超越移民合法性方 面的文化之争,重现看待中间地段,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径,从而取得多样化的结 果,来解决现今移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题”,暗含了 C 项中的 tolerance 也就是对 multiple paths and multiple outcomes 的改写。A、B 和 D 项在文中未提及。 30.【答案】D legal or illegal: big mistake 【解析】主旨大意题。文章第二段中提出“我们把新移民分成两类:合法移民和不合法移民”,同时作者 认为“我们不需要局限于合法与不合法这样严格的定义”,这说明了从合法和不合法角度对于移民的分类 是错误的。另外,文章最后一段最后一句“包括在现行的移民体系中不容易合法的实现的一些事情”也反 映了文章的中心。即,从合法和不合法角度对于移民的分类是错误的。A 项谈到短暂移民者的移动是个错 误,偏离了文章主旨。B 和 C 项说的是 risk,文中并未提及。 31.【答案】 D predetermine the accuracy of our judgment 【解析】细节理解题。 文章第一段提到“如果我们在做出反应之前花点儿时间来思考,那么将会减少甚至 消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响”,也就是说我们做决定所花的时间决定了我们判断的准确性。文章

第二段第二句话也隐含本题正确答案线索。第二句以 But 这一转折连词引导,应该重点关注其后表达的信 息,“但是,我们需要更多的时间来评估其他要素。”而本段的第三、四句则明显地揭示出本题正确答案, 尤其是第三个句子中的“accurately” 一词。选项 D 中的表达“可预先决定判断的准确性”,此外,此选 项中的“accuracy” 为“accurately ”的同词异形,故此项为正确答案。选项 A 和 B 属于无中生有,选 项 C “取决于评估的重要性”与原文不符合。 32.【答案】A can be associative 【解析】细节理解题。由题干的 fast-food logo 我们可以定位到第三段。第二段说处理人际关系问题时人 们会仓促决定,第三段开头部分说到“让人做出仓促决定的刺激因素不仅限于人际关系范围内。紧接着说 人们对快餐商标的反应速度比一般阅读速度快。下一句则阐述了原因:因为人们无意识地(unconsciously) 将“快餐”与“速度”和“心急”联系在一起,并将这些冲动付诸行动” 项“决定是有联系性的”正确, 。A 因为人们将“快餐”与“速度”,“心急”联系在了一起。B 项“决定是无意识的”与原文意思相反。C 项 “决定是危险的” ,原文未提及。D 项“决定是不冲动”与原文意思相悖。 33.【答案】C think before we act 【解析】细节理解题。根据题干定位到第四段。第四段通过两个例子说明我们应该怎样克服负面影响,第 一个例子表示“如果我们会对消费产品或者房产选择做出“过度反应”,我们可以在购买之前先思考一会 儿”,由此可说明我们应该在行动之前先思考来消除负面影响,因此选择答案 C。 34.【答案】D adequate information 【解析】 细节理解题。 根据题干 John Gottman 定位到全文倒数第二段: John Gottman, the marriage expert, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly” thin slice” ?“婚姻专家约翰.古德曼解释说, 我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是建立在这样的快速反应的行为是以长期的研究为基础而做出的快速反应行 为” 。其中 ground 是题干中 base on 的同义替换,long-term study“长期的研究”与 D 选项 adequate information 相互呼应。 35.【答案】C optimistic 【解析】作者态度题。末段最后两句:Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature?“尽管技术可能改变我们反应的方式,但是它并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有 能力去克服诱惑并扭转这种高速度的趋势”可知,作者的态度是非常确定的,因此 B 选项 uncertain(不确 定 ) 首 先 排 除 ;We still have the imaginative capacity? 表 明 作 者 对 于 我 们 的 能 力 是 有 信 心 的 。 optimistic 最为恰当。 36.【答案】B men have the final say 【解析】细节理解题。根据题干 corporate workplace 定位到首段,本段中谈到,说欧洲性别不平等,in particular 进一步指出 corporate workplace,说明工作中性别尤其不平等。紧接着说欧洲公司高管职位 remain overwhelmingly male,说明以男性为主导。Indeed 进一步解释,指出女性在欧洲公司董事会只占 有 14%的席位。 所以, 选项是基于首段信息给出的推论。 项 women take the lead 和 D 项 senior management B A is family-friendly 都与原文相反;C 选项是对文章 overwhelm 这个词出的干扰项。 37.【答案】A a reflection of gender balance 【解析】细节理解题。根据题干定位到第二段首句,intended legislation 是对 is now considering legislation 的同义改写。该句意为“欧洲国家现在考虑立法来迫使公司董事让妇女的比例达到 60%”,因 此立法是为了保持性别的平衡。B 选项的 reluctant 是对 Reding’s reluctance 出的干扰项,并不是说 European Union 的立法。 选项 a response to Reding’s call 不正确, C Reding 号召的是 voluntary action, D 也是干扰项,而真正的立法缘由是对 gender balance 的反思。 38.【答案】A get top business positions 【解析】细节理解题。定位至第 4 段,Reding 说自己不喜欢 quotas,后面出现了 but,他真正的观点在 but 之后,他说他喜欢 quotas 所做的事情,即 get action,后面的冒号是对 get action 的解释。核心的答案

在 a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions。a result 是前面内容的同位语,进一步补充说明,所以选 A。B 项 see through the glass ceiling 是对原文 break through the glass ceiling 的望文生义,属于肤浅选项,也和原文 意思不符。C 和 D 选项属于无中生有。 39.【答案】D approval 【解析】作者态度题。本题问的是作者对 Reding 的呼吁的态度。Reding 的 appeal 最早出现在第 2 段,即 呼吁在董事会中有 40%的女性,以实现性别均衡。而第四段再一次提到 Reding 的观点即“他自己也不喜欢 quotas,但是 quotas 本身确实起到了作用”;接着作者在第五段给出了自己的观点,先是说可以理解 Reding,自己本身也不喜欢 quotas,但是“既然现在 meritocratic ideal(精英管理的理想)有障碍,确实 需要一种强制的手段,即强制设定男女比例。”所以可以看出作者是持“赞成”的态度。 40.【答案】C suitable public policies 【解析】细节理解题。题干中的 women entering top management become headlines 是对 when women do break through to the summit of the corporate power 的同义改写, become headlines 是对后面 for example 所举的 Sheryl Sandberg 的事例的概括。答案出现在第 7 段“If appropriate pubic choices were in place to help all women, ...Sandberg would be no more newsworthy...”,这个句子是 if 虚拟条件句,是 对未来的一种美好展望,也是提出观点的一种方式,意为“如果有合理的公共政策来帮助所有的女性, Sandberg 也就没有报道价值了”。

Part B


41.【答案】F Planning is everything 【 解 析 】 段 落 首 句 谈 到 “Impulsive spending isn’t an option, so plan your work’s menu in advance...”,其表达的含义是:冲动消费不是一个好的选择,所以提前计划你一周的菜单,为你所需材 料的具体数量做一个购物清单。首句中出现了因果逻辑关联词 so,而下文又没有出现明显转折,因此首句 是本段的中心句。文章进而提及作者为此专门做一个 Excel 表格,并且认为这样做不仅花钱少并且有助于 均衡饮食。显然文章的中心在于首句谈到的“plan”,而中心不是选项 B 表达的“balance your diet”, 故答案为 F。 42.【答案】E Stick to what you need 【解析】段落第二句话中的代词“them”指代第一句中的“supermarkets and their anonymity”。该句 通过这一指代顺接第一句,表达了一个否定的含义,即你不需要在小贩那里感到尴尬。紧接着第三句用肯 定的语气指出“if you plan properly, you’ll know that you only need... 350g of shin of beef... ” 即如果你合理的规划,你就会清楚知道你想要什么,比如你只需要 350 克牛肉。作者通过语义上层层递进 的方式指出了这一段的中心:你需要什么就买什么,要对你所需要购买的东西的分量要坚持。因此选项 E 为正确选项。 43.【答案】G Waste not, want not 【解析】本段内容首先谈到“你可能骄傲的说冰箱里只有冷冻的青豆,但是这还不够”。这句话中虽然没 有明显的转折词,但在语义上属于隐性转折,因此段落的重点应该在后面。第二句提到“Mine is filled with...”,其中 Mine 等于 my freezer,通过指代顺接上一句话。接着第三句前半句指出“提前做好计划 可以避免浪费”,后半句具体陈述了怎样避免浪费。其中“eliminate wastage”与选项 G 中的“waste not”构成同义替换。虽然该句中出现了 planning, 但是本段的主要内容是谈到对于剩余的食物要尽可能 充分利用,从而避免浪费。所以选项 G 谈到“不浪费,不愁缺”为正确选项。 44.【答案】C Shopkeepers are your friends

【解析】 该段首句的句内出现转折, 重点在转折之后。 第一句 but 转折之后提到“it really is a top tip”, 即这真的是一个好的提议。那么首先要还原 it 所指代的内容。句前没有提供信息,句后第二句提到“shop at butchers,...regularly, ..and be super friendly”。其中“be friendly”通过词性转换和选项 C 中的“are your friends”够成同义替换。同时,最后一句具体的信息描述了购物时表现出友好的态度所 带来的好处:they will let you have for free(通常他们都会免费给你)可知,C 最为合适。 45.【答案】D Remember to treat yourself 【解析】该段首句句内出现转折,重点在转折之后。第一句 but 后提到“save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch”,其表达的含义是要节省钱,但可以每几个月款待自己一 次。而该句也是本段落的中心句。段落余下的信息都是在用数据来解释这个道理。选项 D 中出现了“treat yourself”,属于原词复现。



(第一段)我能从过去的 53 年中挑选一个时间,并且立即知道我(那时)所处的位置,(那时)新闻中发 生的事件,甚至那天是星期几。我具有这种能力可以追溯到我 4 岁的时候。 (第二段)对于我大脑接收的信息,我从来没有感到难以把握。我的大脑似乎能够处理(一切信息),而 且这些信息都被有条理的保存。当我想到悲伤的事情,我像其他所有人一样,努力把它们放到一边(以免 影响我)。就是因为我的记忆是比较清晰有条理的,所以,我认为那些信息(对我来说)都不很困难。我 强大的记忆力没有让我的情绪变得更敏感或者更真切。我能(清晰地)回忆起我祖父过世的那天的情景以 及祖父去世前我们大家去医院看望他时的悲伤。 我还能 (清晰地) 记得同一天在 Broadway 上演的音乐剧 《头 发》——它们都同样地在我的脑海长久不衰。

Section IV


Part A 命题解析 2013 年英语(二)小作文第四次考察了书信这一题型。属于写给同学的私人倡议信(并非告示) 。值 得注意的是,从 2012 年开始,考研命题组与时俱进,英语(一)及(二)小作文命题不再使用日常生活中 已很少使用的 letter,而是替换为大家耳熟能详的 e-mail 形式。其实没有本质区别,最新大纲仍定义为 “私人或公务信函” ,写法完全一样。 众所周知,人们生活与工作中均需使用 e-mail, 故 e-mail 也分为私人与公务两种。私人书信稍微随 便一些,可使用 3-5 次缩写、省略句或口语表达等非正式语言;公务书信稍微正式一些,最好不要使用非 正式语言。 2005 年考研开考小作文以来,从未考过倡议信,2013 年首开先河。但这话题属于考研写作四大必考 话题之“社会热点“ (社会公德/爱心) ,这一话题迄今已考察四次:1995 年提纲作文“希望工程” 、2001 年 图画作文“爱心是一盏灯” 、2006 年小作文“给希望工程捐款” 。 在 2012 年新东方在线网络课堂中,均提供了关于爱心的大量大小作文范文。几乎全文均可使用。 考研写作要求采用缩进式:段间不空行,每段首行缩进四个字母。由于是写给同学的半正式文体,应 写“Dear Fellow Students,或 Dear Students,”等较为随意的称呼。首段可进行自我介绍(可以是班长) 、 表明写作目的(倡议大家参加慈善义卖) ;次段应展开具体细节:详细介绍义卖情况;尾段应再次呼吁。落 款应使用“Yours sincerely,”或“Yours faithfully,”等私人落款,不宜写 “Yours truly,”等公务 落款,签名切勿写自己的真实姓名,应用“Li Ming”代替。 由于小作文答题卡很小,很多考生将结尾客套及签名挤在同一行或写在空格以下,无需担心,电脑可 以扫描到,不会因此取得低分。很多考生并未按照以上要求去写,也无须过于担心,写法有很多种,法无 定法、万法归宗。只要切题同时语言简洁、地道,均可取得不错的成绩。 One possible version: Dear Fellow Classmates,

Our class is to hold a charity sale to raise money for those children who are in need of help on January 5, 2013. As the monitor of our class, I’m calling on all students to take part in it. We ask you to donate as much as you can to a fund we have set up to cover their tuition fees and other expenses. Unless we can raise sufficient money, those poor kids won’t be able to afford their education and finish school. As a nation renowned in the world for many of its virtues, we Chinese people have been giving a helping hand to those who are in distress throughout history. It’s our duty to provide as much support as we can in this hour of need. Please contribute generously. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 参考译文 亲爱的同学们: 我们班将在 2013 年 1 月 5 日举办一场慈善义卖,为需要帮助的孩子们募集资金。作为班长,我在这 里号召大家积极参加。 我们已经设立了支付他们学杂费的基金,请大家尽自己所能捐献自己的爱心。只有我们募集足够的资 金,那些可怜的孩子们才能上得起学并完成学业。 作为一个以很多美德闻名于世的国家,我们中国人民从古至今都一直乐于助人。在这个紧要关头,大 家一定要尽力帮助他们。最后,请大家慷慨相助。 李明 Part B 命题解析 2013 年考研英语(二)大作文第四次考察了图表作文,题目偏易。在 2010/2011 考察“经济类”话题、 2012 考察“管理类”话题之后,13 年考察了考研写作四大必考话题之“教育文化类” ,主题是“某高校学 生的兼职情况” 。 在 2012 年新东方在线网络课堂的强化班、冲刺班、点睛班中,均讲解了“教育类”范文,尤其重点 讲解了 2006 年 MBA 写作真题图表作文“工程硕士招生”和 2008 年 MBA 写作真题“成人高考” 。考生如认真 听过以上课程并认真研读过讲义中的范文,13 年大作文并不难写,很多表达均可使用。 本文首段应描述图表,首句应进行总体描述,点出“主题” (兼职情况)及“对象” (某高校学生) 。 其次应进行细节描述:大一至大三缓慢增加、大四急剧增加,并说明具体数据。首段无需发表议论。次段 应进行利弊说明,详细阐明大学生兼职的利与弊,并给出充分的原因来支持论点,也可使用举例、正反等 多种论证手段。尾段应进行归纳结论或提出建议措施:只要大学生扬长避短、趋利避害,兼职将利大于弊。 鉴于考研写作“语言第一位、结构第二位、内容第三位” ,阅卷教师最重视的还是考生的真实语言水 平,身为大学英语系教师的阅卷老师可谓一目了然。本文阐明大学生兼职利大于弊、弊大于利或各有利弊 均可,只要能够自圆其说即可,观点无所谓正确错误之分。只要语言地道、结构清晰、内容切题,均可取 得理想成绩。 我们在课程中提倡考生“背诵、默写、仿写”考研写作经典范文,目的就是扎扎实实提高英语实力和 写作水平,在考场上融会贯通,以不变应万变。无论命题如何变化,真实的语言功底才是取得写作高分的 关键!即使侥幸押题成功,如果众多考生使用同样的范文或现场发挥部分错误百出,仍然取得低分。在现 今急功近利、庸俗浮躁、哗众取宠的社会,静心提高才是提高写作分数的唯一出路。 鉴于网上答案错误百出,自己估分往往并不准确。希望考生务必向报考院校研究生院或研招办咨询查 分,了解自己的写作及各单项真实成绩。成绩才是检验写作学习效果的最好方法! One possible version: The column chart clearly reveals the statistics of students taking part-time jobs in a certain university. According to the survey, there has been a steady increase from 67.77% to 71.93% for students holding temporary jobs from freshmen to juniors, while the percentage of seniors working part-time jumped markedly to 88.24%. While part-time employment does have the potential to negatively affect a college student’s studies, it can also be a force for good in their academic careers. The most obvious way that having a part-time job can adversely affect students’ studies is by becoming a drain on the their time. Another way that part time employment can be detrimental to students is by reducing the perceived incentive to study. Despite presenting certain pitfalls, working part-time during one’s college years also offer several potential benefits. For one, it can help students to better understand their preferences or to “test out” a possible career direction. Additionally, companies seeking to recruit recent grads will give preference to those with real-world experience. In the end, the impact of a part-time job on student’s academic career depends on the

student’s ability to maintain focus and balance his or her own time. If students are able to effectively manage their time and secure a part-time position in a field related to their studies or interests, the job is certain to yield a positive impact. 参考译文 这幅柱状图清晰显示了某高校学生兼职情况的数据。根据调查,从大一到大三,兼职学生从 67.77% 缓慢上升到 71.93%,而大四兼职学生的百分比则急剧上升到 88.24%。 尽管做兼职可能会对大学生的学习有些影响,但能在求学阶段做点兼职也会有不少好处。兼职影响学 业的主要问题就是耽误时间。不利影响的另一发面就是会减少学生已有的学习动力。尽管提到了某些弊端, 但在大学阶段做兼职还是有很多好处的。首先,兼职能让学生更好地了解自己的喜好或检验一种可能的职 业方向。其次,那些招聘新近毕业生的公司都会偏爱有实际社会经验的大学生。 总之,兼职对大学生学业是否有影响取决于他们能否分清重点及平衡时间。假如他们能有效管理自己 的时间,找到一个符合自己专业和兴趣的兼职岗位,那么做兼职必定是有益的。

2012 考研英语(二)真题 Section 1 Use of Eninglish

Directions : Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy ,the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be .To the men and women who ___1___in World War II and the people they liberated ,the GI.was the ___2___ man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who ___3___ all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the ___4___ of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder .this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid , ___5___ an average guy ,up ___6___the best trained ,best equipped ,fiercest ,most brutal enemies seen in centuries. His name is not much.GI. is just a military abbreviation ___7___ Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article ___8___ to soldiers .And Joe? A common name for a guy who never ___9___ it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Magrac ?a working class name. The United States has ___10___had a president or vice president or secretary of state Joe. GI . joe had a ___11___career fighting German ,Japanese , and Korean troops . He appears as a character , or a___12___of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of GI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle___13___portrayde themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the ___14___side of the warl, writing about the dirt-snow–and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were___15___or what towns were captured or liberated, His reports___16___the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men___17___the dirt and exhaustion of war, the ___18___of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. ___19___Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, ___20___the most important person in their lives.

1. [A] performed 2.[A] actual 3.[A]bore 4.[A]necessities 5.[A]and 6.[A]for 7.[A]meaning 8.[A]handed out 9.[A]pushed 10.[A]ever 11.[A]disguised 12.[A]company 13.[A]employed 14.[A]ethical 15.[A]ruined 16.[A]paralleled 17.[A]neglected 18.[A]stages 19.[A]With

[B]served [B]common [B]cased [B]facilitice [B]nor [B]into [B]implying [B]turn over [B]got [B]never [B]disturbed [B]collection [B]appointed [B]military [B]commuted [B]counteracted [B]avoided [B]illusions [B]To [C]emphasized

[C]rebelled [C]special [C]removed [C]commodities [C]but [C] form [C]symbolizing [C]brought back [C]made [C]either [C]disputed [C]community [C]interviewed [C]political [C]patrolled [C]duplicated [D]admired [C]fragments [C]Among

[D]betrayed [D]normal [D]loaded [D]propertoes [D]hence [D]against [D]claiming [D]passed down [D]managed [D]neither [D]distinguished [D]colony [D]questioned [D]human [D]gained

[D]contradicted [D]advances [D]Beyond

20.[A]on the contrary [B] by this means [C]from the outset [D]at that point

Section II Readiong Comprehension Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. answer the question after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points) Text 1 Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade. This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.

District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule. At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing to ensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct. The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right. 21.It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____. [A] is receiving more criticism [B]is no longer an educational ritual [C]is not required for advanced courses [D]is gaining more preferences 22.L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____. [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education [B]have asked for a different educational standard [C]may have problems finishing their homework [D]have voiced their complaints about homework 23.According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____. [A]discourage students from doing homework [B]result in students' indifference to their report cards [C]undermine the authority of state tests [D]restrict teachers' power in education 24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______. [A] it should be eliminated [B]it counts much in schooling [C]it places extra burdens on teachers [D]it is important for grades 25.A suitable title for this text could be______. [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students [C]Thorny Questions about Homework [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework

Text2 Pretty in pink: adult women do not rememer being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. Tt is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests. Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses.When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years. I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kins, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’ s behaviour: wrong. Turns out, acdording to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing trick by clothing manufacrurers in the 1930s. Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. Tt was only after “toddler”became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults,into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences – or invent them where they did not previously exist. 26.By saying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1),the author means pink______. [A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood [B]should not be associated with girls' innocence [C]cannot explain girls' lack of imagination [D]cannot influence girls' lives and interests 27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours? [A]Colours are encoded in girls' DNA. [B]Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls.

[C]Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders. [D]White is prefered by babies. 28.The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological development was much influenced by_____. [A]the marketing of products for children [B]the observation of children's nature [C]researches into children's behavior [D]studies of childhood consumption 29.We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____. [A]focus on infant wear and older kids' clothes [B]attach equal importance to different genders [C]classify consumers into smaller groups [D]create some common shoppers' terms 30.It can be concluded that girls' attraction to pink seems to be____. [A] clearly explained by their inborn tendency [B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers [C] mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen [D]well interpreted by psychological experts Text3 In2010.afederaljudgeshookAmerica'sbiotechindustrytoitscore.Companieshadwonpatentsforisolate dDNAfordecades-by2005some20% ofhumangeneswereparented.ButinMarch2010ajudgeruledthatgeneswereunpatentable.Executiveswer eviolentlyagitated.TheBiotechnologyIndustryOrganisation(BIO),atradegroup,assuredmembersthat thiswasjusta“preliminary step”in a longer battle. OnJuly29ththeywererelieved,atleasttemporarily.Afederalappealscourtoverturnedthepriordecisio n,rulingthatMyriadGeneticscouldindeedholbpatentstotwogenssthathelpforecastawoman'sriskofbre astcancer.ThechiefexecutiveofMyriad,acompanyinUtah,saidtherulingwasablessingtofirmsandpatie ntsalike. Butascompaniescontinuetheirattemptsatpersonalisedmedicine,thecourtswillremainratherbusy.The MyriadcaseitselfisprobablynotoverCriticsmakethreemainargumentsagainstgenepatents:ageneisapr oductofnature,soitmaynotbepatented;genepatentssuppressinnovationratherthanrewardit;andpaten ts'monopoliesrestrictaccesstogenetictestssuchasMyriad's.Agrowingnumberseemtoagree.Lastyeara federaltask-forceurgedreformforpatentsrelatedtogenetictests.InOctobertheDepartmentofJustice filedabriefintheMyriadcase,arguingthatanisolatedDNAmolecule“isnolessaproductofnature...tha narecottonfibresthathavebeenseparatedfromcottonseeds.”

Despitetheappealscourt'sdecision,bigquestionsremainunanswered.Forexample,itisunclearwhether thesequencingofawholegenomeviolatesthepatentsofindividualgeneswithinit.Thecasemayyetreachth eSupremeCourt. AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO. Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed. 31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like----A.their executives to be active B.judges to rule out gene patenting C.genes to be patcntablc D.the BIO to issue a warning 32.those who are against gene patents believe that---A.genetic tests are not reliable B.only man-made products are patentable C.patents on genes depend much on innovatiaon D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests 33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for---A.establishing disease comelations B.discovering gene interactions C.drawing pictures of genes D.identifying human DNA 34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that ----A.the supreme court was authoritative B.the BIO was a powerful organization C.gene patenting was a great concern D.lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs 35.generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is---A.critical B.supportive C.scornful D.objective

Text 4 The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends,it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years. No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending. But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes. Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind. In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend. 36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___. [A]seek subsidies from the govemment [B]explore reasons for the unermployment [C]make profits from the troubled economy [D]look on the bright side of the recession

37.According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____. [A]realize the national dream [B]struggle against each other [C]challenge their lifestyle [D]reconsider their lifestyle 38.Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions may_____. [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants [B]bring out more evils of human nature [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms [D]ease conflicts between races and classes 39.The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____. [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’ [D]recover more quickly than the others 40.The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____. [A]certain [B]positive [C]trivial [D]destructive

Part B Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points) “Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not. Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration. From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris

Illustribus – On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders. Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explores. "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit, "wrote Smiles." what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself "His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life. This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals. Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles:“It is man, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.” This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding — from gender to race to cultural studies — were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.

Section III Translation

46.Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese.Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15 points) When people in developing countries worry about migration,they are usually concerned at the prospect of ther best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world ,These are the kind of workers that countries like Britian ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates . Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40%of emigrants had more than a high-school education,compared with around 3.3%of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make .

Section IV Writing Part A


Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an onlin store the other day ,Write an email to the customer service center to 1)make a complaint and 2)demand a prompt solution You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2 Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter ,Use "zhang wei "instead .

Part B

48、write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should 1)describe the table ,and 2)give your comments You should write at least 150 words(15points)

2012 考研英语(二)答案


1.B 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.C 6.B 7.C 8.A 9.D 10.B 11.D 12.B 13.C 14.D 15.B 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.B 20.D


TEXT1: 21. A 22.C 23.A 24.B 25.D TEXT2: 26.A 27.B 28.A 29.C 30.C TEXT3: 31.C 32.B 33.A 34.D 35.D TEXT4: 36.D 37.D 38.B 39.D 40.A


而发展中国家担心移民,则通常考虑的是,他们最优秀的人才流入了硅谷,或是发达国家的一些医院 和大学。而这些人才正是英国、加拿大、澳大利亚这样的国家需要的,他们通过优待大学生的移民政策来 吸引这样的人才。 很多研究发现,发展中国家受过良好教育的人们尤其可能移民。据估计,三分之二受过良好教育的 Cape Verdeans 都居住在国外。2004 年对印度家庭展开了一次大范围调查,询问了他们移居国外的家庭成 员情况。调查发现,近 40%的移民接受过高等教育,而所有 25 岁以上的印度人中,这一比例仅为 3.3%。 这种“人才外流”的现象长期困扰着穷国的政策制定者们。他们担心这会有损经济发展,使得他们丧失亟 需的有技能的人才,他们本可在大学里教书,在医院里工作,或是研发出可供生产的新产品。




小作文范文: Dear Sir or Madame, As one of the regular customers of your online store, I am writing this letter to express my complaint against the flaws in your product—an electronic dictionary I bought in your shop the other day. The dictionary is supposed to be a favorable tool for my study. Unfortunately, I found that there are several problems. To begin with, when I opened it, I detected that the appearance of it had been scratched. Secondly, I did not find the battery promised in the advertisement posted on the homepage of your shop, which makes me feel that you have not kept your promise. What is worse, some of the keys on the keyboard do not work. I strongly request that a satisfactory explanation be given and effective measures should be taken to improve your service and the quality of your products. You can either send a new one to me or refund me my money in full. I am looking forward to your reply at your earliest convenience. Sincerely yours, Zhang Wei

2011 年考研英语(二)真题 Section I Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has___1___across the Web. Can privacy be preserved ___2___ bringing safety and security to a world that seems increasingly ___3___ ? Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyber-czar, offered the federal government a ___4___ to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the high-tech ___5___ of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled ___6___ one. The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential ___7___ to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services. The idea is to ___8___ a federation of private online identity systems. User could ___9___ which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s license ___10___ by the government. Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these“single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to ___11___ just once but use many different services. ___12___ .the approach would create a “walled garden” n cyberspace, with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of a ___13___ community. Mr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with ___14___ ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure ___15___which the transaction runs”. Still, the administration’ plan has ___16___ privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; s others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would ___17___ be a compulsory Internet “drive’s license” mentality. The plan has also been greeted with ___18___ by some computer security experts, who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet ___19___ .They argue that all Internet users should be ___20___ to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 1. 2. 3. A.swept A.for A.careless B.skipped B.within B.lawless B.reminder B.interference C.walked C.while C.pointless C.compromise C.entertainment D.ridden D.though D.helpless D.proposal D.equivalent

4. A.reason 5. A.information

6. A.by 7. A.linked 8. A.dismiss 9. A.recall 10. A.relcased 11. A.carry on 12. A.In vain 13. A.trusted 14. A.caution 15. A.on 16. A.divided 17. A.frequestly 18. A.skepticism 19. A.manageable 20. A.invited

B.into B.directed B.discover B.suggest B.issued B.linger on B.In effect B.modernized B.delight B.after B.disappointed B.incidentally B.relerance B.defendable B.appointed

C.from C.chained C.create C.select C.distributed C.set in C.In return C.thriving C.confidence C.beyond C.protected C.occasionally C.indifference C.vulnerable C.allowed

D.over D.compared D.improve D.realize D.delivered D.log in D.In contrast D.competing D.patience D.across D.united D.eventually D.enthusiasm D.invisible D.forced

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points)

Text 1 Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs’s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said. Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises. The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those “surprise” disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will

subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they “trade up.” Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms. But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus. 21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for . [A]gaining excessive profits [B]failing to fulfill her duty [C]refusing to make compromises [D]leaving the board in tough times 22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be . [A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters [D]independent advisers 23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director’s surprise departure, the firm is likely to . [A]become more stable [B]report increased earnings [C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits 24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors . [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm 25. The author’s attitude toward the role of outside directors is . [A]permissive [B]positive [C]scornful [D]critical Text 2 Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession

threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America’s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date. In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same. It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further. Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable. The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business. 26. By saying “Newspapers like ? their own doom” (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the author indicates that newspaper . [A]neglected the sign of crisis [B]failed to get state subsidies [C]were not charitable corporations [D]were in a desperate situation 27. Some newspapers refused delivery to distant suburbs probably because . [A]readers threatened to pay less [B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs [C]journalists reported little about these areas [D]subscribers complained about slimmer products 28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more stable because they . [A]have more sources of revenue [B]have more balanced newsrooms [C]are less dependent on advertising

[D]are less affected by readership 29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper business? [A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers. [B]Completeness is to blame for the failure of newspaper. [C]Foreign bureaus play a crucial role in the newspaper business. [D]Readers have lost their interest in car and film reviews. 30. The most appropriate title for this text would be . [A]American Newspapers: Struggling for Survival [B]American Newspapers: Gone with the Wind [C]American Newspapers: A Thriving Business [D]American Newspapers: A Hopeless Story Text 3 We tend to think of the decades immediately following World War II as a time of prosperity and growth, with soldiers returning home by the millions, going off to college on the G. I. Bill and lining up at the marriage bureaus. But when it came to their houses, it was a time of common sense and a belief that less could truly be more. During the Depression and the war, Americans had learned to live with less, and that restraint, in combination with the postwar confidence in the future, made small, efficient housing positively stylish. Economic condition was only a stimulus for the trend toward efficient living. The phrase “less is more” was actually first popularized by a German, the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who like other people associated with the Bauhaus, a school of design, emigrated to the United States before World War II and took up posts at American architecture schools. These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture, but none more so that Mies. Mies’s signature phrase means that less decoration, properly organized, has more impact that a lot. Elegance, he believed, did not derive from abundance. Like other modern architects, he employed metal, glass and laminated wood-materials that we take for granted today buy that in the 1940s symbolized the future. Mies’s sophisticated presentation masked the fact that the spaces he designed were small and efficient, rather than big and often empty. The apartments in the elegant towers Mies built on Chicago’s Lake Shore Drive, for example, were smaller-two-bedroom units under 1,000 square feet-than those in their older neighbors along the city’s Gold Coast. But they were popular because of their airy glass walls, the views they afforded and the elegance of the buildings ’ details and proportions, the architectural equivalent of the abstract art so popular at the time. The trend toward “less” was not entirely foreign. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright started building more modest and efficient houses-usually around 1,200 square feet-than the spreading two-story ones he had designed in the 1890s and the early 20th century. The “Case Study Houses” commissioned from talented modern architects by California Arts &

Architecture magazine between 1945 and 1962 were yet another homegrown influence on the “less is more”trend. Aesthetic effect came from the landscape, new materials and forthright detailing. In his Case Study House, Ralph everyday life – few American families acquired helicopters, though most eventually got clothes dryers – but his belief that self-sufficiency was both desirable and inevitable was widely shared. 31. The postwar American housing style largely reflected the Americans’ . [A]prosperity and growth [B]efficiency and practicality [C]restraint and confidence [D]pride and faithfulness 32. Which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3 about Bauhaus? [A]It was founded by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. [B]Its designing concept was affected by World War II. [C]Most American architects used to be associated with it. [D]It had a great influence upon American architecture. 33. Mies held that elegance of architectural design . [A]was related to large space [B]was identified with emptiness [C]was not reliant on abundant decoration [D]was not associated with efficiency 34. What is true about the apartments Mies building Chicago’s Lake Shore Drive? [A]They ignored details and proportions. [B]They were built with materials popular at that time. [C]They were more spacious than neighboring buildings. [D]They shared some characteristics of abstract art. 35. What can we learn about the design of the “Case Study House”? [A]Mechanical devices were widely used. [B]Natural scenes were taken into consideration [C]Details were sacrificed for the overall effect. [D]Eco-friendly materials were employed. Text 4 Will the European Union make it? The question would have sounded strange not long ago. Now even the project’s greatest cheerleaders talk of a continent facing a “Bermuda triangle” of debt, population decline and lower growth. As well as those chronic problems, the EU face an acute crisis in its economic core, the 16 countries that use the single currency. Markets have lost faith that the euro zone’s economies, weaker or stronger, will one day converge thanks to the discipline of sharing a single currency, which denies uncompetitive members the quick fix of devaluation. Yet the debate about how to save Europe’s single currency from disintegration is stuck. It is

stuck because the euro zone’s dominant powers, France and Germany, agree on the need for greater harmonization within the euro zone, but disagree about what to harmonies. Germany thinks the euro must be saved by stricter rules on borrow spending and competitiveness, barked by quasi-automatic sanctions for governments that do not obey. These might include threats to freeze EU funds for poorer regions and EU mega-projects and even the suspension of a country’ s voting rights in EU ministerial councils. It insists that economic co-ordination should involve all 27 members of the EU club, among whom there is a small majority for free-market liberalism and economic rigour; in the inner core alone, Germany fears, a small majority favour French interference. A “southern” camp headed by French wants something different: ”European economic government” within an inner core of euro-zone members. Translated, that means politicians intervening in monetary policy and a system of redistribution from richer to poorer members, via cheaper borrowing for governments through common Eurobonds or complete fiscal transfers. Finally, figures close to the France government have murmured, curo-zone members should agree to some fiscal and social harmonization: e.g., curbing competition in corporate-tax rates or labour costs. It is too soon to write off the EU. It remains the world’s largest trading block. At its best, the European project is remarkably liberal: built around a single market of 27 rich and poor countries, its internal borders are far more open to goods, capital and labour than any comparable trading area. It is an ambitious attempt to blunt the sharpest edges of globalization, and make capitalism benign. 36. The EU is faced with so many problems that . [A] it has more or less lost faith in markets [B] even its supporters begin to feel concerned [C] some of its member countries plan to abandon euro [D] it intends to deny the possibility of devaluation 37. The debate over the EU’s single currency is stuck because the dominant powers . [A] are competing for the leading position [B] are busy handling their own crises [C] fail to reach an agreement on harmonization [D] disagree on the steps towards disintegration 38. To solve the euro problem ,Germany proposed that . [A] EU funds for poor regions be increased [B] stricter regulations be imposed [C] only core members be involved in economic co-ordination [D] voting rights of the EU members be guaranteed 39. The French proposal of handling the crisis implies that __ __. [A]poor countries are more likely to get funds [B]strict monetary policy will be applied to poor countries [C]loans will be readily available to rich countries [D]rich countries will basically control Eurobonds

40. Regarding the future of the EU, the author seems to feel __ __. [A]pessimistic [B]desperate [C]conceited [D]hopeful Part B Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the right column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the left column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Part C 46.Direction:

In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese, write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15points) Who would have thought that, globally, the IT industry produces about the same volumes of greenhouse gases as the world’s airlines do-rough 2 percent of all CO2 emissions? Many everyday tasks take a surprising toll on the environment. A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2 depending on how many attempts are needed to get the “right” answer. To deliver results to its users quickly, then, Google has to maintain vast data centres round the world, packed with powerful computers. While producing large quantities of CO2, these computers emit a great deal of heat, so the centres need to be well air-conditioned, which uses even more energy. However, Google and other big tech providers monitor their efficiency closely and make improvements. Monitoring is the first step on the road to reduction, but there is much to be done, and not just by big companies.

Section IV


2011 年考研英语(二)答案 Section I Use of English

1——5 ACBDD 6——10 BACCA 11——15 DBACA 16——20 CDACD Section II Part A 21——25 BBDAA 26——30 DBCBB 31——35 BDCDB 36——40 DCBAC Part B 41——45 EDCFG Part C 46.翻译 有谁会想到,在全球范围内,IT 行业产生的温室气体跟全球航空公司产生的一样多?占二氧化碳总 排量的 2%。 很多日常工作对环境造成了让人震惊的破坏作用。根据你查询正确答案的尝试次数,谷歌搜索引擎 会插手 0.2-7 克的二氧化碳的排放量。 要快速将结果传递给用户, 谷歌必须用强大和大量的计算机系统来 维护全球巨大的数据库中心。 这些计算机在散发大量热量的同时也产生大量的二氧化碳气体。 所以中心处 理器必须要有很好的散热装备,然而却耗能更多。 Section III Writing Reading comprehension

小作文范文: Dear friend, I am writing to congratulate you on your being successfully admitted to Harvard University, which enjoys an international reputation for its academic excellence and give you some

suggestions as to how to make preparation for the coming college life。 In order for you to adapt yourself to the university life, you are advised to get prepared physically and intellectually. First and foremost, you need to build a strong body for the future academic pursuit, so you can take some exercises during the breaks. Secondly, since the study in university is more demanding than in your secondary school, you are highly suggested to find some introductory books from the library so as to have a good idea of the specialty you are going to take in your college life. Given your sound ability, you are sure to have a successful college life。 Congratulate you again and wish you a fruitful college life。 Sincerely yours, Zhang Wei 大作文范文: This bar chart indicates different market shares of automobiles of three types of brand affiliations between 2008 and 2009. In 2008, cars with Japanese brands topped the three types of vehicles, accounting for 35% of the total market. What follows is the cars with Chinese brands, hitting 25% of the auto market, with the share of American brand bottomed out at 15%. In 2009, some developments are noticeable in that the cars with the largest share became those of Chinese brands, which occupied roughly 32% of the market, while cars with Japanese and American brands took 25% and 15% of the whole market respectively. It is observed that between 2008 and 2009, cars of Chinese and Japanese brands took turns to be the No.1 in terms of market share while those with American brands ranked the last in both years. And the share of Chinese-brand cars witnessed a mild increase and that of the Japanese-brand cars saw a moderate decrease, while the American-brand cars stayed the same. From this graph, we can come to the safe conclusion that the Chinese automakers are doing a good job in outcompeting their Japanese and American counterparts in 2009, but the gap is not so significant and if no efforts were made from the part of the Chinese auto industry, the distribution map might be rewritten in the future。

2010 考研英语(二)真题 Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following passage. For each numbered blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points) The outbreak of swine flu that was first detected in Mexico was declared a global epidemic on June 11, 2009. It is the first worldwide epidemic_____1_____ by the World Health Organization in 41 years. The heightened alert _____2_____an emergency meeting with flu experts in Geneva that convened after a sharp rise in cases in Australia, and rising_____3_____in Britain, Japan, Chile and elsewhere. But the epidemic is "_____4_____" in severity, according to Margaret Chan, the organization's director general, _____5_____ the overwhelming majority of patients experiencing only mild symptoms and a full recovery, often in the _____6_____ of any medical treatment. The outbreak came to global_____7_____in late April 2009, when Mexican authorities noticed an unusually large number of hospitalizations and deaths_____8_____healthy adults. As much of Mexico City shut down at the height of a panic, cases began to _____9_____in New York City, the southwestern United States and around the world. In the United States, new cases seemed to fade_____10_____warmer weather arrived. But in late September 2009, officials reported there was _____11_____flu activity in almost every state and that virtually all the_____12_____tested are the new swine flu, also known as (A) H1N1, not seasonal flu. In the U.S., it has_____13_____more than one million people, and caused more than 600 deaths and more than 6,000 hospitalizations. Federal health officials_____14_____Tamiflu for children from the national stockpile and began_____15_____orders from the states for the new swine flu vaccine. The new vaccine, which is different from the annual flu vaccine, is ____16_____ ahead of expectations. More than three million doses were to be made available in early October 2009, though most of those _____17_____doses were of the FluMist nasal spray type, which is not_____18_____for pregnant women, people over 50 or those with breathing difficulties, heart disease or several other _____19_____. But it was still possible to vaccinate people in other high-risk group: health care workers, people _____20_____infants and healthy young people. 1 [A] criticized [B] appointed [C]commented [D] designated 2 [A] proceeded [B] activated [C] followed [D] prompted 3 [A] digits [B] numbers [C] amounts [D] sums 4 [A] moderate [B] normal [C] unusual [D] extreme 5 [A] with [B] in [C] from [D] by 6 [A] progress [B] absence [C] presence [D] favor 7 [A] reality [B] phenomenon [C] concept [D] notice 8. [A]over [B] for [C] among [D] to 9 [A] stay up [B] crop up [C] fill up [D] cover up 10 [A] as [B] if [C] unless [D] until 11 [A] excessive [B] enormous [C] significant [D]magnificent 12 [A]categories [B] examples [C] patterns [D] samples 13 [A] imparted [B] immerse [C] injected [D] infected 14 [A] released [B] relayed [C] relieved [D] remained 15 [A] placing [B] delivering [C] taking [D] giving 16 [A] feasible [B] available [C] reliable [D] applicable 17 [A] prevalent [B] principal [C] innovative [D] initial 18 [A] presented [B] restricted [C] recommended [D] introduced 19 [A] problems [B] issues [C] agonies [D] sufferings 20 [A] involved in [B] caring for [C] concerned with [D] warding off Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension

Part A Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text1 The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever”,at Sotheby’s in London on September 15th 2008. All but two pieces sold, fetching more than £70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last victory. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy. The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising bewilderingly since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm—double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries. In the weeks and months that followed Mr Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable, especially in New York, where the bail-out of the banks coincided with the loss of thousands of jobs and the financial demise of many art-buying investors. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector—for Chinese contemporary art—they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s and Christie’s, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them. The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989, a move that started the most serious contraction in the market since the Second World War. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more fluctuant. But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.” What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds—death, debt and divorce—still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return. 21.In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as “a last victory” because ____. A. the art market had witnessed a succession of victories B. the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids C. Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces D. it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis 22.By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable”(Line 1-2,Para.3), author the suggests that_____. A. collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions B .people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries C. art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent D .works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying 23. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A .Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007 to 2008. B. The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum. C. The market generally went downward in various ways. D. Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come. 24. The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are ____ A. auction houses ' favorites B. contemporary trends C. factors promoting artwork circulation

D. styles representing impressionists 25. The most appropriate title for this text could be ___ A. Fluctuation of Art Prices B. Up-to-date Art Auctions C. Art Market in Decline D. Shifted Interest in Arts Text2 I was addressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room—a women's group that had invited men to join them. Throughout the evening one man had been particularly talkative, frequently offering ideas and anecdotes, while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch. Toward the end of the evening I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them. This man quickly nodded in agreement. He gestured toward his wife and said, "She's the talker in our family." The room burst into laughter; the man looked puzzled and hurt. "It's true," he explained. "When I come home from work, I have nothing to say. If she didn't keep the conversation going, we'd spend the whole evening in silence." This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage. The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late 1970s. Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book "Divorce Talk" that most of the women she interviewed—but only a few of the men—gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent,that amounts to millions of cases in the United States every year —a virtual epidemic of failed conversation. In my own research complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband to his or doing far more than their share of daily life-support work like cleaning, cooking, social arrangements and errands. Instead they focused on communication: "He doesn't listen to me." "He doesn't talk to me." I found as Hacker observed years before that most wives want their husbands to be first and foremost conversational partners but few husbands share this expectation of their wives. In short the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face, while a woman glares at the back of it, wanting to talk. 26. What is most wives' main expectation of their husbands? A. Talking to them. B. Trusting them. C. Supporting their careers. D. Sharing housework. 27. Judging from the context, the phrase “wreaking havoc”(Line 3,Para.2)most probably means ___ . A. generating motivation. B. exerting influence C. causing damage D. creating pressure 28. All of the following are true EXCEPT_______ A. men tend to talk more in public than women B. nearly 50 percent of recent divorces are caused by failed conversation C. women attach much importance to communication between couples D. a female tends to be more talkative at home than her spouse 29. Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of this text? A. The moral decaying deserves more research by sociologists. B. Marriage break-up stems from sex inequalities. C. Husband and wife have different expectations from their marriage. D. Conversational patterns between man and wife are different. 30. In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on ______ A. a vivid account of the new book Divorce Talk B. a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon

C. other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S. D. a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker Text 3 Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors — habits — among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks, apply lotions and wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues. “There are fundamental public health problems, like dirty hands instead of a soap habit, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits,” Dr. Curtis said. “We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.” The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to — Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever — had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines. If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day — chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, antiperspirants, colognes, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins— are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of canny advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands. A few decades ago, many people didn’t drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs, and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals, slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup. “Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. “Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives, and it’s essential to making new products commercially viable.” Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through relentless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods. 31. According to Dr. Curtis, habits like hand washing with soap________. [A] should be further cultivated [B] should be changed gradually [C] are deeply rooted in history [D] are basically private concerns 32. Bottled water, chewing gun and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Paragraph 5 so as to____ [A] reveal their impact on people’s habits [B] show the urgent need of daily necessities [C] indicate their effect on people’s buying power [D] manifest the significant role of good habits 33. Which of the following does NOT belong to products that help create people’s habits? [A]Tide [B] Crest [C] Colgate [D] Unilever 34. From the text we know that some of consumer’s habits are developed due to _____ [A]perfected art of products [B]automatic behavior creation [C]commercial promotions [D]scientific experiments 35. The author’s attitude toward the influence of advertisement on people’s habits is____ [A] indifferent

[B] negative [C] positive [D] biased Text4 Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values, including the principles that all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries; that jurors should be selected randomly from a representative cross section of the community; that no citizen should be denied the right to serve on a jury on account of race, religion, sex, or national origin; that defendants are entitled to trial by their peers; and that verdicts should represent the conscience of the community and not just the letter of the law. The jury is also said to be the best surviving example of direct rather than representative democracy. In a direct democracy, citizens take turns governing themselves, rather than electing representatives to govern for them. But as recently as in 1986, jury selection procedures conflicted with these democratic ideals. In some states, for example, jury duty was limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education, and moral character. Although the Supreme Court of the United States had prohibited intentional racial discrimination in jury selection as early as the 1880 case of Strauder v. West Virginia, the practice of selecting so-called elite or blue-ribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other antidiscrimination laws. The system also failed to regularly include women on juries until the mid-20th century. Although women first served on state juries in Utah in 1898, it was not until the 1940s that a majority of states made women eligible for jury duty. Even then several states automatically exempted women from jury duty unless they personally asked to have their names included on the jury list. This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed at home, and it kept juries unrepresentative of women through the 1960s. In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new era of democratic reforms for the jury. This law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community. In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor vs. Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level. The Taylor decision also declared sex discrimination in jury selection to be unconstitutional and ordered states to use the same procedures for selecting male and female jurors. 36. From the principles of the US jury system, we learn that ______ [A]both liberate and illiterate people can serve on juries [B]defendants are immune from trial by their peers [C]no age limit should be imposed for jury service [D]judgment should consider the opinion of the public 37. The practice of selecting so-called elite jurors prior to 1968 showed_____ [A]the inadequacy of antidiscrimination laws [B]the prevalent discrimination against certain races [C]the conflicting ideals in jury selection procedures [D]the arrogance common among the Supreme Court justices 38. Even in the 1960s, women were seldom on the jury list in some states because_____ [A]they were automatically banned by state laws [B]they fell far short of the required qualifications [C]they were supposed to perform domestic duties [D]they tended to evade public engagement 39. After the Jury Selection and Service Act was passed.___ [A] sex discrimination in jury selection was unconstitutional and had to be abolished [B] educational requirements became less rigid in the selection of federal jurors [C] jurors at the state level ought to be representative of the entire community [D] states ought to conform to the federal court in reforming the jury system 40. In discussing the US jury system, the text centers on_______ [A]its nature and problems [B]its characteristics and tradition [C]its problems and their solutions [D]its tradition and development

Part B Directions Read the following text and decide whether each of the statements is true or false. Choose T if the statement is true or F it the statement is not true. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points) Copying Birds May Save Aircraft Fuel Both Boeing and Airbus have trumpeted the efficiency of their newest aircraft. The 787 and 350 respectively . Their clever designs and lightweight composites certainly make a difference . But a group of researchers at Stanford University , led by Ilan Kroo , has suggested that airlines could take a more naturalistic approach to cutting jet-fuel use and it would not require them to buy new aircraft. The answer, says Dr Kroo , lies with birds . Since 1914, scientists have known that birds flying in formation-a V-shape-expend less energy. The air flowing over a bird’s wings curls upwards behind the wingtips . a phenomenon known as upwash. Other birds flying in the upwash experience reduced drag, and spend less energy propelling themselves . Peter Lissaman, an aeronautics expert who was formerly at Caltech and the University of Southern California ,has suggested that a formation of 25 birds might enjoy a range increase of 71%. When applied to aircraft, the principles are not substantially different . Dr Kroo and his team modeled what would happen if three passenger jets departing from Los Angeles, San Francisco and I as Vegas were to assemble over Utah, assume an inverted V-formation occasionally change places so all could have a turn in the most favourable positions , and proceed to London. They found that the aircraft consumed as much as 15% less fuel (coupled with a reduction in carbon-dioxide output). Nitrogen-oxide emissions during the cruising portions of the flight fell by around a quarter. There are , of course , knots to be worked out . One consideration is safety , or at least the perception of it . Would passengers feel comfortable travelling in companion? Dr Kroo points out that the aircraft could be separated by several nautical miles , and would not be in the intimate groupings favoured by display teams like the Red Arrows , A passenger peering out of the window might not even see the other planes. Whether the separation distances involved would satisfy air-traffic-control regulations is another matter, although a working group at the International Civil Aviation Organisation has included the possibility of formation flying in a blueprint for new operational guidelines. It remains to be seen how weather conditions affect the air flows that make formation flight more efficient. In zones of increased turbulence, the planes’ wakes will decay more quickly and the effect will diminish. Dr Kroo says this is one of the areas his team will investigate further. It might also be hard for airlines to co-ordinate the departure times and destinations of passenger aircraft in a way that would allow them to gain from formation flight. Cargo aircraft, in contrast, might be easier to reschedule, as might routine military flight. As it happens, America’s armed forces are on the on case already. Earlier this year the country’s Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency announced plans to pay Boeing to investigate formation flight, though the programme has yet to begin. There are reports that some military aircraft

flew in formation when they were low on fuel during the Second World War, but Dr Lissaman says they are unsubstantiated. “My father was an RAF pilot and my cousin the skipper of a Lancaster lost over Berlin,” he adds. So he should know.

41. Findings of the Stanford University researchers will promote the sales of new Boeing and Airbus aircraft. 42. The upwash experience may save propelling energy as well as reducing resistance. 43. Formation flight is more comfortable because passengers can not see the other plans. 44. The role that weather plays in formation flight has not yet been clearly defined. 45. It has been documented that during World War Ⅱ, America’s armed forces once tried formation flight to save fuel.

Section Ⅲ Translation 46.Directions: In this section there is a text in English .Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15points) “Suatainability” has become apopular word these days, but to Ted Ning, the concept will always have personal meaning. Having endured apainful period of unsustainability in his own life made itclear to him that sustainability-oriented values must be expressed though everyday action and choice. Ning recalls spending aconfusing year in the late 1990s selling insurance. He’d been though the dot-com boom and burst and,desperate for ajob,signed on with a Boulder agency. It didin’t go well. “It was a really had move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictably, into a lack of sales. “I was miserable, I had so much anxiety that I would wake up in the middle of the night and stare at the ceiling. I had no money and needed the job. Everyone said, ‘Just wait, you’ll trun the corner, give it some time.’”

Section Ⅳ Writing Part A 47. Directions: You have just come back from the U.S. as a member of a Sino-American cultural exchange program. Write a letter to your American colleague to 1) Express your thanks for his/her warm reception; 2) Welcome him/her to visit China in due course. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei” instead. Do not write your address. (10 points)

Part B 48. Directions: In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1) Interpret the chart and 2) Give your comments. You should write at least 150 words. Write your essay on on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

2010 年考研英语(二)答案 section I 1.D 2.C 11.C 12.D Use of English(10points) 3.B 4.A 13.D 5.A 6.B 14.A 7.D 8.C 17.D 9.B 10.A 18.C 19.A 20.B

15.C 16.B

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension partA 21.D 22.A 23.B 24.C 25.C 26.A 27.C 28.B 29.D 30.B 31.A 32.A 33.D 34.C 35.B 36.D 37.A 38.C 39.B 40.D Part B 41.F 42.T 43.F 44.T 45.F Section Ⅲ Translation 最近,“承受力”成了一个流行词,但对Ted Ning来说,他对其含义有自己亲身的体会。在经历了一 段无法承受的痛苦生活后,他清楚的认识到,旨在提高承受力的价值观只有通过每日的行为和抉择才能得 到体现。 Ning回忆起九十年代后期销售保险那困惑的一年。在经历了网络泡沫的膨胀和破灭后,他急需找到一 份工作,因此就与Boulder公司签了约。 但情况并不顺利。“这的确是糟糕的一步,因为它激不起我的工作热情,”Ning 说。不出所料,工作 上的进退维谷造成他销售业绩不佳。“我很痛苦,愁肠百结,常常在半夜惊醒,望着天花板发愣。我身无 分文,需要这份工作。大家都说,‘等等看,过一段时间情况会好转的。’” Section Ⅳ Writing Part A Dear xxx, I would like to convey my heartfelt thanks to you for your kindness to receive me when I participated in an exchange program in USA. Your generous help made it possible that I had a very pleasant stay and a chance to know American cultures better. Besides, I think it is an honor for me to make friends with you and I will cherish the goodwill you showed to me wherever I go. I do hope that you will visit China one day, so that I could have the opportunity to repay your kindness and refresh our friendship. I feel obliged to thank you again. Sincerely yours, Zhang Wei Part B In this chart, we can see the mobile phone subscriptions in developed countries have a steady and slight increase from 1990 to 2007 and then remain constant in 2008. Meanwhile the mobile phone subscriptions in developing countries have witnessed a slow increase from 1990 to 2004 and then a great surge from 2004 to 20007: the biggest surge happens from 2005 to 2006. This chart reflects different developing modes of mobile phone industry in developed and developing countries. The developed countries have a limited number of populations, most of whom are well-educated. Therefore, the spreading of the mobile phone service is efficient and soon the market is saturated. Also at the beginning the developed countries have more people who can afford this service. The developing countries have a large population who keeps a large demand

for mobile service. As the mobile phone service becomes cheaper and cheaper, the increasing customers subscribe to benefit from this service. As discussed above, it is not surprising to see this change. In my opinion, this trend that the number of mobile-phone subscriptions is increasingly increasing will continue for a while in the future.

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