当前位置:首页 >> 数学 >>

语言学


Chapter 2 Phonology
I. Fill in the blanks. 1. _Articulatory___phonetics studies the movement of the vocal organs of producing the sounds of speech. 2. Speech takes place when the organs

of speech move to produce patterns of sound. These movements have an effect on the _airstream__coming from the lungs. 3. Consonant sounds can be either _voiced__ or _voiceless__, while all vowel sounds are __voiced__ 4. The qualities of vowels depend upon the position of the _tongue___and the lips. 5. One element in the description of vowels is the part of the tongue which is at the highest point in the mouth. A second element is the _height__ to which that part of the tongue is raised. 6. Consonants differ from vowels in that the latter are produced without _obstruction___ 7. In phonological analysis the words fail—veil are distinguishable simply because of the two phonemes /f/-/v/. This is an example for illustrating _minimal pairs___ 8. In English there are a number of __diphthongs _, which are produced by moving from one vowel position to another through intervening positions. 9. _Assimilation Rule 同化规则__refers to the phenomenon of sounds continually show the influence of their neighbors.

II.

Choose the best answer

10. Pitch variation is known as ___ when its patterns are imposed on sentences. A intonation B tone C pronunciation D voice 11. Conventionally a ____is put in slashes. A allophone B phone C phoneme D morpheme 词素 12. An aspirated p, an unaspirated p are ___ of the p phoneme. A analogues B tagmemes C morphemes D allophones 13. The diphthongs that are made with a movement of the tongue towards the center are known as ___ diphthongs. A wide B closing C narrow D centering 14. A phoneme is a group of similar sounds called ___ A minimal pairs B allomorphs C phones D allophones 15. which branch of phonetics concerns the production of speech sounds? A Acoustic phonetics B Articulatory phonetics C Auditory phonetics D Neither of them 16. Which one is different from the others according to manners of articulation? A [z] B [w] C [?] ? D [v] 17. Which one is different from the others according to places of articulation . A [n] B [m] C [b] D[p] 18. Which vowel is different from others according to the characteristics of vowels? A[i: B[u] C[e] D[i] ] 19. What kind of sounds can we make when the vocal cords are vibrating? A Voiceless B Voiced C Vowel D Consonant 20. Which consonant represents the following description: voiceless labiodental fricative? A [f] B [?] C [z] D [s]

III. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
21. Of the three phonetics branches, the longest established one, and until recently the most highly developed, is acoustic phonetics ( False) 22. Sound [p] in the word “spit” is an unaspirated stop. (True) 23. Supersegmental phonology refers to the study of phonological properties of units larger than the segment-phoneme, such as syllable, word and sentence (True) 24. The airstream provided by the lungs has to undergo a number of modification to acquire the quality of a speech sound. (T) 25. Two sounds are in free variation when they occur in the same environment and do not contrast, namely, the substitution of one for the other does not produce a different word, but merely a different pronunciation. (True) 26. [p] is voiced bilabial stop. (F) 27. Acoustic phonetics is concerned with the perception of speech sounds. (False) 28. When pure or monophthongs are pronounced, no vowel glides take place. (True)

29. According to the length or tenseness of the pronunciation, vowels can be divided into tense vs lax, or long vs. short. (T)

IV. Explain the following terms
30. Minimal pair : When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two sound combinations are said to form a minimal pair. For example : beat, bit, bet, bat, boot, but, bait, bite, boat. 31. Sound assimilation: Speech sounds seldom occur in isolation. In connected speech, under the influence of their neighbours, are replaced by other sounds. Sometimes two neighbouring sounds influence each other and are replaced by a third sound which is different from both the original sounds. This process is called sound assimilation. 32. Phonology It studies the patterning of speech sounds, that is , the ways in which speech sounds form systems and patterns in human languages. 33. Phonetics It is termed as the study of speech sounds. It is a branch of linguistic which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription. It has thee sub-branches: articulatory phonetics , auditory phonetics, and acoustic phonetics.

V Answer the following questions briefly.
34. How are the English consonants classified? English consonants can be classified into two ways: on is in terms of manner of articulation and the other is in terms of place of articulation. In terms of manner of articulation the English consonants can be classified into the flowing types: stops, fricatives, affricative, liquids, nasals and glides. In terms of places of articulation, it can be classified into following types: bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar and glottal . 35. What criteria are used to classify the English vowels? Vowels may be distinguished as front, central and back according to which part of the tongue is held highest. To further distinguish members of each group, we need to apply another criterions, i,e. the openness of the mouth. Accordingly, we classify the vowels into four groups: close vowels, semi-close vowels, semi-open vowels, and open vowels. A third criterion that is often used in the classification of vowels is the shape of the lips. In English, all the front vowels and the central vowels are unrounded vowels, i,e without rounding the lips and all the back vowels with the exception of

[a: ]are rounded.
36. How do phonetics and phonology differ in their focus of study? Who do you think will be more interested in the difference between, say, [l]and[?] [p]and[ph], a phonetician or a phonologist? Why? 1)Both phonology and phonetics are concerned with the same aspect of language ---the speech sounds. But while both are related to the study of sounds, they differ in their approach and focus. Phonetics is of a general nature; it is interested in all the speech sounds used in all human languages: how they are produced, how they differ from each other, what phonetic features they possess, how they can be classified, etc. Phonology, on the other hand, aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used to convey meaning in linguistic communication. 2) A phonologist will be more interested in it. Because one of the tasks of the phonologists is to find out rule that governs the distribution of [l]and[?] [p]and[ph]. 37. What is a phone? How is it different form a phoneme? How are allophones related to a phoneme? A phone is a phonetic unit or segment. The speech sounds we hear and produce during linguistic communications are all phones. A phoneme is not any particular sound, but rather it is represented or realized by a certain phone in a certain phonetic context. The different phones which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environment are called the allophones of that phoneme. For example, the phoneme /l/ in English can be realized as dark [?] clear /l/, etc. which are allophones , of the phoneme /l/.


相关文章:
语言学复习重点 第一章
Chapter 1 Language and Linguistics (这一章主要探讨什么是语言,语言的功能是什么,语言的起源和分类,以及,什 么是语言学,语言学的研究范围是什么) 1.1 The ...
语言学 重点概念
Chapter one Introduction 一、定义 1.语言学 Linguistics Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language. 2.普通语言学 General Linguistics...
语言学概论——语言和语言学
语言学概论——语言和语言学_哲学_高等教育_教育专区。老师的文件哟!第一章 语言和语言学 第一节 语言的性质和功能 一 语言与言语 (一) 语言 语言是一种特殊...
语言学重点
语言学重点_文学_高等教育_教育专区。知识点归纳,重点解析Chapter 1 Invitations to Linguistics 一 Design features of language 语言的结构特征 Design features---...
语言学
语言学Chapter 12 5页 免费 胡壮麟语言学课件 69页 2财富值如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点击此处进行反馈。 ...
语言学
语言学_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。English Consonants: 清浊 voice; 发音部位 place; 发音方法 manner [b]: voiced bilabial stop [p]: voiceless bilabEnglish...
新编简明英语语言学 Chapter 7 Language change语言变化
新编简明英语语言学 Chapter 7 Language change语言变化_其它语言学习_外语学习_教育专区。Chapter 7 Language change 语言变化 知识点: 1. *Definition: clipping; ...
语言学概论复习(完整)
语言学概论复习资料一、名词解释 1.语言的主观性:说话者在话语中表达自己的情感、态度、意图。 (互动的另一方面包括受 话人受到影响,做出相应的语言或行动上的...
语言学概论期末复习名词解释汇总
语言学概论期末复习名词解释汇总_文学_高等教育_教育专区。语言学概论期末复习必备资料名词解释: 1.聚合关系:聚合关系是指在一定条件下,在语言链条的某一环节上,能够...
英语语言学第1-3章课后练习题答案
(2.2 语言的识别性特征) 美国语言学家 C. Hockett 提出了人类语言的 12 种识别性特征, 其中最重要的识别性特种有 5 种: 即语言的任意性、创造性、二重性、...
更多相关标签: