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Chapter 2 Phonology
I. Fill in the blanks. 1. _Articulatory___phonetics studies the movement of the vocal organs of producing the sounds of speech. 2. Speech takes place when the organs of speech move to produce patterns of sound. These movements have an effect on the _airstream__coming from the lungs. 3. Consonant sounds can be either _voiced__ or _voiceless__, while all vowel sounds are __voiced__ 4. The qualities of vowels depend upon the position of the _tongue___and the lips. 5. One element in the description of vowels is the part of the tongue which is at the highest point in the mouth. A second element is the _height__ to which that part of the tongue is raised. 6. Consonants differ from vowels in that the latter are produced without _obstruction___ 7. In phonological analysis the words fail—veil are distinguishable simply because of the two phonemes /f/-/v/. This is an example for illustrating _minimal pairs___ 8. In English there are a number of __diphthongs _, which are produced by moving from one vowel position to another through intervening positions. 9. _Assimilation Rule 同化规则__refers to the phenomenon of sounds continually show the influence of their neighbors.

II.

Choose the best answer

10. Pitch variation is known as ___ when its patterns are imposed on sentences. A intonation B tone C pronunciation D voice 11. Conventionally a ____is put in slashes. A allophone B phone C phoneme D morpheme 词素 12. An aspirated p, an unaspirated p are ___ of the p phoneme. A analogues B tagmemes C morphemes D allophones 13. The diphthongs that are made with a movement of the tongue towards the center are known as ___ diphthongs. A wide B closing C narrow D centering 14. A phoneme is a group of similar sounds called ___ A minimal pairs B allomorphs C phones D allophones 15. which branch of phonetics concerns the production of speech sounds? A Acoustic phonetics B Articulatory phonetics C Auditory phonetics D Neither of them 16. Which one is different from the others according to manners of articulation? A [z] B [w] C [?] ? D [v] 17. Which one is different from the others according to places of articulation . A [n] B [m] C [b] D[p] 18. Which vowel is different from others according to the characteristics of vowels? A[i: B[u] C[e] D[i] ] 19. What kind of sounds can we make when the vocal cords are vibrating? A Voiceless B Voiced C Vowel D Consonant 20. Which consonant represents the following description: voiceless labiodental fricative? A [f] B [?] C [z] D [s]

III. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
21. Of the three phonetics branches, the longest established one, and until recently the most highly developed, is acoustic phonetics ( False) 22. Sound [p] in the word “spit” is an unaspirated stop. (True) 23. Supersegmental phonology refers to the study of phonological properties of units larger than the segment-phoneme, such as syllable, word and sentence (True) 24. The airstream provided by the lungs has to undergo a number of modification to acquire the quality of a speech sound. (T) 25. Two sounds are in free variation when they occur in the same environment and do not contrast, namely, the substitution of one for the other does not produce a different word, but merely a different pronunciation. (True) 26. [p] is voiced bilabial stop. (F) 27. Acoustic phonetics is concerned with the perception of speech sounds. (False) 28. When pure or monophthongs are pronounced, no vowel glides take place. (True)

29. According to the length or tenseness of the pronunciation, vowels can be divided into tense vs lax, or long vs. short. (T)

IV. Explain the following terms
30. Minimal pair : When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two sound combinations are said to form a minimal pair. For example : beat, bit, bet, bat, boot, but, bait, bite, boat. 31. Sound assimilation: Speech sounds seldom occur in isolation. In connected speech, under the influence of their neighbours, are replaced by other sounds. Sometimes two neighbouring sounds influence each other and are replaced by a third sound which is different from both the original sounds. This process is called sound assimilation. 32. Phonology It studies the patterning of speech sounds, that is , the ways in which speech sounds form systems and patterns in human languages. 33. Phonetics It is termed as the study of speech sounds. It is a branch of linguistic which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription. It has thee sub-branches: articulatory phonetics , auditory phonetics, and acoustic phonetics.

V Answer the following questions briefly.
34. How are the English consonants classified? English consonants can be classified into two ways: on is in terms of manner of articulation and the other is in terms of place of articulation. In terms of manner of articulation the English consonants can be classified into the flowing types: stops, fricatives, affricative, liquids, nasals and glides. In terms of places of articulation, it can be classified into following types: bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar and glottal . 35. What criteria are used to classify the English vowels? Vowels may be distinguished as front, central and back according to which part of the tongue is held highest. To further distinguish members of each group, we need to apply another criterions, i,e. the openness of the mouth. Accordingly, we classify the vowels into four groups: close vowels, semi-close vowels, semi-open vowels, and open vowels. A third criterion that is often used in the classification of vowels is the shape of the lips. In English, all the front vowels and the central vowels are unrounded vowels, i,e without rounding the lips and all the back vowels with the exception of

[a: ]are rounded.
36. How do phonetics and phonology differ in their focus of study? Who do you think will be more interested in the difference between, say, [l]and[?] [p]and[ph], a phonetician or a phonologist? Why? 1)Both phonology and phonetics are concerned with the same aspect of language ---the speech sounds. But while both are related to the study of sounds, they differ in their approach and focus. Phonetics is of a general nature; it is interested in all the speech sounds used in all human languages: how they are produced, how they differ from each other, what phonetic features they possess, how they can be classified, etc. Phonology, on the other hand, aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used to convey meaning in linguistic communication. 2) A phonologist will be more interested in it. Because one of the tasks of the phonologists is to find out rule that governs the distribution of [l]and[?] [p]and[ph]. 37. What is a phone? How is it different form a phoneme? How are allophones related to a phoneme? A phone is a phonetic unit or segment. The speech sounds we hear and produce during linguistic communications are all phones. A phoneme is not any particular sound, but rather it is represented or realized by a certain phone in a certain phonetic context. The different phones which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environment are called the allophones of that phoneme. For example, the phoneme /l/ in English can be realized as dark [?] clear /l/, etc. which are allophones , of the phoneme /l/.


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