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The Energy Gap – How CO2 Tertiary Oil Recovery will mark its place in the 21st Century


CMTC-440075 “SPE-139516 “Life beyond 80 – A Look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV Injection in CO2 Tertiary Floods” CMTC-440223 “The Energy Gap – How CO2 Tertiary Oil Recovery will mark its place in the 21st Century”

David H. Merchant

Presented to Midland CO2 Conference December 9, 2015 Midland, Texas

Permian Basin
Welcome to the Permian Basin?

300 miles (480 km) North South 250 miles (400 km) East West

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Carbon Management Technical Conference
November 2015 Sugarland, Texas
CMTC-440075 “SPE-139516 “Life beyond 80 – A Look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV Injection in CO2 Tertiary Floods” CMTC-440223 “The Energy Gap – How CO2 Tertiary Oil Recovery will mark its place in the 21st Century”

Thanks: CMTC Management Team George Koperna (ARI)

Greatly Appreciated, Thank you
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

CMTC-440075-MS SPE-139516 “Life beyond 80 – A Look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV Injection in CO2 Tertiary Floods”
David Merchant, Merchant Consulting

Note: This paper, along with my other SPE and CMTC Publications can be down-loaded from my WEB sites listed above.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

What is CO2 Tertiary Oil Recovery?

“CO2 Flood History since 1972”

Tertiary CO2 Flooding

Sacroc Field - 1972 Since 1972 over 130+ CO2 Tertiary Projects have been implemented in the United States. Today, CO2 projects in the United States produce over 350,000 BOPD with CO2 transported over 4,500 miles of CO2 pipeline.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Permian Basin Statistics

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Permian Basin
“First Commercial CO2 Flood - 1972” “Latest Success Story”

Sacroc Unit in Kelly Snyder Field

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

EXISTING MARKETS
Year - 2000

Wyoming
Montana

CURRENT CO2 SOURCES and PIPELINES

Canadian
Maine

Washington

Great Plains Coal Plant
North Dakota Minnesota Wisconsin Michigan Pennsylvania Iow a Nebraska Colorado Illinois Missouri Ohio Indiana W. Virginia Kansas Virginia Kentucky North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee South Carolina Georgia

New Hampshire Vermont New York Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaw are Maryland

Oregon Idaho

LaBarge
Wyoming

South Dakota

Nevada Utah

McElmo Dome
California

Sheep Mountain

Arizona New Mexico

Bravo Dome

Arkansas

Mississippi Alabama

Sacroc Unit Kelly Snyder Field

Texas

Louisiana

Jackson Dome

Terrell, Puckett, Mitchell, Grey Ranch Plants

Florida

Permian Basin
PETRA 12/1/99 10:10:02 AM

Louisiana/Mississippi
1561185 Ft/In

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Canyon Reef Map – Sacroc Unit

S ACROC UNIT KELLY S NYDER FIELD BAS E MAP By: David H. Merchant Date: S eptember 2000
9464 Ft/In
PETRA 9/12/00 12:17:43 AM

The Kelly Snyder Field (Sacroc Unit) recovers Tertiary Oil from the Canyon Reef Limestone Formation about 6,700 ft. deep
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Sacroc Unit – Production History
Sacroc Unit
Field Discovery November 1948
300,000

Historical Production and Injection
SACROC UNIT KELLY SNYDER FIELD
BOPD MCFIPD BWIPD
1,200,000

Peak Water Inj. 126,000 BWIPD CO2 Injection January 1972 Peak Oil Rate 209,000 BOPD

250,000

Wate r Injection Septembe r 1954

1,000,000

200,000
BOPD, MCFIPD

800,000

150,000

600,000

100,000

400,000

BWIPD

Year 2000

50,000

200,000

Jan-48 Jan-50 Jan-52 Jan-54 Jan-56 Jan-58 Jan-60 Jan-62 Jan-64 Jan-66 Jan-68 Jan-70 Jan-72 Jan-74 Jan-76 Jan-78 Jan-80 Jan-82 Jan-84 Jan-86 Jan-88 Jan-90 Jan-92 Jan-94 Jan-96 Jan-98 Jan-00

-

Time, years

Curre nt Oil Rate 9,071 BOPD

1948
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

1972

2000

Sacroc Unit Pennzoil Operatorship 1992 - 1999

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Sacroc Unit Pennzoil Operatorship 1992 - 1999
SACROC UNIT KELLY SNYDER FIELD
300,000

BOPD MCFIPD BWIPD
1,200,000

250,000

1,000,000

200,000
BOPD, MCFIPD

800,000

150,000

600,000

100,000

400,000

50,000

200,000

Jan-48 Jan-50 Jan-52 Jan-54 Jan-56 Jan-58 Jan-60 Jan-62 Jan-64 Jan-66 Jan-68 Jan-70 Jan-72 Jan-74 Jan-76 Jan-78 Jan-80 Jan-82 Jan-84 Jan-86 Jan-88 Jan-90 Jan-92 Jan-94 Jan-96 Jan-98 Jan-00

-

Time, years

1948
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

1992

2000

BWIPD

Sacroc Unit – Pennzoil Ownership
Center-line Project

1996 CO2 Pattern Development Plan 300 Acre Pilot

Pennzoil Team
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ghasem Bayat Tony Benvegnu Claud Pickard Jack Horkowitz Tom Wingate Don Hartman

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Historical Production – Oil Production and CO2 Injection
SACROC UNIT KELLY SNYDER FIELD
40,000 BOPD MCFIPD 240,000

Sacroc Unit – Pennzoil Ownership

32,000

200,000

Pennzoil
160,000

BOPD, MCFD, MCFIPD

24,000

3 years
16,000

120,000

80,000

8,000

40,000

Jan-90 Jan-91 Jan-92 Jan-93 Jan-94 Jan-95 Jan-96 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Time, years

-

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Historical Production by Project Area
SACROC UNIT KELLY SNYDER FIELD Oil Rate - Historical (1990 - 2000)
30000

Sacroc Unit – Pennzoil Ownership
CENTERLINE NORFLOOD SOUTHWEST BANK NON PROJECT AREA

25000

20000

BOPD

15000

Center-line Project Up – 3000 BOPD

10000

5000

0

Jan-90

Jan-91

Jan-92

Jan-93

Jan-94

Jan-95

Jan-96

Jan-97

Jan-98

Jan-99

Time - years

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-00

Sacroc Unit Devon Operatorship 1999 – 2000 Kinder Morgan Ownership 2000 - Today
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Sacroc Unit Current CO2 and Water Injection
SACROC UNIT KELLY SNYDER FIELD
900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 MSCFIPD (CO2)-HIST BWIPD-HIST

900,000

Historical Water and CO2 Injection
Kinder Morgan Company purchased Shell CO2 Company in April 2000

800 MMSCFD

800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000

MSCFIPD

CO2 Injection Increase

120 MMSCFD

100,000 -

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Ja n9 Ju 7 l-9 Ja 7 n9 Ju 8 l-9 Ja 8 n9 Ju 9 l-9 Ja 9 n0 Ju 0 l-0 Ja 0 n01 Ju l-0 Ja 1 n0 Ju 2 l-0 Ja 2 n0 Ju 3 l-0 Ja 3 n0 Ju 4 l-0 Ja 4 n0 Ju 5 l-0 Ja 5 n0 Ju 6 l-0 Ja 6 n0 Ju 7 l-0 Ja 7 n08 Ju l-0 Ja 8 n0 Ju 9 l-0 Ja 9 n1 Ju 0 l-1 0

Time, years

1997

2002

2010

BWIPD

Sacroc Unit Current Oil Production
SACROC UNIT KELLY SNYDER FIELD
40,000
BOPD-HIST BOPD-(Base Case) BOPD-(2000 Prediction)

35,000

Historical Oil Rate
Kinder Morgan Company purchased Shell CO2 Company in April 2000

Predictions Oil Rate

30,000

33,000 BOPD

25,000

BOPD

20,000

15,000

Tertiary Oil Response 8,500 BOPD
In 2015, the field continues to produce over 30,000 BOPD

10,000

5,000

-

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Ja n97 Ju l-9 Ja 7 n98 Ju l-9 Ja 8 n99 Ju l-9 Ja 9 n00 Ju l-0 Ja 0 n01 Ju l-0 Ja 1 n02 Ju l-0 Ja 2 n03 Ju l-0 Ja 3 n04 Ju l-0 Ja 4 n05 Ju l-0 Ja 5 n06 Ju l-0 Ja 6 n07 Ju l-0 Ja 7 n08 Ju l-0 Ja 8 n09 Ju l-0 Ja 9 n10 Ju l-1 0
Time, years

1997

2002

2010

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

You can’t fool Mother Nature…….

The amount of 2 TRAPPED, STORED, OR SEQUESTERED is dependent on the Composition of the Residual Oil Saturation and Phase Trapping of the Non-Wetting Phase, which in this case is CO2.

CO

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

CO2 Miscible Process Compositionally Driven
Oil Bank Transition Zone
Residual Oil CO2 Rich (Slug) Oil Bank

Multiple Contact Miscible Process (time and compositionally dependent)

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Miscible Zone formed by CO2 becoming enriched with C2 – C30

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Ten CO2 Recovery Methods

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Tertiary CO2 Flooding
Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Conventional WAG w/ ROZ Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost
SPE Paper 139516 – “Life Beyond 80 – A look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV Injection in CO2 Tertiary Floods”

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Tertiary CO2 Flooding

“The Previous Millennium”
20th Century “Life below 80% HCPV Injected”

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Example -WAG BENEFITS
(Control CO2 Process)

Oxy-Permian - Slaughter Estate Unit in Slaughter Field
SLAUGHTER FIELD - Slaughter Field Project - All Leases in Slaughter Field

Slaughter Field Map - Current Operators

Tyner Unit - Oxy

XIT Unit - Apache

NW Mallet Unit - Altura

Mallet Unit - OXY

West RKM Unit - Altura

D ean C uni t

Conoco Dean Unit - Merit CS Dean A Unit - Apache
D ean C U ni t - M obi l

Al tu ra

East RKM Unit - Altura FL Woodley Unit - Mobil

Sm i t h I goe

League 91 Unit
Duggan Slaughter Unit - Pennzoil

Mallet Unit - Mobil Igoe Smith Unit Altura HT Boyd Unit
An a d a rk o

M R Be rry

East Mallet Unit - Mobil

Sundown Unit - Altura

Al t ur a

Bass Properties

Dean B Unit - Union Royalty

Boyd Mallet Unit - Belco Central Mallet Unit - Altura Bob Slaughter Unit - Texaco

Al e x Sl a u g h te r Un i t M edallion

Slaughter Estate Unit - Altura

Mallet LC (C,D,F) - Texaco

GB L u c a s Un i t Ap a c h e Hu d g e n s Un i t M G Go rd o n WG Fra z i e r Un i t - Al tu ra Co o n s Un i t Ex x o n Gl i m p Un i t Pe n n z o i l

Cochran County Yoakum County

Hockley County Terry County

Pennzoi l

M a l l e t L a n d a n d Ca ttl e - Pe n n z o i l

14686 Ft/In
PETRA 8/1/99 9:35:02 AM

SPE Paper No. 26624
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Example - WAG BENEFITS
(Control CO2 Process)

Oxy-Permian - Slaughter Estate Unit in Slaughter Field Production and Injection (1984 – 1994)

1984

1994

1984

1994

1984

1994

1984

1994

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

SPE Paper No. 26624

Example - WAG BENEFITS
(Control CO2 Process)

Level Load Gas Production WAG Change - 1989

Oil Prod

Effect of Constant WAG Injection Operations

Gas Prod

1984

1994

Effect of Over-WAG Ops.

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Tertiary CO2 Flooding

“The New Millennium”
21st Century “Life beyond 80% HCPV Injected”

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

2010’s

SPE Paper 139516 – “Life Beyond 80 – A look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV Injection in CO2 Tertiary Floods”

Field Example Seminole Field

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Oil Field Basics
Oil Field History – (All Fields Worldwide)
Well Log

Recovery Mechanisms
Primary Oil Recovery Secondary Recovery Tertiary Oil Recovery

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Tertiary CO2 Flooding
Permian Basin (Seminole Field)
Seminole Field Location Seminole Field

Seminole Field The Seminole field recovers Tertiary Oil from the San Andres Formation about 5,500 ft. deep which also includes a large Residual Oil Zone (ROZ). The Field is developed on 9-spot pattern spacing.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Permian Basin (Residual Oil Zone - ROZ)

Gas Cap Main Pay

ROZ

Melzer CO2 Conf 2011

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Total Gross= 406 ft Total Net= 333 ft

Permian Basin (Residual Oil Zone - ROZ)

ROZ - Oil Saturation Profile
Oil Saturation Original
0% 100%

Oil Saturation Today
0% 100%

Note: Reservoir originally contained full column of oil Oil migrated elsewhere in basin A Residual Oil Saturation remained afterwards

Note: ROZ Pay Zones do not exist in all Basins
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Seminole San Andres Unit Primary Recovery
Primary Recovery
Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance
Historical Production and Injection - Rate Predictions (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Recovery Mechanisms)
BOPD BOPD (WF) BOPD (PRIMARY) MCFD BWPD BOPD (PREDICTION) MCFD (PRIMARY PRED) BWPD (PRIMARY PRED)

100,000 BOPD
100,000

500,000 BWPD, MCFD
500,000

Field Discovery - 1936
80,000 400,000

BOPD

60,000

300,000

Today
40,000 200,000

Primary Peak Oil Production - 25,000 BOPD
20,000 100,000

0

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

1970

2000

2012

2040

Time, years

Note: Little Water Production occurred during Primary Recovery Note: Reservoir Pressure depleted during this time frame
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

BWPD, MSCFD (Total Gas)

Seminole San Andres Unit
Secondary Recovery - Waterflood
Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance
Historical and Prediction - Water Injection
BWIPD BWIPD (Pred)

250,000 BWIPD
250,000

200,000

BWIPD

150,000

Water Injection
100,000

Today

50,000

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

1971 (WF)

Time, years

2012

Note: Water Injection is introduced into the Reservoir in 1971 Note: Mass Balance – Water had to be found to initiate Waterflood operations
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

Seminole San Andres Unit
Secondary Recovery - Waterflood
Secondary Recovery
Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance
BOPD BOPD (WF) BOPD (PRIMARY) MCFD BWPD BOPD (PREDICTION) MCFD (SECONDARY PRED) BWPD (SECONDARY PRED)

100,000 BOPD
100,000

Historical Production and Injection - Rate Predictions (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Recovery Mechanisms)

500,000 BWPD, MCFD
500,000

Field Discovery - 1936
80,000

Secondary Peak Oil Production - 75,000 BOPD

400,000

BOPD

60,000

300,000

Water Injection
40,000

Today
200,000

20,000

100,000

0

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

1971 (WF)

2000

2012

2040

Time, years

Note: Good Secondary Oil Response after Water Injection Note: Gas Production collapsed after Water Injection (Pressure-up) Note: Water Prodution occurred shortly after Water Injection
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

BWPD, MSCFD (Total Gas)

Seminole San Andres Unit
Tertiary Recovery (Main Pay Only)
100,000 BOPD
100,000

Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance

Historical Production and Injection - Rate Predictions (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Recovery Mechanisms)

250,000 BWPD, MCFD
250,000

BOPD (WF) BOPD (PRIMARY) BOPD (PREDICTION) BOPD MCFD BWPD BWPD (Pred) MCFPD (Pred)

Field Discovery - 1936
80,000

Tertiary Peak (MP) Peak Oil Production - 43,000 BOPD
200,000

Secondary Peak Oil Production - 75,000 BOPD

(Level Load)
150,000

BOPD

60,000

40,000

Today

100,000

20,000

50,000

0

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

CO2 Injection

1983 (MP)
Time, years

2000

2012

2040

Note: The Reservoir produced a strong Tertiary Oil Response Note: Total Gas Production increased with rapid breakthrough Note: Water Injection and Production were decreasing prior to 1996 prior to ROZ start-up in 1996 Note: Total Gas Rate is “Level Loaded” to Plant Inlet Rate
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

BWPD, MSCFD (Total Gas)

Seminole San Andres Unit
Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance
Historical and Prediction - Water and CO2 Injection
BWIPD BWIPD (Pred) MCFIPD MCFIPD (Pred)

250,000 BWIPD
250,000

500,000 MSCFIPD

500,000

200,000

400,000

100,000

Water Injection

Today

200,000

50,000

100,000

0

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

1971 (WF)

CO2 Injection

1983 (MP) 1996 (ROZ)

2012

Time, years

Note: Total Gas Injection has been constant since CO2 Injection in 1983 Note: Water Injection was decreasing from 1983 to 1996 (Prior to ROZ)
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

MSCFIPD

BWIPD

150,000

300,000

Seminole San Andres Unit
Tertiary Recovery (Main Pay Only)
100 PRIMARY 80 SECONDARY TERTIARY

Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance

OIL REC PRIMARY - % OOIP OIL REC WF - % OOIP OIL RECOVERY - % OOIP OIL REC PRIMARY - % OOIP OIL REC WF - % OOIP OIL RECOVERY - % OOIP
PREDICTION

Historical Oil (Primary + Secondary + Tertiary) Recovery - % OOIP

OIL RECOVERY - % OOIP

Expected Ultimate Oil Recovery 60

68.7%

Tertiary Oil Recovery 40

26.0%

Waterflood Oil Recovery 20

29.9%

0

Primary Recovery- 12.8%
Jan-35 Jan-40 Jan-45 Jan-50 Jan-55 Jan-60 Jan-65 Jan-70 Jan-75 Jan-80 Jan-85 Jan-90 Jan-95 Jan-00 Jan-05 Jan-10 Jan-15 Jan-20 Jan-25 Jan-30 Jan-35 Jan-40

Total Incremental Tertiary Oil Recovery to Date - 18.9%

Time, years

Note: The Reservoir is expected to Recover 26% of its OOIP with CO2 Injection
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Seminole San Andres Unit
Tertiary Recovery (ROZ Addition)
100,000 BOPD
100,000

Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance

Historical Production and Injection - Rate Predictions (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Recovery Mechanisms)

250,000 BWPD, MCFD
250,000

BOPD BOPD (WF) BOPD (Tertiary MP) BOPD (ROZ) MCFD BWPD BWPD (Pred) MCFPD (Pred)

Field Discovery - 1936
80,000

Tertiary Peak (MP) Peak Oil Production - 43,000 BOPD
200,000

Secondary Peak Oil Production - 75,000 BOPD

(Level Load)
150,000

BOPD

60,000

40,000

Today

100,000

20,000

50,000

0

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

CO2 Injection

1983 (MP)
Time, years

1996 (ROZ)

2012

2040

Note: The ROZ produced a strong Tertiary Oil Response Note: Total Gas Production has been “Level Loaded” to Plant Inlet Rate Note: ROZ Water Production will be strong initially, but should decrease with time, level out, and then increase as WAG Ratio is increased
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

BWPD, MSCFD (Total Gas)

Seminole San Andres Unit
Seminole San Andres Unit Total Unit Performance
Historical and Prediction - Water and CO2 Injection
BWIPD BWIPD (Pred) MCFIPD MCFIPD (Pred)

250,000 BWIPD
250,000

500,000 MSCFIPD

500,000

200,000

400,000

100,000

Water Injection

Today

200,000

50,000

100,000

0

0

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Jan-05

Jan-10

Jan-15

Jan-20

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

1935

1971 (WF)

CO2 Injection

1983 (MP) 1996 (ROZ)

2012

Time, years

Note: Total Gas Injection has been constant since CO2 Injection in 1988 Note: Water Injection was decreasing from 1983 to 1996 (Prior to ROZ) Note: ROZ Increase in Water Injection in 1996 and decrease in 2000
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-40

MSCFIPD

BWIPD

150,000

300,000

Gravity Drainage / Double Displacement Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

CO2 Sequestration, Gas Storage and Gravity Drainage Projects
(Conformance can be detrimental) Gas Cycling is a big problem

Low Dip Reservoir

Moderately Low or High Dip Res.
(Can run Miscible or Immiscible) Conduct a gravity Stabilized CO2 flood with chase gas
Chase Gas Inj. CO2, Flue gas, Nitrogen , Air

CO2 Conformance Problems

CO2 Bank

Displacement Process
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Replacement Process

San Andres Map – Yates Field

San Andres Map – Yates Field

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Yates Reservoir History
Discovery: 1926 Discovered in 1926 550’ of Oil Column at Structure Top Produced By Individual Operators Unitized in 1976 to Prevent Aquifer Influx Gas Re-injected,Water Re-injected Oil Column Thinned Double Displacement Reservoir Dewatering Contact Lowering Contact Stabilization (30 ft oil column) Gas Cap Injection Aquifer “Maintenance” By Offsite Disposal

1926 - 1976

1976 - 1992

1992 - 2000

2000 - 2012

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Yates Unit Historical Performance
Yates Total Unit Performance Production and Injection
250,000
BOPD MCFPD MSCFIPD(Total Gas) BWPD

Primary Production History
200,000

Secondary and Tertiary Production History

BWIPD

500,000

400,000

Oil Production (Peak) 130 MBOPD (approx.)
BOPD, MSCFD
150,000 300,000

100,000

200,000

50,000

100,000

0

0

Jan-25

Jan-30

Jan-35

Jan-40

Jan-45

Jan-50

Jan-55

Jan-60

Jan-65

Jan-70

Jan-75

Jan-80

Jan-85

Jan-90

Jan-95

Jan-00

Time, years

Field Production and Injection

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-05

BWPD

Yates Unit Historical Performance
Yates Total Unit Performance Gas Injection Only
200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0
Jan-70 Jan-72 Jan-74 Jan-76 Jan-78 Jan-80
BOPD MSCFPD(GAS) MSCFPD(CO2)

250,000

Gas Inj Startup - July 1976

Tertiary Production History CO2 Gas Injection

MSCFPD(N2)

200,000

N2 Gas Injection
150,000
MSCFIPD (GAS,CO2, N2)

BOPD, MSCFD

Comb Gas Injection

100,000

50,000

Jan-82

Jan-84

Jan-86

Jan-88

Jan-90

Jan-92

Jan-94

Jan-96

Jan-98

Jan-00

Jan-02

CO2 Injection Startup - Nov. 1985

Time, years

Field Gas Injection Breakout

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Jan-04

Flue Gas

CO2

Nitrogen/CO2

0

CO2

Yates Unit Historical Performance
Yates Total Unit Performance Nitrogen and CO2 Injection (Current)
250,000
MSCFIPD (N2)-HIST MSCFIPD (CO2)-HIST

Historical N2 and CO2 Injection
200,000

150,000
MSCFIPD

N2 CO2
Jul-02 Jul-03 Jul-04 Jul-05 Jul-06 Jul-07 Jul-08 Jul-09 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09 Jan-10 Jul-10

100,000

50,000

Kinder Morgan returned CO2 injection to Yates field in 2003 in addition to a horizontal drilling program

Jul-97 Jul-98 Jul-99 Jul-00 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jul-01 Jan-02

Time, years
Field Injection (Current)

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Yates Unit Historical Performance
Yates Total Unit Performance Oil Production (Current)
70,000
BOPD-HIST

60,000

Historical Oil Rate
Kinder Morgan returned CO2 injection to Yates field in 2003 in addition to horizontal drilling program

50,000

40,000
BOPD

30,000

10,000 BOPD Increase

20,000

10,000

Jul-97 Jul-98 Jul-99 Jul-00 Jul-01 Jul-02 Jul-03 Jul-04 Jul-05 Jul-06 Jul-07 Jul-08 Jul-09 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09 Jan-10 Jul-10

Time, years
Field Production (Current)

In 2015, the field continues to produce between 20,000 BOPD and 30,000 BOPD Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Gas Cycling – Denbury Resources Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Gas Cycling Example – Denbury
Little Creek Field and West Mallalieu Field

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Gas Cycling Example – Denbury
Little Creek Field and West Mallalieu Field

Denbury: 2006 CO2 Conf

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Huff-n-Puff (Single Well Injection) Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Tertiary CO2 Flooding

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Small Field and Huff-n-Puff Example
Dr. Robert Zubrin

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Heavy Oil (14+ API Gravity) Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)
Wilmington Onshore CO2 Pilots

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Wilmington Offshore THUMS Unit

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Heavy Oil Example – 14+ API Gravity
Wilmington Field – Los Angeles (3 CO2 Pilots)

Wilmington Field

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Shale Oil – Bakken, Wolfcamp Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Williston Basin – Bakken Formation – Shale Oil Target

To improve Primary Oil Recovery, operators have resorted from single to bilateral Horizontal Well Completions with massive sand fracture technology to improve Primary Oil Recovery.

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Williston Basin – Bakken Formation

To make this technology work, large investments involving many horizontal wells on steep decline are required to keep a reasonable continuous rate profile. This results in a many well, many year continuous drilling programs.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Williston Basin – Bakken Formation Results of this effort are shown below

The 10 year Bakken development plan shown above contains 10 one year phases. Ninety wells per phase per year are required for the first four phases with 45 wells per phase per year for the last six phases. This results in a total of 635 wells to be drilled over a 10 year period with a single well cost of around 3 million dollars. For other areas of the Bakken drilling costs can exceed 12 million dollars per well.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Williston Basin – Bakken Formation Reservoir Model Study – CO2 Tertiary Prediction
CO2 Oil Recovery

Primary
Oil Recovery
Simulation Comparison study results are shown above. Primary recovery was limited to 5 years (3.64% OOIP). With CO2 Injection over 95 years, Continuous Injection of CO2 out-performed water injection and other cyclic Huff-n-Puff injection schemes.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Williston Basin – Bakken Formation Reservoir Model Study – CO2 Tertiary Prediction

Water flood Recovery

CO2 Recovery

The simulation results show that CO2 flooding presents a technically promising method for recovering Bakken oil, but over a very long injection period (95 years of injection). Also, note the long time to breakthrough (several months to many years).
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Horizontal Well Development Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Horizontal Drilling CO2 Projects
Canada - Weyburn Field Utah - Aneth Field

Current CO2 Floods

Montana – Cedar Creek Anticline

North Sea – Denmark – Dan Field

Future CO2 Floods

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost
Ten CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field)

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

California
Kern County Oil Fields
Kern County California

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Kern County California

Rio Bravo Field - Phased-in Pattern Development
Conventional WAG Case – Producer and Injector Pattern Development

Rio Bravo Field - Phased-in Pattern Development
Gravity Drainage Case - Injectors

Rio Bravo Field - Phased-in Pattern Development
Gravity Drainage Case - Producers

Oxy Fuel Concept

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Rio Bravo Unit Field - Phased-in Pattern Development
Gravity Drainage Case – CO2 Injection w/ Nitro Boost

Rio Bravo Field - Phased-in Pattern Development
Gravity Drainage Case – with addition of Nitro Boost Gravity Drainage Development Plan CO2 Injector Count: 5 Wells N2 Injector Count: 5 Wells Producer Count: 113 Wells Nitro Boost Addition N2 Injection Wells (up-dip)

Additional CO2 Injection Wells (down-dip)

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

84

Recover both Tertiary Oil and Water
Eleventh CO2 Recovery Methods used for Tertiary Oil Recovery in the United States
1. 2. 3. Conventional WAG Recovery (90%+) Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) (Seminole) Gravity Drainage (Yates Field) Enhanced Oil Recovery - EOR

4.
5. 6.

Double Displacement (Yates Field)
Gas Cycling (Denbury, Mississippi). Huff-and-Puff (100+ Projects)

7.
8. 9. 10.

Heavy Oil - Calif. (14+ API Gravity)
Shale Oil (Bakken) (Under Investigation) Horizontal Well Pattern Development CO2 Gas Drive w/ Nitro Boost Note: Recover both Tertiary Oil and Water

Eleventh CO2 Recovery Method used for CO2 Sequestration
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Note: This paper, along with my other SPE and CMTC Publications can be down-loaded from my WEB sites listed above.
Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

“CO2 Sequestration Future 2005”

Tertiary CO2 Flooding

In the 21st Century, CO2 Sequestration will provide CO2 from IGCC Natural Gas and Coal Fired Power Plants, Refineries, and other large scale Anthropogenic CO2 Sources to fill the Energy Gap that exists between “Peak Oil” and the future “Hydrogen Energy Economy”.

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Gap Fillers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Primary Oil Recovery Secondary Oil Recovery Tertiary CO2 - Conventional Tertiary Oil Recovery Tertiary CO2 - Residual Oil Zone (ROZ) Tertiary CO2 – Heavy Oil (14+ API) Offshore – Shallow and Deep Water Natural Gas (Conventional Reservoirs) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Shale Oil (Wolfcamp, Eagle Ford, Bakken, Others) Shale Gas (Marcellus, Barnett, Eagle Ford) Coal to Gas, Coal to Liquids Steam, Thermal, and MEOR (Bacteria)

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Hydrogen Economy –“Clean Air Environment”
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Wind Power Solar Power Nuclear (Fission) Nuclear (Fusion) Hydrogen Power (Hydrogen Cars and Hydrogen Fuel Cells) Tertiary CO2 – EOR and CO2 Sequestration Mass Transportation (Automobiles poor means to move people) Clean Coal Gasification (Pre-Post Combustion, Oxy-fuel) Clean Natural Gas – (Conventional and Un-Conventional) Biomass – Balance with Mother Nature Nano Tech Algae (Clean Fuels)

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Consulting - Midland CO2 Conf - Dec 2015

Merchant Thanks to Steering Committee!
1995 First CO2 Conference: Talk on: Montage approach to Reservoir Management in Tertiary CO2 Floods – SPE 26624

Pictured: Tom McKnight (Union Royalty) David Merchant (Amoco) Ron Brockmeyer (Amoco) Russell Martin (Enron Gas Pipeline)

Newspaper Article celebrates CO2 Injection start-up into the Elmar field along with the CO2 Conference scheduled for December 4-5, 1995

Merchant Thanks to Steering Committee!
1995 Montage approach to Reservoir Management in Tertiary . CO2 Floods – SPE 26624
1999 Screening CO2 Candidate Reservoirs Fundamentals of Pattern Analysis 2000 Setting up the Pieces – What Constitutes a Simulation? 2004 Pattern Performance as a Diagnostic Tool for Reservoir Surveillance 2004 Monitoring the CO2 Flood - Problem Identification and Solutions

2009 Comparisons of Conventional CO2 WAG Injection Techniques used in the Permian Basin
2010 Life beyond 80 – A look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV in CO2 Tertiary Floods – SPE 139516 2012 The Energy Gap - “How CO2 Tertiary Recovery will mark its place in the 21st Century” 2013 Short Course: Surveillance and Monitoring of CO2 Injection Projects – “Pattern Balancing and Mass Balance” 2014 Short Course: Produced Water Management for CO2 Injection Projects – “Factors in the Permian Basin Subsurface “Mass Balance” 2015 CMTC440075 Life beyond 80 – A look at Conventional WAG Recovery beyond 80% HCPV in CO2 Tertiary Floods – SPE 139516

Thanks, Now its your turn?
David H. Merchant
Merchant Consulting
Email: MerchantConsulting@comcast.net

CO2 Storage Solutions
WEB: www.CO2StorageSolutions.com Key Words: Merchant Consulting, CO2 Storage Solutions, CO2 Seminars on Wheels
Magnolia, Texas o281-374-6330


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