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研究生英语阅读教程Unit8


Unit Eight
Education—Less of It By Tertius Chandler

Questions
? 1. Why does the author believe there should be fewer days of school? ? 2. How does the author interpret the remark that no one marries his first love? ? 3. Are there any of the author’s viewpoints which you disagree with? What are they and why?

Text
Will Durant in his Lessons of History claimed that the greatest hope of human race is increased education. I venture to wonder why? School is unfree, rather like a jail with a term lasting twenty years, if you’re able to stick to the course. Childhood and youth are sacred times when innate curiosity is intense and health and zest tend to be strong. Those years are too important to be frittered away memorizing irrelevant trivia in herded mobs under the heavy hand of compulsion. Ben Franklin had just two years in school and flunked both times—yet he went on to make himself the ablest and best-rounded leader in our history. Pascal and Petrie had no schooling at all. So learning can occur outside as well as in—perhaps even better, and especially now, when there are fine libraries open to all as well as television, bookstores, newspapers, and magazines. Think of the National Geographic!

1. Here on the other hand are arguments for education: 2. Older people know more, so the young can learn from them. Parental teaching might be preferable (and does increasingly occur), but in many families both parents are away at work. Anyway, teachers are specialists in particular subjects. These arguments are valid, and, it must be conceded, some learning does occur in schools. 3. Money! A school diploma is virtually useless on the job market, and so is a college degree. But school prepares for college, which prepares for postgraduate school, which prepares for entry into well-paid professions. In 1981 the average high school graduate made $18 138, whereas the average for those with five or more years of college was $32 887. Lifetime earnings for the high school graduates averaged $845 000, compared with $1 503 000 for five-year collegians. Yet an underlying flaw vitiates the comparision, for college draws people of higher intelligence and those from richer families. Their lifelong earnings largely reflect these particular factors.

3. The rah-rah spirit. A person likes to say he or she has been to suchsuch college. It’s the “in” thing. 4. High ambition. In this country of open opportunity parents naturally push their children all they can. It is refreshing to recall, however, that Washington, Lincoln, and Truman were among those who made it to president without going to college—and they were unusually good presidents. 5. Culture. The claim is often made that if culture wasn’t rammed into the young, they would never come to appreciate literature, art, and fine music. Frankly, that’s ridiculous. 6. Meeting friends. There are, of course, other places to meet people, and most of them allow more leisure to enjoy the friendship. Nevertheless, it must be said that college far from town is a fine place to make interesting acquaintances. Students are easily met in the dinning halls and on campus. Eventually one may Be out of town among the professors. make friends even To sum up, education does pass on some learning and introduces a person to many out-of-town folks, while being the only way to enter some professions. But it takes a long, long time!

Conditioned Robots Raymond Moore observes that: “The biggest shortcoming of mass education is the fact that students end up completely turned off to learning.” Or as Bertrand Russell ruefully concluded: “We are faced with the paradox that education has become one of the chief obstacles of intelligence and freedom of thought.” The educational profession has become geared to the College Board Examinations, which give it an awesome amount of rigidity. As a result, elective coursers are rather few, and are becoming fewer even in college. The number of school years is also prescribed. If a child masters mathematics in one year, so much the worse for him. Conversely, someone of low IQ has to suffer year after year with subjects that baffle him. In so far as school is adjusted to the mediocre student, and he, hopelessly unable to lead the class or win any prize, just drones on, loathing the whole procedure. in as far as/in so far as 到如此程度

All that keeps the system from destroying the students altogether is that most of them instinctively rebel inwardly against it and cooperate only enough to get by, reserving as much energy and time as they can manage for other activities. Indeed, the most unruly boys in class sometimes tend to be better later on in life. Unfortunately some rebellious activities, such as smoking, heavy drinking, and fast driving, are not healthy, yet by a discreet degree of rebelliousness and shirking a boy can remain spiritually alive. As Agatha Christie put it: “I suppose it is because nearly all children go to school nowadays, and have things arranged for them, that they seem so forlornly unable to produce their own ideas.” Kahlil Gibran’s great passage is relevant here: “Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of life’s longing for itself… you may give them your love but not your thoughts, for they have their own thoughts. You may house their bodies but not their souls. Their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow, which you may not visit, even in your dreams.” Gibran was not looking for conditioned robots.

A Shorter School Year Some sadist must have written the law requiring 180 annual school days. They begin in August, when berries are still ripening, and last into the sweltering heat of June. Fall and spring, by their nature gorgeous seasons, become fixed in young minds as symbols of the agony of school. It was when I was about halfway through prep school that teachers thought up a way to cut into the summer vacation— our only prolonged free time. They began assigning compulsory reading of novels. This was a grief and an indignity I will not easily forget. I had been reading the finest sort of literature on my own in the summers. After that I read the minimum—and hated it. Liberty dies hard in the human soul. Change should be in the other direction: toward less schooling.

How early? Jean Piaget noticed stages in children’s capacity to learn. He believed that to impose reading and mathematics on them before their minds are ready is to puzzle and torment them. School by its nature is force-feeding and, when children are very young, not only their bodies but also their feelings are very tender. To separate them from their parents and to inflict cold drill in seemingly pointless subjects on them can drive their feelings inward and make them feel unwanted and lonely, even in a crowded room. All this Piaget understood. Indeed, it is perfectly obvious. But, Piaget added, give the students those same subjects a few years later, and they can grasp them rather quickly, because their minds have become equal to the techniques needed and because they have reached the stage where they can see a purpose in what they are doing. Raymond Moore in his book School Can Wait suggests delaying school to the age of eight or ten and in a recently published letter opposes giving exams before the age of ten. The idea is not new. A century ago Robert Owen withheld books from children in his famous school until their tenth year. Montessori, likewise, set the young to playing games. These are the real heroes for the cause of children.

Puberty School treats pupils alike year after year. Yet somewhere in their teens boys notice girls. They are never the same again. School carries on as if the children were still just that. In the school where I went, aside from a warning to “stay pure,” nothing changed. The hard drill on useless scholasticism to get us into college continued. We were to think college and nothing but college so that success in life would be automatic. I got the message. When I was seventeen I met a girl I liked on a ski trip. I deliberately dropped her and by a hard effort, managed to forget her, since I still had five years before I’d be clear of college (actually nine, but I didn’t know about postgraduate study then). That was a romance that should have gotten off the ground and didn’t. Looking back, I see that I could probably have worked in the girl’s father’s factory. The father and mother liked me. I was past the compulsory schoolage, which was then sixteen in my state—but nobody told me things like that. College was a fixation for my parents and my teachers, and therefore for me, too.

I was not unique. Bernard De Voto told us in a talk at Harvard around 1935, “No one marries his first love.” He meant among the highly educated, for of course some dropouts do marry their first choice. It was, anyway, a chilling remark, an unpleasant commentary on how the educational system impacts on youth. The trade-off of love for a series of degrees is a poor deal. Lately, private schools have done a sudden about-face and flung the boys and girls together. They are aroused to love trade-off: have longer to agonize. Education and puberty earlier and son.平衡((在不能可同时兼得的 条件下));交换条件;成本的权衡, thus now clash head-on, but they still haven’t come to terms. the~between safety and cost 在安全与费 用支出间的折中

On Teaching English English can be dropped altogether. Charles W. Eliot of Harvard and others put English into our schools in 1900 by making it a requirement for the College Board Examinations. Eliot’s idea was that pupils can be compelled to present ideas clearly and to enjoy literature. He would drill these skills into them. The sheer quantity of disciplined effort would get results and turn our 18-year-olds into incisive, clear, witty writers. The result of all this massive drill over nearly a century has been to make our youths somewhat duller than before. Our few famous writers now are notable for their gloom, their insobriety, and their utter inability to come up with answers to our problems. It would seem that English was made a required subject to no purpose whatsoever. The correct way to teach English fundamentals—grammar, spelling, sentence structure—is to teach them as a part of other subjects. That way, English has a chance of being interesting. Just in this way, one teaches the use of a hammer in the process of teaching carpentry; one does not take a special course in hammering. It would be fiendishly dull if one did

Mathematics Ever since the Russians put Sputnik into orbit in 1957, there have been spasmodic efforts to increase the mathematics load of all U.S. schoolchildren, including future janitors, nurses, maids, and ditch diggers. While I respect those occupations, they do not require higher mathematics. Actually any useful computations for war or business will be made by a very few experts— perhaps by one-hundredth of 1 percent of the population—and they will be using computers. Underwood Dudley of De Pauw University, himself a mathematics teacher, believes that we teach mathematics not to solve problems or inculcate logical thinking but simply because we always have done so. As he puts it: “Practical? When was the last time you had to solve a quadratic equation? Was it just last week that you needed to find the volume of a cone? Isn’t it a fact that you never need any mathematics beyond arithmetic? … Algebra? Good heavens! Almost all people never use algebra, ever, outside of a classroom.”

He rightly adds that mathematical talent is very easy to spot early in life. Surely he is right that a special annual test should be held to see which students should be allowed to take mathematics beyond arithmetic—as an honor, not a requirement! The motivated proud few would then accomplish more than the slavedriven multitude. Any School at All? Once the need for school was clear. Back around 1800 schools were few and didn’t take long, only four to six years. They taught basics and were almost the only place for the young to get books. Nowadays, alternative means of learning are plentiful. As already mentioned, they include public libraries, television, bookstores, newspapers, and magazines. These actually represent an overabundance. If some state dropped schooling altogether, I wouldn’t oppose it. (I would not wish this change to be imposed by the federal government however.)

Self-Reliance Adult life calls for decision making and responsibility. These arise naturally at home but not in the educational system, where teachers make the decisions. A student, moreover, is competing against all the others, a self-centered attitude he will have to drop when he goes onto a job or into marriage. Required Reading In British colleges (but not schools!) the students pick their own reading. Here in the United States, students are told what to read and when to read it. Recoiling against this conformity, Professor Carl Sauer told us in his class at the University of California in 1939: “The required book list defeats its own purpose. Books should enable you to meet ideas, meet other personalities, if you like, appropriating from them what you can use, what you need. I don’t think I remember a single thing I had to read as required reading for any professor in college. I think if I had had any share in the discovery of something, a few ideas would have stuck. … Doing things for instructors is basically not doing anything at all.”

Do Universities Broaden Minds? Does university training help or hinder in developing intellectual capacity to do highly original work? Among highly creative modern thinkers the following were formally educated: Montesquieu, Jefferson, Goethe, Macaulay, Marx, Freud, Schweitzer, Proskouriakoff, Champollion, and Gandhi. These did not go to college: Voltaire, Hume, Owen, Austen, Balzac, Jairazbhoy, Gibran, Tolstoy, Twain, and Shaw. Bright people can teach themselves. As Henry Adams said, “ No one can educate anyone else. You have to do it for yourself.” There should, of course, be equivalency exams for the self-taught, as well as on-the-job training, for most professions.

Some would claim that if the youthful were encouraged to act freely, their initiative would be too great; that they would go berserk. But I think not: Most would marry, others would travel, invent, and carry on original work on all sorts of lines. Early marriage could balance many of them so they could work better. It is worth remembering in this connection that among the young, idealism and faith are uncommonly strong. Those destined for ordinary jobs don’t need to learn anything taught in college, and many of them know it. They attend college because it’s the thing to do. They tend to take “snaps” such as English literature or sociology. I see no objection to letting them enjoy themselves at private colleges if they want to. Public universities should, I think, confine themselves to serious training. The number entering should be preset as in Sweden, so as to train the quantity of people needed to fit the estimated number of openings in each profession, always allowing for the rise of some persons via equivalency exams.

College represents now too much of a good thing. There are too many professors and section leaders to adjust to, too many books to hasten through at a set speed, too many years to plod away on the treadmill. A Ph.D. in history is now expected to take four to eight years—on top of the twelve in school and four in college. Perhaps, worst of all, the Ph.D. subject is deliberately kept small, so that the student will be able to claim mastery of something. Four to eight years of deliberate narrowing can have the effect of incapacitating him from ever taking a broad view of anything. The result of all this mental drill tends to be a mashed human, an eviscerated person. Only a very sturdy soul, such as a Freud or a Schweitzer, can come through all this and still retain the ability to think for himself. University study could, with no intrinsic loss, be shortened from eight years to four, and school could be limited to ages ten to fifteen. These suggested reductions in compulsory education would have another powerful advantage: They might set our people’s minds largely free, a result surely to be wished.

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New words
venture [5ventFE] v.冒险, 冒昧, sacred [5seikrid] adj. 神圣的 innate [5ineit] adj. 先天的, 天生的 fritter away 浪费 irrelevant [i5relivEnt] adj. 不相关的 trivia [5trivjE] n. 琐事 compulsion [kEm5pQlF(E)n] n. 逼迫,被逼迫的行为 Ben Franklin 本·富兰克林(1706~1790)美国物理学家, 发明家,政治家,社会活动家 flunk [flQNk] v. 失败; 不及格 Pascal [5pAskEl] 帕斯卡( 1623-1662) 法国数学家、物理学 家、哲学家 Petrie [5pi:tri] 皮特里(1853~1942) 英國考古學家,埃及前王 朝文化的發掘主持者之一 valid [5vAlid] adj. 站得住脚的 concede [kEn5si:d] v. 勉强, 承认, 让步 collegian [kE5li:dVjEn] n. 大学生

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vitiate [5viFieit] vt. 损害 rah[rB:] n. 好哇的欢呼声 ram [rAm] v. 挤进; 塞进;灌输 Raymond Moore雷蒙德.穆尔(1898-1986)英国雕塑家 Bertrand Russell伯特兰·罗素( 1872-1970) 英国哲学家 ruefully [5ru:fEli] adv. 悲伤地, 可怜地 rigidity [ri5dViditi] n. 僵化;严格 baffle [5bAfl] vt. 使挫折,使困惑, mediocre [7mi:di5EukE; 5mi:diEukE] adj. 平常的;平庸的 drone [drEun] vi. 闲荡; 平平庸庸地过去 loathe [lEuT] vt. 厌恶, 憎恶 instinctively [in5stiNktivli] adv. 本能地 rebel [ri5bel] vi. 反叛, 反抗 unruly [Qn5ru:li] adj. 不守规矩的

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discreet [dis5kri:t] adj. 慎重的, shirk [FE:k] v. 逃避 Agatha Christie阿嘉莎·克莉斯蒂((1890-1976) 英国小说家 和剧作家, 被誉为“举世公认的侦探小说女王” , 作品包括 《尼罗河上的惨案》、《东方快车谋杀案》 forlorn [fE5lC:n] adj. 绝望的; 被遗弃的 Kahlil Gibran 纪伯伦(1883-1931) 黎巴嫩诗人 sadist [5sedist] n. 虐待狂者 sweltering [5sweltEriN] adj. 酷热的 agony [5A^Eni] n. 极大的痛苦 Jean Piaget 皮亚杰 (1896—1980) 瑞士心理学家 torment [5tC:ment] vt. 折磨 Robert Owen 欧文 (1804~1892)英国皇家学会会员,解 剖学家和古生物学家, 在1842年创造了“恐龙”(Dinosaur 的意为“可怕的蜥蝎”)一词 Montessori 蒙台梭利(1870-1952) 意大利女医师及教育家 puberty [5pju:bE(:)ti] n.青春期 scholasticism [skE5lAstisizEm] n. 烦琐哲学; 墨守成规

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Bernard De Voto伯尔纳德·德·渥托 (1897-1955) 美国历史学 家、小说家、教育家兼批评家 about-face 向后转; 彻底改变 fling [fliN] (flung; flung) vt. 扔, 抛 agonize [5A^Enaiz] v. 使极度痛苦, 折磨 Charles W. Eliot查尔斯 埃利奥特(1834-1926) 美国教育家, 选修原则的著名拥护者 incisive [in5saisiv] adj. 深刻的, 尖锐的 gloom [^lu:m] n. 忧愁 insobriety [7insEu5braiEti] n. 头脑不清 fiendishly [`fi:ndiFli] adv. 恶魔似地, 极坏地 Sputnik [5spQtnik] n. (苏联) 人造地球卫星 spasmodic [spAz5mCdik] adj. 痉挛的, 间歇性的

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janitor [5dVAnitE] n. 看门人 inculcate [in5kQlkeit] v. 谆谆劝导 quadratic [kwE5drAtik] adj. 二次的 n.二次方程式 cone [kEun] n. 锥形物 algebra [5AldVibrE] n. 代数学 recoil [ri5kCil] vi. 退却;畏缩 hinder [5hindE] v. 阻碍 Montesquieu [7mCntes5kju:] 孟德斯鸠男爵 ( 1689-1755) 法 国政治哲学家、法学家、启蒙思想家 Jefferson [5dVefEsn] 杰斐逊(1743-1826) 美国政治家、第三 任总统、 独立宣言的起草人 Goethe [5^E:tE] 歌德 (1749-1832) 德国诗人、剧作家、小说 家、哲学家 Macaulay [mE5kC:li] 麦考莱(1800~1859) 英国历史学家、 散文家、诗人

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Marx马克思(1818-1883) 德国哲学家、经济学家、马克思主 义创始人 Freud [frCid] (1856-1939) 奥地利神经学家、精神病医学家、 精神分析的创始人 Schweitzer [5FvaitsE] 施韦策(1875-1965) 法国基督教牧师、 哲学家、医生及音乐家, 曾获1952年诺贝尔和平奖 Proskouriakoff 普罗斯库瑞考夫(1909-1985)自学成才的俄 裔美籍考古学家 Champollion商博良(1790-1832)因破译古埃及文字而敲 开古埃及文明大门的法国语言学家 Gandhi [5^Andi:] 甘地(1869-1948) 印度政府、社会和宗教领 袖 Voltaire 伏尔泰(1694-1778) 法国作家,是推动法国大革命的 力量之一 Hume [hju:m] 休姆(1711-1776) 苏格兰历史学家、哲学家

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Austen [5C:stin] 奥斯汀(1775—1818) 英国文学巨匠 Balzac [5bAlzAk] 巴尔扎克( 1799-1850) 法国小说家 Tolstoy 托尔斯泰(1828-1910) 俄国作家和哲学家 Twain [twein] 马克吐温 (1835-1910) 美国著名幽默作家 Shaw [FC:] 萧伯纳(1856-1950) 爱尔兰裔英国戏剧家 berserk [bE(:)5sE:k] adj.狂暴的; 疯的 destine [5destin] vt. 注定 confine [5kCnfain] vt.限制, 禁闭 plod [plCd] vi. 埋头苦干 treadmill [5tredmil] n. 踏车; 单调的工作 incapacitate [7inkE5pAsiteit] vt. 使不能 eviscerate [i5visEreit] vt. 取出内脏, 除去精华 sturdy [5stE:di] adj. 坚定的 intrinsic [in5trinsik] adj.固有的; 内在的

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Exercises
each word once only and make changes where necessary. venture compulsion drone confine intrinsic recoil conformity forlorn compel incapacitate inculcate rebellious inflict 1. The intrinsic value of a coin is the value of the metal it is made of. recoiled 2. She at the sight of the snake.

II. Choose the best word from the list given for each blank. Use

3. He had had a long and uncomfortable trip, for he had beenconfined to the wooden box for over ten hours." 4. I would venture to guess that Anon., who wrote so many poems without signing them, was often a woman”.

compulsion protect the powerful from the discomfort of public 5.The to disclosure feeds further abuse and neglect” droned without end”. 6. Somewhere an electric fan 7. My uncle is inflicting himself on us again this weekend. 8.Going to their rescue in a rowing-boat is a bit of forlorn hope. 9. I was compelled to acknowledge the force of his argument. 10.Poor health incapacitated him from working all his life. 11.We failed to inculcate students with love of knowledge. 12. A rebellious person is one who objects to doing what those in authority tell him to do. 13. In conformity with our rules and regulations, I am calling a meeting of our organization.

III. Word Building
Out- is a very productive prefix, it can be used in the following ways: a. with nouns, meaning: outside, isolated. b. With intransitive verbs and nouns, forming transitive verbs, meaning: surpassing, to a greater extent c. With verbs, forming various nouns, adjectives and adverbs Choose an appropriate word from the following words combined with out- to fill in the blank in each sentence below. Change the form if necessary. outlet outweigh outnumber outlook outgrow outspokenly outbreak outstanding outlive outpatient 1. The little boy has outgrown skating shoes so that his mother had to buy a new pair for him. outlook the next year is based in part on the national 2. The economy for had outlived his usefulness. 3. When he retired he felt that he financial policy.

4. If you do not require surgery you can be treated as an out-patient . outspokenly 5. Some economic experts are critical of the political reform in the country. of the Second 6. He left Poland three days before the outbreak World War. 7. The benefit of the project to humans and animals must be shown to outweigh the cost in terms of the suffering of experimental animals. 8. Byron is a(n)outstanding athlete and deserves to win the Gold Medal. 9. The depressing bottom line for the economy is that window shoppers outnumber actual shoppers. 10. He needs a(n) outlet for all that pent-up anger.

IV. into English. Translate the following 教育这一术语唯有在文化适应性的意义上才能 用于原始文化。文化的适应性是指文化传播的过程。 原始人由于自己的文化时其世界的全部,所以他对 文化的延续性和永恒性的感觉相对固定。他的生活 模式相对稳定,不可改变而且几乎一成不变地世代 相传。至于史前的教育是个什么样,那要从现存的 原始文化的教育实践中去推断了。 原始时期教育的目的在于教育孩子成为良好的 部落或群体成员。这种教育明显地强调公民资格的 培养,因为原始人非常关心个人作为部落成员的成 长,并且十分强调对部落成员青春期前后这段时间 生活方式的全面了解。 answer

V Translate the following into Chinese. In many western countries concern over literacy and numeracy skills in the primary area is prompting governments to introduce radical new educational initiatives to boost those skills. The aim is to ensure that, by 2005, every nine-year-old child reaches a satisfactory level of ability in reading, writing and mathematics. The question going through more than just a few minds today, however, is why that expectation is not already a reality, particularly when everyone acknowledges that the changing workforce requirements next century will place greater emphasis on the accumulation of basic skills. answer

to sum up adv. 总之, 总而言之 in sum 大体上, 一言以蔽之, 总之 sum up (1)To present the substance of (material) in a condensed form; summarize: 简述:对(材料)作扼要的总述;作概括说明: sum up the day's news; concluded the lecture by summing up. 概括了当天的新闻;以扼要的重述结束了报告 (2)To describe or assess concisely:扼要地描述或简洁地评价: an epithet that sums up my feelings. 简洁地表达了我思想感情的形容词

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The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of enculturation, which is the process of cultural transmission. A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural continuity and timelessness. The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation. As for prehistoric education, it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive cultures. The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their tribe or band. There is a marked emphasis upon training for citizenship, because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way return of life during passage from prepuberty to postpuberty.

–在许多西方国家,对初等教育阶段中 读写和运算技能培养的担忧,正在促 使政府采取根本的革新措施,以加强 学生的这些能力。其目的在于确保到 2005年是,所有9岁儿童在读写算的 能力方面都能达到一个令人满意的水 平。但是,今天有不少想到的问题确 是为什么这种愿望还wei变成现实, 特别是在所有人都已经认识到,到下 个世纪,对劳动者队伍的要求会不断 return 变化,将更为强调基本技能的积累。

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nature:mother ~ 大自然。 by its (very) ~ 就起本性而言 by ~生来,天生,= by its ~ good ~ 性情善良,温厚 a call of ~ 生理需求 ((尿意,变易)) against ~ 违反自然的(地);违反人性的(地);奇迹般地 all ~ 所有人,万物,万象 by [from, in, of] the ~ of things 按事物自然的趋
势;必然地

? get (go) back to ~回归自然 ? in a [the] state of ~处于未开化[野蛮野生状态] ? In nature : 事实上,究竟。 ? True to nature: 逼真的。

? ground: vt 1.把…放在地上
? 2.(给…)打基础;以…为根基(根据),使基于…(on, in) a well-~ed [an ill- ~ ed] report,基于事实,证据充 分[不确实的]报道 3.[常用被动语态] 以…为入门根基[基础知识](in) 4.绘画,打底,上色 n. above ~活着 break ~耕耘;[美]破土动工;着 手,开工 break new (fresh) ~开垦处女地,开拓新领域 cover the ground: 概括的提示,已经触及各方面的观点。 fall to the ground: (计划等)失败,(希望)破灭。 get off the ground: 飞机起飞,(事情等)顺利进展。 go over the ground: 重复,复述。 on delicate ground: 处境微妙。

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

at ~期限结束时;到期 bring sb to ~s 迫使…同意 come to [make] ~s 达成协议,和解;妥协,屈服(with) get on~s [英俚]达到相同的能力[水准](with) go to~[医]足月,临盆 in ~s of (1)使用…的话[措词] In ~s of the very highest praise 用高度赞美的话语
(2)根据;以…观点[立场],从…看来;还算成… see all life in ~s of dollars and cents 从金钱的观点看待人生 I’m thinking in ~s of doing 我边做边考虑 In [over] the long [short, medium] ~从长远[短期,中期]看 Keep ~s 继续谈判[交涉];保持友好关系(with) Not on [upon] any ~s (无论如何,决不) on EASY[EQUAL] ~s. on sb’s (own) ~s 根据…自己提出的条件 set a ~to 定出条件,限制 ~s of reference 讨论范围,被委托的权限;委任事项 ~s of trade [经]贸易条件——vt ,把…称作[命名为]

? ? ?
?

appropriate adj. 1. 适当的,合适的 (to, for) 2. [罕]特有的,专属于…的 (to) ——vt 1. (未经许可而)擅用,私用,挪用,窃用
2. (为某用途而将资金等) 拔出充当 (for) ~ money for education 拔出教育基金

?

?
?

~ sth to oneself 将…据为己有 appropriable adj ~.ly adv. ~ness n.


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