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新视野大学英语视听说教程3答案(完整版 附 听力原文)


新视野大学英语视听说教程第三册答案 听力录音文本及答案 1-10 单元齐全 Uint1 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script W: Ok. It‘s your turn to pay the bill. I paid last time. M: What? You have a selective memory. You tried to pay last turn, but your credit card failed; so I ended up paying! It‘s definitely your turn. Q: What is true according to the conversation? 2. Script M: I‘m having real trouble reviewing for this French exam. I just can‘t memorize all the vocabulary. W: Me too. I hate having to learn things by heart. I guess we just have to keep reading the texts over and over. Q: What does the woman prefer? 3. Script W: Oh look! There‘s that guy we saw last week, playing football in the park! He looked great in his kit, remember? M: Him? I don‘t remember him. I‘ve got a terrible memory for faces. I have a hard time even recording people I‘ve been introduced to. Q: According to the conversation, what is the man‘s problem? 4. Script M: Why is there a big sign on the back of your door that says ―keys‖? W: It‘s to remind me to take my keys when I go out because I‘m always locking myself out by accident! It doesn‘t help enough. Now I just forget to read the sign. Q: Why is there a sign on the back of the door? 5. Script M: That history exam was really hard. The essay question was terrible! W: I know, I wish I were like David. He has a photographic memory, you know. How useful that would be! Q: What is true of David?

Keys: 1.C 2.D 3. A 4.B 5.C III. Listening In

Script M: Tell me your secret. You‘re suddenly getting excellent marks in every subject, and you used to be a bottom-of –class student just like me. W: Simple enough. I read an article in a scientific journal that studying with remembering, based on recent research into the brain. M: Aw, that stuff‘s old hat: study at the same time every day, be sure your clothes are comfortable, and make sure you have enough light, blah-blah-blah. W: Not so fast, wise guy. I‘m talking about principles like ―Mental Visualization‖, creating a picture in your mind of what is to be remembered. M: Ok, that dies sound different. Id ―Association‖ a principle—you know, you connect what you want to remember with something you‘re familiar with? W: Right on! ?Consolidation‖ is another. I review my notes right after class and consolidate—or absorb—the new material into what I‘ve already learned. M: You‘re moving ahead fast with those principles. I swear this weekend I‘m going to study sixteen hours a day both Saturday and Sunday. W: Whoa, big guy. That‘s not the way. Follow the principle of ―Distributes Practice‖. Shorter study sessions distributes over several days are better. M: That system is all very well for you; you‘ve got a good memory. But what about me? I‘ve got a memory like a sieve. W: You‘re too modest. There‘s nothing wrong with your memory. But memory is like a muscle; it needs exercise. And don‘t forget it.

While the man is wondering why the woman is suddenly getting excellent marks, she says she read an article on studying and remembering. It talks about principles like ―Mental Visualization‖, that is, creating a picture in one‘s mind of what is to be remembered. This reminds the man of the principle of ―Association‖, which means connecting what one wants to remember with something one is familiar with. Then the woman adds the principle of ―Consolidation‖, or reviewing one‘s notes after class and absorbing the new material into what one has already learned. When the man promise to study sixteen hours a day, the woman recommends the principle of ―Distributed Practice‖, which favors shorter study sessions distributed over several days. Finally, the woman tells the man that memory is like a muscle, and that it needs exercise.

Task 2: You forget my toast! Script An 80-year-old couple was having problems remembering things, so they decide to go to their doctor to see what was wrong with them. They explained to the doctor about the problems they were having with their memory. After checking the couple over, the doctor told them that they

were physically okay but might need to start writing things down to help them remember. The couple thanked the doctor and left. Later that night while watching TV, the old woman said to the old man, ―Honey, will you please go to the kitchen and get me a dish of ice cream?‖ Before the man left, she added, ―Why don‘t you write that down so you won‘t forget?‖ “Nonsense,‖ said the husband, ―I can remember a dish of ice cream!‖ “Well,‖ said the wife, ―I‘d like some strawberries on it. You‘d better write that down because I know your memory is failing.‖ “Don‘t be silly,‖ replied the husband. ―There‘re only two things: a dish of ice cream and some strawberries. I can surely remember that!‖ With that, he rushed into the kitchen. After about twenty minutes he returned from the kitchen and handed her a plate of bacon and eggs. The wife took one look at the plate, glanced up at her husband, and said, ―Hey, you forget the toast!‖

Keys: FTFFF

Task3: Memory-Improving Techniques Script There are many techniques you can use to improve your memory. Some of them are introduced her. First and foremost, you need to stimulate your memory all the time. To put it simply, you should use your memory as much as possible. It is especially important to try to learn something new. If you work in an office, learn to dance; if you are a dancer, learn to deal with a computer, if you work with sales, and learn to play chess; if you are a programmer, learn to paint. These added activities stimulate the brain so that I t continues to function. Older people need to pay attention to things they are dealing with. Don‘t try to memorize everything that catches your attention; focus on what you consider important. For example, you can take any object such as a pen and concentrate on it. Think on its various characteristics: its material, its function, its color, and so on. Don‘t allow any other thought to occupy your mind while you are concentrating in that pen. Another method that can be used is to relax yourself. It is impossible to remember things if you are tense or nervous. So, try holding your breath for ten seconds, and then release it slowly. Association is also a powerful tool to develop your memory. For example, if you cannot remember a person‘s name, you can think about a special feature of his face and then link it with his mane.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What‘s seems to be an especially important way to stimulate one‘s memory? What seems to be the best way to focus your memory? How can you concentrate on a pen? How can you relax yourself according to the passage? What is the main idea of the passage?

Kes: 1A 2.C3. D 4.B 5.D

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 It slipped my mind! Amy: I sent out the invitations to the dinner party. Bill: That‘s good. Now what should we do? Amy: We‘ve got to plan the menu. Bill: Oh, that‘s right. Do you have anything in mind? Amy: I think I‘m going to make the chicken salad we had at the Christmas party. Remember I sled the chef for the recipe? Bill: Yeah, but did you forget that Linda doesn‘t eat chicken? Amy: Linda? Oh, my gosh! I forgot to invite Linda! It just slipped my mind. She‘ll be mad at me. Bill: Well, everyone forgets something sometimes. It‘s not too late yet. I‘ll make a phone call. Don‘t worry. Amy: Thanks! You see, I‘m getting forgetful. I think I‘m getting old! Bill: Looks like you are, sweetheart

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: I‘m going to throw a party, and I‘ve sent out the invitations to my friends and relatives. B: That‘s good. But don‘t forget to invite everyone you should invite. A: I think I‘ve invited everyone. Do you have anybody in mind? B: Did you invite John? He‘s lost his job after recent quarrel with his boss. A: Oh, my gosh! I forgot to invite him! He‘ll be sad, thinking we look down on him. He just slipped my mind. B: Well, everyone forgets something sometimes. Don‘t worry. It‘s not too late. Make a phone call right away. A: Did I forget anybody else that I should incite? B: There‘s yet another person you should invite—Julia. She‘s just moved to the city and feels lonely. A: Oh, good heavens, I forgot all about her. She‘s our new friend. You see, I‘m getting forgetful. I think I‘m getting old! B: Looks like you are, buddy. You‘d better start writing things down if they‘re important.

MODEL2 I can‘t think of it off the top of my head. Script John: Hey, Sue. Do you know what Jack‘s home phone number is? Susan: I can‘t think of it off the top of my head. I don‘t have my address book on me, and I don‘t have my mobile phone with me, either. John: That‘s too bad! I‘ve got to find him now. It‘s urgent! If I can‘t find him today, I‘ll be dead! Susan: You might want to look it up in the phone book. John: I‘ve checked already, but it seems that hid phone number is unlisted. Susan: Maybe it‘s under his roommate‘s name. John: Well, I guess so. Susan: Well, why don‘t you call Jane? She has his phone number. John: I‘ve tried, but no one answered! Susan: Maybe call his office and ask his secretary. John: I‘ve already tried. She won‘t tell me. She says it‘s private. Susan: Oh, that‘s right. They usually don‘t release private information over the phone. John: It‘s a pity. You usually have a powerful memory, but you can‘t help today. What‘s wrong with you? Your memory seems to be fading early. Susan: It‘s not my memory is fading. I do have memory for face and names, but a poor one for number and dates Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Hey, do you remember when is the lecture on the value of information by Professor Smith? B: I can‘t think of it off the top of my head. Maybe we can look it up in our notebook, but I don‘t have mine with me. A: That‘s too bas! I don‘t have it with me, either. Do you remember the number of the lecture hail? B: Sorry, I can‘t think of it off my head. A: I‘m terribly interested in the lecture. I can‘t miss it! B: Well, why don‘t you call the dean who arranged the lecture? A: I‘m afraid it‘s not very wise to ask the dean directly. B: Then maybe you can call the office if the department and ask the secretary. A: I‘ve already tried, but no one answered. B: Oh! A: You usually have a powerful memory, but you can‘t help today. You memory seems to be fading early. B: It‘s nit that my memory is fading. I do have a good memory for faces and names, but a poor one for numbers and dates.

MODEL3 What‘s wrong with your memory? Script Bill: Hi, honey! My trip to London was wonderful. Amy: Tell me what thrilled you most. [The telephone rings and Bill answers it....He hangs up.] Bill: Er, where was I? Amy: You were talking about your tour in London. Bill: Oh, yeah. Amy: I bet you had a great time. Bill: Yes, I particularly enjoyed visiting the tower of London. Amy: How did you get there? By bus or underground? Bill: Let me see….Sorry, I can‘t remember any more. Amy: What‘s wrong with your memory? Bill: I hope it‘s not Alzheimer‘s disease. I don‘t want to forget my own name. Amy: I don‘t think so. Perhaps it‘s just temporary forgetfulness. You‘ll be right after a good sleep. Bill: I hope so. But as this is happening so often recently, I think I must go to see a doctor and get some pills Amy: It‘s not as serous as that. Anyway, I wish you had a good memory for happy events, and a bad one for unhappy things.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Hey, my trip to Beijing was fantastic. B: Tell me what thrilled you most. [The door bell rings and A answer it….A comes back.] A: Where was I? B: You were talking about your tour in Beijing A: Oh, yeah. B: I bet you had a great time. A: Yes, I particularly enjoyed visiting the Forbidden City and the Great Wall, though the admission fees were a bit too high for me. B: What were the fees? A: Let me see….Sorry, I can‘t remember any more. B: What‘s wrong with your memory?

A: I hope it‘s not Alzheimer‘s disease. I don‘t want to see a lot of new people everyday. B: I don‘t think so. Perhaps you only forget things momentarily. You‘ll be right after a good sleep. A: I hope so. But as this is happening so often recently, I think I have to see a doctor. B: I don‘t think it‘s so serious. Anyway, a bad memory helps you forget your trouble.

V. Let‘s Talk Script Student: Professor, thank you for graining me this interview. I‘m Susan, a reporter from the Student Union magazine. Many students have difficultly memorizing things. Since you?re an outstanding psychologist, could you give us some tips on how top improve our memory? Professor: Well, some people have better memories than others, but that‘s largely because they are better at creating mental images. Student: If I‘m not good at creating images, what can I do? Professor: Practice helps. And the mind remembers things better if they are connected with other images. For example, I you have to pick up several items at the grocery store, say, carrots, egg, bananas, and milk, you can create a picture in your mind of a giant carrot, and hanging from it, a banana. Student: Then I could have a giant milk carton pouring milk over the carrot and banana. Professor: Certainly. Then what would you do with the egg? Student: Hmmm. I‘d visualize an egg-shaped UFO flying across the sky. Professor: There you go. The more you apply the ideas, the easier it gets. Besides creating pictures, there‘s another technique that is very useful. Student: What is it? Professor: Establishing an association. Suppose you are looking for lost keys. Relax, and let your mind look for all the images connected with those keys--their feel, the sounds they make. Student: How will that help? Professor: You might remember the sound the keys made when you placed then in a drawer or cold touch of the keys in your jacket were you left them. Student: Oh my gosh! I have to run. It‘s time my English class. I see an image of my teacher staring at my empty seat in the classroom. Many thanks, Professor. Professor: Not at all, and good luck with your memory.

Ways of Improving One‘s Memory

Examples

Creating images To remember the items to buy sat the grocery store such as carrots, eggs, bananas, and milk Images that you may help: 1.a giant carrot and a banana hanging from it 2. a giant milk carton pouring milk over the carrot and banana 3. an egg-shaped UFO flying across the sky

Establishing associations

To find your lost keys Associations with sound touch that may help: 1. The sound of the keys might remind you of y\having placed then in a drawer. 2. The cold touch of the keys might remind you of them in your jacket.

Discussion SAMPLE A: As we just heard from the interview, the technique of associating certainly important in promoting memory. B: And according to the interview, creating images helps remember things. If your shopping list includes eggs, you might visualize an egg or an egg-shaped UFO flying across. A: Another important factor in improving memory can be of interest. If you get interested in something, you can remember it better. B: Yeah. And if you recognize facts into meaningful groups, you can remember them better. For instance, if you want to memorize all the names of American presidents, it is not easy. If,

however, you arrange them chronologically into three periods: those before Abraham Lincoln, those between Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt, and those after, then the task will be less difficult. A: It is common sense that if you glance at something quickly, you tend to forget it quickly. If you stuffy it slowly, you can remember it better. B: Another technique is intensive practice or repeating. As a saying goes, practice makes perfect. If you repeat something again and again, you will eventually learn it by heart. A: But we should not work too hard. When we get tired, our learning efficiency declines. We need breaks so the mind can rest and absorb what has been learned.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: The Role Memory Plays in Our Life Script Since memory plays a significant role in our life, scrientists are increasingly interested in research on how to improver memory, Here are some factors they believe to be important to expanding memory capacity. To begin with, you must take special care in your daily life. Food for example, is very important. Some vitamins are essential foe your memory to work properly. They are found in bread, cereal, vegetables and fruits. Some experts say that synthesizes vitamins improve memory, but others have doubts about this, arguing that the studies have not confirmed they do work. Another essential factor is water. It helps to maintain the memory systems, especially in older persons. According to Dr. Roswell, lack of water in the body has an immediate and strong effect on memory; it can cause confusion and other thought difficulties. Sleep also plays a significant role. To be able to have a goof memory, we must allow the brain to have plenty of rest. While sleeping, the brain no longer controls the senses, and starts to revise and store the information one has receives. Lack of sleep would make one feel exhausted and would weaken one‘s ability to concentrate. Also, one‘ ability to store information would be affected. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the passage mainly about? Why are foods important in promoting memory according to the passage? To whom is water especially important in maintaining the memory system? What problem can a lack of water cause? Why is sleep important to memory?

Keys: 1.A 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.C

Task 2: Where did the professor go? Script This is a true story, while happened to friends of ours in a small town in South Africa. They were a hospitable couple who often entertained their neighbors for drinks, tea or dinner. On this particular spring night, they have invited a retired professor to super. During the evening, it began to pour with rain, and the heavens really opened. Because he had walked there, they offered to put him up for the night. They pointed out that by staying overnight, he did not need to go to out in the bad weather. He agreed on the soundness of that idea, thanked his hosts profusely, and the matter seemed to be settled. But while they were washing the dishes after supper, the forgetful professor disappeared. No one could find him anywhere. Eventually, after40 minutes, the front door bell rang. There was the professor, soaked to the skin. When he was asked what on earth he has been dong in the rain, he replied that because he was going to stay there overnight, he had gone home to get his pajamas and toothbrush.

Task3: How to Remember Names Script You just called the TV repair shop, and the voice on the other end of the line tells you, ―This is Don Smith‖. About 5 minutes later you tell your wife that ―this guy‖will be out to fix the TV in the morning. You can‘t think of his mane although you know he mentioned it on the phone. This happens all the time to just about any of us unless we have learned to concentrate and implant a name in our memory, right at the time we hear it. To do this, you must make a habit of repeating the name back to the person. This action will remind you to store the name in your ―memory bank‖ each time you hear someone‘s name, and within a short time the ―repeating‖ process can be discontinued When you meet someone in person, use the same procedure, and in addition, visualize something different, unusual or ridiculous about hid or her appearance, position, or actions that ―ties in ―with his or her name. Later, you may write the descriptive information on one side of a card and the name in the other side. Look at it repeatedly, see the ―picture‖ in your mind‘s eye as you look at the name; or when you see he name, visualize the ―picture‖ you have assigned to the name. Getting this system to work will require changes in your thinking, and it may take several days or several weeks to become proficient.

News Report A Dolphin Exhibition

Script A recent art exhibition in Florida honored the animal often seen as man‘s most intelligent friend, the dolphin. The ―Dolphins on Parade‖ exhibition in the Florida Keys featured life-sized decorates dolphin paintings made of wood and the cost of materials. The dolphins were shown at area business and along the beach. Sponsors paid U.S. $750 to cover the artists‘ fee and the cost of materials. There were more than 100 dolphin themes, including a beer-belly dolphin. They showed the work of local artists, as well as the beach atmosphere the Keys are famous for. Probably the most unique was special because of its artist, Pandora. Pandora the dolphin painter is area dolphin, art the Dolphin Research center, in Marathon, Florida. The playful artist streaks colors across a dolphin painting holding a brush in its mouth. The exhibition was held by the Monroe [Florida] Council of the Arts as part of a plan to make the Keys an international arts center. The paintings were to be auctioned off in March, with the money earned going to community art programs.

Uint2 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script W: Have you chosen your elective for next semester yet? Are you taking French writing again? M: Yes I am, but it‘s compulsory for us next semester. So I think I‘m gong to do marketing as an elective instead. Q: Which class will the man choose as his elective? 2. Script M: Did you go to that businesses lecture on Friday? I missed it and need to copy your notes. W: I‘d say you could borrow my notes, but Sarah‘s got them. Be careful not to miss Professor Brown‘s seminar; he takes attendance in that. Q: What is the woman telling the man? 3. Script W: Wow, Steven! In the library! What brings you here? M: I‘m enjoying the view. All the girls in fashion design are here are preparing for an exam on Monday. Q: Why is the man in the library? 4. Script W: How‘s your group doing with this statistics presentation? Mine‘s terrible. M: Yeah, mine too. David and Mike are OK, but Steven doesn‘t pull his weight and Suzie‘s never around. I don‘t see how we can pass unless Steven and Suzie realize that this is their last chance. Q: What is the true of Steven and Suzie? 5. Script W: You took an MBA at Harvard Business School, didn‘t you? What‘s it like? M: It‘s expensive, about U.S. $ 40,000 a year, plus the costs of food and housing. But the teaching

is first class. The professors have a lot of practical experience. They use the case system of teaching; that is, you study how actual businesses grew or failed. Q: Why is he MBA teaching in Harvard Business School first class, according to the conversation?

Keys: 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.D 5.A III. Listening In Task1: On the First Day Script Harrison: I‘m Harrison. Good to meet you. So you‘ve bought the books for this biology class. Jenny: Sure, I think everyone had to before class started. Harrison: No. Usually no one does much on the first day because it‘s still add-drop. Jenny: What‘s that? Harrison: Changing from class to class to find out which one is best. Hey, where are you from? Jenny: Poland. Have you has this teacher before? I‘ve heard he is really good. Harrison: He‘s good if you‘re a hand-worker. He expects a lot. Jenny: Oh, I guess that‘s good. I hope I can keep up with everyone else in the class. Maybe I need your help after class. Harrison: You‘re welcome. ? Professor: All right. See you guys next week. Student: See you. Jenny: Harrison, wait up! Harrison: So what do you think about the professor‘s lecture? Jenny: I think half of what he said went over my head. Harrison: That‘s all right. A lot of what he said is explain in the reading/ Jenny: Hey, would you mind if I borrowed your notes tonight to look them over? Harrison: No problem. We don‘t have class until Wednesday. Here you go. Jenny: Thanks. I just want to make sure I‘m prepared for the seminar. Harrison: Yeah, participation in the discussion is an important part of the education here.

Seeing that Jenny has bought the books for the biology class, Harrison says nobody does much on the first day because it‘s still add-drop, which means students are changing from class to class. Jenny knows the professor is really good. But Harrison warns her that the professor is good, only if students are hand-workers, for he expects a lot. After class, Jenny admits that half of what the professor said went over her head, and Harrison assures her that a lot of what the professor said is explained in the reading. When Jenny asks to borrow Harrison notes, he says ―on problem‖, for they don‘t have class until Wednesday. Finally, Harrison says participation in the discussion at the seminar is an important

part of the education there. Task 2: Money for College Script Robert is a university student. He likes to have fun. But having fun was expensive, so he was rapidly running out of money. There was nothing to do to try to call his mother for help. “Hi, Mom. I certainly miss you and Dad. I…uh…got a big surprise this week in my physics course. We have to buy two new textbooks. I‘m going to need $100.‖ “I understand,‖ said his mother, ―I‘ll send you the money right away. You left your calculus book here when you were home two weeks ago. Shall I mail that at the same time?‖ “Oh, yeah. Thanks,‖ Robert said. Robert‘s mother made up a parcel with the calculus book and two checks, and mailed it to Robert that very day. When she returned from the post office, her husband was waiting for her. “Well, how much did you give the boy this time?‖ asked Dad. “I send two checks: one for $100 and the other for $1, 100,‖ answered Mom. “You‘re outing your mind,‖ yelled Dad, ―That‘s $1,100. He‘ll just spend that in a couple of weeks. He‘s never going to learn the value of money that way.‖ “Don‘t worry, honey,‖ Mom said, ―I taped the $100 check to the cover of his book, but I put the $1,000 one between the pages in Charper13!‖ Keys: TFFFT

Task3: How to Get Straight A‘s Script It is interesting to note how straight A students achieve academic excellence. Here, according to education experts and students themselves are the secrets of super-achievers. First, they know how to set priorities. Top students allow no intrusions on study time. Once the books are open or the computer is turned on, phone calls go unanswered, TV shows unwatched, snacks ignored. Study is business, and business comes before recreation. Also, good students can study anywhere and everywhere. Claudia Hill, an Arizona State University business professor recalls a cross-country runner who worked out every day. Hill persuaded him to use his spare time to memorize biology term. Then he posted a list of biology terms on the mirror in the bathroom. He learned a few terms every day while brushing his teeth. Eventually, he scored high on the final examination. Moreover, top students schedule their time well. Study times are strictly a matter of personal preference. Some work late at night when the house is quiet. Others awake early. Still others study as soon as they come home from school when the work is fresh in their minds. All agreed, however, on the need for consistency. A student says, ―Whatever I was doing, I maintained a certain period of time every day for studying.‖ Another important characteristic of super-achievers is that they know hoe to read, According to a book entitled Getting Straight A‘s, the secret of good reading is to be ―an active reader-one who

continually asks questions that lead to a full understanding of the author‘s message‖. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned about super—achievers starting to study? What did the cross-country runner do to score high on the exam? What is the good thing all top students agree on? What does the speaker mean by ―an active reader‖? What is the main idea of the passage?

Kes: 1B 2.C3. D 4.A 5.D

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 You‘re just going to have study hard Nora: Only our first day back at school, and already I feel like I‘ve learned a lot. Chris: Only our first day back at school, and I already feel like I‘m up to my ears in homework. Nora: You‘re going to have to hit the books if you want to keep your grades up. Chris: Tell me about it! I already have two reports, two books reports, a composition, an oral report, and a research project—all due before midterms. Nora: We could work together. Maybe some of my organized study habit would rub off on you. Chris: Better yet, maybe you could do my homework for me. Nora: Forget it! That would be cheating. Chris: All right, all right. I have yet to write a term paper. Can you recommend any articles and books? You‘d better find me the exact pages where I can find what I want. Nora: You could borrow ideas from references, but if you quote without giving the sources, you‘re plagiarizing. Chris: The quiz next week will be a headache. If you don‘t help me, I‘ll have to prepare some study sheets and hide them in my hand when I take the test. Nora: Oh, no! If you‘re caught, the professor will definitely give you an F. Probably, you will have to repeat the year. Chris: All right, I‘ll take your advice. The library is going to be my new home, and in the dorm I‘ll be burning the midnight oil.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: We‘re going to have a test, and I also have a term paper to finish. But I haven‘t done a thing. I‘m really worried now. B: You‘re going to have to have to hit the books if you want to get good grades. A: But this course is so difficult that I already don‘t understand it at all. B: We could work together. Maybe some of my organized study habit can help you. A: Better yet, maybe you could write a term paper for me.

B: Forget it! That would be cheating. A: All right, all right. I have yet to write it myself. Maybe I can download some articles from the Internet and piece them together. B: You could borrow ideas from those articles, but if you quote without giving the sources, you‘re plagiarizing. A: Also, the test next week will be a headache. If you don‘t help me, I‘ll have to prepare a cheat-sheet and hide it in my hand during the test. B: Oh, no! If you‘re caught, the professor will definitely give you an F. A: I‘ll try to be careful. B: But if the professor catches you, you‘ll have to repeat the year. You‘re just going to have to study hard. A: Ok, I‘ll take your advice. The library‘s going to be my new home, and in the dorm I‘ll be burning the midnight oil.

MODEL2 Which class do you prefer? Script Chris: First period is math with Mr. Woods. I don‘t know how am I going to stay awake? Nora: I like Mr. Wood. He‘s interesting. Chris: He‘s boring! He could put the entire basketball team to sleep—during the championship game! Who do you have for economics? Nora: Mrs. Jenkins. She‘s smart. Students really learn a lot from her. Chris: She‘s tough! You have to work hard in her class, or you‘ll probably fail. Nora: No pain, no gain. Chris: Nonsense, You could have learned even more with Mr. Sharp. But not many students opt for his class. Nora: What‘s wrong with him? Chris: Often, the highest grade he gives on a term paper is C+, and he usually fails half of the students. Nora: No wonder he‘s got the nickname Mr. Shark. Well, how about PE? What are you doing this semester? Chris: That‘s the worst part. In PE, we‘re learning t‘ai chi. I‘m bored to death. Nora: Ha-ha! Not to rub salt into the wound, but our class is playing your favorite sport: basketball. Chris: Oh…that figures! This is going to be a terrible semester. Nora: This is going to be a great semester! Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: The history class is really boring. How am I going to stay awake? B: I like the history teacher. She‘s knowledgeable. She told us a lot of interesting historical events in class. A: Bur I find her boring! She could put the entire basketball team to sleep—during the

championship game! Which class do you find dull? B: I hate the economics course. The teacher always talks above my head. So I‘ve lost interest in the course. A: Bur economic is my favorite. The professor is smart. Most students really learn a lot from him. B: But he‘s tough! He expects a lot. You have to work hard in his class, or you‘ll probably fail. A: No pain, no gain. B: Actually not many students opt for his class. A: What‘s wrong with him? B: Often the highest grade he gives on a term paper is B-. Last seme4stwe he failed more than a third of the students and I was one of them. A: Oh, that‘s too bad. B: Well, how do you find your English teacher? I don‘t think much of her, either. A: I find her kind, always willing to answer my questions; she always gives me high marks. B: You‘re rubbing salt into my wound. She failed me last semester.

MODEL3 Publish or perish Script Chris: Tell us, Professor Grant, What are your primary duties as a professor? Professor Grant: Well, I do a lot of research and writing. It‘s rough being an associate professor. It‘s publish or perish. Chris: So you spent a lot of time in your office? Professor Grant: Yes, but I also have to prepare class motes, give lectures, hold office hours. Teaching is an important part of being a professor. Chris: With all those responsibilities, you must make a lot of money. Professor Grant: I wish. Actually, I spend a lot of tome applying foe grants to fund my research. Then I can offer assistantships and scholarships to the worthy graduate. Chris: I see why they call you ―the boss‖. But being a professor sounds pretty competitive. Professor Grant: Actually, I think you were in one of my classes… Chris: Um….I think you‘re mistaken, Professor Grant! Professor Grant: No, I remember very clearly now! You owe me an essay! Chris: Sorry, I have too much work to do for the Student Union Newsletter, and I have to work two jobs to pay for school. Professor Grant: So you get an F in this course.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Professor Smith, I‘m from the Student Union newspaper. Many students want to know a western professor‘s main duties and compare them with a Chinese professor‘s duties. B: Well, I do a lot of research and writing. It‘s tough to be a professor. A: Chinese professor are also facing increasing pressure, as they are required to do more research than before. Professor Smith, do you spend al lot of time on teaching? B: Yes, I have to prepare class notes, give lectures, host seminar, and hold office hours. In fact, teaching is an important part of being a professor, though some professors believe that research is more important than teaching. A: With all those responsibilities, you must make a lot of money, I suppose. B: I wish. Salary is a sensitive topic in the west. Let me say something about research funds. Actually I spend a lot of time applying for grants to fund my research. A: How are you going to use the grants? B: With that money, I can offer assistantships and scholarship to graduate students who can help with my research project. A: Now I see why they call you ―boss‖. But being a professor sounds pretty competitive. B: That‘s true. A lot of young teachers want to be promoted to a professorship. A: What you said has given us a fairly clear picture of a western professor‘s primary responsibilities. Thank you very much for your time. B: You‘re welcome

V. Let‘s Talk Script Hi, everybody. My topic today is ―Problems with Our Educational System‖. There are a lot of things in our educational system that I don‘t agree with. It seems that educators just want to give standardized tests, which focus only on academic performance but neglect students‘ abilities and interests in other areas. I think there‘re a lot of people who are very intelligent, but haven‘t had the opportunities they could‘ve had, had they been educated in a broader-minded educational systems. I feel that a lot of courses that students are focused to take in high school are too academic, and, as a result, many kids lost their interest in learning. Educators have failed to recognize various kinds of intelligence. They often exert a lot of pressure on students to be as well-rounded as possible. I think being well-rounded isn‘t really possible. And as a consequence some students who are believed to be intelligent can‘t get into good colleges if they, for example, haven‘t scored well on the math section, even if they ate brilliant writers. Another thing that disturbs me is that the so-called ―weak students‖ are separated from the rest of the school. Some kids are kept in a separate class id their grades are lower then others. And they‘ve very aware of their social position, you know. I think it causes them to act in a way that is

not really positive. They‘re just acting in a way that they are expected to act. Often their grades go from bad to worse. And that‘s pretty sad to me. I think that many of the kids in those classed are intelligent, but never actually realize their potential because of the way they are treated very early on in their education. Problems Results Educators just want to give standardized tests. They only focus on academic performance but neglect students‘ abilities and interests in other areas. Kids lose interest in learning. Educators often exert a lot of pressure on students to be as well-rounded as possible. Some intelligent kids can‘t enter good colleges. “Weak‖ students are separated from the rest of the school. Their grades go from bad to worse.

Debate SAMPLE A: Many ads about English classes for children say, ―Don‘t let your kids lose the competition just because they start later.‖ I quite agree. I hear young children often learn a foreign language faster then adults. B: It‘s hard to say. Kids may learn the pronunciation better than adults, but adults usually learn vocabulary and grammar faster. A: You can learn vocabulary and grammar later on; but when you grow up, you can hardly change your pronunciation. B: But if they learn the wrong pronunciation from the beginning? If they don‘t learn English when they are young in the right way, it‘ll affect their English studies A: Anyway, some good or ―key‖ schools give English tests to kids before admitting them. B: English is important, bur other subjects like Chinese and math ate equally important. If kids spend too much time on English, they have little time left for other subjects. A: Some people say that learning a foreign language can help develop children‘s mental abilities such as memory, attention span and concentration, which will e of help in learning other subjects. B: But too much time for studying and too little left for playing, children‘s moral and physical development will be affected. A: Well, it‘s difficult for me to convince you, and vice versa. Let‘s agree to disagree.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Harvard University Script Harvard University is the oldest institute of highest learning in her United States. Founded 16years after the arrival of the Pilgrim at Plymouth, the university has grown from 9 students with a single

master to the present enrollment of more than 18,000students, including undergraduates and students in 10 graduate and professor schools. Over14, 000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2,000 faculties. Harvard has produces six presidents of the United States and 34 Noel winners. During its early years, Harvard offered a classic academic course based on the model of English universities, but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy. Although many of its graduates became ministers in Puritan church throughout New England, the university never formally affiliated with a specific religious group. Under President Pusey (1953-1971), Harvard started what was then the largest fund-raising campaign in the history of American higher education. It was an 82.5 million dollar program for the university. The program increased faculty salaries, broadened student aid, created new professorships, and expanded Harvard‘s physical facilities. Neil L. Rudenstine took office as Harvard‘s 26th president in 1001. As part of an overall effort to achieve greater coordination among the university‘s school and faculties, Rudenstine encouraged academic planning and identified some of Harvard‘s main intellectual priorities. He also stressed the important of the university‘s excellence in undergraduate education, the significance of keeping Harvard‘s doors open to students from families of different economic backgrounds, the task of as aping the research university to an era of both rapid information growth and serious fund shortage. 1. What is main idea of the passage? 2. How many teachers did Harvard have at the very beginning? 3. What was the role of religion at Harvard University was during is early years? 4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an achievement of President Pusey‘s fund-raising program? 5. What did President Rudenstine do?

Keys: 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.D

Task 2: The Final Exam Script At a university, there were four sophomores taking a chemistry course. They were doing so well on all the quizzes, midterms, labs, that each had ―A‖ so far for the semester. These four friends were so confident that on the weekend before finals, they decided to go up to the University of Virginia and party with some friends there. They had a great time, but after all the hearty partying, they slept all day Sunday and didn‘t make it back to school until early Monday morning. Rather than taking the final then, they decided to find their professor after the final exam and explain to him why they missed it. They explained that they had planned to come back in time for the final exam, but, unfortunately, they had a flat tire on the way back, didn‘t have a spare, and couldn‘t get help for a long time. As a result, they missed the final.

The professor thought it over and then agreed they could make up the final the following day. The guys were relieved and elated. The next day, the professor placed them in separate room, hand each of them a test booklet, and told them to begin. They took at the first problem, worth five points. It was a simple question on a chemical reaction. ―Cool,‖ they thought at the same time, each one in his separate room, ―This is going to be easy.‖ Each finished the problem and then turned the page. On the second page was a question worth 95 points: ―Which of the tires was flat?‖

Task3: Applying for a place in an American University Script International students often underestimate the amount of time required to apply for admission to a college or university in the United States. You should avoid this mistake by setting yourself a schedule that starts well in advance of the time you hope to begin your studies. When setting this timetable, always remember that doing things early is the best way forward. To find the institution or program that will best serve your academic or professional goals, allow yourself sufficient time to research thoroughly your options. Then meet the application deadlines of the university to which you apply. These may be as much as 10 months before the school term. The need for an early start holds true even if you can apply on the Internet. University websites and other academic Internet sites may provide quick and convenient access to the required application forms, but you still need time to research your options, contact teachers and institutions to obtain recommendation and transcripts of academic records, and sign up for required entrance exams, that is, standardized tests, in time to meet application deadlines. In fact, although some students did score high on TOEFL and GRE, they were not admitted because they failed to meet the deadline.

For Reference: 1. They often underestimate the amount of time required. 2. They must allow themselves sufficient time to research thoroughly their options 3. They may provide quick and convenient access to the required application forms. 4. They still need time to research your options, contact teachers and institutions to obtain recommendation and transcripts of academic records, and sign up for required entrance exams, that is, standardized tests. 5. Because they failed to meet the deadline.

News Report Prince William in Chile Script What goes into a prince‘s education today? For Britain‘s Prince William, nature played an important role in his education this last winter, as the future king went on a 10-week expedition in Chile with Raleigh International. The experience was a very different one for the prince. He kayaked in ocean fjords, tracked a rare deer, and was stranded on a beach during a storm. He also got used to sleeping on the ground—at times in a room filled with 16 people –and living in simple conditions. Those who took part, called ―volunteers‖, both contributed and learned. The prince helped locals build wooded walkways and buildings, and taught English to schoolchildren. He was described by other volunteers as hardworking, humble, and laid-back. As one said, ―He struck a really good balance between working hard and having fun…getting on with everyone, and taking on the team spirit.‖ The prince said he liked being treated as an ―equal‖ by other volunteer, who came from all walks of life. Around 20 percent were from problem backgrounds, some having had troubles with drugs or crime. It seems that there‘s a lot more to education than university and books, and the Chilean forests and a little contact with regular people may do a lot of a British prince.

Uint3 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script M: Amy, sit down, we need to talk. Your mother and I are going to separate. W: What! Are you crazy? You can‘t do that! What will my friends say? I just want to have a normal family. Q: What is the girl saying? 2. Script M: Good evening, Mrs. Jones. The manager sent you these roses and his best wishes to you both for a happy anniversary. W: Thank you. We like the room and the service here, and we especially appreciate the manager‘s consideration/ Q: What can we learn from the conversation?

3. Script W: While I‘m scrambling the eggs, could you put the flour into the bowl? M: You bet, darling. I‘ll also turn the oven on so that it gets warmed up. Q: Where does this conversation probable take place? 4. Script W: I have a very important meeting tonight, and I‘m afraid I can‘t miss it. M: But this evening is the parents‘ meeting at school, and I was expecting you‘d come to it. OK, I‘ll phone Dad, maybe he and his girlfriend will come. Q: What can be inferred from the conversation? 5. Script W1: So you‘re still single? If you‘d listen to me and used the Internet, you‘d have a husband by now. W2: I did use the Internet. I posted an ad that read ―Husband Wanted‖. There were dozens of e-mail responses. But they all said pretty much the same thing: You can have mine. Q: What can we infer from the conversation?

Keys: 1.C 2.A3.B 4.C 5.D

III. Listening In Task1: Reasons for a Divorce Script W: I‘m divorcing my husband. M: How long have you been married? W: Thirteen years. M: Do you have children? W: Yes, and I have to protect them from any more harm from my husband‘s irresponsibility M: So, what are your grounds for divorce? W: Well, first of all, he keeps changing jobs. We‘ve had moved four times in thirteen years! M: And, you believe that will be good grounds for divorce? W: I do have a right to stability for my children and myself, don‘t I? M: Aren‘t they his children, too? W: But my husband isn‘t fulfilling his duties! M: Is he paying the bills? W: Well, yes, but we just live around the poverty line. Our kids are being teased by other kids at school because we can‘t dress them in good clothes! We have to live in a small department and drive an old car! M: Does the car run? W: Yes, but it looks OLD! M: Do you yell at him and call him names?

W: Well, he yells at me! M: So, those are the reasons to not honor your husband. Are you going to give him joint custody in this divorce? W: No, just visitation rights. M: Why? W: Because the law permits me to. M: And, what about the financial demands of this divorce? W: I‘m demanding half of all we have, which isn‘t much, and large support payments.

After thirteen years marriage, the woman wants to divorce her husband, claiming he is irresponsible. When asked for the specific grounds for divorce, she gives these reasons: First, he keeps changing jobs, and the family has had to move four times in thirteen years, but she wants stability for her children and herself. Second, although he is paying the bills, they just live around the poverty line. Her children are being teased by other children for not dressing good clothes. Also, they had to live in a small apartment and drive an old car, though it still runs. Worse still, the husband yells at her, though she admits she also yell at him and calls him names. As for the divorce arrangements, the woman will give the husband only visitation rights instead of joint custody. Moreover, the woman will demand half of all they have and large support payments.

Task 2: What four-letter words? Script Dorothy was the only child of her family, born when her parents were mid-aged. They spoiled her badly. At the age of 33 she still lived at home. Her mother and father treat her like a princess. She seemed perfectly content with that situation, so her friends were surprised when she announced she would soon get married. People who knew her well said the marriage wouldn‘t last long. But for the present, she and her new husband approached happy. As soon as the newly couple returned from their honeymoon, the bride called her mother. “How does everything go?‖ her mother asked. “Oh, Mom,‖ she began, ―the honeymoon was lovely! So romantic! We had a wonderful time. But on our back, Bob started using terrible language. Stuff I‘d never heard before. Really awful four-letter words. You‘ve got to come get me and take me home. Please, Mom!‖ the new bride sobbed over the telephone. “But, honey,‖ the mother asked, ―What four-letter words?‖ “I can‘t tell you, Mom. They‘re too awful! Come get me, please!‖ “Darling, you must tell me what has upset you so much. Tell me what four-letter words he used.‖ Still sobbing, the bride said, ―Mom, words like dust, wash, iron, and cook.‖ Keys: FTFFT

Task3: A Woman Who Chose Not to Remarry Script After 17 years of marriage, my husband left me for my best friend, Monica. What I had feared most became reality: I became the single parent of two young children. My daughter grew increasingly unhappy. Seven-year-old Joanna had anxiety attacks when ever she was left alone for more than a few minutes. Five-year-old Sophie would vomit every meal. Under the psychological pressure, I thought about remarriage. My friends arranged dinner with single men and invited me to parties to meet the latest ―someone special‖. But later I changed my mind. A colleague of mine said, ―Second marriages usually end in divorce, and children are destroyed by it.‖ There is some truth in his words. Research published in 2004 showed that children in blended families were no more emotionally healthy than those in single-parent families. Not long ago, my now-teenage daughter and I went to lunch at our favorite Italian restaurant. While eating, we talked about a friend of ours who was divorcing her second husband. We were worried about how the break would harm her three children, two of whom were struggling to get free of drugs. Joanna put down her fork and looked at me. ―Mom, I‘m glad you didn‘t remarry,‖ she said. ―If you had divorced again, I might have tried drugs or even consider suicide.‖ At that moment, I realized, once again, that singleness was right choice for me. 1. What was the speaker most afraid of? 2. Which of the following is NOT true? 3. What did the speaker‘s colleague say? 4. Which of the following is true? 5. If the speaker had divorced again, what might her daughter, Joanna, have done?

Kes: 1C 2.A3. B 4.B 5.B

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 Is youth wasted on the young? Amy: I‘d like to talk to you, so stop what you‘re doing for a minute. Bill: What is it, Amy? I‘m having a hectic time working on this report for tomorrow‘s meeting. Amy: Well, you‘re always pretty busy, and it‘s been more five years, almost six, since we were married. Bill: Yes, time has gone so fast, but they‘ve been good years. Amy: I know, but I want to have a baby—I want us to have a baby. Bill: I know you do. But remember, we said we‘d wait until we could afford it. Amy: But five years is a long time to wait. Anyway, it‘s long enough. Bill: I‘m this close to getting a promotion. Amy: What has that got to do with it? We could wait forever if we wait for the ―perfect‖ moment. Soon we‘ll be too old to enjoying having a baby.

Bill: You know, you have a good point. This report can wait. I‘ll do it tomorrow morning. Let‘s open a bottle of wine and enjoy ourselves.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: I‘ve got something important to tell you: I‘m pregnant. B: What? You‘re pregnant? Wow, I‘d love to have a baby. A: Well, I understand you want to be a father. It‘s been more than three years, almost four, since we were married. B: Yes, time has passed so quickly, but we still didn‘t have a baby. A: I know, but we can‘t afford to have one now. If I leave my job for more than two weeks, I‘ll lose it forever. B: I know you will. But remember, if we don‘t have one now, it‘ll be too late. We‘ll be busier in future. A: There is something in what you said. Four years is a long time to wait. But I really like my job. What‘s more, I‘m very close to getting promotion. B: But a baby borne by a woman in her 30s may be physically and intellectually less healthy. If we wanted to hold onto your job, we would wait forever. Soon we‘ll be too old to enjoy a baby. A: You really have a point. I‘ll choose the baby over the job. B: Good, I‘ll try harder to make both ends meet

MODEL2 So many people in the United States get divorced! Script Kim: Hi Amy. Amy: Hi! Look at this headline, Kim. Kim: Wow! So many people in the United States get divorced! Amy: But this is not uncommon in west. In some places, the divorce rate can be as high as 50 percent. Kim: It seems strange to me that Westerners fall head heels in love quickly, if not at first sight; but they also leave each other quickly. Amy: Is it the same in your country? Kim: I don‘t think so. In my country, some marriages break up, but most couples stay together. Amy: Do people get married young? Kim: Not really. Not many people get married before the age of 20. Amy: Hmm. Do woman usually work after they get married? Kim: No, a lot of women stay home to take care of their families. But more women work now.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: It seems strange to me that Westerners fall head heels in love quickly, but they also leave each

other quickly. B: Is it the same where you live? A: I don‘t think so. In my country, most couples stay together. B: What is the divorce rate in your homeland? A: The divorce rate can be as low as 10 percent. B: That‘s quite lower than in our country. A: Well, what‘s the divorce rate in your country? B: About 50 percent, if I‘m not mistaken. A: Oh, that‘s really high! B: Do people get married young? A: Not really. Not many people get married before the age of 22. B: Many of our young people get married before 20. Is it common for women in your country to work after they marry? A: Yes, most wives work even after they‘ve got a baby. B: In my country, a lot of wives stay home to look after their families.

MODEL3 Why not have both our parents here for Christmas? Script Amy: You know, Christmas is coming. And I haven‘t seen Dad for ages—he always has such great stories to tell. Bill: I know we went t my folks‘ last year, but my Mom‘s been pretty sick. This might be her last Christmas. Amy: She‘s been ill, but don‘t exaggerate. You just don‘t like my mother. That‘s why you don‘t want to go to my parents Bill: She‘s never liked me. Never thought I was good enough for you. Amy: Well, you‘re not… But seriously, Mom‘s not so sad. She‘s just got a thick skin and likes to hide her feelings Bill: I don‘t think so. Amy: Why not have our both families here for Christmas? Bill: That would make twenty-two of us if we invited everybody. Amy: Why not just have our parents here for Christmas? Bill: Good idea. Just don‘t sit me next to your mother. Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: You know, the Spring Festive is coming, and we have to consider where to have the Spring Festive Eve dinner. B: What have you got in mind? A: Since I‘ve been busy, I haven‘t seen mom for quite some time—she‘s always been so kind to us. B: I know we went t my folks‘ last year, but my mom‘s been sick. She needs comfort.

A: My parents also need company. If I don‘t have the Spring Festive Eve dinner with them for two years running, they will be extremely disappointed. As a matter of fact, my mom is already blaming me for neglecting them. B: What can we do then? A: Let me think. Why not invite our parents here for the dinner? B: But they live so far away from us. It‘s inconvenient for old people. A: Then we can invite four of them to a restaurant near them. B: Good, idea. On the next morning we can visit both our parents. A: And don‘t forget to bring gifts.

V. Let‘s Talk Script If you want me to tell you why I remarried, that‘s my story. Remarried is the last thing I‘d consider for two years after my divorce. I had heard about the high rate of remarriage failure. More importantly, I wondered how remarrying would affect my 10-year-old son. My heart ached when I saw my son draw a picture of himself, my ex-wife and me holding hands, with sadness on our faces. Since my parents have married and divorce eight times altogether, I hope my son would not have to go through the same pain I had experienced. As a result, my primary focus after divorce was my relationship with my son John, not finding a wife. As time went by, my son gradually grew up, and he became of my loneliness and anxiety. One day he asked me to consider dating. The first timer he said this, I ignored him. The second time he brought it up, I reconsidered my reservations about dating. I began to date Maria. As our relationship developed over the following year, I was concerned about my son would actually respond to her. At first, John‘s affection for Maria was lukewarm. For instance, he would hug her, but the act seemed mechanical. But after several times, he warmed up to her. Seeing that the time was ripe, I asked Maria to marry me. She accepted, so our family of two smoothly became a family of three. Thinking back, I believe my remarrying was the right choice. Some single-parents are still besitant about remarrying. Now that you‘ve heard my story, I hope you won‘t hesitate and let golden opportunities slip through your fingers.

Changes in the Speaker‘s Attitude to Remarriage Reasons or Detailed Description

For two years after my divorce, remarriage was the last word I‘d consider. 1. High rate of remarriage failure. 2. Remarriage would affect my son. ① He drew a picture of the three of us. ② My parents married and divorced eight times and I hope my son would have no such pain. ③ My primary focus was my son, not a wife.

I ignored my son‘s suggestion that I consider dating. He grew up and became conscious of my loneliness and anxiety. I reconsidered m reservation about dating and began to date Maria The second time he brought the issue up. I was concerned about my son‘s respond to her. At first his affection for her was lukewarm: his hug was mechanical; but several months later he warmed up to her. I asked Maria to marry me and she accepted. Seeing time was ripe. Our family of two became a family of three. I believe my remarrying was the right choice.

Debate SAMPLE A: On the whole I don‘t support remarriage. Too many remarriages have turned out to be unsuccessful and end in divorce. B: If you say many remarriages have failed, that means other remarriages have survived, or even bloomed. We should not only look at the dark of the issue. A: But there‘re too many factors contribute to the failure of a second marriage. For example, as you become older, you may find it increasingly difficult to adjust to a different pattern of life with a new mate. Once there‘s a conflict neither is willing to give in. B: There‘re conflicts everywhere, but you should not neglect that an adult has psychological and physical needs. Without a companion, one may feel lonely and anxious. A: In a new family the husband tends to compare his new wife‘s weak point with his ex-wife‘s strong point. And the wife does the same. B: I wish you‘d seen the film The Sound of Music. The governess Maria blended so smoothly into the Captain‘s family. A: It is not easy for children to accept the new mother or father. It is simply impossible for them to forget their birth-mother‘s loving care and the happy moments in their childhood. B: But how happy are the Captain‘s seven children with their adopted mother Maria! If the new mother shows genuine care for the kids, they will gradually warm to her. On the other hand, many children in a single-parent family are under psychological pressure and suffer from anxiety attack. So, the single life is not the right choice.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Early Marriage Script At the age of 12, Lisa has been married for three years to a young man she met just after finishing secondary school. He treated her well. She almost died during the birth of their first child, born a

year after their marriage. The second child, born 18 months later, was also a girl. Lately she and her husband quarrel frequently. She wants to go to vocational school to learn skills to add to the family income, but his mother insists she stay home and produce a son. This example is by no means exceptional. Early marriage is common in many parts of the world. Early marriage leads to early motherhood. In some developing countries, 20 percent or over half of the women give birth to their first child before the age of 18.Expectations from parents, in-laws and society are to produce a child as soon as possible. Many young wives feel pressure to bear son. This typically results in early and frequent pregnancies. In developing countries, more than half a million women die every year from causes related to pregnancy. There are four important reasons for these deaths. Birth are either ―too soon, too close, too many, or to late‖. According to statistics, it is young women who most die during pregnancy. 1. At what age did Lisa give birth to her first child? 2. What does Lisa want? 3. Why do women in some developing countries have babies early? 4. What are the reasons women die from childbirth? 5. What is the main idea of the passage? Keys: 1.B 2.D3.A 4.D 5.C

Task 2: Nuclear Family Living Patterns Script A nuclear family is typical in high-industrialized societies. Beginning in the early 20th century, the two-parent family known as the nuclear family was the predominant American family type. Generally children live with their parents until they go away to a college or university, or until they acquire their own jobs and move into their own apartment or home. In the early mid-20th century, the family typically was the sole wage earner, and the mother was the children‘s principle care giver. Today, often both parents hold jobs. Dual-earner families are the predominant type for families with children in the United States. Increasingly, one of the parents has a non-standard shift; that is, a shift that does not start in the morning and end in later afternoon. In these families, one of the parents manages the children while the other works. Prior to school, adequate day care of children is necessary for dual-earner families. In recent years, many private companies and home-based day care centers have sprung up fulfill this need. Increasingly, a company‘s arrangement of day care as well as government assistance to parents requiring day care is occurring.

Task3: They are coming for Christmas, Script A man in Phoenix calls his son in New York the day before Christmas and says, ―I hate to ruin your day, but I have to tell you that your mom and I are divorcing, Forty-five years of misery is enough..‖ “Dad, what are you talking about?‖ the son screams. “We can‘t stand the sight of each other any longer,‖ the father says. ―We‘re sick of each other, and I‘m sick of talking about this, so you call your sister in Chicago and tell her.‖ Frantic, the son calls his sister, who explodes on the phone. “Oh, heck, they‘re getting divorced,‖ she shouts. ―I‘ll take care of this.‖ Losing no time, she call her father and screams at him, ―You are not getting divorced. Don‘t do a single thing until I get there. I‘m calling my brother back, and we‘ll both be there tomorrow. Until then, don‘t do anything! DO YOU HEAR ME?‖ Then she quickly hangs up. The old man hangs up his phone and heaves a sigh of relief. He turns to his wife and says merrily, ―Okay, they are coming back for Christmas and paying their own way.‖

For Reference: 1. He and the boy‘s mother are divorcing. 2. Forty-five years of misery is enough. They can‘t stand the sight of each other any longer. They‘re sick of each other. 3. He gets frantic and calls his sister. 4. They will come back home and stop the parents from divorcing. 5. He is happy, for his son and daughter will come back for Christmas and pave their own way.

News Report Prince More Precious Than the Diamond Script People have long known the saying ―Diamonds are a girl‘s best friend.‖ But this may be changing. There‘s a new stone on the gem market, tanzanite, and it is giving diamonds some serious competition. Tanzanite was one of a number of gems discovered in East Africa in the 1960s. The new colors and varieties changed the gem market. But the real gem among these stones was tanzanite, discovered in 1967 in Tanzania. The stone was named after its country of origin by New York‘s Tiffany and Co. which introduced it to the world. It draws one‘s attention quickly with its color—blue, purple or bronze, depending on the direction it is viewed from. More important for its value, though, is its rarity. Tanzanite has been found in only one small area, near Mount Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania. And its supply will probably be fully mined in the next two decades. As one mining official puts it, ―It should never have really occurred in the first place. It did occur.

And only this one deposit on this entire planet that is known…makes it more than a thousand times rarer than diamonds. And certainly within the next 15 to 20 years, there will be no more tanzanite to be mined.‖ The current value of the tanzanite market, at U.S. $10 billion, is equivalent to that of diamonds. And so another saying ―Diamonds are forever‖ may lose some of its meaning.

Uint4 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script M: Did you pick up the paper for me today? I really want to check the job vacancies. W: I know, it‘s over there. There‘s not much happen though. I had a look already. Maybe you should look on the Net instead. Q: What is the man looking for? 2. Script M: You don‘t have enough experience or qualifications for this role. What makes you believe you could handle the position? W: I‘m a fast learner and enjoy learning on the job. My natural skills lie in this area, and I‘m confident that I could handle the challenge. Given a chance, I would prove myself. Q: What is the woman saying? 3. Script M: Could you help me with my resume? Jane said you‘re good with these things, and I really need someone to edit it. It‘s way too long. W: Sure, no problem, give I to me. A good resume should be no more than one page, you know. And it should list you experience in reverse chronological order. I can see we‘ve got some work to do! Q: Which of the following is true according to the conversation? 4. Script M: Could you tell me why you would like to work for our company? W: Well, it has a good reputation as an employer, and its products are quite popular in the marketplace. I would feel proud to work for a company like this and to contribute a great deal to its success. Q: Why does the woman apply for the job? 5. Script W: Where do you see yourself in five years‘ time? M: I aim to have been promoted to senior manager at the very least. I‘m very ambitious and want to climb up the career ladder as fast as possible. I don‘t want to feel miserable on the first rung in five years‘ time, watching everybody above me. Q: What does the man want in fie years?

Keys: 1.C 2.D 3. A 4.C 5.B III. Listening In Task 1: Tell me about yourself. Script M: Tell me a little about yourself. W: I‘m from Guilin City. M: What brought you to the east coast? W: I came to Qingdao to attend college. I‘m impressed by this city‘s dynamic economy. I‘ve come to love it so much that I‘ve decided to stay and work here. M: What work experience do you? W: I worked as an intern for a small shipping company. And my primary responsibilities were to maintain the company‘s ties with the existing customers and try to find new cargo sources. M: And what did that experience teach you? W: I learned that communication skills are extremely important. The knowledge I acquired from textbooks is indeed, but it is equally essential to be able to persuade a potential client t to trust you. M: How would your former employer describe you? W: He told me that my ability to find one customer after another was an asset to the company. He thanked me for my loyalty. He also appreciated my team as shown in my cooperation with my colleague. M: You seem very mature for your age. And I see from your resume that you are very goal-oriented. W: Thank you. I believe I‘ve acquired many good qualities from my parents. They‘re my role models. However, I know I still have a lot to learn.

The woman went from Guilin City to the east coast city of Qingdao to attend college. She was impressed by the latter‘s dynamic economy. Now shi is being interviewed for a job. She says she once worked as an intern for a small shipping company to maintain the company‘s ties with the existing customers and try to find new cargo sources. There she learned the importance of communication skills. She has realized that book knowledge is indeed necessary, but it is equally essential to persuade potential clients to trust her. Her former employer said her ability to find customers was an asset to the company. He appreciated the loyalty and team spirit. The interviewer finds her mature for her age and very goal-oriented. And she believes that she has acquired many good qualities form her parents, but still has a lot to learn.

Task 2: A Work Qualification Test Script Murphy applies for an engineering position at an Irish firm based in Dublin. An American applied

for the same job. Quite by coincidence, the two amplifications, and were asked to take the same test by the manager of the Human Resource Department. Upon completion of the test, both men missed only one of the questions. The manager went to Murphy and said, ―Thank you for your interest, but we‘ve decided to give the American the job.‖ Bewildered by the manager‘s decision, Murphy asked, ―Why would you be doing that? We both got nine questions correct. This being Ireland and me being Irish, I should get the job!‖ The manger answered calmly, ―We have made our decisions based on the correct answers, but on the question you missed.‖ Unconvinced and somewhat indignant, Murphy question, ―And just how would one incorrect answer be better than the other?‖ The manager‘s maser took him by surprise, ―Simple, on QuestionNo.5, the American put down ?I don‘t‘ know‘, and you put down ?Neither do I‘.‖

Keys: FTTTFT

For Reference 1. He made his decision based on the wrong answers to the one question one missed, rather than on the correct answers. 2. By writing ―Neither do I‖, it seems that Murphy copied the American answer on the test.

Task3: A Guide to a Successful Job Interview Script There are times that you will be asked a hard question during a job interview. Don‘t panic, they just want to see how you handle a difficult situation. Being prepared is always the best policy. Here are some samples of questions and some advice on how to handle them properly. Why should we choose you? To this question, you can ask yourself why you applied, what makes you suitable for this question, what the company can gain from hiring you, what you have to offer, how you would handle this jib, etc. Often they ask you to tell them about yourself. You can split your answer into two, the professional and the personal level. Both are important, and how you move from one to the other depends on what you have to say. You can give a brief summary of your life, professional and personal, with less emphasis on the early past, and more emphasis on the present and the future. When asked ―What are your weakness?‖, don‘t say, ―I don‘t have any.‖ Everyone has weakness, and it takes something positive like, ―I haven‘t had a lot of exposure on the on-site work, but I‘m looking forward to being more involved in dealing with customers directly and learning their needs.‖

Another common question is: ―What are your strengths?‖ You should customize your answer to meet the position requirement. Keep in mind the things they asked for in the advertisement. Tell them your strengths, but also show them how they how they would apply to this job. To show how your strengths were valuable, use the ―Why, where, when, how‖ to demonstrate and prove your strengths.

1. What is the passage mainly concerned with? 2. What does the speaker NOT mention as an answer to the question, ―Why should we choose you?‖? 3. What does the speaker say you should stress when introducing yourself? 4. What does the speaker advice you NOT to say when asked, ―What are your weaknesses?‖ 5. What should you say when asked about your strong points?

Kes: 1C 2.C3. B 4.A 5.D

For Reference “Why should we choose you?‖, ―Tell me about yourself.‖, ―What are your weaknesses?‖, and ―What are your strength?‖

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 Can you give me some tips about how to get a good job? Susan: John, can you give me some tips about how to get a good job? John: Did you go to the job fairs and meet with companies? Susan: Yeah, I did. But they didn‘t seem to be interested in women. I thought about suing then for sexual discrimination. John: I‘m afraid it won‘t be much help. Have you looked at the want ads in the newspaper? Susan: I‘ve been checking the want ads every day for a week, but I can‘t find anything interesting that I‘m qualified for. And the few that I have seen are very low-paying. John: Then try the Internet. You can use a search engine to find a job site related to your field. Susan: Good thinking! Thanks! I think I‘ll look for something in electronic engineering. John: Hey, I just saw a job opening at a company called E-Tech. It could be just the sort of thing you‘re looking for.

Susan: Great, I‘ll try my luck there. John: Yeah, but if I remember, the deadline is this afternoon. Susan: This afternoon? Oh no! I‘d better get online quickly and see if I can submit my resume by E-mail. John: Wait, have you updated your resume? You‘d better include your work experience from the IT company last summer. Susan: Don‘t worry. It‘s all set. Thanks, mate. John: Any time, Sue.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Can you give me some tips about how to get a good job? B: What have you done so far? A: I‘ve asked a few friends and relatives for job information, but it‘s not of much use. B: That method is out of date. You should go to the job fair and meet wit companies. A: Yes, I did. But IT industry seems to have been badly hit the economic recession, and not many companied came to the job market. As for those who did come, they set a high standard for the candidates. B: To find more opportunities, you might as well look at the want ads in the newspaper. A: I‘ve been checking the want ads regularly for months, and I can‘t find anything good that I‘m qualifies for. And the few that I have seen are very low-paying. B: On the Internet you can find more job ads. You can use a search engine to find job sites related to your field. A: Good idea! I think I‘ll look for something in software development. B: I just found a job available at a computer company on the Net the other day. It might be just the sort of thing you‘re looking for. A: Great! I‘ll take a chance on that. B: Remember to update your resume before you send it in. It‘ll be plus for you if you include your recent work experience at the IT company. A: Sure. Thanks.

MODEL2 Do you have any tips for a successful interview? Script

Susan: John, do you have any tips for a successful interview? John: Well, first of all, you need to dress professionally. Susan: Oh, what about during the interview? John: Ok, be sure to maintain good eye contact and answer all questions politely and directly. Don‘t look too shy, nor should you sound too aggressive. Susan: I‘m not sure what kind of questions they‘ll ask. John: They‘ll probably want to know a little about your work experience. Many companies don‘t want a completely green hand. They don‘t want to spend time and money on training. Susan: Fortunately, I gained some experience at an IT company during the last summer holiday. John: They may also want to know something about your character. You see, ability for teamwork is usually valued. Susan: What kind of questions should I ask them? John: You should ask them about the job requirements and about the company. Susan: Should I ask about salary and fringe benefits? John: Better not. Not unless they bring it up. Just use the first interview to sell yourself. Susan: You‘re right. If they are interested in hiring me, there will be plenty of chances to talk about money later. John: Right. And the more interested they are, the more they‘ll offer.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Can you give me some advice on how to succeed in an interview? B: Well, first of all, you need to pay attention to your appearance. You have to dress appropriately. A: What do you mean by appropriately? B: It‘s often best to wear a suit. Some bosses don‘t like to see a candidate on a dirty T-shirt and jeans. A: I see. Careless clothes may be an indicator of careless attitude in work. B: Right on. Also, many employers are unwilling to hire a young man with his hair dyed red or yellow. A: Then, what about during the interview? B: You should speak politely but firmly. If you look too shy, they may suspect you are not capable of dealing with a challenging task. A: I‘m not sure what kind of questions they‘ll ask. B: They‘ll probably want to know something about your work experience. Companies usually don‘t want an entirely new hand. They don‘t want to spend time and money on training. A: Fortunately, I gained some experience at a law of firm during the last summer holiday. I worked as an intern to provide free legal advice for those who need it. B: Oh. I see, this is what they called ―legal assistance to the needy‖. Also, a company may want to know something about your character. You see, team players are often valued above all others.

A: What kind of questions should I ask them? B: You should ask them about the job requirements and about the company. A: I hear that many companies asked the candidates what salary they expect. B: That‘s true. You have to inquire about the possible salary level for a green hand in advance. If the salary you expect is reasonable, this shows that you know the professions well and will have a good impression on the interviewer. A: Oh, I‘ve learned so much from you. A thousand thanks. MODEL3 Our best bet is to recruit from the competition. Script Helen: Our company is starting from scratch, so we don‘t have the expertise to compete. Bill: Then our best bet is to recruit from the competition. Helen: We need managers who know how to be strong, yet know how to give employees their freedom. Bill: That‘s essential, especially in the computer industry. Often computer experts like to work on their own. Helen: We also don‘t believe that a right management system will work wonders for our company. Bill: Um…that philosophy will help you attract many worthwhile people. Helen: I remember your friend David Miller is the CEO of a management recruitment agency. I hope he‘ll help us start a recruitment drive. Bill: Certainly. And it‘s a good time, too. A number of firms have been downsizing. Helen: Good. So lots of capable people out there are interested in bigger and batter things. But can David help us pin them down? Bill: Sure, Helen! That‘s why they call them headhunters.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: What can I do for you? B: I‘m looking for a public relations manager at our advertising company. A: Do you have any specific requirement for such a manager? B: Well, first of all, she must be a good leader, who know to be strong, yet knows how to allow people freedom. Only in this way can she give full play to the employees‘ enthusiasm. A: Oh, that‘s essential for leader in many companies. What other qualities do you expect of the manager? B: She must be skilled in interpersonal communications. You see, without such skill, one can hardly get a job well done. A: I can‘t agree more. Is that all? B: Not yet. If she happens to have a wide network of business connections, it‘ll be a great assert to the company. A: I see. We‘ll try our best to find one who meets your requirements. B: Do you think you can pin one down quickly? A: Probably. You see, a number of firms have been downsizing. So it‘s a good time for head-hunting.

B: Good. That‘s why they call you headhunters. V. Let‘s Talk Script Good afternoon, everyone. The university‘s Career Office asked me to give a talk on the topic of how to prepare for job interviews. This is probably the most important aspect in securing a job. Here are some tips I believe to be useful. First, do some research are. Once you have this information, make a list of what skills or knowledge you have that would be valuable to them. You cannot sell yourself to them if you don‘t know what it is you are selling. The next thing to consider is your physical appearance. You have to dress right for job interviews. Don‘t wear anything too flashy; being neat and clean is more important than wearing the latest fashion. The aim is to look professional without overdoing it. Also, it is important that you feel comfortable. If you are not comfortable with a tie, it might be best not to wear one, unless the job requires you to dress this way. The last thing you want is to be worried about your appearance during the interview. It will only make you nervous, and you will quickly lose confidence. Mover over, you have to work out what you need to take with you: A copy of your CV, originals and copies of your qualification paper, copies of reference, samples of your work, if applicable, and anything else that they may want to see. Again, make sure everything is well organized and neatly presented. Don‘t take a pile of paperwork that you have to sift through for ten minutes to find something. That will give them the impression that you are disorganized. If you are well prepared, you‘re likely to have good luck. Things to Do More Details

Tip1 1. Do some research on the company. 2. Make a list of what skills or knowledge you have that would be valuable to them. what products it makes, who its customers are, and what its objective is.

Find out

Tip2 Take care over your physical appearance. ⑴ Dress right. Don’ wear anything too flashy; neat t and clean are more important than the latest fashion. ⑵ Feel comfortable. Being worried about your appearance during the interview will make you nervous and you will quickly lose confidence.

Tip3

Work out what to take with you.

⑴ Prepare a copy of your resume, originals and copies of your

qualification papers, copies of references, and samples of your work. ⑵ Make sure everything is well organized and neatly presented. Discussion SAMPLE A: After listening to the career officer‘s talk, I‘ve now realizes the importance of getting prepared for an interview. B: Quite true. First of all, we should never be late for an interview. If you‘re not punctual, they‘ll suspect that you‘ll be late for work in future. A: Before going to the interview, we had better pay attention to our dress. We must look professional without overdoing it. Careless clothes will lead them into thinking that you‘re likely to do your job carelessly. B: During the interview, it is important to look confident without being too pushy. It‘s necessary to maintain eye contact. This shows your interest in the conversation, and helps to maintain the communication between you and the interviewer. A: Many employers attach importance to the education you‘ve received. We need to highlight those courses especially valuable to the company. B: Book knowledge is not enough. We must show them we have practical experience in the field. Tell them about our internship, and emphasize the skills that are useful in the job we‘re seeking. A: How clever you are! These days many students want to tell the prospective employer that they have a good command of English and have obtained a College English Test Band 4 Certificate. B: They‘re also eager to tell interviewer about their computer skills with PowerPoint, office automation, and so on. Students from non-key universities especially need certificates to shoe they‘ve acquired those skills before they can hope to compete against students from prestigious universities. A: Character is considered an important factor in contemporary society, where teamwork is a must. B: But too many students are saying more or less the same thing. If everybody says, ―I‘m warm-hearted and cooperative, get along well with my classmates, and have good team spirit,‖ the boss will soon get fed up. A: Perhaps we should let the work we‘ve done shoe our character. B: Right on. Participation is important. If you can show them you‘re an important official of the Student Union of the university or the department, or you‘ve organized a singing competition and won an award, obviously you‘re a good team player.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: The Role Memory Plays in Our Life Script Your resume, or CV in British English, has one mission and one mission only: to get you a job interview. Your resume is usually the first impression an employer has of you. And as ―you never get a second chance to make a first impression‖, you?d better get it right firs time. Here‘re some suggestions that may be of use in preparing a resume. First, use a design that demands attention. Employers don‘t have time to read through each of your job descriptions to know if you have the

skills they need. The design of your resume must do it for them. Your resume should be concise, well-organized and relevant. It should emphasized the most important and relevant points about your experience, skills and education. Second, put important information first. List important information at the beginning of your job descriptions. Put statements in your resume in order of importance and relevance to the job you want. A powerful statement with exact numbers influences every statement that follows. Third, target the job. You will have more success if you adjust your resume and cover letter for the specific skills another job. In other words, you need to ―re-package‖ yourself. In that way, an employer will see immediately that you correspond to the job description. It is not dishonest to ―re-package‖ yourself. You are simply pressing yourself and your skills in the best light for a particular employer. This will help you to get more interviews and allow you to apply for a wider range o jobs.

1. Why does the speaker say the resume is important? 2. According to the passage, why should you emphasize the most important point about yourself? 3. Where does the speaker advise putting the important information in your job description? 4. How many resumes would the speaker advise you to write if you applied for three jobs? 5. Which of the following makes a good title for the passage? Keys: 1.C 2.A 3.A 4.C 5.B

Task 2: Two Essential Factors in an Interview Script When applying for a job, especially a job you really want. It‘s not usually to feel nervous and anxious. Sometimes it‘s this anxiety, not our qualifications, that keeps us from obtaining our dream job. So you must overcome your nervousness and build up confidence. This often involves two factors: one mental and the other physical. Mentally, it‘s important to prepare yourself for the interview without obsessing over it. Remember, it might be your dream job, but it won‘t be the end of the world if you don‘t get it. Tell yourself that the company would be lucky to get you; and if they choose someone else, it will be their loss. In essence, you need to build your self-confidence. Your ability to answer all questions without hesitation will certainly impress the interviewer. Now that you are mentally ready for any question that might be thrown your way, it‘s time to work on your physical presentation. No matter what position you are applying for, your physical appearance at the interview will be a big factor in the final determination. It‘s always a good idea to wear a suit; it doesn‘t have to be a designer suit, but something plain and conservative. Do not dress too informally. For example, don‘t wear a red fashionable jacket for your interview. Make sure, too, that it is clean and pressed. This may seem like common sense, but you‘d be surprised how careless some applicants are. While it‘s not necessary to visit the beauty salon before your interview, make sure that your nail are well-manicured, and your hair is styled carefully and

neatly.

Task3: An Interview That Upsets the Boss Script John was in a terrible accident at work and lost both of his ears. Since he was permanently disfigured, he settled with the company for a fairly large compensation and decided to invest the money in a small but growing telecom business. After weeks of negotiations, he bought the company. Then he realized that he knew nothing about running such a business and quickly set out to hire someone who could do that for him. So he set up three job interviewers. The first guy was great. He knew everything the company needed and was very interesting. At the end of the interview, John asked him, ‖Do you notice anything different about me?‖ And the gentleman answered, ―Why yes, I couldn‘t help notice you have no ears.‖ John got very upset and threw him out. The second interview was with a woman, and she was even better than the first guy. He asked her the same question, ―Do you notice anything usually about me?‖ and the she replied, ―Well, you have no ears.‖ Again John got furious and tossed her out. The third and the last interview was the best of all three. It was with a very young man who was fresh out of college. He was smart and handsome. And he seemed to be a better businessman than the firs two put together. John was anxious to employ him, but asked him the same question, ―Do you notice anything different about me?‖ And to his surprise, the young man answered, ―Yes, you wear contact lenses.‖ John was amazed, and said, ―What an incredibly observant young man! How in the world did you know that?‖ The young man laughed and replied, ―Well, it‘s pretty hard to wear glasses with no ears!‖

For Reference 1. He lost both of his ears. 2. Because he realized that he knew nothing about running the business after he bought it. 3. Because the interviewee said he noticed that John had no ears, and John got upset. 4. He said he noticed John wore contact lenses. 5. He thought it was pretty difficult to wear glasses with no ears.

News Report A Galaxy of Film Prize Winners Script

The European Film Awards—First Hollywood, then Cannes, and now Pairs? The European Film Awards ceremony was held in Pairs in early December, honoring the best in European and world films. Lars von Trier‘s Dancer in the Dark was the overall winner of the evening, receiving awards for the best European film and best actress—Bjork. .The audiences was disappointed, however, as neither von Trier, Bjork, nor the Oscar-winning Italian director Roberto Benigni showed up to accept awards. Still, other prize winners did come. The Irish actor Richard Harris, who was given an award for lifetime achievement, gave a humorous thank-you speech that was the high point of the evening. Another internationally known actor, Jean Reno, also gave an enthusiastic thank-you speech. The French actor received an award for European achievement in world cinema, for his international firm career. Other VIPs from around Europe also attended. But most of the prizes at the ceremony, which people have been calling ―the European Oscars‖, went to French films. There was one international film award, which went to a French-Hong Kong co-production, Wong Karwai‘s In the Mood for Love.

Uint5 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script W: I bought a camera from your store. Here‘s my receipt. I know it‘s just warranty period, but the camera hasn‘t worked properly for some time, and now it‘s not focusing at all. M: We‘re sorry you‘ve has problem with one of our cameras. I t seems that the camera has suffered some damage, but you‘ve been a regular customer, and we‘d like to look after this problem for you. I‘ll just give you a replacement. Q: What will the man do? 2. Script W: We‘re upright all our staff equipment, and we‘ll need 50 laptops are 1st of next month. In the past I‘ve always found of your prices to the best. M: You‘re right about that, we do have the lowest prices in the country. We‘d be glad to fill your order. Just send me the specs for each, and I‘ll send you a quote that I‘m sure you will take. Q: What does the man mean? 3. Script W: We ordered 50 from your company, but on the invoice I see there‘s an extra charge for shopping. I thought shipping was included in the quote. M: Shipping is included; there must be a mistake on the invoice. I‘ll straighten on the mistake and send you a new invoice. Q: Which of the following is true? 4. Script

M: This was s time-sensitive document! There‘s no point in delivering it three hours late! W: I‘m sorry, sir. Perhaps I could connect you to our complaints department if you wish to take it further. Q: What is true of the document? 5. Script M: We were very surprised to receive such bad service from a company we‘ve done business with in the past. So now we have this problem, and I‘d like to know what you‘re going to do about it. W: I think this is the result of a breakdown in communication, and we need to look at our communication methods both internally and externally. Obviously we want to keep our clients happy, and unfortunately we‘ve fallen short this time. I‘m here to make sure it won‘t happen again. Q: What is the reason of the problem, according to the woman? Keys: 1.C 2.D 3. A 4.B 5.C III. Listening In Task 1: Attending a Business Reception Script Chris: I‘ve been looking forward to this reception for weeks. I can‘t wait to get sure of my own leads. You know, start making new connections. Nora: Smart thinking. But what are you going to do with all those brochures? Chris: The party ends at two, I figure I can have them all distributed by one-thirty, Nora: No, no, no, no. Let me clue you in. Those brochures will make you look like a green hand. Chris: What should I do then? Nora: Hand out business cards. That‘s the way to do it. Chris: I don‘t understand what‘s wrong with these brochures about our company. Nora: This room is going to be filled with potential clients, but there is an unwritten law; you leave your work at the door. Chris: But how am I supposed to get anything of this if we can‘t talk business? Nora: You have business cards. Get out there and exchange cards. Just get a card for a card. Chris: Then follow up on Monday? Nora: You catch on quick. Let‘s split up so we can cover more ground. Chris: Great idea. This is going to be a piece of cake. I‘ll meet you back here at two. Chris and Nora are going to a reception. Chris is eager to making new connections. As the party ends at two, he intends to have all those brochures distributed by one- thirty. But Nora disagrees, saying that those brochures will make him look like a green hand. She advises him just to hand out business card and leave his work at the door. But Chris wonders how he can get anything out of this if she can‘t talk business. To this, Nora insists that he should just get a card for a card. Chris catches on quickly and knows that he can hand out business cards now and follow up on Monday. Finally, Nora suggests splitting up so that they can cover more ground. Chris feels it will be a piece of cake and promise to meet her back there at two.

Task 2: A Work Qualification Test Script Once there was a Scottish accountant. The business has been in the family for generations and generations. Over time, with the countless clients that had gone in and out of the office, the marble step in front of the building had developed a big, deep dip in it from all the wear and tear. The accountant‘s friends kept telling him that he had better get it replaced; otherwise he‘d be sued if anyone ever slipped and fell. Reluctantly, the accountant called a stonemason to get a quote for the repairs. When the stonemason got there, the accountant demanded a price for a new step. “Ah, big job,‖ said the e stonemason, ―But I suppose I could give you a new step for a hundred pounds.‖ The accountant was stunned. ―Are you crazy, man? I can‘t pay you a hundred pounds!‖ Thinking about it for a second, he turned to the stonemason and asked, ―What would you charge me to dig up the step and turn it over so that the worn part is in the ground and I‘d get a new square step?‖ The stonemason hesitated, ―20pounds.‖ “Do it!‖ Demanded the accountant, ―And call me when you‘re done.‖ The accountant went back inside to read his books, but after only 15minutes the stonemason rang the bell. As the accountant opened the door, he saw the stonemason standing there, pointing to a deep dip in the step. The stonemason laughed as he said, ―Your great-great granddaddy thought of that a hundred and fifty years ago!‖

Keys: FTFFT

For Reference 1. countless clients that had gone in and out of the office 2. He turn the step over so that the worn part was in the ground

Task3: Where to Start Your Business Script You have to consider the location when launching a business. You will be ―planning your business tree‖ there and will have to maintain it for years to come. You have to keep in mind a few things when deciding on a place t open your business. First of all, you have to take the local economy into consideration. Is your local area growing and building? Are the market trends good? Even if you have to locate your business farther from your home, try to find a place that is building up and bringing people in. The worst thing you can do is to pick a place that is in the ―bad area of town‖ because it is less expensive. Your address can be

the first thing people will ask for, and it can say a lot about your business. The second thing you have to bear in mind is the job market. Since unemployment is low in most area in the Unites States, consider what type of employees you will need and find out if there are many in your area. The amount of money that you will have t o spend I the recruiting phase could be an indicator that you should or should not locate the business in an area with a different employee pool. Another factor people have to consider is whether you can integrate with the local community and get to love it. To make the community warm to you, you should become involved in it by joining the local Chamber of Commerce, Business Association, City Council Committees, or other local organization that could offer you help. Why plan on retiring ―one day‖ to some great location? Why not move there now and start your dream business?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is the speaker mainly talking about? What must you find if you are going to locate a business at a distance from your home? According to the speaker, what is the worst thing you can do? What will the recruiting money tell you? What can you do the get on well with the locate people?

Kes: 1D 2.C3. C 4.A 5.C

For Reference To decide on a good business location, one has to consider the local economy, the job market there, and whether you can integrate wit the local community.

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 I am having cash problems. Bill: Helen, you started this company only a year ago. If you want it to grow, I‘m afraid you need to do something about cash flow. Helen: Bill, although you‘ve worked here only for a couple of months, you already know this company inside out. I am having cash problems. Bill: Clearly you don‘t have the money you need to buy the equipment to be competitive. You have just barely enough funds to cover your day-to-day operational expenses. Helen: I think my best bet is to secure a small-business loan. Bill: I don‘t think that‘s possible. It seems to me you don‘t have the collared for a loan.

Helen: What can I do then? Bill: Try the Small Business Association. They help underwrite loans for a small business. Helen: So, even though I don‘t have much collateral, I can still quality for a loan? Bill: Under this special program, possibly. Helen: That would really help me cover our overhead. I just need to get some time to get the revenues up. Bill: Apply for the small-business loan, and keep your fingers crossed!

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: You‘ve worked as a consultant for a long time, so you know the company inside out. I‘m having cash problems. B: I see. If you want the company to grow, I‘m afraid you need to have more funds. Clearly you don‘t have the money you need to buy the equipment to be competitive. You just barely have enough funds to cover your day-to-day operating expenses. A: I think my best bet is to ask the bank loan. B: I don‘t think that‘s the best solution. Nowadays the interest rates are very high. You‘ll have a difficult time paying back the loan. A: What can I do then? B: Try a business incubator. A: What can I get from them? B: They offer a range of services such as consultancy, training, and more importantly, venture capital. A: Can I really get venture capital from them? B: Possibly, if you prove your company is promising. A: Good, that would really help me cover our overhead. I just need some time to get revenues up. B: Well, apply for a risk investment, and keep your fingers crossed

MODEL2 I have some very bad news. Helen: Bill, I‘ve been searching for a loan, but I was rejected everywhere. Now I‘m afraid I have some very bad news. Bill: What is it? Helen: Well, the company has been experiencing serious financial difficulties for quite a long time now. Bill: I know we‘ve been operating in the red for the past few months. Helen: Exactly. After a long discussion with my partners, I‘ve come to the conclusion that the best course of action is to file for bankruptcy Bill: What? Bankruptcy? I didn‘t know you were in this kind of serious financial trouble. Helen: Sales have been low all year long. Now two of our leading competitors are discussing a merger. Then we‘ll have to face even stiffer competition. I feel the situation is going to go from

bad to worse. We simply can‘t afford to keep our doors open for long. Bill: When do you plan to make the announcement to tell all the employees? Helen: Early next week. Bill: What kinds of severance package will we able to offer them? Helen: Unfortunately, the best we can do is offer one month‘s salary. Bill: Oh! How terrible! OK, I‘ll contact Vivitek and see if they are interested in acquiring our company.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: I have some very bad news. B: What‘s that? A: The company‘s products haven‘t sold well for a long time, you know. B: Yeah. I know we‘ve been operating a t a loss for several months. A: Exactly. And after a long discussion with my partner, I‘ve come to the conclusion that the best course of action is to file for bankruptcy. B: What? Bankruptcy? I‘d suggest that you find a merger partner instead. With combined strength, we can face the stiff market competition. A: Our sales have been low a long time. Who will be willing to merger with us? B: You can tell them we have a team of well-trained skilled workers and our equipment is not technologically backward. In fact, we have a lot of to offer. A: Sorry, but I‘m still not confident at all. I still prefer to declare bankruptcy. B: When do you plan to make it known to the staff? A: Sometimes next month. B: What kind of severance package are you going to offer them? A: Unfortunately, the best we can do is offer one month‘s salary. B: That‘s terrible.

MODEL3 We‘ve been looking for a merger partner. Script Bill: I hear that Vivitek has been considering acquiring a CD manufacturer for some time. Jessica: That‘s quite true. What‘s on your mind? Bill: My boss Helen thinks that our company would be a good match for Vivitek. And we‘ve been looking for a merger partner. Jessica: Are you sure youroperation has much to bring to the table? Bill: Definitely. The quality of our products is first-rate, and we have many reliable sales out lets. What‘s more, Vivitek can propel us to even greater heights. It will be an all-around excellent match. Jessica: I think it might be, though we have yet to discuss details. Bill: As a matter of fact, we‘ve already received a few attractive bids. Jessica: Well, we of curse need to come up with a plan that is attractive for both parties

Bill: True, but my boss has to keep our shareholders‘ interests in mind. Jessica: It‘s reasonable to keep your employees‘ welfare in mind. Bill: Yes, we don‘t want to disappoint them. Jessica: Then let‘s talk about specifics.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: I hear that your corporation has considered acquiring a software development company for some time. B: That‘s quite true. What‘s on your mind? A: We‘ve been looking for a merger partner. And we think our company would be a good match for you. B: Definitely. We have a number of first-rate programmers (program writers\software engineers), and one of our software products is a hit. A: Then why do you want a merger? B: We can certainly survive on our own. The problem with us is that we don‘t as many reliable sales outlets as you have. We hope your company can propel us to even greater heights. A: As a matter of fact, we‘ve already received a few attractive bids. So we have to be cautious in making a decision. B: I hope you will find our company an all-around excellent match. The merger wil turn out to be a win-win (double-win\two-win) situation. A: I think that might be, though we still have to discuss specifics. B: Well, we of curse need to work out a scheme that is attractive for both parties. A: True, we have to keep in mind the interests of the shareholders of both sides. B: Good. That‘s why they call you headhunters.

V. Let‘s Talk Script Martin: Dick, would you review the result of the survey on leisure sporting activities. We need to plan our proposal for this Friday‘s business meeting. Dick: Sure. I‘ve summarized the results in the handouts, broken down by customer age groups and sporting activities. The survey was administered to 550 men and women between the age of 18 and 55 years old, and the results have been compiled in the following age groups: 18to 26, 27to 35,36to 45, and 46to 55. According to the results, the most active group involved in sporting activities is between 18 and 26 years old, followed by those 36to 45 years old. Martin: Okay. Dick: As far as particular sports are concerned, people in these two groups cited jogging as their favorite recreational sport followed by skiing, tennis, swimming, and cycling. Martin: And what about these groups broken down by gender? Dick: Oh, Martin, thanks for bringing that up. Men appears to be slightly more active than women in the 18 to 26 year-old age group, but women seem more active in the other three groups

Martin: Hmm. Based on what you have said, I think we should consider targeting the 18 to 26 year-old age group more in the future. I also feel we should consider expanding our line of athletic shoes, particularly jogging shoes and tennis footwear. We also have to come up with a more appealing slogan aimed at this age group. Dick: I see what you mean. However, the 46 to 55 age group is becoming more concerned about staying fit. I believe this trend will continue, so we should not neglect them. Martin: I see your point. Well, let‘s meet again on Wednesday to iron out more details of this proposal.

Results of the Survey Age Groups The two most active age groups in sporting activities are those between 18 and 26 years old and those 36-45 years old. Sporting Activities The sports those two groups like are in the order of jogging skiing, tennis, swimming, cycling. Gender In the 18-26 year-old group, men appear to be slightly more active than woman. In the other three groups, women seem to be more active. Decisions Based on the Survey Targeting The 18-26 year-old age group Expanding The line of athletic shoos, particularly jogging shoes and tennis footwear Not neglecting The 46 to 55 age group, because they are becoming more concerned about staying fit

Discussion SAMPLE A: How many people do you think we have to survey before we can have a clear idea about the sales potential for each product? B: I think our survey must be administered to at least 300 men and women of various ages, incomes and occupations. Otherwise the results won‘t be reliable. A: Perhaps we can use our common sense to predict the results. B: Obviously, young people pay more attention to their clothes than older people, and they tend to buy more. A: It‘s clear that women are more active in buying dresses. Our production should target women. B: What do you think about the various income groups? Do you think we should aim mainly at the

high income group? A: It‘s hard to say. Some rich people are very careful with their money. So, we have to wait until the investigation results come out. B: Now let‘s switch to sports shoes. Which group do you think may be active? A: I guess the young people may buy the most because many of them like sports a great deal. B: I think this group will be followed by the old group instead of the middle-aged group. The old people are becoming more concerned about staying fit. A: I agree. And I believe this trend will continue, so we shouldn‘t neglect them. B: What may be the result broken down by gender? A: Many people think men are more active than women, but I‘m not quite sure. B: Ok, let‘s carry out our survey as early as possible and let facts speak for themselves.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Hot Business Ideas Script Business ideas are all around you. Many business ideas come from a careful analysis of market and consumer needs. If you are interested in starting a business, but don‘t know what product or service you might sell, here are some ways that may help you find one. First of all, you should study how to value to an existing product. The difference raw wood and finished wooden products is a good example of putting a product through an additional process that increases its value. But additional processes are not the only way value can be added. You might also add services, or combine one product with other products. For instance, a local farm which sells produce can also offer a vegetable delivery service—for a free. What business ideas can you develop along these lines? Focus on what products you might buy, and what you might do to them or with them to create a profitable business. Some people have another way of making profit. They improve an existing products or service. We all know that the person who can build a better mousetrap will make a lot of money. That person could be you! A local entrepreneur has created an improved version of the hula hoop. It‘s bigger and heavier, so hula-hoopers can control it more easily and do more tricks. How did she come up with this business idea? She thought hula hooping would be a fun thing to do with her daughter, but found the commercially available product too flimsy. There are very few products or services that can‘t be improved. Start generating business ideas by looking at the products and services you use and brainstorming ideas as to how they could be better. 1. What is the first way the speaker mentions that helps you produce a business idea? 2. Which of the following methods does the speaker NOT mention? 3. Why does the speaker mention the mousetrap? 4. Which of the following is true according to the passage? 5. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?

Keys: 1.C 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.D

Task 2: What do you know about business? Script Historically, the term business referred to activities or interests. By extension, the word became, as recently as the 18th century, synonymous with ―an individual commercial enterprise‖. When referring to activities, the terms business and industry sometimes appear interchangeable. Thus a fisherman might say either that he is in the ―fishing business‖, which is a bit colloquial or that he works in the ―fishing industry‖, which sounds somewhat formal. The word ―trade‖ may serve as an equivalent of both ―business‖ and ―industry‖. People establish business in order to perform economic activities. With some exceptions, such as non-profit organizations and institutions of the government, businesses exist to product profit. In other words, the owners and operators of a business have receiving or generating a financial return for their time, effort and capital as one of their main objectives. One can classify businesses in many different ways. In recent years, service businesses have become increasingly popular. They offer intangible products and typically have different, usually smaller, capital requirements than manufacturers. Distributors need smaller funds than manufacturers. Most laws specify the forms that a business can take, and a body of commercial law has been developed for each type. Some common types include partnerships, corporations, also called limited liability companies, and sole ownerships.

Task3: An office boy or a billionaire? A jobless man applied for the position of ―office boy‖ at Microsoft. The human resource manger interviewed him, and gave him a test: clean the floor. “You are engaged,‖ he said, ―give me your email address, and I‘ll send you the application form to fill and tell you when you will start.‖ The man replied, ―I don‘t have a computer or an email.‖ “I‘m sorry,‖ said the HR manager, ―if you don‘t have an email, that means you don‘t exist. And whoever doesn‘t exist can‘t have the job!‖ The man left with no hope at all. He didn‘t know what to do, with only 10 dollars in his pocket. He then decided to go to the supermarket and buy a crate of tomatoes. He sold the tomatoes in a door-to door round. In less than two hours, he succeeded in doubling his capital. He repeated the operation three times, and returned home with 60 dollars. The man realizes that he could survive this way, and started to go out early and returned late every day. Thus, his money doubled or tripled every day. A little later, he bought a cart, then a trunk, then he has his own fleet of delivery vehicles. Five years later, the man was one of the biggest food retailers in the United States. He started to plan his family‘ future, and decided to buy life

insurance. He called an insurance broker, and chose a protection plan. Before the conversation was concluded, the broker asked him for his email address. The man replied,‖ I have no email.‖ The broker replied,‖ You don‘t have an email, and yet have succeeded in building an empire! Can you imagine what you could have been you had an email.‖ The man replied, ― An office boy at Microsoft!‖ For Reference 1. ―If you don‘t have an email that means you don‘t exist. And whoever doesn‘t exist can‘t have the job!‖ 2. He sold the tomatoes in a door-to door round. In less than two hours, he succeeded in doubling his capital. He repeated the operation three times, and returned home with 60 dollars. 3. He bought a cart, then a trunk, then he has his own fleet of delivery vehicles. Five years later, the man was one of the biggest food retailers in the United States. 4. He started to plan his family‘ future, and decided to buy life insurance. He called an insurance broker, and chose a protection plan. 5. He thought that with an email , he would have become an office boy at Microsoft.

News Report A Historic Settlement between the Law and Business Script Bill Gates, Microsoft Chairman: We hope that when the state attorney general fully reviewed the settlement, they will also agree that it‘s the right way forward. Litigation is never a good thing for any industry or any company. We have said for some time that we would go the extra mile to resolve this case. That is exactly what we did in reaching this settlement. The experience of the past the three years hs had a profound impact on me personally and on our company. We are in a fast-moving, competitive industry, but we will focus more on how our actions affect other companies. John Ashcroft, U.S Attorney General: Today we are announcing a strong, historical settlement reached by the Department of Justice and the Microsoft Corporation that will put an end to Microsoft‘s unlawful conduct, bring effective relief to the marketplace, and ensure that consumers will have more choices in meeting their needs of computing and working with their computers. This settlement is the right result for consumers and for businesses, the right result for the economy, and the right result for government. It provides prompt, effective, certain relief for consumers and removes the uncertainty in the computer market, a critical factor in today‘s economy.

Unit 6 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script W: Are those cigarettes yours? I thought you quit. If you go back to it, your teeth and fingers will be nicotine-stained; your breath and clothes will smell smoky. M: I didn‘t. I swear. Ads showing diseased lungs kept me from starting again. Believe me, I‘ll never again be a slave to smoking. Q: Why didn‘t the man go back to smoking? Script M: What‘s that noise? It‘s really loud! Sounds like gunshots! W: It‘s the local ―youth‖ throwing firecrackers. Don‘t go out. They‘re likely to throw one at you or put one through the letterbox if you bother them. Q: What may the young people do? 3. Script M: I wish I had left my wallet at home. But I‘m sure I put it in my back pocket. W: Oh, no, it‘s easy for a pickpocket to take it from there. You should out your money in your breast pocket. Q: What should the man do, according to the conversation? 4. Script M: I hate that subway station. Whenever you come our, you‘re always plagued by beggars. W: I know, but the kids really get to me. I can‘t help but feel sorry for them. They look so miserable. Q: What do the man and woman think about the young beggars? 5. Script M: The bank call me today: they wanted to know if I spent 3,000 dollars in a furniture shop this morning! Of course I didn‘t! W: Someone must‘ve made a copy of your credit card. It‘s easily done. You‘ll have to cancel it at once and get a new one. Hopefully, the bank will cover the damage. Q: What does the woman recommend the man to do?

Keys: 1.C 2.C3. B 4.A 5.D

III. Listening In Task 1: How to Solve Unemployment Problem Script Alan: I have a meeting with my accountant tomorrow morning. She‘s preparing my income tax return, and I need to go over some of the receipts with her. Pamela: Income tax return! Don‘t you think the government just squanders our hard-earned tax on some unnecessary projects?

Alan: Sure, someone they do, but we are living pretty well and, to be honest, I don‘t mind paying taxes. If I‘m paying income tax, it means I‘m earning would be much lower. Pamela: If the poor would just get jobs, our taxes would be much lower. Alan: Most people would rather work than receive charity, but the situation is complex: sometimes there are no jobs that they are trained for. Pamela: Then they should take the needed training—upgrade their skills and knowledge to become more employable. Alan: Training and upgrading cost money. Some government tax dollars are directed to programs that help the poor get jobs. Pamela: But even when jobs are available, some of the unemployed don‘t want to work. They would rather have a handout. Alan: It‘s partly a matter of education. Some people have to be educated to realize how much fuller their life would be if they were not dependent on charity. Pamela: I think the government should attack unemployment by reducing the tax rate. That would put more money into people‘s pockets, then they would spend more, and the spending would create more jobs for the poor. Alan: Many people would agree with you. Alan‘s accountant is preparing his income tax return, so he needs to go over some of the receipts wit her. Pamela complains that the government just squanders people‘s hard-earned tax money on some unnecessary projects. But Alan does not mind paying taxes, saying it means he is earning money, which is better than living on charity. Pamela insists that if the poor would just get jobs, taxes would bee much lower. Alan disagrees, saying most people would rather work than receive charity, but sometimes there are no jobs that they are trained for. But Pamela asserts that the jobless people should take the needed training to upgrade their skills and knowledge to become more employable. Alan believes that some of the government tax dollars are already directed to training and upgrading programs that help the poor to get jobs. When Pamela says some of the unemployed don‘t want to work, preferring to have handouts, Alan points out that some people have to be educated to realize how much fuller their life would be if they ere not dependent on charity. Pamela is, however, more down-to-earth, thinking the government should attack unemployment by reducing the tax rate. That would give people more money; then, they would spend more, which would create more jobs for the poor.

Task 2: A Professional Gambler Script In a bar a guy told the bartender, ―I‘m a professional gambler; I‘ve made of lots of money from gambling.‖ The bartender answered, ―I can hardly believe it. Your odds are fifty-fifty at best, right?‖ “Well, I only bet on sure things,‖ said the guy. “Like what?‖ asked the bartender. The bartender thought about it, ―Okay,‖ he said. So the guy pulled out his false right eye and bit it, ―Ah, you screwed me,‖ said the bartender, and paid the guy fifty dollars.

“I‘ll give you another chance. I‘ll bet you another fifty dollars that I can bite my left eye,‖ said the stranger. The bartender thought it over again and said, ―Well, I can see you‘re not blind. I‘ll take that bet.‖ So, the guy pulled out his false teeth and bit his left eye. And the bartender had to pay him another fifty dollars. Then the guy went to the back room to play cards with some of the locals. After many hours of drinking and card playing, he stumbles up to the bartender and said, ―Bartender, I‘ll give you one last chance. I‘ll bet you 500 dollars that I can dump tomato juice into that whiskey bottle three foot away without spilling a drop.‖ The bartender thought the guy must be drunk now, ―Okay, you‘re on,‖ he said. The guy began dumping tomato juice all over the bartender, but no a drop fell into the whiskey bottle. The bartender was overjoyed. Laughing, the bartender said, ―Hey, pal, you owe me five hundred dollars!‖ The guy said, ―That‘s okay. I just bet the guys in the card room1, 000 bucks each, that I could dump tomato juice all over you but you still laugh!‖

Keys: TFTFT

For Reference 1. Because not a drop tomato juice fell into the whiskey bottle, and he was to win the bet of 500 dollars. 2. Because he just bet the guys in card room1, 000 buck each that he could dump tomato juice all over the bartender and still make him laugh. Task3: Fighting Teen Smoking Script The percentage of teens who smoke cigarettes dropped to 28% in 2003, according to a report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. That was down from 36% in 1999 as measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. It‘s a triumph for many people across the nation who worked tirelessly to reverse the climb in teen smoking rates during the 1990s. An equal accomplishment many be discovery of what works to influence teens‘ motivation and behavior. Success has come in communities with a comprehensive program to fight tobacco use by teens. The best school health classes won‘t have much effect on teen who already smoke. Many of them need professional help before they can quit. Another interesting finding is that nearly all first use of tobacco occurs before high school graduation. So if adolescents don‘t start smoking by age 18, odds are they never will. For those who do experiment with cigarettes, new research shows teens can get hooked on nicotine more quickly than adults and by extremely low levels of tobacco. Now the bad news: while the teen smoking rate is down to 28%, that still means more than one in four teenagers still smoke. Public health and parents are not ready to abandon a quarter of today‘s

young people to the damaging effects of tobacco. Obviously, it is still too early to celebrate a complete victory. There is still much room for improvement.

1. What percentage did the teen smoking rate drop by? 2. What happened in the 1990s, according to the speaker? Useful for reducing teen smoking according to the speaker? 3. What is especially useful for reducing teen smoking according to the speaker? 4. What is the bad news mentioned in the passage? 5. What is the main idea of the passage?

Kes: 1D 2.A 3. B 4.C 5.

For Reference Before the age of 18. According to the passage, if adolescents don‘t start smoking by age 18, odds are they never will.

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 Nursing home abuse is a national epidemic. John: Nora, what are you doing? What are these notes about? Nora: Well, they are for a 1,000 word essay on abuse on the elderly, due Monday. John: That‘s a big topic. What made you decide to write about that subject? Nora: Granny‘s going into a nursing home. And this essay is driving me crazy. John: Narrow down the topic. Pick one aspect, like nursing home. Do an outline. Nora: You mean list the ideas under headings: Introduction, Body, and the Conclusion? John: Yes. In the Introduction, say people live longer now, crowing nursing homes. Nora: Then maybe in the Body I can explain how the owners try to save money on food and care. John: Right. Here I see a good quotation: ―Nursing home abuse is a national epidemic.‖ Nora: I have statistics: 500 homes inspected; in one-third, care was substandard. John: Mention government offices and lawyers who‘ll help in cases of abuse. Nora: Then, I think I can summarize the main ideas about the helpless elderly in the Conclusion. John: Good. When you‘ve written a first draft, read it aloud to eliminate awkward spots. Nora: I‘m feeling a lot better about this essay and a lot less worried about Granny now. John: The essay is a piece of cake; but ensuring Granny‘s OK is a lot harder.

Now Your Turn

SAMPLE DIALOG A: Oh, Bobby, so you‘ve come to see me again. B: How are you doing? Hope everyone is OK here. A: My God, I can hardly bear the life here. This nursing home is driving crazy. B: What‘s wrong?> A: You see, there are to many old people here, but far too small a staff. B: Yeah, that‘s probably because people live longer now, crowding nursing homes. A: So we can hardily get attention. The owner tries to save money on food and care. B: I see, nursing home abuse is now a very common problem. I heard of one survey with statistics: 300 homes were inspects, and in nearly half of them care was substandard. A: Sometimes they even beat me. I don‘t know where and how I can get help. B: I n theory government offices and lawyers can help you in cases of abuse. A: But it is inconvenient for me to contact government offices again and again, and I‘m too poor to hire a lawyer. B: OK, aunt, since it‘s hard to ensure you‘re Ok here, I‘ll take you home. Mary and I will take care of you. A: Are you sure Mary thinks in the same way as you do?

MODEL2 This beauty battled the bottle. Chris: Hey Nora. Nora: Hey Chris. How is it going? Chris: Not too bad. Sit down. Sit down. Hey, who was that food-looking girl you were talking to near the auditorium? Nora: ―The Drunken Doctor‖, Dr Doyle, who gave dynamite Ladies Only lecture. Chris: No, no. I mean the blonds, healthy-looking, the twenty-something girl in blue. Nora: Yeah, exactly. She‘s a doctor, but she used to be a drunk. Now she tells women the dangers of drinking. Chris: I can‘t imagine some one as pretty as she is to be a drunk. And a doctor, too! Nora: She says there are alcoholics all over the world, 16 million plus just in the U.S. Chris: I‘m surprised that there are so many people who lack the will-power to stop. Nora: It‘s a disease that strikes young and old, rich and poor, and al walks of life. Chris: Drunks are often dirty old men begging for money. How did Dr. Doyle get hooked? Nora: She was an intern in a big hospital: long hours, little sleep, and constant stress. Chris: I suppose at first alcohol helped her to relax, but she realized. Nora: First it was a drink at night, then two, then a bottle, then drinks to wake up. Chris: That‘s a sad story. Nora: More inspiring than sad. She got help and stopped. Now she helps others. Isn‘t that wonderful?

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Hi, John, I‘m so glad to see you are back! B: It‘s nice to be home again, Mom. A: Oh, you smell terribly of alcohol and tobacco. You didn‘t smoke or drink before you left home a year ago. How did you get hooked? B: As an assistant engineer, I had to work might shifts often. I felt lonely and began to drink and smoke. That helped me to relax. A: So gradually you drank more and more? B: Yeah, first it was a drink at night, then two, then a bottle, and then I drank to wake up. A: Oh, I simply can‘t imagine my handsome son to be a drunk and a heavy smoker now. Can‘t you stop? B: It‘s difficult. I lack the will-power to stop. A: But remember the dangers of heavy drinking and smoking. Sooner or later you‘ll develop high blood pressure, heart trouble, or liver trouble. B: There are alcoholics all over the world, and they are still living. A: I‘m sorry that drinking and smoking ate diseases that strike young and old, rich and [poor, and all walks of life. Young must get help and stop. B: OK, I‘ll try my best.

MODEL3 There are high risks with games of chance. Script Susan: Hey, Chris. Why so you look so depressed? Chris: Oh, it‘s my brother. You know, he has got a gambling problem. You can‘t understand gambling as an addiction unless you‘ve been hooked. Susan: Apparently it‘s like being addicted to drugs or alcohol. You just want more and more. Chris: It‘s exactly like alcoholism; it takes over you life. It‘s on your mind constantly. Susan: Yeah, like some horrible disease. But you can get help. Chris: My brother tried to stop, but he felt restless…bad tempered. His nerves were always on edge. Susan: Did he try Gamblers Anonymous? It‘s a self-help group with experience just like his. Chris: Yeah, he‘s not alone. It‘s estimated there are 10 million addicts in America. Susan: I don‘t want to nag him, but isn‘t it a question of taking control of his life? Chris: I see your point, but he‘s a compulsive gambler. Susan: I know. But if he gets help, maybe he‘ll get better. Chris: No doubt. It‘ll be tough. Though but worth it. Susan: Remember the proverb ―Better medicine has wholesome effects.‖ Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Good morning, Mr. Brown, I‘m a correspondent with the magazine Health. I heat you‘ve

overcome your gambling problem. First of all, could you describe your problems in the past? B: Yeah, I did have serious gambling problems. You can‘t understand gambling as an addiction till you‘ve been hooked. A: Could you tell me your feeling at the time? B: There was a sensation like the one that comes with drugs or alcohol, and I wanted more and more. A: How do you compare it with alcoholism? B: It‘s like alcoholism; it takes over your life. It‘s on your mind constantly. A: Did you try to get help? B: At first I didn‘t. I tried to stop on my own, but I felt restless and bad-tempered. My nerves were on edge. A: I see it‘s difficult for a compulsive gambler to overcome the problem. But how did you finally get rid of it? B: I went to a doctor for help. He made me realize that it was a question of getting hold of my life. He told me that if I thought of it as a disease, I would probably be cured. He also gave me some medicine. A: I guess it was a thought fight. B: Yes, though but worth it. Anyway, ―Bitter pills may have wholesome effects.‖ V. Let‘s Talk Script Today I‘ll be presenting a report on our findings on the condition of the world‘s population. It may be a surprise to you that half the people in the world live on less than two dollars a day, and one billion people live on less than one dollar a day. I‘m going to look at poverty and its relationship to population issues. We must work fast if we hope to reduce poverty by half, by the year 2015. Our survey shows that the first step should be to improve health-care systems. In the world‘ poorest countries, people are expected to live just 49 years. One in ten children doesn‘t reach his or her first birthday. According to our study, poor health and poverty are linked. Women are affected most by poor-care systems, especially pregnant women. The second job we have to do, as many of you can guess, is to reduce birth rates. We have found that when given a choice, poor people in developing countries have fewer children than their parents dis. A possible reason for this is probably that smaller families have fewer expenses and more chances of increasing their earnings and savings. Since the 1970s, developing countries with lower birth rates have had faster economic growth. They have had higher productivity, more savings and more investment. Obviously we must encourage family planning and lower birth rates. Now, here is the third measure we must take: promote education in developing countries. Investing in education, especially for women, can reduce poverty. Educated women have more opportunities to work and a chance to live better. Moreover, they tend to send their children to food schools so that they can climb the social ladder. Well, any questions? None? OK. Now I‘ll talk about the fourth step we need to take…

Measures to Take in Developing Countries Problems and Reasons for Taking the Measures 1.To improve health care systems In the poorest countries: 1. People are expected to live just 49 years. 2. One in ten children doesn‘t reach his or her first birthday. 3. Women are affected most by poor health-care systems, especially pregnant women. 2.To reduce birth rates 1. Smaller families have fewer expenses and more chance of increasing their earnings and savings. 2. Countries with lower birth rates have had faster economics growth. 3. To popularize education Investing in education, especially foe women, can reduce poverty: 1. Educated women have more opportunities to work and can live better 2. They are more likely to send their children to good schools so that the children will climb the social ladder.

Discussion SAMPLE A: To reduce poverty, it is very important to lower birth rates, as the speaker suggested in his lecture. B: True. Smaller families have fewer expenses and more chances to increase their earning and savings. A: Moreover, developing countries with lower birth rates have had faster economic growth. B: It‘s equally important to popularize education. A: Yes, investing in education, especially for women, can reduce poverty. Educated women, you know, have more opportunities to work and a chance to live better. B: Moreover, they tend to send their children to food school s so that they will climb the social ladder. A: The speaker also mentions the necessity to improve the health-care system. In fact, poor health and poverty are linked. B: I agree. If you are not in good health, you can‘t work well to get good pay. What‘s more, you have to spend lots of money on seeing doctors. A: Some countries are economically backward, so they try to develop a powerful tourism industry, and in this way they earn a lot of money. B: I think it is more important for them to develop their national economy. With fast economic growth, many people will shake off poverty. A: Poverty can be alleviated further by economic aid from rich countries. B: But I think technological aid from advanced countries can be more significant. With better technology, poor countries can develop faster on their on,. As the Chinese saying goes, it is better to teach someone how to fish than to give him fish. A: If less developed countries are allowed to export more of their workforce, they can earn more

foreign currency. B: This requires developed nations to lower their tariff barriers.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Held Back Because I Speak Spanish Script I was raised speaking English, but I also spoke Spanish at home. When I went to school for the first time, I was enrolled in ESL classes—classes of English as a Second Language. I was also put in the Limited English Proficiency Program. In all these classes, I always got the highest grades. I was the best reader and speaker. There as no reason for me to be in any of those classes. When my parents discovered that I was in those classes instead of in regular classes with other English-speaking students, they went to the school administration to complain about the discrimination. The school had nothing to say. My parents tried to get me out of the ESL classes, but the school fought it very hard to keep me there. And then we found out why—for every student the school had in the ESL and Limited English Proficiency Program, they would receive$400. This was pretty devastating. The school‘s only excuse for keeping me there was because I lived in a Spanish-speaking household, and that I was influenced by the way my parents spoke. My parents were outraged, but I remained in the ESL and Limited English Proficiency Program until I was in the fifth grade. Then parents transferred me to another school where they had friends. The new school gave me an English proficiency test. I aced it. SO I didn‘t have to attend those programs for non-native English speakers. I was finally on the right track and back at the head of the class. The first school I had would have never let me out of those programs or even let me take the test. I was too ―Spanish‖ for tem. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What kind of class does the speaker think he should attend? What was the real reason the speaker was placed in a Limited English Proficiency class? What was the excuse the school used to put the speaker in an ESL class? How did the speaker perform in the regular English class? When the speaker described his first school, what were his feeling?

Keys: 1.C 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.A

Task 2: Drinking, Gambling and Golf Script A man was walking in the city when he was accosted by a particularly dirty-looking bum, who asked him for a couple of dollars for dinner. The man took out his wallet, extracted two dollars and asked, ―If I give you this money, will you

take it and buy whiskey?‖ “No, I stopped drinking years ago,‖ the bum said. “Will you use it to gamble?‖ “I don‘t gamble. I need everything I can get just to stay alive?‖ “Will you spend the money on green fees at a golf course?‖ ”Are you nuts? I haven‘t played golf for 20 years!‖ The mad said, ―Well, I‘m not going to give you two dollars. Instead, I‘ m going to take you to my home for a terrific dinner cooked by my wife.‖ The bum was surprised, ―Won‘t your wife be furious with you for doing that? I know I ?m dirty, and I probably smell pretty bad.‖ The man replied, ―That‘s OK. I just want her to see what a man looks like who‘d given up drinking, gambling, and golf.‖

Task3: Why buy lottery tickets? Script Charles: Did you hear? Next week‘s lottery will be 28 million dollars! You got your ticket yet? Joan: I didn‘t buy lottery tickets, and I don‘t gamble on other ways, either. Lottery tickets ate just another way of taxing the poor. Charles: What do you mean by that? Joan: Many of the big spenders on lottery tickets ate poor. They are spending money they can‘t afford to spend. Charles: I just buy lottery tickets for fun. You know…the first prize is a huge amount, and if would be exciting. Joan: But you don‘t need the money to enjoy life, so for you it‘s a game. But when the poor buy lottery tickets, it is often out of desperation. Charles: You must be right. Casinos are opening everywhere, and many people go on gambling holiday—you can even take a gambling cruise. Joan: Imagine being on an ocean cruise and spending all your time indoors bent over a card table or a roulette wheel. Charles: Maybe there should be some programs to help people overcome their gambling addictions something similar to Alcoholics Anonymous. Joan: There‘s indeed an online program that can help. But nobody can force gamblers to join it. They must first want to be cured themselves. For Reference 1. She thinks many (of the) big spenders on lottery are poor, spending money they can‘t afford to spend. 2. He just buys lottery tickets foe fun. He thinks if he won a huge amount, it would be exciting. 3. They buy lottery tickets out of desperation. And the thrill of a win, of something for nothing, is addictive. 4. Casinos are opening everywhere, many people go on gambling holidays, and one can even take a gambling cruise. 5. It will be helpful to habitual gamblers only when they want to be cured themselves.

News Report Humanity is indivisible. Script Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations: Peace must be sought above all because it is a condition for every member of the human family to live a life of dignity and security. We have entered the third millennium through a gate of fire. If today, after the horror of 11 September, we see better and we see farther, we will realize that humanity is indivisible. New threats make no distinction between races, nations, or regions. A new insecurity has entered every mind, regardless of wealth or status. A deeper awareness of the bonds that bind us all, in pain and in prosperity, has gripped young and old…because beneath the surface of state and nations, ideas and language, lies the fate of individual human beings in needed. Answering their needs will be the mission of the United Nations in the century to come. Thank you very much.

Uint7 II. Basic Listening Practice 1. Script M: Now we have satellite and high-powered microscope, it‘s easy to think we know everything about the world; but we still don‘t understand EI Nino. W: Right. Scientists all over the world over are even uncertain about the cause of the warm Pacific current that brings storms or drought—the mysterious EI Nino. Q: Which of the following is true according to the conversation? 2. Script M: Everyone is talking about environmental problem: acid rain, the greenhouse effect, holes in the ozone layer. We should think positively. What can we do to improve things? W: I agree. We could do a lot more to harness the sun‘s energy for heating and lighting in our homes. In Japan 43,000 solar roofs were installed in 2002. Q: How do the man and the woman view the environment? 3. Script W: We lived in Beijing some years ago. It was always difficult to keep the house clean with wind from the north blowing sand from the desert at us. M: That‘s why the Chinese government has been encouraging people to plant trees along the edges of the Gobi Desert. Now those trees act as wind barriers.

Q: What did the government encourage people to do? 4. Script M: Many old refrigerators and cars are environmental hazards because they contain CFCs that destroy the ozone layer. W: Yes, but government or organizations are helping people to safely dispose of old refrigerators or, in the case of cars, to upgrade their air conditioning. Q: What are government departments helping people to do? 5. Script M: Hey, that‘s an aerosol spray you‘re using on your hair! Build a bomb or set fire to the apartment to kill us quickly instead of making holes in the ozone, so we die of cancer. W: Cool it, man. This spray doesn‘t contain CFC s. And you‘d better read a little more. In 2003 the hole in the ozone layer shrank by 20 percent, so there‘s no reason to panic. Q: What does the man mean? Keys: 1.B 2.D 3. A 4.A 5.C III. Listening In Task 1: We should have proper respect for nature! Script Martha: Do you think most people in your culture respect nature? Ed: I think so. Umm…more now than before. Martha: What do you think is the most serious environment problem in the world today? Ed: Today…I think damage to the ozone layer is a big problem; and another problem is pollution in big cities and things like that. Martha: How do you learn about environmental problems? Ed: Umm…through school. A lot of clubs promote environmental safely, and some TV programs, too. They talk about environmental safely and stuff like that. Martha: Do you think students should learn more about the environment at school? Ed: I think so. So, as they grow older, they can be more aware of all the problems that are going on. And also to prevent more problems from occurring. Martha: If you could create a new law to help the environment, what would it be? Ed: A new law for the environment? Umm…I‘d probably say that when people throw away their cigarette butts, they have to throw them into the garbage bin, not just throw them everywhere because it‘s just littering and I hate that. So they should be fined if they throw them on the floor on the ground. Martha: That‘s a good idea. What do you personally do to help protect the environment? Ed: I‘ m so against littering. I never litter. If I see somebody litter, I get really angry. So I always throw my trash into the garbage bin.

While being interviewed by Martha, Ed said more people in his culture respect nature ever before. When asked about the most serious environmental problem in the world today, he mentioned the damaged ozone layer and the pollution in big cities.

Ed learned about environmental problem at school. A lot of clubs and some TV programs promote environmental safely. He believes that students should learn more about the environment at school. Then they can be more aware of all the problems and prevent more problems from occurring. When asked about a new law he would like to create to help the environment, he said that when people throw away their cigarette butts, they have to throw them in the garbage bin. They should be fined if they throw them on the floor. Personally, Ed is so set against littering that he never litters. He always throws his trash into the garbage bin.

Task 2: A Work Qualification Test Script According to a report by Australian researchers, the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica will probably start closing within five years. They say it may be completely closed within fifty years. The ozone layer protects the Earth from dangerous radiation from the sun. The hole in the ozone layer was discovered over Antarctica almost thirty years ago. At the time, it was three times the size of Australia. The report found that ozone-destroying gases in the upper atmosphere were at or near their highest levels in the year2000. But since then, there has bee continuous progress made toward the recovery of the ozone layer. Satellite information showed that levels of ozone-destroying gases in the atmosphere are slowly decreasing. At its largest this year, the ozone hole covered more than 15 million square kilometers. That is down from a yearly average of 23 million square kilometers over the last six years. Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, are responsible for destroying part of the ozone layer over Antarctica. CFCs have been widely used since the1930s in cooling devices such as refrigerators and air conditioners. CFCs remain in the atmosphere for years. Government scientist say the level of chlorine in the atmosphere is decreasing because of restrictions on the use of chlorofluorocarbons. The chemicals were restricted under an international agreement called the Montreal Protocol in 1987. Under the Protocol, developing countries promoted to cut their use of chlorofluorocarbons in half by the year 2005. They also agreed to an eighty-five percent cut by the year 2oo7.

Keys: FTTFT

For Reference 1. It was three times the size of Australia. 2. They promised to cut their use of CFCs in the half by 2005 and agreed to an 85 percent cut by 2007.

Task3: A Mild EI Nino Script The EI Nino weather condition has returned. However, official at the United States National Weather Service say EI Nino is weaker than usual this year. EI Nino is a change in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean. It happens every four or five years. Normally, water temperatures in the western Pacific Ocean increase near the end of the year. This cause more rainfall in Indonesia, Australia and other nearby place. At the same time, cold ocean water cause less rainfall in the eastern Pacific Ocean, near South America. The opposite happens during EI Nino. Pacific Ocean temperatures increase near South America, causing unusually high amounts of rainfall there. In contrast, EI Nino causes dry weather in Indonesia and Australia. A strong EI Nino can severely affect the weather all over the world. The last powerful EI Nino was in 1997 and 1998. It caused major floods in many places. EI Nino also led to extremely dry weather in some other areas. Reports say the weather caused the deaths of about 24,000 people. So experts say having a weaker EI Nino this year is good news. Meteorologists say rainfall has been higher than usual in South America. The experts say the effects of EI Nino will begin to show in November in the United States. The northern states may have a warmer winter. But, scientists say EI Nino will not be strong enough to prevent this year‘s powerful storms in the Atlantic Ocean.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

According to the passage, how often does EI Nino happen? What normally happens in the western Pacific Ocean? What did the EI Nino in 1997 and 1998 cause? What is NOT mentioned as a result of this year‘s EI Nino? What is the central idea of the passage?

Kes: 1C 2.A3. D 4.B 5.C

For Reference Pacific Ocean temperatures increase near South America, causing unusually high level of rainfall there. Dry weather results in Australia.

IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 Our globe is in danger John: How is your Grandma getting along during this usually hot weather? Nora: Over the last few years, Granny has been complaining that the hot, humid weather is killing her. She believes the weather has changed. John: What she means is the climate‘s long-term conditions; weather refers only to day-to-day conditions. Nora: Yeah, she says summer is hotter, and winter wetter. But I tried to comfort her, saying, ―It‘s all in your mind, Granny.‖ John: She‘s right, you know. The greenhouse effect does bring global warming and rain. Nora: How can I explain global warming and greenhouse gases to a 97-year-old Granny? John: Tell her the earth now is like a real greenhouse made of glass panels that let in light and trap heat. Nora: Think she‘ll want to know that carbon monoxide from earth makes greenhouse gases? John: Everybody should know what cause global warming; otherwise we won‘t stop it. Nora: I‘ll tell Granny not to burn any more wood or coal, or to use spray on the hair. John: OK, joke about it, but it won‘t be so funny when the polar icecaps melt and oceans rise. Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: How are you getting along during this usually hot weather? B: Not well at all. Over the last few weeks the hot, humid weather is killing me. I believe the climate has changed. A: Yeah, the summer is hotter, and winter wetter. B: Do you know why all this has happened? A: The greenhouse effects bring global warming and rain. B: What do you mean by greenhouse effects? A: The earth is now like a real greenhouse made of glass panels that let light in and trap heat. You know, carbon monoxide from earth is a greenhouse gas. B: I see. Everybody should know what cause global warming; otherwise we won‘t stop it. A: The important thing is that human beings should take steps to reduce global warming. B: What can we do then? Perhaps we should not burn any more wood or coal. A: Right. Also we should try to produce less CFCs or Freon. B: How can we achieve that? A: Don‘t use aerosol spray on your hair, and depend less on air-conditioners and refrigerators.. B: But it‘s hard to give up all this. A: But we must take action before polar icecaps melt and oceans rise.

MODEL2 Rainforests will soon be only a memory. Script Susan: Hey, Chris, there is an environmental group on campus asking for donations to save the rainforests. Chris: So what? Susan: So what?! Don‘t you want to save the rainforests? Chris: But there‘re no rainforests in our country. They need hot, tropical climates. Susan: Come on. A rain forest is any forest where heavy rainfall leads to dense vegetation. Tropical rainforests can be found in hoe, tropical areas, but there are also cool rainforests, including one in southeast Alaska. Chris: How did you know that? Susan: Well, I‘ve just read a book on rainforests. You know, 140nillion people live in the world‘s rainforests, and 35 percent of the world‘s plant and animal species exist only in rainforests. Chris: Wow, I‘m impressed. So what else have you learned? Susan: Most of the world‘s rainforests are in danger of destruction by loggers, farmers and developers. They are disappearing at a rate of 1000 acres a minute! Chris: It‘s terrible! Susan: Yeah, we‘ve got to find a way to save them. Now would you like to give a donation? Chris: Sure.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Most of the world‘s rainforests are in danger of destruction by loggers, farmers and developers. They are disappearing at a rate of 100 acres a minute! B: What a tragedy! , Many of the world‘s plant and animal species exist only in rainforests. A: We really need to save the beautiful forests. B: Yeah, we‘ve got to find a way to save them. A: Do you know our mayor is making a call to plant trees? B: Yeah, we do have to plant more trees. I hear China doesn‘t have a lot of forests compared with many countries. A: That‘s true. I‘ve just read an article about afforestation. China‘s forest coverage rate was 18.21percent last yea, ranking only 130th in the world. B: No wonder we have to plat more trees. A: Don‘t lose heart. Progress has been remarkable. In 2000 the rate was just 16.55 percent. B: Any other good news? A: China has stepped up its tree-planting efforts. Now it‘s the world‘s No.1 planter of trees. B: Wow, I‘m impressed.

MODEL3 What a terrible sandstorm! Script Susan: Hey, John. You‘re back. A few days ago, a big sandstorm hit our city John: Oh, that‘s bad. Susan: The air was full of dirt and sand and dust. I had to wear a scarf around my head. John: The dust, as I know, comes from Mongolia. And from my reading in science, I‘ve heard the dust often comes after a long period of drought. Susan: This is a serious problem in many parts of the world, and unfortunately our city is one of them. John: And if the drought continues, the soil is easily airborne. And then if the wind comes, the soil can be lifted up on the cold are that rises up, and it can travel very long distances. Susan: Normally, when there‘s a wind, it can clear the air, and you have beautiful weather. But when the dust is brought in with the wind, then you can‘t breathe, you can‘t see well, and it‘s dangerous for driving, or for walking. John: Yeah. You know, when the dust is lifted up it can go as high 3,000 meters. And it‘s not just China that has problems, but many other countries. For example, the middle of Australia sometimes has dust storms, and some of the dust goes up very high, goes across the ocean, and falls down on New Zealand. Susan: Not a very nice neighbor. John: Is there a solution to the problem? Susan: We need to plant more trees and grass so that the soil can stay where it is. John: No wonder the government is launching a new afforestation program in a bid t address the environmental problem.

Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: I‘m so glad to be back home, again. Oh, what a clear blue sky! B: Yes, the wind has cleared the air. I hope you still remember the situation a couple of years age; that is, when you were here. Each spring a big sandstorm struck our city. A: Oh, that was bad. That air was filled with sand and dust. I had to wear a scarf around my head. B: I had to cover my mouth and nose with a handkerchief. And facial makes sold well. The dust came from the north, and it often rose after a long dry spell. A: If the drought continued, the soil was easily airborne. And when the wind came, the soil was swept up on the cold air, and it could travel very long distances. B: When the dust was brought in with the wind, we could hardly breathe, we couldn‘t see well, and it was dangerous for driving. A: How did your town solve the problem? B: Not only our town. In fact, people in the whole province planted a lot of trees and grass so that the soil would stay where it is. A: I see. The government launched an afforestation project to deal with the sandstorm. The green shelter belt is playing a role.

V. Let‘s Talk Script Li: Hi Professor Wang, I‘m Li Lin, a correspondent from the University Newspaper. The staff and students here are getting more and more interested in the relationship between the environment and development. What do you think is the most serious environmental problem at present? What measures should we adopt to improve the environment and develop the economy at the same time? Wang: There are many environmental problems: air pollution, water pollution, desertification, over-fishing, destruction of natural habitats, acid train, over-consumption of wild animals and plants, etc. But lying at the center of all those problems, as I see it, is the contradiction between economic growth and the environment. Since the United Nations Earth Summit in 1992, more and more people and governments have adopted a new idea; that is, ―sustainable development‖. This means today‘s economic growth should not wipe out he resources and options for future generations. Planning and development should ensure not only economic growth, but also social advancement and environment health. In other words, some economic behavior must be restricted or controlled. Instilling principles of development into government planning, resource management and economic policy is the most important step China could take to solve its environmental problems. China has already taken some remarkable steps to reduce damage to the environment. For instance, following the huge floods of 1998, the government banned logging in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in order to protect forests and reduce the risk of floods. Still, the basic contradiction between environment and development persists. Much work is to be done before we can achieve the aim of a balance between economic growth and the environment.

Environment Problems air pollution, water pollution, desertification, over-fishing, destruction of natural habitats, acid train, over-consumption of wild animals and plants, etc. Central problems the contradiction between economic growth and the environment.

A New Idea sustainable development; it means: (1) Today‘s economic growth should not wipe out he resources and options for future generations. (2) Planning and development should ensure not only economic growth, but also social advancement and environment health. (3) some economic behavior must be restricted or controlled

What China Could Do Instill principles of sustainable development into government planning, resource management and economic policy What China Has Done China has already taken some remarkable steps to reduce damage to the environment. e.g. Following the huge floods of 1998, the government banned logging in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River The Aim A balance between economic growth and the environment. Debate SAMPLE A: In my opinion, we must give priority to economic growth. At present China‘s economy is not strong enough, and the per-capita GDP is much smaller than those of advanced countries. B: I beg to differ. Compared with 30 years ago, the Chinese economy has developed a great deal, and at the same time it has produced a lot of pollution. It is high time we gave environmental conservation serous consideration. A: It seems to me that it‘s more urgent for us to improve people‘s life. If we don‘t boost our economy, we can‘t raise the living standards.. B: I‘d like to draw your attention to the fact that environmental problems are already affecting people‘s lives. Didn‘t you hear that the poisonous substances factories dump into rivers are killing fish and causing cancer among people? A: Well, you have a point there, but we should be aware that an economically backward nation is also militarily weak, and therefore it tends to be bullied by stronger countries. B: If China wants to follow the trend toward economic globalization, it has to meet the international environmental criteria. Even if you can make a lot of products, they can‘t be exported if they are environmentally unfriendly. A: OK, people we‘d better combine out point of view and strike a balance between economic growth and environmental conservation. B: That certainly makes sense. What we need is sustainable development. A: To achieve this goal, we have to burn less coal, petroleum and wood because they can‘t e reproduced easily. B: Right on, we can rely more on solar energy. We can also make more use of water power if the dams we build don‘t present great environmental hazards. A: Also, we should not build so many roads because they occupy so much farmland. B: Yeah, we should turn more to water transportation. By transporting more cargo along rivers and the coast, we can ease the burden on highway transportation.

VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1: Thick Cloud of Pollution Covering Southern Asia Script

A United Nations study says that a thick cloud of pollution covering southern Asia threatens the lives of millions of people. Scientists say the pollution could increase lung disease and cause early deaths. The cloud is also damaging agriculture and affecting rainfall levels. It has affected many countries in southern Asia. The pollution cloud is three kilometers high. Scientists say it can move halfway around the world in a week. The cloud is the result of forest fires, the burning of agricultural waste, and huge increases in the burning of fuels by vehicles, industries and power stations. Pollution from millions of bad cooking stoves hs made the problem worse. Many poor people burn of fuels wood and animal waste in such stoves. Scientists say this combination could be changing winter rainfall levels in Asia. They say rainfall has increased over the eastern coast of Asia. But it has dropped sharply over parts of northwestern Asia. The report says the cloud could reduce rainfall over northwestern Pakistan, Afghanistan, and western China by up to forty percent. Harmful chemicals from the cloud are mixing with rainfall. This acid rain damages crops and trees and threatens public health. Scientists are concerned that the pollution will intensify during the next thirty years as the population of Asia increase to an Estimated 5,000 million people.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is the true of the cloud of pollution? What is NOT the cause of the cloud of pollution? What does the cloud of pollution bring about? Why will the pollution intensify in the next 30 years, according to the passage? What do you think is the best title for the passage?

Keys: 1.D 2.B 3.A 4.C 5.C

Task 2: Mountain regions face a number of dangers. Script Mountain people around the world are in great danger of the negative effects of the worsening environment, according to a UN report. As global warming and deforestation accelerate and technology makes wilder places more accessible, environmental and social pressures on the world‘s remotest regions increases. The UN has found that many mountainous regions—inhabited by one out of five of the world‘s people—are barely recognizable when they are compared to what they ere like 60 years ago. This is mostly because forests were cut to make way for cattle grazing and agriculture. The authors of the UN study expect 98 percent of its mountain areas to experience severe climate change by 2055. Biological losses are expected to be heavy. The mountains of Europe, part of California and the northwest Andes in South America are among the most threatened mountain areas in the world and should be given priority in conservation. The UN is anxious to raise awareness of the problem facing mountain areas because they are inhabited by some of the most vulnerable people. These people could lose their culture and their livelihood with even the smallest shifts in climate.

At the same time, many mountain regions are losing people. Thousands of villages in Europe are deserted most of the year. In other areas like Nepal, people are drifting to the cities in search of work.

Task3: Digging a Hole Script A fellow stopped at a rural gas station and, after filling his tank, he bought a soft drink. He stood by his car to drink his cola ad watched two men working along the roadside. One worker would dig a hole two or three feet deep and then move on. The other worker came along behind and filled in the hole. While one was digging a new hole, the other was about 25 feet behind filling in the old hole. “Hold it, hold it,‖ the fellow said to the men. ―Can you tell me what‘s going on here with this digging?‖ “Well, we work for the country government,‖ one of the men said. “But one of you is digging a hole and the other is filling it up. You‘re not accomplishing anything. Aren‘t you wasting the country‘s money?‖ “You don‘t understand, mister,‖ one of the men said, learning on his shovel and wiping his brow. ―Normally, there‘s three of us, me, Joe, and Mike. I dig the hole, Joe sticks in the tree and Mike here puts the dirt back.‖ “Yeah,‖ piped up Mike. ―Now Joe is sick but that doesn‘t mean we can‘t work, does it?‖

For Reference 1. One worker would dig a hole two or three feet deep and then move on. The other worker came along behind and filled in the hole. 2. He asked them, ―Can you tell me what‘s going on here with this digging?‖/He asked them what was going on there with that digging. 3. Because one of them was digging a hole and the other was filling it up. They were not accomplishing anything. 4. Normally there were three of them, the worker who answered him, Joe and Mike. The first man dug the hole, Joe stuck in the tree, and Mike put the dirt back. News Report Santa‘s Hometown in Danger Script Weather experts may have found a new problem caused by global warming, one which many people will pay attention to: There are signs that Santa‘s home in the North may be in trouble because of warmer temperatures. The Finnish town of Rovaniemi on the Arctic Circle, which many Europeans say is the home of Santa Claus, has had its warmest winter in 40 years. As a result, there has been much less snow than usual—meaning no snowmen, no snowballs and possible not enough snow for Santa to ride

his sleigh on. More important for local residents, it may mean fewer tourists, as well. Santa‘s wintry hometown normally attracts thousands of visitors each year, and millions of dollars. Anne Pelttari-Bergman, the town‘s tourist director, worries that the town could be in trouble if snow levels do not return to normal. She explains: ―Snow is really important for us, of course. For Santa Claus, for Christmas tourism, and also for our winter tourism because winter is our best season. It is really important for us.‖ Weather experts and town residents are hoping this warm winter is a one-time thing. Few people can imagine a holiday when even Santa does not have a white Christmas.

Unit 8 Flying there is not half the fun II?Basic Listening Practice 1 Script M:would you prefer a window or an aisle seat,madam? W: Aisle, please. there's none 1eft, If then a wind。 seat is OK. I don't like middle seats。 w But Q: what is the order of the woman‘s preference? C: aisle-wingdow-minddle 2 Script M:I’d like to fly economy to Thailand on October 8th.1 want to book two tickets. W:we have only one seat left in economy,but we will give you two business class seats for the same price as one economy and,one business class seat. Q:What can the man get? B: Two business class tickets at a reduced price 3 Script M:Excuse me,where do I check in for British Airways to London? I can’t find the right check-in counter. W: You should go to Counter 26 on the left-hand side. It's just next to Thai Air. sir. You’ better d hurry, though. There’s a long queue Q:What does the woman say? ” C)The British Airways counter is counter26. 4.Script W:Airport security checks always make me nervous.I’m afraid I’11 set off the alarm because of the jewelry I’m wearing. ’ M:I know. I’ll set off the security alarm. I have a steel plate in my arm from a rugby Injury. Q:Why will the man set of the alarm? D)Because he has a metal plate in his body 5.Script

M:Welcome home! Here,let me take your suitcase.The car is out in the parking lot. your plane was two hours late:you must be exhausted. W:Yes,we have to check in three hours before take-off time;secufity guards take ages searching carry_0n stuff, but they ignore check-in baggage.Strange system. Q:What is the woman NOT complaining about? A)Security guards search her check-in suitcase III.Listening In Task 1: the smaller the airport, the bigger the checkup Paul:The airport security checks sometimes seem very strange to me. Sylvia:What do you mean? Paul:I just completed an international flight.And with all the threats to security of travel today I expected to have my luggage searched. Sylvia: that’ understandable. mean, with all the fear that’ out there about terrorism, of course s I s they’re going to check your baggage—especially your carry—ons. Paul:I don’t mind them checking my baggage.In fact,I expect it.But there seems to be an inverse ratio at work. Sylvia:What on earth do you mean? They check everyone’s baggage,don’t they? Paul:Yes,but here’s what’s funny:The smaller the airport,the greater the security.The less likely a plane is to be hijacked,the more precautions they take. Sylvia:Are you serious? Why should a small airport be more aware of security than a large one? Paul: Here’ what I’ experienced: s ve Once at a small airport, they seized a roll of adhesive tape and argued that it could be used in hijacking.Then they asked me to remove my digital camera from its case and demonstrate that it could take pictures. Sylvia:And is this different from a large airport? Paul:According to my experience,it is.When I flew from Vancouver to Paris,they simply ran my bags through the scanner, and 1 was on my way Sylvia:If that’s the case,the baggage checking system is really strange. Paul finds the airport security checks sometimes very strange.In an international flight he did expect to have his luggage searched. Sylvia agrees, knowing that with a11the fear that’ out there s about terrorism,they will check passengers’ baggage—especially their carry-ons.In fact, Paul does not mind them checking his baggage but there seems to be an inverse ratio—at work:The smaller the airport, the greater the security. The less likely a plane is to be hijacked, the more precautions they take.Paul further says that once at a small airport, they seized a roll of adhesive tape to prevent hijacking.They also asked him to remove his digital camera from its case and demonstrate that it could take pictures.On the other hand,a large airport is different.When Paul —flew from Vancouver to Paris,they simply ran his bags through the scanner, and he was on his way. Finally, Sylvia admits that the baggage checking system is strange Task 2: jet lag Jet 1ag is the feeling of tiredness that comes after crossing time zones in an airplane. People get jet lag often,especially if they travel far.For example,a flight from New York to Beijing is a tong trip. Passengers will cross many time zones and may have a bad case of jet lag. However, there are some things that can help reduce jet lag.First.drink a lot of liquids.Water is the best liquid to

drink.Also,eat low—fat foods during the flight.Noodles are always a good choice.Next,try to do some exercise on the plane.Walk around or stretch your muscles.Also,try to adjust your schedule to correspond with the local time as soon as you can.For instance, if you usually go to sleep at 10 p.m., then when the local time is 10 p. , to bed. m. go Finally, when you arrive at your destination. some exercise. get Ask the front desk clerk where the hotel’ gym is. s Remember that if you adjust your schedule to correspond with the local time,your jet lag will not be too bad. In general, your body takes only a few days to reset its biological clock,and you’ll soon overcome jet lag. 1.T 2.F 3.F 4.F 5.T Task 3: $10 is $10 One day,an old man named Stumpy and his wife Martha went to the Illinois State Aviation Fair A man was selling plane tides for$10 per person.Stumpy was fascinated and said to,Martha, “I think we really should try that. Martha replied, know you want to, ” “I Stumpy, we have a lot but of bills.You know the money is tight,and$10 is$10.” So Stumpy went without.Over the next few years they returned every year to the fair, and the same thing happened:Stumpy wanted a ride, Martha said they couldn’ afford it. but t Finally, when Stumpy and Martha were both about 70 years old, Stumpy fixed his eyes on Martha and said, Martha, m 70 now, I don’ know “ I’ and t if I’11 ever get the chance again,SO I just have to have a ride in that airplane.’Martha replied ’ in the same old fashion,and Stumpy became depressed.The pilot standing nearby overheard the conversation and he cut in, “Excuse me folks,I have a deal for you.I’11 take both of you up together,and if you can both make the entire trip without uttering a word.I’11 give you the ride for free.But if either of you makes a sound,it’s $1 0 each. ”Martha and Stumpy looked at each other and agreed.The pilot took them up,and started to climb,spin,dive,climb and spin again.There was no sound.After the pilot landed the plane,he praised the old man, want to “1 congratulate you for not making a sound. You are a brave man. “Maybe SO, said Stumpy, ” “but I got to tell you,I almost screamed when my wife fell out,but$10 is$10 1. A)what did the old man want? B)He wanted to have a ride in the plane. 2.What reason did the old woman give for not riding in the plane? A)They had to pay a lot of bills. 3.What happened when the old man and woman were about 70 years old? C)The man wanted to fly but the woman did not want him to. 4.What deal did the pilot offer? C)The couple could have a flee ride if neither of them made a sound during the trip. 5.What happened to the old woman finally? D) She fell out of the plane IV. Speaking Out MODEL 1 I'd like to book hotel and airline reservations. Travel agent: Horizon Travel, how may I help you? Helen: This is Helen Parker. I'd like to book hotel and airline reservations. Travel agent: And what's your destination. Ms. Parker? Helen: I'm headed for Las Vegas to attend an electronics trade show. Travel agent: OK. Can you spell your name, please? Helen: My last name is Parker, P-A-R-K-E-R, and my first name is Helen.

Travel agent: Will you be traveling alone? Helen: Yes, I'll be traveling by myself. Travel agent: Will that be a one-way or a round-trip ticket? Helen: Return. I plan on leaving July 21st and coming back on the 30th. Travel agent: Will you be flying first class or business class? Helen: No, no, not a chance. Economy class, the cheapest. If there's a three-star hotel located downtown, that would be great. If it has a pool, that's better still. Travel agent: OK, let me check the computer. I can book your flight immediately. I'll have to inquire about the hotel reservation and call you back. Helen: No problem. I'm at 658-0266, extension 513. I'll be expecting your call. Travel agent: OK, Ms. Parker. Thank you for your call. I'll get back to you soon. Bye bye. Helen: Bye Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Globe Travel Agency, can I help you? B: This is Linda Carter. I'd like to book hotel and airline reservations. A: Where are you going, Ms. Carter? B: I'm headed for Toronto to attend an industrial exhibition. A: Could you spell your name, please? B: My surname is Carter, C-A-R-T-E-R, and my given name is Linda. A: Will you be traveling by yourself? B: No, Ill be traveling with my boss, James Adams. So I need two tickets and two rooms. A: Would you like to have one-way or round-trip tickets? B: Return tickets. But since we re not sure when we can come back, I prefer open tickets for the return journey. A: Will you fly economy class or business class? B: Business class, please. My boss always flies business class. If there's a five-star hotel located downtown, that would be great. A: Well, let me check the computer. I can book your tickets right now. I'll have to check the hotel reservation and call you back. B: No problem. I'm at 58855200. I'll be expecting your call. A: OK. Thank you. MODEL 2 Last week I flew non-stop to Sa~Francisco. Script Nora: Hey John. John:hey Nora: I took a course on how the airport runs, and I don't suffer from fear of flying any more. Last week I flew nonstop to San Francisco. John: Congratulations! Which flight did you take? Nora: United Airlines, Flight UA858. John: How did it go? Everything smooth sailing?

Nora: Not everything. Since I hadn't traveled by air for a long time, I wasn't familiar with the airport. It took me quite a while to find the United Airlines check-in counter. John: Then how did you find it? Nora: In fact, it was displayed on the monitor: "Flight UA858 c~/Counter 45." John: And was everything OK once you found it? Nora: No, there was a terrible line-up. I had to wait there for an hour. John: I see. You must have been burned out waiting before you even boarded the plane. Nora: That still wasn't the end of my troubles. When I finally got to the counter and handed in my passport and ticket, the airline agent looked at my passport and at me again and again. John: Why? Did she think your passport was a fake? Nora: I don't know. I just told her my photo did not flatter me at all. John: Your photo certainly doesn't do justice to your beauty. Nora: She didn't say anything like that. Fortunately, when I asked for an aisle seat, she said she had one. You know, I wouldn't dare take a window seat and look out the window. John: I prefer an aisle seat, too. Then I can stretch my legs and occasionally stand up in the aisle. Nora: Finally she gave me a boarding pass, and it said that my flight would be boarding at Gate 33 in just minutes. So I had to run! John: That's bad luck. But you made it! Good for you. Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Hey, good to see you back. How was your trip? Everything smooth sailing? B: Not bad, though I had a little trouble before boarding. A: What was wrong? B: I was caught in a traffic jam and almost missed the flight. But I managed to get to the airport in time A: Congratulations! Which flight did you take? B: British Airways, Flight BA 554. A: Was it easy for you to find the right counter? B: Yes, the information was displayed on the monitor. A: Since there was not much time left for you, I hope there wasn't a terrible line-up at the counter. B: Luckily, no. The queue was quite short. But I had another problem. A: What was that? B: When I handed in my passport, the airline agent looked at it for a long time. A: Why? Did the agent think your passport was a fake? B: No, she didn't, but she told me that my passport was going to expire in a week. So you see, I had to fly back quickly. A: I hope that was the end of your troubles. B: Not completely. I still had trouble with my baggage. A: What was the problem? B: It was overweight. It took me a while to go through the procedure. A: Any good news before you boarded the plane? B: Yes, when I asked for a window seat, I got one. You know, I wouldn't like to take an aisle or middle seat where I couldn't enjoy the view.

A: I prefer an aisle seat, though. So that I can stretch my legs and occasionally stand up. B: Finally the agent gave me the boarding pass, and it said that my flight would be boarding at Gate 24 in just minutes. So I had to run! A: But you made it! Good for you MODEL 3 I've got jet lag. Script Susan: Wow! What happened? You look like something the cat dragged in. John: You would too if you‘d been through what I have. I've got jet lag. Susan: Jet lag's not for real, is it? It's like a "broken heart"-a figure of speech John: It‘s for real. See my eyes? They‘re all bloodshot. I can‘t eat; I can‘t sleep. Susan: How long does this jet lag last after you‘re home again and walking round? John: I don‘t know exactly. It can be a day for each hour‘s difference in time. Susan: Ouch! At that rate it‘ll take you twelve days to recover from the flight. John: Maybe a drink on the plane can ease your jet lag. Susan: That's not a very good idea. Alcohol dries you out when it's combined with altitude and stale dry air in the cabin. John: I wonder whether a long flight like that is worth the high cost. Susan: Take my advice. Go by boat. Arrive rested and ready to enjoy your holiday. John: No, it'll take too long-longer than the time for me to reset my biological clock after a flight. Now Your Turn SAMPLE DIALOG A: Wow! What's wrong with you? You look dead tired ~ B: You would too if you'd been through what I have. I've got jet lag. See my eyes: they're bloodshot. I can't eat; I can't sleep. A: How long will this jet lag last? B: I don't know exactly. It can be a day for each hour's difference in time. A: Ouch! At that rate it'll take you twelve days to recover. Maybe a drink on the plane can save you from jet lag. B: That's not a good solution, I'm afraid. Alcohol dries you out when it's combined with altitude and stale dry air in the cabin. But if you drink a lot of water, it helps. A: let's check on the Internet to see how we can overcome jet lag quickly. B: Look, here's an article. So you need to get some exercise. You can go to the gym to work out. A: You should try to match your schedule with the local time. When it's time to go to bed but you don't feel sleepy, you might as well take sleeping pills. B: When you feel sleepy in broad daylight, you can drink strong coffee to stay awake. A: In this way you can reset your biological clock quickly. V. Let' Talk Script Before I conclude my talk, I'd like to summarize what we have covered. Air travel has its inherent advantages. Airplanes fly fast, and they are now flying faster than before. Now supersonic passenger planes can fly across the Atlantic Ocean in just a couple of hours. It is

reported that new models are being designed. In the future they may carry people from New York to London in less than an hour. In the past not many people traveled by air because of the high fares. Now owing to the market competition, the fare has dropped a great deal, so more people are traveling by air. In the 1990s, the United States witnessed an explosive growth in demand for air travel. Many millions who had never, or rarely flown before, became regular passengers. They even joined frequent flyer loyalty programs, receiving free flights and other such benefits. Flying has become increasing convenient. The introduction of new services and more frequent flights has meant that business flyers can fly to another city, do business, and return on the same day. This applies to almost any two points in the country. Some passengers worry about safety in flying. In a crash there are usually no survivors. However, to prevent tragic accidents and serious financial loss, airlines are especially cautious in checking the conditions of aircraft to reduce the possibility of accidents to the minimum. It is sometimes claimed that flying involves fewer accidents than any other modes of travel. Airplanes do have their disadvantages. For example, they are incapable of transporting large quantities of cargo. Also, an airport can be quite far away from the city center. But the advantages of flying outweigh these small drawbacks, and flying remains an efficient kind of transportation. That's the end of my lecture. Now may I take your questions if you have any? Pros and Cons of Flying Pro 1 An airplane flies fast (1) Supersonic passenger planes can fly across the Atlantic Ocean in just a couple of hours; (2) In future they may carry people from Now York to London in less than an hour. Pro 2 The fare has dropped a great deal, so more people are traveling by air: Many millions became regular passengers, and even joined frequent flyer loyalty programs. Pro 3 Flying has become increasingly convenient: Business fliers can fly to another city, do business, and return on the same day. Pro 4 Airlines are cautious about checking the conditions of aircraft to reduce the possibility of accidents to the minimum Con 1 The plane is incapable of transporting large quantities of cargo. Con 2 An airport can be quite far away from the city center. Dissussion SAMPLE A: I like flying better than any other way of traveling. It's so fast and convenient that you can fly to another city, do business, and return on the same day, between almost any points in the country. B: But land transport is not slow, thanks to superhighways. What's more, it's often cheaper. A: I'll admit air fare is a bit high, but it's dropped a lot. The high speed and great convenience are worth the money. B: Land transport is often safer. In case of accidents like a fire, you can jump out of the car. Can you jump our of a plane? A: It's true that in a crash there are often no survivors. However, airlines are especially cautious in

checking the conditions of aircraft. It's sometimes believed that flying involves fewer accidents than other kinds of travel. B: The problem with a plane is that it can't transport large quantities of cargo. A: I agree, but certainly a plane can carry perishable goods like fresh vegetables to a distant city quickly and safely. B: But an airport is often quite far away from the city center. So that will add to your traveling time. You can‘t fly directly to your final destination. A: You have a point there. I know trucks can provide door-to-door delivery service, but buses and trains can't. B: OK, let's come to this conclusion: each type of transport has its own advantages and disadvantages. A: Yes, that's why none of them has been phased out. VI. Further Listening and Speaking Task1:An Overview of Airlines Script An airline is an organization which provides aviation services for passengers and cargo. It owns or leases airliners to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for reasons of mutual benefits. The scale and scope of airline companies range from those with a single airplane carrying mail or cargo, to full-service international airlines operating many hundreds of airplanes of various types. Airline services can be categorized as intercontinental, intra-continental, regional or domestic and may be operated as scheduled services or charters. These variations in the types of airline companies, their operating scope, and the routes they serve, make analysis of the airline industry complex. But one thing is certain: The industry is heavily influenced by the market now. In the past 50 years or so, the general trend of ownership has gone from government-owned or government-supported to independent, for-profit companies. This is a result of the government permit greater freedom. This trend is not yet consistent across all airlines in all regions. The demand for air travel services depends on other things: needs for cargo transportation, business passenger demand, leisure passenger demand, which are all influenced by macroeconomic activity in the market. These trends are highly seasonal, and often depend on day-of-week, or time-of-day. The industry is cyclical. Four or five years of poor performance are followed by five or six years of gradual improvement in performance. 1.D 2 C 3.D 4.A 5.B

Task2:Results of Damage Testing Script: Birds often cause accidents when they strike aircraft. T

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