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8D Problem Solving


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8D 8D Problem Solving

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CUSTOMER FOCUS

Win-Win Negotiations

Customer Awareness

QFD 8D Problem Solving 8D

Effective Customer Service Skills

Dealing with the Disappointed Customer

Value Analysis

FMEA

System Modeling and System Knowledge

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JCI Desired Outcomes JCI

The 8D/PSD format be the standard tool to communicate and solve significant problems 8D PSD

? ? ? ?

Increase usage of 8Discipline Problem Solving 8D Develop usage in all parts of our business

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JCI Desired Outcomes JCI

?Create a common vocabulary
?

?Improve JCI cycle time and quality in solving problems ?

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JCI Desired Outcomes JCI

?Emphasize the documentation of solved problems
? ?Understand how 8D relates to JCI quality objectives and goals. ? 8D

?Encourage personal growth
?

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Problem Solving

You and a friend are enjoying a friendly (but competitive) round of golf. As you approach the 16th hole, you hit an amazing drive that lands just short of the green. As you walk up to where your golf ball landed, you notice that the ball has rolled into a paper bag…carelessly left on the ground by someone. 16 …

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Problem Solving

The rules of golf say that you will lose a stroke if you remove the ball from the bag. Striking the ball while it remains in the bag, may cause you to mis-hit the ball. What are your ideas for solving this problem?

.

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Problem Solving & Introductions

What is your name?

What company do you work for?

What are you desired outcomes for this training?

What are your ideas for solving the golf ball dilemma?

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8-D Problem Solving 8-D

Started at Ford as TOPS-Team Oriented, Data Driven TOPS – Proven tool for solving manufacturing, assembly, and office problems. Includes IS / IS NOT and many other technical tools /

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8-D Problem Solving 8-D

Excellent planning, tracking, and documentation tool.

Recognized industry standard
(Internet search 8d problem solving) solving”

“8d problem

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JCI Problem Solving Toolset

? 8D Problem Solving

8
PSD Problem solving discipline

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JCI Problem Solving Toolset

Six Sigma
? Complex problem solving tool. When 8D has multiple potential root causes and requires more complex tools. ? 8D

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8D Problem Solving Process

0. Become Aware of the Problem 5. Define and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions 1. Assemble a Team if Necessary 6. Implement Permanent Corrective Actions

2. Describe the Problem and the Expectation

3. Implement and Verify Interim Containment Actions

7. Prevent Recurrence

4. Define and Verify Root Causes

8. JOB WELL DONE!

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8-D

0.
5. 1. 6. 2.

3. 8.

7.

4.

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Step 0 0

Become Aware of the Problem

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How We Become Aware of Problems
Customer call First Pass Yield Quality Cost (Excessive scrap, etc.) Delivery

Warranty Data
?

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8D
?The symptom has been defined and quantified.
?The 8D customer experiencing the symptom and the affected parties have been identified. 8D ?Quantifying measurements show that a performance gap (poorer performance than desired) exists and/or the priority (severity, urgency, growth) of the symptom warrants the 8D process. / 8D ?The cause is unknown.

?Management is committed to fixing the problem at the root cause level and preventing recurrence.
?The complexity of the symptom exceeds the ability of one person to solve the problem. If all six criteria are met and no other 8D teams are working on the same or similar problems, then you should initiate the 8D process. 8D 8D

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Step 1 Assemble a Team if Necessary

Form a small team of people with the interest and the necessary skills to effectively work through the 8-D process. 8-D 8-D

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Assemble a Team: Steps

Select a small number of people

Determine roles

Develop ground rules

Determine customer

Determine scope, timetable, deliverables

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Step 2 Describe the Problem and the Expectation

Specify the internal/external customer problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, when, where, why, how, how many (5W2H) for the problem. : Describe in quantifiable terms the customer expectation and the vision. who ( how ( ), what ( ), when ( ), where ( ), how many ( )” 5W2H ), why ( ),

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Describe the Problem: Steps

Describe the problem
Refine problem statement Write problem statement Write customer expectation

Write vision statement

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Keys to Problem Statement

The Problem Description phase involves as complete of data collection as possible.

May require time to collect the data

It is key to get the Problem Statement accurate.

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Tools for Problem Description

Data Collection 5W’s & 2 H’s who ( ), what ( ), when ( ( ), how ( ), how many ( )” ), where ( ), why

Charting
5 Why’s 5

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5 W’s & 2 H’s

Who What

(Customer, end user,) (What product, What p/n, s/n,)

Where

(Location, On what machine, )

When Why How

(On what dates were failures, After how many hours, ) (Include any partial conclusions.) (Under what circumstances, what type of failure)

How many

(How many failures, Out of how many total)

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5 W’s & 2 H’s

( ( ,

) , ,)

(
( ( ( (

,
,

,)
,) ) , , ) )

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Problem Investigation Worksheet

What’s wrong with what?
Ask Why Five Times

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
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Y

N

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?
5

?____________________________________________
(

?____________________________________________
?(

?____________________________________________
?(

?____________________________________________
?(

?____________________________________________ ?(
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5 Why’s Example

Initial problem statement…
? M46 pumps are leaking at pressure decay.

Why?
? The fastener torque is low.

Can you prove it?
? Yes, the torque was measured below spec.

Why?
? The torque tool is not calibrated.

Can you prove it?
? No, there could be many reasons for low torque.

Final problem statement…
? The fastener torque is below spec on some M46 pumps prior to pressure decay test.

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5


? M46 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . . . . .


?
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M46
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Customer Expectation and Our Vision

Customer Expectation

? What will the situation look like to the customer after the 8D is finished? ? 8D ? Get customer agreement.

?
Vision Statement

? What will our process look like internally to meet the customer expectation?
?
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Expectation & Vision Example

Customer expectation... ... ? Leaks on M46 pumps (in the first 1000 hours of pump life) must not exceed 50 DPM. ? M46 Vision... ( 1000 ) 50DPM.

...
? We will have a process that torques M46 fasteners to the production spec with a cpk >2. ? M46 (cpk>2)

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Step 2: Required Information

Problem Statement: Who What (Customer, end user,) (What product, What p/n, s/n,)

Where
When Why How How many

(Location, On what machine, )
(On what dates were failures, After how many hours, ) (Include any partial conclusions.) (Under what circumstances, what type of failure) (How many failures, Out of how many total)

Customer Expectation: Vision Statement:

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: ( ( , ) , ,)

(
( ( (

,
,

,)
,) ) , )

(
: :

,

)

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Step 2 Checklist

?Does the team have a preliminary problem statement? ?Is the problem statement refined with whys? ?Have actions been assigned for more information needed? ?Does the team have a final problem statement that can be proven? ?Has a customer expectation been written? ?Has a vision statement been written? ?Does the customer agree with the problem statement and expectation?
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2
? 5Why ?

?
? ? ? ?

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JCI Standard

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Team Activity Problem Statement

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Problem Statements

Details – The swing, travel, hoist, tilt, tool cylinder, and stick cylinder functions powered by the S-D 155H4776 (5 section) and 155H4778 (3 section) PVG 120 proportional valve move intermittently without an electrical command signal on the LA Grant BDRE tool carriers. This problem has been experienced on multiple BDRE tool carriers over the past 3 years in multiple locations. The problem is intermittent and tends to progress with machine usage (>500 hours).

-

LA Grant BDRE , 155H4778 (3 section) PVG 120
3

S-D 155H4776 (5 section)
BDRE >500

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Problem Statements

Statement: Who-----?

What----?
Where---? When----? Why------?

Flow control spool moves from neutral intermittently without an electrical command signal LA Grant BDRE tool carrier PVG 120 – 155H4776 and 155H4778 proportional valves Multiple locations (exact count is not available) After 500 hours of operation at the customer. ? – not due to electrical command – needs investigation

How------?
How Many->

? – needs investigation
? - needs investigation LA Grant BDRE PVG 120 – 155H4776 ( 500 ?– ?– 155H4778 )

: Who-----? What----? Where---? When----? Why------? How------? How Many->
39

?-

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LA Grant BDRE Tool Carrier Intermittent Move From Neutral
8-D Revision Date: Step 1 – Assemble a team if necessary :
Name Charles Tebbutt ???? ???? ???? ???? (Facilitator) Function Technical Sales Quality Egr Mfg Egr Service Egr / Tech Purchasing / Buyer

Step 2 –

Describe the problem and the expectation : Problem statement: Flow control spool moves from neutral intermittently without an electrical command signal

Who What Where When Why How How many

Customer: Product: Serial no:

LA Grant BDRE tool carrier PVG 120 – 155H4776 and 155H4778 proportional valves ????

Multiple locations (exact count is not available) After 500 hours of operation at the customer ? – not due to electrical command – needs investigation ? – needs investigation ? - needs investigation

Champion:

Rocky Dai / Terry Larson / ??????

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LA Grant BDRE Tool Carrier Intermittent Move From Neutral
8-D :

1 –

:

Charles Tebbutt ???? ???? ???? ????

(

)

/ /

2 – :

:

: : : (

LA Grant BDRE tool carrier PVG 120 – 155H4776 and 155H4778 ???? ) 500

? – ? – ? -



Champion:

Rocky Dai / Terry Larson / ??????

41

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Problem Statements

Details – General Electric (GE) is experiencing shaft seal and pump failures on the S-D Series 90 250cc Hydrostatic Piston Pump on a turbine starter application. The shoulder of the Series 90 pump front roller bearing fails in approximately 2 hours, causing the shaft seal to wear and leak, and creating a low charge pressure condition, rendering the pump unable to operate. This failure mode has been observed on 6 pumps built in a time period of November 2001 through June 2002. Expectation for starter system life (pump life) is 500 hours.

– 90 2 2001 11 2002 6

S-D

90 250cc

6 500

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Problem Statements

Statement:
Who-----? What----? Where---? When----? Why------? How------? How Many->

Series 90 250cc Hydrostatic Piston Pump shaft seal fails on a turbine starter application. Multiple GE turbine starter installations. Series 90, 250cc Hydrostatic Pumps. Seal leak and bearing failure. After 2 hours of operation. Seal leaks / bearing fails / ? – needs investigation. ? – needs investigation 6 (need S-D part number(s) and manufacturing dates)

: Who-----? What----? Where---? When----? Why------? How------? How Many->
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90 250 cc 90, 250cc

2
/ ?– 6( S-D ) /?–

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General Electric Turbine Starter Bearing Failure 8D
8-D Revision Date: Step 1 – Assemble a team if necessary :
Name (Facilitator) Function

Step 2 –

Describe the problem and the expectation : Problem statement: Series 90 250cc Hydrostatic Piston Pump shaft seal fails on a turbine starter application. Multiple GE turbine starter installations.

Who What Where When Why How How many

Customer: Product: Serial no:

General Electric Series 90, 250cc Hydrostatic Pumps ?????

Seal leak and bearing failure After 2 hours of operation Seal leaks / bearing fails / ? – needs investigation ? – needs investigation 6 (need S-D part number(s) and manufacturing dates)

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Rocky Dai / Terry Larson / ????

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General Electric Turbine Starter Bearing Failure 8D
8-D :

1 –

:

(

)

2 – : 90 250 cc
: : :

: .

90, 250cc ?????

2 / ? 6 ( S-D ) /? –

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Rocky Dai / Terry Larson / ????

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JCI Standard

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Step 3 Implement and Verify Interim Containment Actions

Define and implement interim containment actions to isolate the effect of problem from any internal/external customer until corrective action is implemented. Verify the effectiveness of the interim containment action.

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How’s the Customer?

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Containment: definition

Contain
? Keep within limits

? Restrain, control, check, halt

? Stop the bleeding

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Containment Steps

Stop the process if necessary

Retrieve / Isolate any defective products

Make list of possible containment actions

Consensus on containment actions

Test the containment

Implement the containment

Document the containment

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Containment Actions
Taken by
G. Hansen & W. Smith L. Meier & W. Smith Caterpillar L. Meier W. Smith

Action

Date Taken
16 June 2003

1. Track and Return transmission failures: CQAR 2003-01043 was initiated to track analysis of initial 5 units. 2. Stop Shipment: Stop Order 1423 was initiated stopping shipment of all mid and large frame Cut transmissions. 3. Customer inventory placed on hold 4. Safety Team Review: Reviewed actions with HST product liability team and gained approval 5. Revert to (1200338) design which had been used successfully during the previous 16 months; Serial number start of containment: o A-03-25-23527 (1200350), Mid Frame o A-03-25-20450 (1200355), Large frame 6. Reworked in-house inventory & Resumed Shipment. 7. Customer returned 300 transmissions: Transmissions built on June 3 were removed from tractors in factory (34 pcs) & at dealers (60 pcs). All in-process midframe transmissions returned (200 pcs). CQAR’s 2003-01185, 2003-01186, & 200301190 were initiated to track application of containment to customer inventory.

16 June 2003

16 June 2003 25 June 2003 25 June2003

G. Hansen M. Gibson

25 June 2003 25 June 2003

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Containment Actions

1.

: CQAR 2003-01043

5

.

G. Hansen & W. Smith L. Meier & W. Smith Caterpillar

16 June 2003

2.

: 1423

16 June 2003

3. 4. 5. o o A-03-25-23527 (1200350), Mid Frame A-03-25-20450 (1200355), Large frame : HST

16 June 2003 25 June 2003 25 June2003

L. Meier W. Smith

6. Reworked in-house inventory & Resumed Shipment. 7. 300 : Transmissions built on June 3 were removed from tractors in factory (34 pcs) & at dealers (60 pcs). All in-process mid-frame transmissions returned (200 pcs). CQAR’s 2003-01185, 2003-01186, & 2003-01190 were initiated to track application of containment to customer inventory.

G. Hansen M. Gibson

25 June 2003 25 June 2003

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JCI Standard

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Break

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Step 4 Define and Verify Root Causes

Identify all potential causes which could theoretically explain why the problem occurred.

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Step 4 Define and Verify Root Causes

Isolate and verify the root cause by mental and/or physical test of potential causes against the problem description and data.

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Define & Verify Root Cause Steps

Review problem statement Develop a list of facts (Is / Is Not) / Chronological list of changes List of possible causes Compare possible causes to facts Verify probable root cause Write root cause statement

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Tools to help Define and Verify Root Causes

?Is / Is Not? / ?Ask Why 5 times? 5 ?Chronological Sequence? ?Brain Storming?

?Database Search?
?Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)? ?Design Of Experiments (DOE)?
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Problem-Solving Tools IS / IS NOT table

Problem Statement (See Step 2 above) Description of the Problem What Product What customers / applications Where have failures been seen on product Where have failures been seen geographically When first seen in field or plant When else have we seen failure When seen in process (raw material through field) How much (percent affected) Number of occurrences found (dates / locations) Size / extent

Is

Is Not

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/
( 2 )

/

(

)

( /

/

)

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Verifying Root Cause
(IS / IS NOT) ( / )

Is
What Product TMT 315 / 380 / 400 ccm

Is Not
TMT motors < 250 ccm OMT motors TMT < 250 ccm OMT Other market segments

What customers / applications / Where have failures been seen on product

Skidsteer loader (high load cycle) applications

Splines curve on cardan shafts – using Cprogram. C

Splines curve on cardan shafts – with other programs (A,B,D) (A,B,D)

Where have failures been seen geographically
When first seen in field or plant

America + Europe +
Field – first complaints in May 03 – 2003 5

When else have we seen failure

None

When seen in process (raw material to field) ( )

New milling machine (500T) used to manufacture carden shafts starting in August 2001 2001 8 (500T)

All other (older) milling machines.

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Problem Investigation Worksheet

What’s wrong with what?
Ask Why Five Times

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
Y N

Why?____________________________________________
Can you prove it? (if yes, proceed. If no, go back 1 step)
62 JCI China Quality Institue

Y

N

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?
5

?____________________________________________
(

?____________________________________________
?(

?____________________________________________
?(

?____________________________________________
?(

?____________________________________________ ?(
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Verifying Root Cause
(asking WHY 5 times) ( 5 )

Customer vehicle can not move. Brakes on customer vehicle will not release.

WHY? ? Investigations found metal particles in the brake release valve and in the S-D LSHT motor case drain. S-D DLSHT
WHY? ? Metal particles are originating from premature fatigue chipping of the splines on the S-D LSHT motor shaft. M S-D LSHT )

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Verifying Root Cause
(asking WHY 5 times) ( 5 )

WHY? ? The profile of the splines on the LSHT motor shaft do not match design specifications causing interference with mating parts and excessive loading/stress levels. TLSHT / WHY? ? New CNC machining center was introduced to manufacturing process in August 2001. The shaft profile was measured at start-up with an insufficient measuring procedure. The results were not documented. N2001 8 CNC WHY? ? Existing procedure for change management to C type cardan shaft is not adequate when considering a change to the tools used in the manufacturing process. C

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Chronological Sequence

Documented North American S90 Servo Arm Pin Walkout Failures
8
Other Frame Size 4Q1997 - Surface finish requirement added to all pins & FMEA tables added to 55-100cc pins. Servo arm hole diameter and tolerance change on 55-100cc parts to increase retention force. 2Q1998 - Lead in chamfer added to NMS parts and optional on 55100cc parts. 100% proof load inspection started on 130cc. 4Q1998 - Precision Machine changes from honing to a Diamond Abrasive Boring process for finishing the servo arm hole.

7

130cc Frame Size

2Q2002 - NMS supplier proof load check changed from 13 kN to 16 kN on 130cc parts. 4Q2002 - NMS supplier increased diameter of pin to reduce failure rate per proof load check. 1Q2003 - 130cc servo pin drawing changed to callout only one material choice and tightened diameter tolerance.

6

5

Quantity

4

3

1988 - Press fit change in 75cc?

1991 Slider block changed to blind hole

2

1

0

1Q1988

3Q1988

1Q1989

3Q1989

1Q1990

3Q1990

1Q1991

3Q1991

1Q1992

3Q1992

1Q1993

3Q1993

1Q1994

3Q1994

Date Code Quarter

1Q1995

3Q1995

1Q1996

3Q1996

1Q1997

3Q1997

1Q1998

3Q1998

1Q1999

3Q1999

1Q2000

3Q2000

1Q2001

3Q2001

1Q2002

3Q2002

1Q2003

3Q2003

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Problem-Solving Tools Cause / Effect Diagram Measurements Personne l

/

Materials

Effect

Environment
Rev. A, 2004-04-16 67 JCI China Quality Institue

Machines

Methods
Page 1 of 1

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Ask Why 5 times: Why – ? Why – ? Why – ? Why – ? Why – ?

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Step 5 Define and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions

Through pre-production test programs, quantitatively confirm that the selected permanent corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer, and will not cause undesirable side effects. Define contingency actions, if necessary, based on risk assessment.

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Permanent: definition

Continuing or enduring

Stable

Lasting

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Permanent Corrective Actions: Steps

Develop a list of musts and wants Brainstorm possible corrective actions Determine best corrective action Verify effectiveness Verify no adverse side effects Commit to best corrective action

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Define and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions

Test your fix in house before releasing product to the customer.

If risk is high, have a backup plan to keep customer satisfied.

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Step 6 Implement Permanent Corrective Actions

Define and implement the best permanent corrective actions (PCA’s). Choose on-going controls to ensure the root cause is eliminated. Once in production, monitor the process and results. (PCA’s)

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Implement Corrective Actions: Steps

Evaluate team

Develop implementation plan

Anticipate Problems

Review related FMEAs FMEAs Execute plan

Monitor results

Remove containment

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Step 7 7 Prevent Recurrence

Modify the management systems, operating system, practices and procedures to prevent recurrence.

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Prevent: definition

To act ahead of

To meet or satisfy in advance

To keep from happening

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Corrective Action and Prevention

Corrective Action is the response to a specific cause.

Corrective Action reduces the risk of the specific cause from recurring.

Prevention is the identification/review of similar elements (systemic) and the application of the corrective action to those elements.

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Prevent Recurrence: Steps

Identify the system that allowed problem Think beyond this problem Share Suggest changes

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How is the Customer?

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Step 8

Celebrate your success!

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Celebrate: definition

To demonstrate satisfaction by festivities or other deviation from routine To hold up for public notice To observe a notable occasion with festivities

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Standard Form

Standard Form for 8D Problem Solving
8D

PSD

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List 8-D Documents 8-D

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