当前位置:首页 >> 医药卫生 >>

DETECTION OF VIRUS INFECTION


Virological Tests
An Overview

Diagnostic Methods in Virology
1. Direct Examination 2. Indirect Examination (Virus Isolation) 3. Serology

Direct Examination
1. Antigen Detection 2. Electron Microscopy immunofluorescence, ELISA etc. morphology of virus particles immune electron microscopy histological appearance inclusion bodies hybridization with specific nucleic acid probes polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

3. Light Microscopy

4. Viral Genome Detection

Indirect Examination
1. Cell Culture cytopathic effect (CPE) haemabsorption immunofluorescence 2. Eggs pocks on CAM haemagglutination inclusion bodies disease or death

3. Animals

Serology
Detection of rising titres of antibody between acute and convalescent stages of infection, or the detection of IgM in primary infection.
C la ssic a l T e c h n iq u e s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C o m p le m e n t fix a tio n te sts (C FT ) H a e m a g g lu tin a tio n in h ib itio n te sts Im m u n o flu o re sc e n c e te c h n iq u e s (IF) N e u tra liz a tio n te sts C o u n te r-im m u n o e le c tro p h o re sis N e w e r T e c h n iq u e s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. R a d io im m u n o a ssa y (R IA ) E n z ym e lin k e d im m u n o so rb e n t a ssa y (E IA ) P a rtic le a g g lu tin a tio n W e ste rn B lo t (W B ) R IB A , L in e im m u n o a ssa y

Virus Isolation
Cell Cultures are most widely used for virus isolation, there are 3 types of cell cultures:
1. Primary cells - Monkey Kidney 2. Semi-continuous cells - Human embryonic kidney and skin fibroblasts 3. Continuous cells - HeLa, Vero, Hep2, LLC-MK2, MDCK

Primary cell culture are widely acknowledged as the best cell culture systems available since they support the widest range of viruses. However, they are very expensive and it is often difficult to obtain a reliable supply. Continuous cells are the most easy to handle but the range of viruses supported is often limited.

Cell Cultures
Growing virus may produce
1. Cytopathic Effect (CPE) - such as the ballooning of cells or syncytia formation, may be specific or non-specific. 2. Haemadsorption - cells acquire the ability to stick to mammalian red blood cells.

Confirmation of the identity of the virus may be carried out using neutralization, haemadsorption-inhibition or immunofluorescence tests.

Cytopathic Effect (1)

Cytopathic effect of enterovirus 71 and HSV in cell culture: note the ballooning of cells .
(Virology Laboratory, Yale-New Haven Hospital, Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town)

Cytopathic Effect (2)
Syncytium formation in cell culture caused by RSV (top), and measles virus (bottom).
(courtesy of Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town, S.A.)

Haemadsorption

Syncytial formation caused by mumps virus and haemadsorption of erythrocytes onto the surface of the cell sheet.
(courtesy of Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town, S.A.)

Problems with cell culture
? ?

Long period (up to 4 weeks) required for result. Often very poor sensitivity, sensitivity depends on a large extent on the condition of the specimen. Susceptible to bacterial contamination. Susceptible to toxic substances which may be present in the specimen. Many viruses will not grow in cell culture e.g. Hepatitis B, Diarrhoeal viruses, parvovirus, papillomavirus.

? ?

?

Rapid Culture Techniques
Rapid culture techniques are available whereby viral antigens are detected 2 to 4 days after inoculation. The CMV DEAFF test is the best example, whereby
?

The cell sheet is grown on individual cover slips in a plastic bottle. Following inoculation, the bottle then is spun at a low speed for one hour (to speed up the adsorption of the virus) and then incubated for 2 to 4 days. The cover slip is then taken out and examined for the presence of CMV early antigens by immunofluorescence.

?

?

DEAFF test for CMV

(Virology Laboratory, Yale-New Haven Hospital)

Viruses Isolated by Cell Culture
V ir u se s r e a d ily iso la te d b y c e ll c u ltu r e H e rp e s S im p le x C yto m e g a lo v iru s A d e n o v iru se s P o lio v iru se s C o x sa c k ie B v iru se s E c h o v iru se s In flu e n z a P a ra in flu e n z a M um ps R e sp ira to ry S y n c y tia l V iru s L e ss fr e q u e n tly iso la te d v ir u se s V a ric e lla -Z o ste r M e a sle s R u b e lla R h in o v iru se s C o x sa c k ie A v iru se s

Electron Microscopy
106 virus particles per ml required for visualization, ? 50,000 - 60,000 magnification normally used. Viruses may be detected in the following specimens.

Faeces

Rotavirus, Adenovirus Norwalk like viruses Astrovirus, Calicivirus HSV VZV
papillomavirus, orf molluscum contagiosum

Vesicle Fluid

Skin scrapings

Electronmicrographs

Adenovirus

Rotavirus

(courtesy of Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town, S.A.)

Immune Electron Microscopy
The sensitivity and specificity of EM may be enhanced by immune electron microscopy. There are two variants:-

Classical Immune electron microscopy (IEM) - the sample is treated with specific anti-sera before being put up for EM. Viral particles present will be agglutinated and thus congregate together by the antibody. Solid phase immune electron microscopy (SPIEM) - the grid is coated with specific anti-sera. Virus particles present in the sample will be absorbed onto the grid by the antibody.

Problems with Electron Microscopy
? ?

Expensive equipment
Expensive maintenance

?
?

Require experienced observer
Sensitivity often low

Serology
Criteria for diagnosing Primary Infection
?

?
? ?

4 fold or more increase in titre of IgG or total antibody between acute and convalescent sera Presence of IgM Seroconversion A single high titre of IgG (or total antibody) - very unreliable

Criteria for diagnosing Reinfection
?

?

fold or more increase in titre of IgG or total antibody between acute and convalescent sera Absence or slight increase in IgM

Typical Serological Profile After Acute Infection

Note that during reinfection, IgM may be absent or present at a low level transiently

Complement Fixation Test

Complement Fixation Test in Microtiter Plate. Rows 1 and 2 exhibit complement fixation obtained with acute and convalescent phase serum specimens, respectively. (2-fold serum dilutions were used) The observed 4-fold increase is significant and indicates recent infection.

ELISA for HIV antibody

Microplate ELISA for HIV antibody: coloured wells indicate reactivity

Western Blot
HIV-1 Western Blot
?

?
? ? ?

Lane1: Positive Control Lane 2: Negative Control Sample A: Negative Sample B: Indeterminate Sample C: Positive

Usefulness of Serological Results
? ?

How useful a serological result is depends on the individual virus. For example, for viruses such as rubella and hepatitis A, the onset of clinical symptoms coincide with the development of antibodies. The detection of IgM or rising titres of IgG in the serum of the patient would indicate active disease. However, many viruses often produce clinical disease before the appearance of antibodies such as respiratory and diarrhoeal viruses. So in this case, any serological diagnosis would be retrospective and therefore will not be that useful. There are also viruses which produce clinical disease months or years after seroconversion e.g. HIV and rabies. In the case of these viruses, the mere presence of antibody is sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis.

?

?

Problems with Serology
?

Long period of time required for diagnosis for paired acute and convalescent sera. Mild local infections such as HSV genitalis may not produce a detectable humoral immune response. Extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between related viruses e.g. HSV and VZV, Japanese B encephalitis and Dengue, may lead to false positive results. immunocompromised patients often give a reduced or absent humoral immune response. Patients with infectious mononucleosis and those with connective tissue diseases such as SLE may react non-specifically giving a false positive result. Patients given blood or blood products may give a false positive result due to the transfer of antibody.

?

?

?

?

?

CSF antibodies
?

Used mainly for the diagnosis of herpes simplex and VZV encephalitis CSF normally contain little or no antibodies presence of antibodies suggest meningitis or meningoencephalitis

? ?

CSF antibody titre
Serum antibody titre
?

>

_1_ is indicative of meningitis
100

Diagnosis depends on the presence of an intact blood-brain barrier

Rapid Diagnosis Based on the Detection of Viral Antigens
Nasopharyngeal Aspirate RSV Influenza A and B Parainfluenza Adenovirus Rotaviruses Adenoviruses Astrovirus HSV VZV CMV (pp65 antigenaemia test)

Faeces

Skin Blood

Immunofluorescense

Positive immunofluorescence test for rabies virus antigen. (Source: CDC)

(Virology Laboratory, Yale-New Haven Hospital)

CMV pp65 antigenaemia test

(Virology Laboratory, Yale-New Haven Hospital)

Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
?

Result available quickly, usually within a few hours.

Potential Problems
?

Often very much reduced sensitivity compared to cell culture, can be as low as 20%. Specificity often poor as well.

? ?

Requires good specimens.
The procedures involved are often tedious and timeconsuming and thus expensive in terms of laboratory time.

Specimens for Routine Tests
C lin ic a l C a te g o r y 1 . M e n in g itis 2 . E n c e p h a litis 3 . P a ra ly tic d is e a se 4 . R e sp ira to r y illn e ss 5 . H e p a titis 6 . G a stro e n te ritis 7 . C o n g e n ita l d is e a se s 8 . S k in le sio n s 9 . E y e le s io n s 1 0 . M y o c a rd itis 1 1 . M y o sitis 1 2 . G la n d u la r f e v e r 1 3 . P o st M o rte m + + + + A u to p sy + + + + B lo o d + + + + + + U rin e , s a liv a L e s io n sa m p le e .g . v e s ic le f lu id , sk in s c ra p p in g E y e sw a b P e ric a rd ia l f lu id T h ro a t sw ab + + + + + + + + + + N a so p h a ry n g e a l a sp ira te B ra in b io p sy F a eces C SF O th e r

A fte r u se , sw a b s sh o u ld b e b ro k e n in to a sm a ll b o ttle c o n ta in in g 2 m l o f v iru s tra n sp o rt m e d iu m . S w a b s sh o u ld b e se n t to th e la b o ra to ry a s so o n a s p o s si b le w ith o u t fre e z in g . F a e c e s, C S F , b io p s y o r a u to p s y sp e c im e n s sh o u ld b e p u t in to a d ry ste rile c o n ta in e r.

Molecular Methods
?

Methods based on the detection of viral genome are also commonly known as molecular methods. It is often said that molecular methods is the future direction of viral diagnosis.

?

However in practice, although the use of these methods is indeed increasing, the role played by molecular methods in a routine diagnostic virus laboratory is still small compared to conventional methods.
It is certain though that the role of molecular methods will increase rapidly in the near future.

?

Classical Molecular Techniques
?

Dot-blot, Southern blot, in-situ hydridization are examples of classical techniques. They depend on the use of specific DNA/RNA probes for hybridization. The specificity of the reaction depends on the conditions used for hybridization. However, the sensitivity of these techniques is not better than conventional viral diagnostic methods. However, since they are usually more tedious and expensive than conventional techniques, they never found widespread acceptance.

?

?

Polymerase Chain Reaction (1)
?

PCR allows the in vitro amplification of specific target DNA sequences by a factor of 106 and is thus an extremely sensitive technique. It is based on an enzymatic reaction involving the use of synthetic oligonucleotides flanking the target nucleic sequence of interest.

?

?

These oligonucleotides act as primers for the thermostable Taq polymerase. Repeated cycles (usually 25 to 40) of denaturation of the template DNA (at 94oC), annealing of primers to their complementary sequences (50oC), and primer extension (72oC) result in the exponential production of the specific target fragment.
Further sensitivity and specificity may be obtained by the nested PCR. Detection and identification of the PCR product is usually carried out by agarose gel electrophoresis, hybridization with a specific oligonucleotide probe, restriction enzyme analysis, or DNA sequencing.

? ?

Polymerase Chain Reaction (2)
?

Advantages of PCR:
? ? ?

Extremely high sensitivity, may detect down to one viral genome per sample volume Easy to set up Fast turnaround time Extremely liable to contamination High degree of operator skill required Not easy to set up a quantitative assay.

?

Disadvantages of PCR
? ? ? ?

A positive result may be difficult to interpret, especially with latent viruses such as CMV, where any seropositive person will have virus present in their blood irrespective whether they have disease or not.

?

These problems are being addressed by the arrival of commercial closed systems such as the Roche Cobas Amplicor which requires minimum handling. The use of synthetic internal competitive targets in these commercial assays has facilitated the accurate quantification of results. However, these assays are very expensive.

Schematic of PCR

Each cycle doubles the copy number of the target

Other Newer Molecular Techniques
?

Branched DNA is essentially a sensitive hydridization technique which involves linear amplification. Whereas exponential amplification occurs in PCR. Therefore, the sensitivity of bDNA lies between classical amplification techniques and PCR. Other Newer molecular techniques depend on some form of amplification. Commercial proprietary techniques such as LCR, NASBA, TMA depend on exponential amplification of the signal or the target. Therefore, these techniques are as susceptible to contamination as PCR and share the same advantages and disadvantages. PCR and related techniques are bound to play an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of viral infections. DNA chip is another promising technology where it would be possible to detect a large number of viruses, their pathogenic potential, and their drug sensitivity at the same time.

?

?

?

?

?

Comparison between PCR and other nucleic acid Amplification Techniques
T arget A m p lific a tio n E x p o n e n tia l No E x p o n e n tia l E x p o n e n tia l No No S ig n a l A m p lific a tio n No E x p o n e n tia l No No E x p o n e n tia l L in e a r C o m m e r c ia l E x a m p le s R o c h e A m p lic o r Abbot LCX O rg a n o n T e k n ik a G e n p ro b e N one C h iro n Q u a n tip le x

M eth o d PCR LCR N A SBA TM A Q ?-R e p lic a se B ranched D N A

T h e r m o c y c lin g Y es Y es No No No No

S e n sitiv ity H ig h H ig h H ig h H ig h H ig h M e d iu m


赞助商链接
相关文章:
乙型肝炎病毒DNA定量检测的临床应用
virus infection, which couldn’t reflect completely replication of HBV.Quantitative detection of HBV-DNA had important significance to moniter the state of ...
...and structural studies of the vaccinia virus vir...
(Cory responsetoinfectionandaidseli minationofvirus-infected etal . ,2003)....-conjugated anti-rabbit antibodies and visualized using ECL Plus detection (A...
病毒八项 (1)
Methods Using the enzyme league immune method to do the IgM antibody detection in the hospitalized children who have the respiratory virus infection,and the...
妊娠各期及新生儿EB病毒感染情况及母婴垂直传播的初步研究
Methods Detection of EB virus infection was made in 120 single pregnancy women in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy and their newborn ...
Computer Virus and Protection
or even years hidden in a legal document, while other systems infection,...the computer virus analysis and detection, and security solutions >> [M]....
HepG2 Cell Culture and Infection
After 16 h, virus containing media was removed, the cells washed four ...Hybridization at 68 ° C, washes, and detection with CDP-star (Roche) ...
医学微生物英语教学大纲(6版)
detection of pathogen 3.Master the culture of virus 4.Understand the significance of serodignosis 5.Understand the examination methods of viral infection....
动物医学专业毕业论文
Which has been in the detection of pathogenic bacteria detection rates, detection rate of viruses, bacteria and viruses mixed infection, 7.9%, 2.8%, ...
Identification of Continuous Human B
virus, provided complete protection from filovirus infection in non human ...Differences in the ELISA methods used for EBOV-specific IgG detection could ...
During chronic viral infection
During chronic viral infection_法律资料_人文社科_专业资料。英翻中: During chronic viral infection, exhausted CD8+ T cells remain able to mediate imperative...
更多相关标签: