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跨文化交际ppt


Welcome to

Lecture 1 An Introduction of the Course

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Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. John F.Kennedy
Human beings draw clo

se to one another by their common nature, but habits and customs keep them apart. Confucian Words are what hold society together. Stuart Chase

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Case 1
Kathy and David, a couple from the US, signed a oneyear contract to work in China. Both were extroverted and soon made some Chinese friends. Before long, people started calling them at home. David was sometimes away on business trips for a few days, and if someone looked for him, Kathy often would find the conversation awkward. “Where did he go?” The caller typically would ask. “Can I pass on any message?” Kathy asked politely, trying to avoid the question. “Is he out of town?” The caller was usually very persistent. “Yes, can I help you in any way?” Kathy tried to be polite, but she could not help feeling uncomfortable.

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Case 2
During a lunch buffet at a conference in China, Fa Wu, the interpreter of the conference, sat with four foreign participants. They were having a good time talking. When Fa Wu stood up for more food, she asked whether she could bring anything back for them. Everyone thanked her and said “no”. A while later, Fa Wu came back with a plate full of food, and asked whether the others would like to have something from her plate. Again, the four others said, “No”. “Oh, please take something. I can’t eat this much food myself.” The foreigners shrugged and one or two of them even frowned a little.

Three special questions:
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1) What is intercultural communication ?

? 2)Why ? 3)

should we study this course?

How should we study this course?

1) What is intercultural communication ?
? Definition

Communication between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter the communication event.(指文化知觉和符号系统的不同足以改变交际
事物中人们之间的交际)

Communication among people with different cultural backgrounds.(具有不同文化背景的人
从事交际的过程,胡文仲1999)

The scope of Intercultural Communication
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Culture and Communication; ? Cultural Differences; ? Language and Culture; ? Verbal/ Nonverbal Communication; ? Time and Space; ? Intercultural Competence (Perception; Understanding; Adaptation; Adjustment) ? Intercultural Sensitivity, etc.

The main forms of Intercultural Communication
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Interracial Communication
when the source and the receiver exchanging messages are from different races

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Interethnic Communication
Ethnic groups usu form their own communities in a country or culture.

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Interregional Communication
the exchange of messages between members of the dominant culture within a country.

2) Why should we study this course?
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improve the efficiency of interpersonal communication in the global era ? To find the new characteristics and principles of interpersonal communication

The Importance of Learning IC
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The increase in globalization in the last few decades has changed the way people view the world and conduct business in the world. Economic globalization generally results in individuals from one culture working not only with, but also for individuals from another. Effective intercultural communication skills are the backbone that supports many transactions of business throughout the world.

The ability to communicate effectively gives both businesspersons and their organizations tangible benefits,such as: 1)Quick problem solving 2)Stronger decision-making 3)Increased productivity 4)Steadier work flow 5)Strong business relationship 6)Clearer promotional materials 7)Enhanced professional image

The Goal in Learning IC
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1)Communicative competency skills: ? Linguistic competencies ? Sociolinguistic competencies ? 2) Intercultural Sensitivity ? To know and to understand how and why it is important to develop the communicative skills that will help them to interact with people from other cultures.(P32)

3) How should we study this course?
? References: ? 1.Basil Hatim, Communication Across Cultures, Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,2001 ? 2.Hu Wenzhong , Aspects of Intercultural Communication—Proceedings of China’s 2nd Conference on Intercultural Communication, Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1999

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3. Samovar, L A. et al., Communication Between Cultures, Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000.

4. 邓炎昌、刘润清《语言与文化》,北京:外 语教学与研究出版社,1989。 ? 5. 胡文仲《跨文化交际学概论》,北京:外语 教学与研究出版社,1999。 ? 6. 贾玉新《跨文化交际学》,上海:上海外语 教育出版社,1997。 ? 7. 刘凤霞《跨文化交际教程》,北京:北京大 学出版社,2005。
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Several websites about intercultural communication:
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http://www.hart-li.com http://www.cca.org http://www.ica.org http://www.afs.org/usa http://www.watervalley.net/users/academy http://www.interculturalpress.com http://www.postgradmed.com http://www.multicultural.vt.edu

Other Topics
? Course

syllabus schedule of grading

? Teaching

? Standards

Homework:
Preview the 1st chapter of the textbook

Lecture 2 Communication Across Cultures

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(P1,9)Developing cross-cultural awareness usually goes along with learning a new language and being exposed to a new culture; such exposure reveals both cultural similarities and differences. ? Cross-cultural awareness is the ability to understand cultures- your own and others’- by means of objective, nonjudgmental comparisons. It is an appreciation for, an understanding of, cultural pluralism- the ability to get rid

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of our ethnocentric tendencies and to accept another culture on its own terms. Many cross-cultural interactions go sour due to a lack of such an awareness. ? We study a foreign lang. in order to communicate with people who have learned their native lang. not in classroom, but in natural, everyday interactions with people and situations in their culture. They have learned the intentions behind words and phrases

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mostly without consciously thinking about them; it has been part of their culture and they have taken it for granted. We, however, as adults learning learning a 2nd lang., must make a conscious effort to examine the cultural context of the lang.we want to learn.

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groups discuss what the following words and their Chinese translation mean to the majority of people in both Chinese and Western cultures. Then think of more words that have different connotation in Chinese or English translation.

Conceptual equivalence:
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Individualism/个人 主义 ? Liberalism/ 自由主 义 ? Bureaucracy/官僚 ? Privilege/特权 ? Loyalty/忠 ? Filiality/孝

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Intellectual/知识分 子 ? Peasant/农民 ? Human rights/人权 ? Propaganda/宣传 ? Work/工作 ? Leisure/休闲

The New Oxford Dictionary of English defines “individualism”as “the habit or principle of being independent and self-reliant”; the definition given by Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is “the idea that the rights and freedom of the individual are the most important rights in a society.” American culture is said to value individualism. The word “individualism” indicates the commendatory,positive meaning in English, which is different from the Chinese “个人主义”. Some Chinese scholars suggested that “individualism” can be translated as “个体主义”. Compare the meanings of English words “personalism”, “egoism” or “selfishness” with the meaning of “个人主 义”in Chinese.

intellectual/知识分子
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In English the word “intellectual” is used to refer to college professors or people who are interested in subjects which need a long period of study. Sometimes the word carries a derogatory meaning. This is quite different from “知识分子” in Chinese, which covers a much wider range of people and it is used in the positive sense.

peasant/农民
The English word “peasant” indicates a poor farmer of low social status who owes or rents a small piece of land for cultivation. This is not the meaning referred to by “农民” in Chinese. ? Compare the meaning of the word “farmer” with “农民”.
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human rights/人权
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Each country defines the term “human rights” by what it has. In the United States, human rights refers to the Bill of Rights (e.g. freedom of speech, right to a fair trial). Other countries may define the term differently such as by adequate housing or universal health care.

propaganda/宣传
The word “propaganda” is used chiefly in a derogatory sense meaning information, frequently biased or misleading information, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. This is not the same with the meaning of “宣传”in Chinese. ? Compare the word “publicity” with “宣 传”.
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Case study —Langue of Respect and Humility
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An English woman in a Chinese park came across an elderly Chinese one morning. Attracted by his long flowing white beard she approached him and asked politely in Chinese: “大爷,您几岁啦?” The old man looked at her in surprise. Turning to people nearby, he exclaimed somewhat indignantly: “您瞧!她问我几岁啦!几岁 啦!”The young woman had not expected such a reaction at all.

Addressing or speaking to a guest,elder, etc.
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您,您老人家 先生,伯父,叔叔, 大婶 局长,经理,师傅, 老师等 敝人 贵姓,尊姓大名

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You You (or the person’s name) Mr. (Mrs.)— I, me Your name? Could I have your name?

Referring to members of the other person’s family or relatives, or to one’s own
令尊,令兄 ? 家严,家慈 ? 师母,伯母,嫂子 ? 舍亲,舍侄 ? 令郎,令爱 ? 我那个丫头 ? 我们那个小子
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Your father,your brother ? My father, my mother ? Your wife, Mrs.— ? My relatives,my nephew ? Your son, your daughter ? My daughter ? Our son

Referring to another’s or one’own home,work place or organization that one belongs to, etc. ? Your home, the ? 府上 place you’re from ? 贵校(店) ? Your school (shop) ? 敝厂(所) ? This (our) factory ? 敝处 (institute)
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My home, my place

Translate the following actual invitations,paying attention to the expressions of respect or humility.
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“…will you please honor me by coming to my humble home for a simple meal this Sunday evening? We will be very pleased if you can come at 6 o’clock…”

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“Frank, we’d like you and your wife to come over for dinner this Friday evening. Sixthirty at our place. Can you make it?”

A more formal invitation:
Dr. and Mr.John Q.Smith request the pleasure of the company of Mr. and Mrs. Wang Xiaotang at a reception in honor of the arrival of the --delegation 4:30p.m., October 6 Pacific Room, Continental Hotel R.S.V.P

约翰· · Q 史密斯博士及 夫人 敬请王晓唐伉俪 莅临欢迎某代表团招待 会 十月六日下午四时半 大陆饭店,太平洋厅 敬请赐复 (P21)

A Brief Reflection on Intercultural Communication Studies
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In 1911, Boas published his Handbook of American Indian Languages. (inspired a generation of anthropologists and sociolinguists to take up the subject and shape a new discipline) ? Whorf, influenced by Sapir’s work Language Defined, proposed the famous Sapir-Whorf hypothesis(P150), exploring the interrelationship between lang. and culture.

Edward Hall’s Silent Language(1959)marked the beginning of intercultural studies.
Americans were “cordially disliked” ? “it is time Americans learned how to communicate effectively with foreign nationals”
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---- Edward Hall (1959)
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The Ugly American by Eugene Burdick & William Lenderer(1958) ? The Silent Language by Edward Hall (1959)

The Ugly American pointed out the differences between cultures:
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Our manners and behavior often speak more plainly than words. Tradition, taboo, environment, habits and customs, which are powerful influences on character and personality, vary greatly from country to country.

In The Silent Language, Edward Hall highlighted the necessity of intercultural studies:

Americans sent abroad … should not only be taught to speak and read the language, but be thoroughly trained in the culture of the country. ? Since the publication of The Silent Language, there has arisen an intense interest in the research of intercultural communication. (P12)
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?Assignment:
1. Translation (P.25)

2.Case study Try to find two intercultural cases in our daily life and discover the problems in it: what was wrong? 3. Finish off reading the rest passages in this unit.

Lecture 3

Culture and Communication

Part 1
Understanding Culture

Part 2
Understanding Communication

Part 3
Culture and Communication

Part 1 Understanding Culture
? Definitions

of Culture ? Characteristics of Culture ? A. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Definitions of Culture
“文化是生活的样法。文化就是吾人生活所依 靠的一切。文化之义,应在经济、政治,乃至 一切无所不包。” ——梁漱溟 ? 文化的内容“是文学、美术、音乐、哲学、科 学这一类的事。” ——陈独秀 ? 1)人类在社会历史发展过程中所创造的物质 和精神财富的总和,特指精神财富,如文学、 艺术、教育、科学等。 ——《现代汉语词典》
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文化是“历史上创造的所有的生活形式,包括 显型的和隐型的,包括合理的、不合理的以及 谈不上是合理或不合理的一切,它们在某一时 期作为人们行为的潜在指南而存在。” ——胡文仲 文化是“由人们为了使自己的活动方式被社会 的其他成员所接受,所必须知晓和 相信的一切 组成。作为人们不得不学习的一种有别于生物 遗传的东西,文化必须由学习的终端产品—知 识—就这一术语最宽泛的意义来说—组成。” ——贾玉新(Goodenough,1997)

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We define culture as the deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs,values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, timing, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, and material objects acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. ? (Simply put, culture is a system of meaning.)

-----Larry A. Samovar, et al.

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most widely accepted definition is: “Culture is the total accumulation of beliefs, customs, values, behaviors, institutions and communication patterns that are shared, learned and passed down through the generations in an identifiable group of people.” (Hall,1977)

? Culture

is really difficult to define because it is a large and inclusive concept. But what all of these concepts have in common is the implication that culture is an abstract entity which involves a number of usually manmade, collective, and shared artifacts, behavioral patterns, values or other concepts which taken together to form the culture as a whole.

? Culture

is what distinguishes human beings from animals. It is human endeavor and its outcome. Culture includes patterns of behavior, beliefs, values, and artifacts. Culture is shared by a group of people.(P40)

Characteristics of Culture
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Culture is learned; ? Culture is transmitted from generation to generation; ? Culture is based on symbols; ? Culture is subject to change(dynamic); ? Culture is integrated; ? Culture is ethnocentric; ? Culture is adaptive.

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culture is asymmetrical, biased, and incomplete, making a virtue of its deficiencies and its anesthesias. Each culture in grappling with the same problems has created patterns of action, speech, and belief, of human relationships and values that have ignored or repressed others. Each culture seeks to represent itself by its aspirations, emphasizing its lofty

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or moral goals as essential character, and usually ignoring its shortcomings and its often destructive features…No single culture can be accepted as the final and best for all peoples; we must recognize the unhappiness, the degradation, the misery, the incredible brutality, cruelty, and human wastage in all cultures which each tends to ignore while

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lofty ethical aims and moral aspirations… We may view cultures as we view the arts of different peoples as esthetically significant and artistically meaningful, each in its own context or setting. ------Lawrence Frank (P43)

ABRAHAM MASLOW
(1908-1970 ) Biography
Abraham Harold Maslow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the first of seven children born to his parents, who themselves were uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia. His parents, hoping for the best for their children in the new world, pushed him hard for academic success. Not surprisingly, he became very lonely as a boy, and found his refuge in books. ? To satisfy his parents, he first studied law at the City College of New York (CCNY). After three semesters, he transferred to Cornell, and then back to CCNY. He married Bertha Goodman, his first cousin, against his parents wishes. Abe and Bertha went on to have two daughters.

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He and Bertha moved to Wisconsin so that he could attend the University of Wisconsin. Here, he became interested in psychology, and his school work began to improve dramatically. He spent time there working with Harry Harlow, who is famous for his experiments with baby rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. ? He received his BA in 1930, his MA in 1931, and his PhD in 1934, all in psychology, all from the University of Wisconsin. A year after graduation, he returned to New York to work with E. L. Thorndike at Columbia, where Maslow became interested in research on human sexuality.

He began teaching full time at Brooklyn College. During this period of his life, he came into contact with the many European intellectuals that were immigrating to the US, and Brooklyn in particular, at that time -- people like Adler, Fromm, Horney, as well as several Gestalt and Freudian psychologists. ? Maslow served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis from 1951 to 1969.
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While there he met Kurt Goldstein, who had originated the idea of self-actualization in his famous book, The Organism (1934). It was also here that he began his crusade for a humanistic psychology -- something ultimately much more important to him than his own theorizing. ? He spend his final years in semi-retirement in California, until, on June 8 1970, he died of a heart attack after years of ill health.

Hierarchy of Needs
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One of the many interesting things Maslow noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his career, was that some needs take precedence over others. For example, if you are hungry and thirsty, you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first. After all, you can do without food for weeks, but you can only do without water for a couple of

days! Thirst is a “stronger” need than hunger. ? Likewise, if you are very very thirsty, but someone has put a choke hold on you and you can’t breath, which is more important? The need to breathe, of course. On the other hand, sex is less powerful than any of these. Let’s face it, you won’t die if you don’t get it! ? Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy of needs. Beyond the
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of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers: ? the physiological needs, ? the needs for safety and security, ? the needs for love and belonging, ? the needs for esteem, ? and the need to actualize the self, ? in that order. (P41)

Part 2 Understanding Communication
? Definitions

of Communication ? Varieties of Communication ? Elements of Communication

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Understanding the human communication process means knowing what happens when people interact, why it happens, the effects of what happens, and finally we can do to influence and maximize the result of a particular communication event.

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Human communication is as old as mankind. ? A. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, in which he describes people as being driven by sets of needs in a hierarchy, from the most basic at the bottom to the most refined at the peak of a triangle, tells us that communication is one of the basic needs.

Definitions of Communication
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is difficult to find a single definition of human communication . Two reasons why it is difficult to locate a single definition of communication are: ? 1) the complex nature of communication
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2) the issue of intentionality and unintentionality.

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Communication is our ability to share our ideas and feelings and it is the basis of all human contact. ? Communication is a dynamic, systemic process in which meanings are created and reflected in human interaction with symbols. ? Communication occurs whenever meaning is attributed to behavior or the residue of behavior.

-----Larry A. Samovar, et al.

传播是个人或团体通过符号向其他个人 或团体传递信息、观念、态度或情感。 ? 从最一般的意义而言,传播是一个系统---信源(信息来源)通过可供选择的符号 去影响另一个系统----信宿(信息到达目 的地)的过程,这些符号能够通过连接 这两个系统的信息渠道得到传递。 ? 传播可以定义为通过讯息进行的社会互 动。 ? 传播可以定义为在意义被赋予某一行为 或行为的结果时产生的现象。
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所谓传播是人际关系借以成立的基础, 又是它得以发展的机理。就是说它是精 神现象转换为符号并在一定的距离空间 得到搬运,经过一定的时间得到保存的 手段。 ? 传播是信息交流,一切有信息交流的地 方就有传播活动存在。 ? 传播即人类(自身及相互之间)传受 (传送和接受)信息的行为和过程。 (胡文仲)
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Varieties of Communication
? Intrapersonal

communication; ? Interpersonal communication; ? Organizational communication; ? Mass communication;

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Intrapersonal communication is communication within and to the self. ? Interpersonal communication is communication between people. ? Organizational communication is communication within groups of people and by groups of people to others. ? Mass communication is communication received by or used by large numbers of people.

Elements of Communication
? Context ? Participants

? Messages
? Channels

? Noise
? Feedback (P50)

Characteristics of Communication
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Communication is dynamic. ? Communication is irreversible. ? Communication is symbolic. ? Communication is systemic. ? Communication is self-reflective. ? Communication is interactive. ? Communication is complex. (P68)

Part 3 Culture and Communication
? Communication

is culture,and culture is communication. ? Culture is the frozen interpersonal communication, and communication is the flowing culture. -----W.B.Pearce

Communication is the glue that holds worlds together.
? Communication

sometimes brings people together and sometimes keeps them apart. ? To explore communication is to explore what we are and what we might become.

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When we discuss communication and culture, we should be aware of the total spectrum of communication including language, non-verbal communication, customs, perceived values, and concepts of time and space. Do all tourists identify with Canadian traditions and values? Likely not. But the more interesting question is: Why not? The answer lies in the simple fact that most tourists come from different cultures: some vastly different like those from Japan and China, others less different, such as tourists from Eastern Canada or the United States. Even if tourists share the same language, they

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may have much different customs and values. ? What happens when people from different cultures interact face-to- face? One way to appreciate the impact of cultural differences is to look in the mirror. When Americans and Canadians travel to other countries, they look for Cokes, steaks and hamburgers and the same amenities in hotels and other accommodations that they are used to at home. While the host country may offer an authentically different culture, which is one of the reasons people travel, North Americans

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tourists are notorious for wanting the comforts of home wherever they may be. In many third world countries, North Americans seek out joint venture hotels to enjoy North American food and lodging and to be served by people who speak English. Strangely, what we expect for ourselves in travel is not deemed to be reasonable when we're the hosts dealing with tourists from other countries.

Assignment:
1. Finish off reading the rest passages in this unit. 2.Translation (P.47).

Lecture 4
?Language ?and

Culture

?P119-121

Task 1
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Contrast the following two groups of saying in both English and Chinese cultures and discuss the idea that language is a reflection of culture (consider the religions adhered to in both cultures)

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Man proposes, God disposes. God helps those who help themselves. Forbidden fruit is sweetest. As poor as the church mouse The devil dances in an empty pocket.

借花献佛。 ? 跑得了和尚跑不了 庙。 ? 做一天和尚撞一天 钟。 ? 平时不烧香,临时 抱佛脚。 ? 泥菩萨过江,自身 难保。
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? “Religion

and culture are inextricably entwined” and is also reflected in language. Therefore, there are many proverbs and sayings connected with Christianity in English and Buddhism in Chinese. ? (P121)Sharing Knowledge

? Language

reflects culture.Chinese culture is typical intensive cultivation and is rooted in agriculture.Therefore,many Chinese sayings are connected with land, agriculture or farming activities.English culture, on the contrary,is coastal commerce and there many sayings closely linked with sea, sailing and fishing activities.

Task 2
? Animals

are used to indicate different associate meaning in different languages. In small group, study the following expressions or sayings involving animals in both English and Chinese and discuss their cultural implications respectively.

The snake
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He that has been bitten by a serpent is afraid of rope. A snake in the grass To warm a snake in one’s bosom A snake in the bosom The serpent in Eden

? 杯弓蛇影 ? 强龙不压地头蛇

? 蛇爬无声,奸计

无影 ? 蛇蝎心肠

The dragon
? Chase

the dragon

龙马精神 ? 龙飞凤舞 ? 龙凤呈祥 ? 龙腾虎跃 ? 龙的传人 ? 望子成龙
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The dog
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A lucky dog Love me, love my dog. Every dog has his day. Barking dogs do not bite. To teach an old dog new tricks Let sleeping dog lie A dog in the manger

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狗头军师 狗仗人势 狗急跳墙 狗苟蝇营 狗嘴里吐不出象牙 儿不嫌母丑,狗不嫌 家贫 好狗护三邻,好汉护 三村

? Snakes

are dangerous animals in both English and Chinese cultures. In ancient Chinese or in Chinese mythology, however, the snake and dragon sometimes are inseparable. Fu Xi and Nv Wa are regarded as the first ancestors of the Chinese nation who are said to have a human-head with a snake body. People who were born in the year of the snake also say that they

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born in the year of young dragon. This associative meaning of the snake is in a positive sense. ? A dragon is an evil and strong embodiment in English. It often causes great disasters and guards some mysterious fortunes, as is told in British legends. In Chinese culture, on the contrary, a dragon is a symbol of extreme honor and great power.

? Westerners

take dogs as their friends and companions, so that in English dogs are used in the commendatory sense in most cases. The connotation of the dog in Chinese is more derogatory, except a few cases indicating the loyalty to its master. ? (P123)

Task 3
? It

has been realized that basic color terms could arouse cross-cultural misunderstanding. Compare and discuss the cultural connotations of the following color terms in English and Chinese.

? Red

carpet ? Red-letter day ? A red battle ? Red hands ? Red-light district ? White hands ? A white lie

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开门红 红事 红运 红颜 白事 白丁 白费力气 白眼

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white hope ? White list ? A yellow dog

白色恐怖 ? 黄帝 ? 黄袍 ? 炎黄子孙 ? 黄道吉日 ? 黄河 ? 黄土地
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? In

English “white” is in general festival color,associated things of good omen. “White” is also the color of the clothing generally worn on joyous occasions. Therefore the color term “white” is basically used in a positive sense, symbolizing “happiness,” “luck,” “justice” and “loyalty”. In Chinese, however, the color term “白” is most likely used in a derogative sense, such

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death, misfortune, illiteracy, poverty, outside of its role to indicate purity. ? The English color term “red” may occasionally refer to “dignity”, “happiness”, “a great ceremony” such as “red carpet” and “red-letter day”, but it is usually used in a derogatory sense associated with “danger” or “violence”. In Chinese “红” is in most cases used in a good sense such as

? getting

married, giving birth to a child,congratulating a person on a good beginning in his business. “红”is also associated with “victory”, “revolution” in politics. ? In English the color term “yellow” is sometimes used in a derogatory sense. On the contrary, the Chinese people, born with yellow skin, having cultivated in the yellow soil, and taking

? The

Yellow River as their place of origin, take pride in their belonging to the yellow race. Xuan Yuan, a legendary ruler of China in remote antiquity was called “黄帝” (Yellow Emperor). “黄” has been the color of emperors and symbolized imperial power. In modern Chinese, “黄” is also used to refer to pornography in books or magazines. (P128, 142)

Assignment:
1. Finish off reading the rest passages in this unit. 2. Translation (P.149).

Lecture 5

Verbal Communication

? Case
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Study 1

Reason Versus Influence Guangrui,a student in a North American university,was working on a research project that had been funded by a federal agency as part of a program to encourage students to learn to work with public data sets. The contract required that Guangrui submit a progress report to the agency three months into the six-month long project. He submitted the report on schedule, describing

the work done to date and outlining the balance of the work to be done. A couple of weeks later, Ms Morin, the agency manager responsible for the students contract program, sent Guangrui a letter accepting his progress report and suggested a new line of research. Guangrui felt the suggestions would take him in directions that were outside the scope of his initial ideas. In fact, some of the manager’s ideas did not even make sense to Guangrui.

Guangrui showed his supervisor Professor Stevens the letter and explained his concerns. Professor Stevens listened to Guangrui and agreed that the suggestions of the manager seemed odd. So he said, “Let’s phone Ms Morin. I know her.” Professor Stevens then phoned Ms Morin, thanked her for the letter and her suggestions, and said he had some questions. He reminded her of the original goals of Guangrui’s proposal, and explained how he thought her

suggestions did not really fit with the original objectives. After some discussion, Ms Morin agreed that her ideas were not relevant and that Guangrui could ignore them. Professor Stevens got off the phone and told Guangrui of the decision. Guangrui was very relieved and told his advisor, “Oh! You are indeed a powerful!” Professor Stevens just laughed and said, “I don’t think so!” Guangrui, while happy,was a bit

confused by his advisor’s lack of a sense of victory.

? Chinese ? North

perspective

American perspective

No one when he uses a word has in mind exactly the same thing that another has, and the difference, however tiny, sends its tremors throughout language.

? The

fact that linguistic symbols are nearly all arbitrary---that is, they are conventions by which certain sounds are attached to certain objects and events---emphasizes the social aspects of language. In this sense, language is a part of culture.

Every language has a structure:an internal logic and a particular relationship between its parts.
The structure of any language consists of four subsystems: phonology: a system of sounds morphology: a system for creating words from sounds syntax: a series of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences semantics: a system that relates words to meaning

Translation Problems
? Vocabulary

equivalence ? Grammatical-syntactical equivalence ? Idiomatic equivalence ? Experiential equivalence ? Conceptual equivalence

?In

small groups, do the following activities and reflect on the translation problems .Try to think of more examples under the headings.

1) Vocabulary equivalence
?

Give the English equivalents of the following Chinese: “杯子”,“疼/痛”,(足球、篮球、 高尔夫球等)“场”. ? Give the Chinese translation of the following English phrases: ? a heavy rain, a heavy responsibility, heavy food, a heavy heart, heavy music; ? The man fell. The prices fell. Her hair fell to her waist. He fell in love. The city fell.

2) Experiential equivalence
?

Translate the following Chinese into English and vise versa.

? “四合院”,“雍和宫”,“武术”,

“三八红旗手”; ? “Zeus”, “monarchy”, “hippie”.
? ?

http://www.pantheon.org/articles/z/zeus.htmhttp://www.ro yal.gov.uk/output/Page5.asp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippie

Case study 2
The Bargaining Game
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Stan was in China for the first time. His friend Yan Huang took him shopping. Seeing that Stan was fascinated by a small vase made of porcelain, Yan Huang encouraged him to bargain for a lower price. “Many people tend to offer foreigners a higher price,” she told him. ? “But I don’t know how much to offer him.

? I’m

not used to bargaining, either”, Stan said helplessly, and paid the shop assistant the price he had asked for. ? A little later, they found that the same vase was priced less than half of the price Stan had paid. This upset Stan enough for him to start bargaining for other things he bought for the rest of the day.

“So you saved some money today”, Yan Huang joked at the end of the shopping. ? “I don’t know. Even if I bargained, I still have a sense of being cheated, because I never know what would be a fair price.”
?

? Chinese ? North

perspective

American perspective

Assignment:
1. Finish off reading the rest passages in this unit. 2. Translation (P.188).

Lecture 6

Nonverbal Communication

In human intercourse the tragedy begins no when there is misunderstanding about words, but when silence is not understood. ? ---- Henry David Thoreau
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?

Never trust a person who doesn’t look you in the eyes. ? ----An English Saying
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Nonverbal communication
?

Nonverbal communication and culture ? Definition of nonverbal communication ? Classifications of nonverbal messages ? Importance of nonverbal communication ? Functions of nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication and culture
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We could easily find that the same posture may have different meanings in different culture. For example, touching one's ear is protection against the evil eye in Turkey, however, it denotes jeering at effeminacy in southern Italy, but a sign of repentance or sincerity in India; crossing one's legs means a sign of being relaxed in the United States, but it is impolite in China. The above tow examples remind

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us that although much of nonverbal communication is universal, many of our nonverbal actions are touched and altered by culture. Hence, we should know the potential messages carried by the nonverbal actions if we want to establish communication with foreigners without obstacles.

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People in all cultures use nonverbal gestures to communicate. Some of these gestures are conscious; some are unconscious. What people say with their facial expressions, for example, is a powerful form of communication. What is acceptable in one culture may be completely unacceptable in another. One culture may determine that snapping fingers to call a waiter is appropriate; another may consider this gesture rude.

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We are often not aware of how gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and the use of space affect communication, when we are not aware of their meaning within a culture. Just like cultural norms it would be impossible for anyone to learn all the possible nonverbal communication behavior meanings. While we expect language to be different, we are less likely to expect and recognize how the nonverbal symbols are different. Many

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nonverbal expressions vary from culture to culture, and it is just those variations that make nonverbal misinterpretation a barrier.

Definition of nonverbal communication
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The term nonverbal communication, taken literally, refers to any transmission of signals accomplished by means other than spoken or written words. Used broadly, the term includes eye contact, bodily gestures, facial expressions, spacing and physical touch, all of which accompany spoken utterances and can be considered apart from actual words.

Classifications of nonverbal messages
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physiology ? appearance ? gestures ? other physical expressions ? environmental artifacts ? Space ? time

? Nonverbal

communication is both rich and complex. It includes physiology (how someone stands and positions him- or herself), appearance (grooming, clothing, jewelry, and other personal artifacts), gestures and other physical expressions, and environmental artifacts (housing, furniture, and other functional and decorative elements).

? The

use of space, both between people and allocated to people (territory), and time (amount, kind—whether exclusive or shared, and control—who waits for whom) are also powerful nonverbal communicators.

Importance of nonverbal communication
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Because much of what is communicated nonverbally occurs below our level of conscious awareness, we often fail to recognize its importance in human communication. Nonverbal communication, however, often determines how verbal messages are interpreted. Nonverbal communication serves primarily to

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communicate attitudes, feelings, status, and other affective (emotional) messages. Because we have been doing it longer, and because nonverbal messages are more difficult to control than verbal messages, when the nonverbal and verbal messages contradict each other, people tend to believe the nonverbal.

Functions of nonverbal communication
? Repeating ? Complementing ? Substituting ? Regulating ? Contradicting

? Group ? Task1

Discussion

? Which

of the following experimental results are true to Chinese proxemic behavior and which are not?

?

Friends stand closer together than acquaintances. ? Acquaintances stand closer together than strangers.

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Introverts maintain slightly greater distances than extroverts. ? Pairs of women stand closer to talk than do pairs of men. ? People with a lot of social status generally sit in an end chair at a rectangular table. ? When two people expect to compete, they will sit opposite one another. ? When two people expect to cooperate, they sit side by side.

?

Where do you usually to sit in a classroom? Why? If a person decided to change where he or she normally sits, do you think the person’s behavior would change?

? What

are the usual Chinese customs with regard to the following?

The most suitable time of day for visiting friends. ? The most suitable time of day for making telephone calls to friends. ? The amount of time that normally passes between a giving dinner party invitation and the dinner party.

? Task

2 ? Give the interpretation of the following gestures discussed in Chinese, American or British cultures.
?

The thumb-up ? A handshake ? An embrace ? A friendly slap on the back ? A bow

?

A gesture moving the palm and fingers back and forth ? Fingers used to indicate numbers ? A gesture pointing to oneself

? Task

3 ? Demonstrate the following Chinese expressions to English-speaking people and give your interpretation.
摩拳擦掌 拂袖而去 五体投地 捶胸顿足 ? 趾高气扬 袖手旁观 愁眉苦脸 呆若木鸡 ? 瞠目结舌 垂头丧气 义愤填膺 龇牙咧嘴
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Assignment:
1. Finish off reading the rest passages in this unit. 2. Translation (P.227). 3. Fill-in Task (P.223).

Lecture 7

Time and Space

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The inaudible and noiseless foot of time. ? ----Shakespeare ? Think three times before you act. ? ----Confucian ? Time is human, nature knows only change. ? Consider the past and you will know the present. ? Time is money. ? He who hesitates is lost.

? The

varying attitudes toward time and its utilization held by the various cultures in the world means that serious misunderstandings may arise in intercultural communication unless those individuals involved are aware of, and sensitive to, a number of basic considerations.

Time
We can understand a culture’s sense of time by learning about how members of that culture view informal time. ? Attitudes toward time also appear in the ways people conceive of the past, present, and future. ? Cultural orientations toward time can be classified as monochronic or polychronic
?

Time
? Informal

Time; ? Perceptions of past, present, and future; ? Hall’s M-time and P-time Classifications.

Informal Time
?

Most of the rules for informal time, such as pace and tardiness, are not explicitly taught. Like most of culture, these rules usually function below the level of consciousness.

Group-discussion: What are the usual Chinese customs with regard to the following?
?

The most suitable time of day for visiting friends. ? The most suitable time of day for making telephone calls to friends. ? The amount of time that normally passes between a giving dinner party invitation and the dinner party.

? An

attitude toward tardiness: How late may a person be for an appointment without making an excuse or an explanation?
(for a class, a meeting, a job interview, a dinner party, a date with a friend)

? An

attitude toward visitors without prior notice

How late is “late”? This varies greatly. ? In Britain and America one may be 5 minutes late for a business appointment, but not 15 and certainly not 30 minutes late, which is perfectly normal in Arab countries. On the other hand, in Britain, it is correct to be 5-15 minutes late for an invitation to dinner. An Italian might arrive 2 hours late, an Ethiopian after, and a Javanese not at all-- he had accepted only to prevent his host from losing face.
?

? Our

reaction to punctuality is rooted in our cultural experiences.
We can ascertain a culture’s attitude toward time by examining the pace at which members of that culture perform specific acts and respond to certain events. (P251)

?

Perceptions of past, present, and future
?

Americans and others in the Western world are said to live in the present and the near future and hence plan carefully. Other cultures, such as in the Middle East or Asia, live in their ancient pasts or in the far distant future and hence do not plan so assiduously. To the Hindu and Buddhist this life is only one among countless lives yet to come, merely one dot in an endless serious of dots, so why plan?

? Past-orientated cultures
?Present-orientated cultures

?Future-orientated

cultures

Past-orientated cultures
?

Past-orientated cultures such as the British place much emphasis on tradition and are often perceived as resisting change. ? the British; the Chinese; the native American ? “Consider the past and you will know the present.” ----Chinese proverb

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These cultures---like the Greek, Japanese, French, and Chinese---have histories that date back thousands of years, so they find it normal to take a long-range view of events and are less likely to be rushed when they face decisions. Cultures that value the past are also more likely to respect and venerate the elderly than are cultures that value the future.

Present-orientated cultures
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Filipinos and Latin Americans are present orientated and emphasize living in the moment. These cultures tend to be more impulsive and spontaneous than others and have a casual, relaxed lifestyle. This cavalier approach to life is often confusing to Westerners, who frequently misinterpret a concern with the present as a sign of indolence and inefficiency.

Future-orientated cultures
?

The most Americans have the third orientation, which puts great faith in the future. ? As a people, we are constantly planning for the future, and our children play with toys(dolls,cars guns and so on) that prepare them for adulthood. ? In addition, future-orientated cultures welcome innovation and change and “have less regard for past social or organizational customs and traditions.” (P244)

M-time and P-time Classifications
?

Cultural orientations toward time can be classified as monochronic (M-time) or polychronic (P-time ). ? As the word monochronic implies, this approach sees time as lineal,segmented,and manageable.
?

P-time deal with time holistically.They can interact with more than one person or do more than one thing at a time.

M-time
?

M-time is characteristic of people from Germany, Australia, Switzerland, and American. As Hall explains, “people of the Western world, particularly Americans, tend to think of time as something fixed in nature, something around us and from which we cannot escape; an ever-present part of the environment, just like the air we breathe.”

P-time
?

According to Dresser, this multidimensional approach to the moment “explains why there is more interrupting in conversations carried on by people from Arabic, Asian, and Latin American cultures.” ? They do not perceive appointments as ironclad commitments and therefore often break them.

? For

P-time cultures, time is less tangible; hence, feelings of wasted time are not as prevalent as in M-time cultures. ? This leads, of course, to a lifestyle that is more spontaneous and unstructured ---characteristics that often confuses and frustrate Americans and other Westerners.

Space and Distance
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The flow and shift of distance between us and the people with whom we interact are as much a part of communication experiences as the words we exchange. Notice how we might allow one person to stand very close to us and keep another at a distance. We use space and distance to convey messages.The study of this message system, called proximics, is concerned with such things as personal space, seating , and furniture arrangement.

Space and Distance
? Cultures

differ in their perception and

use of ? personal space, ? seating , ? and furniture arrangement.

personal space
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Our personal space, that piece of the universe we occupy and call our own, is contained within an invisible boundary surrounding our body. As the owners of this area, we usually decide who may enter and who may not. When our space is invaded, we react in a variety of ways. (P254)

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Our response is a manifestation not only of our unique personality, but also our cultural background. ? For example, cultures that stress individualism (England, the United States, Germany, Australia) generally demand more space than do collective cultures and “tend to take an active, aggressive stance when their space is violated.”

?

Watch an Arab and an Englishman in conversation. The Arab, showing friendliness in the manner of his people, will stand close to the Englishman. The latter will move back, wanting to keep a certain distance considered proper by the English. The Arab will then move forward to be closer; the Englishman will keep moving backward. By the end of the conversation, the two may be quite a distance from the place where they were

? originally

standing. ? The important thing to keep in mind is that most English-speaking people do not like people to be too close. Being too far apart, of course, may be awkward, but being too close makes people uncomfortable, unless there is a reason, such as showing affection or encouraging intimacy. But that is another matter.

Proximics
?

Intimate: 0-1.5 feet ? Personal: 1.5-4 feet ? Social: 4-12 feet ? Public: 12-25 feet

?

Does anyone feel uncomfortable the way I am speaking now?
(now move up closer to the first row)

?

Do anyone of you feel differently now?
(move still closer)
?
?

What about now? Do you feel like I’m talking to you alone?
(Now move still closer, right into their face…)

?
?

Now do you feel uncomfortable?
This is an intimate level, that you normally don’t use with anyone except your closest friends.

If we get too close to people, it makes them uncomfortable. But if we are too far away, it will seem as if we are distant and don’t care. We need to come in and out as the situation dictates. ? Proximics is a fancy word used to describe our physical distance from people and how that makes them feel.
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seating
? Culture

influences even the manner and meaning in seating arrangements.

?

Group-discussion: Which of the following
experimental results are true to Chinese proxemic behavior and which are not? Friends stand closer together than acquaintances. Acquaintances stand closer together than strangers. People with a lot of social status generally sit in an end chair at a rectangular table. When two people expect to compete, they will sit opposite one another. When two people expect to cooperate, they sit side by side.

? ?

? ?

furniture arrangement
?

Furniture arrangement within the home communicates something about the culture. ? For example, people from France, Italy, and Mexico who visit the United States are often surprised to see that the furniture in the living room is pointed toward the television set. ? For them, conversation is important, and facing chairs toward a television screen stifles conversation. In their countries, furniture is positioned to encourage interaction.

Home and Culture (P258)

Silence
? The

use of silence varies from culture to culture. ? Generally, Eastern cultures value silence more than the use of words; in Western cultures, the opposite is true.

Nonverbal Communication and Culture
?

Nonverbal Communication and culture are similar in that both are learned, and both involve shared understanding. ? Studying nonverbal behavior can lead to the discovery of a culture’s underlying attitudes and values. ? Studying nonverbal behavior can also assist us in isolating our own ethnocentrism.

Nonverbal Communication: Guidelines and Limitations
?

It is important to remember that we are all more than our culture. ? In nonverbal communication, we often make differences more important than they should be. ? Nonverbal actions seldom occur in isolation.(P258)

In small groups,discuss the cultural conflicts in the following cases and explain what has gone wrong.
?

Case 1 ? Some Western speakers think that Chinese students don’t pay much attention to their talks, because they tend to avoid direct eye contact to the speaker and don’t like to raise questions at the end of the talk.

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Case 2 ? Some Westerners think that Chinese people are cold because parents don’t usually kiss their children, nor are husbands and wives seen to kiss each other when they meet after a long separation.

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Case 3 ? Some Western researchers think that the silence of Easterners in communication shows a lack of confidence or communicatively apprehensive(交际恐惧症) esp. when speakers don’t answer questions, and listeners don’t ask questions or don’t respond.

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Case 4 A Chinese man, Mr. Wang had just started working in a new company in Australia. It was morning teatime and he was sitting in the tearoom smoking a cigarette. Suddenly one of his workmates came in and angrily pointed to a “No Smoking” sign. M r. Wang was very embarrassed. He laughed and put his cigarette out. However, this did not seem to satisfy the man, who started to talk rapidly and angrily. Hoping to calm

him down, Mr. Wang smiled and apologized, trying to explain that he had not noticed the sign. Questions:
1. Do you think that Mr. Wang’s apology is acceptable? 2. In your opinion, why was the Australian workmate so angry with Mr. Wang even after he put out his cigarette? 3. What would you advise the two participants to do in future to avoid the conflict?

?

Smiles and laughter usually convey friendliness, approval, satisfaction, pleasure, joy, merriment. This is generally true in China as well as the English-speaking countries. However, there are situations when some Chinese will laugh that will cause negative reactions by Westerners. ?… ? Such laughter, of course, is not at the person or his misfortune---whether he be a

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foreigner or a Chinese. It can convey a number of feelings: don’t take it so seriously; laugh it all; it’s nothing; such things can happen to any of us, etc. However, for people unaware of this attitude, the reaction to such laughter is usually quite unpleasant and often generates ill feeling towards those laughing.

Assignment:
1. Finish off reading the rest passages in this unit. 2. Translation (P.253). 3. Fill-in Task (P.262). 4.Analyze the following case.

Case Study Silence is Golden…and Confusing
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Professor Johnson was invited to give a guest lecture at a Chinese university in the early 1990s. He could tell that the students were very attentive. They applauded warmly when the lecture came to an end. However, Professor Johnson was disappointed when no one asked any questions, even after they were encouraged to do so. In fact, most students avoided eye contact with him as he tried to communicate with them.

Lecture 8

Intercultural Perception

Classifications of Intercultural competence
? Intercultural

perception ? Intercultural understanding ? Intercultural adaptation ? Intercultural adjustment ? Cross-cultural effectiveness

Intercultural perception
?A

Philosophy of Change ? Potential problems in intercultural communication ? Improving Intercultural Communication ? Ethical Considerations

Everything flows, nothing stays still. ----Heraclitus
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A Greek philosopher of the late 6th century BCE, Heraclitus criticizes his predecessors and contemporaries for their failure to see the unity in experience. He claims to announce an everlasting Word (Logos) according to which all things are one, in some sense. Opposites are necessary for life, but they are unified in a system of balanced exchanges. The world itself consists of a law-like interchange of elements, symbolized by fire. Thus the world is not to be identified with any particular

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substance, but rather with an ongoing process governed by a law of change. The underlying law of nature also manifests itself as a moral law for human beings. Heraclitus is the first Western philosopher to go beyond physical theory in search of metaphysical foundations and moral applications. ? When the Greek philosopher Heraclitus wrote this, he was not only talking about nature and the universe changing, but he was also referring to how people change. The spirit of change is at the heart of our approach to intercultural communication.

A Philosophy of Change
? The

belief that improvement in intercultural communication is possible is based on two assumptions: ? 1) the brain is an open system ? 2) we have free choice.

1) the brain is an open system
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One of the most engrossing aspects of the human brain is that there is no known upper limit to what it can receive, store, and eventually use. As we move from moment to moment in our lives, we can, and in fact do, learn from each experience. Our ability to learn and to change is indeed a rare gift. The ability to change means that

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we are not condemned to one outlook, one way of acting, or one set of “truths” for all of our lives. Rather, it heralds(欢呼) change that is as much a part of the living process as breathing. People may differ in the degree to which they welcome change, but change is unavoidable. In short, our first premise is that you can change the

manner in which you send and receive messages.

2) we have free choice
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Most we do in life, from selecting a single word when we speak to deciding if we should drive over the posted speed limit, we do of our own free will. Although many cultures have a strong belief in fate, and others limit the choices available to their members, in most instances people choose what to do and what not to do.

? By

remembering that the brain is an open system and that you have free choices, you can begin to appreciate the power you have over whether or not you improve your communication behavior.

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To assist you in your efforts toward becoming a more effective intercultural communicator, in the following three chapters we are going to discuss three closely related goals and purposes. ? First, we review some potential problems facing anyone who is engaged in intercultural communication. ? Second, we explore the resolution of these problems and offer some advice for

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improvement. ? And finally, because communication is such a personal activity, we note how a new ethical stance toward other people and culture can make us more effective intercultural communicators.
? Culture
?

and Perception(P283)

Selection; ? Organization; ? Interpretation

Potential problems in intercultural communication
?

Seeking similarities ? Uncertainty reduction ? Diversity of communication purposes ? Stereotyping and prejudice ? Misuse of power ? Culture shock ? Ethnocentrism

Seeking similarities
“Birds of a feather flock together.” ? What group of people do you choose to be around, and how do you select your friends?
?

If you are consistent with the research in interpersonal communication, you gravitate toward people who are similar to you. Although this observation is not profound , it is nevertheless true. For decades, the

research in initial attraction and the development of friendships has revealed an overwhelming tendency among all of us to seek out people whom we perceive to be much like ourselves. It is very natural inclination when meeting someone to talk about a topic that both parties might enjoy; and should those talks prove interesting; it is equally natural for friendships to form and evolve. The more points of contact we can establish, the more comfortable we feel.

Uncertainty reduction
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Berger and Calabrese summarize this theory: “Central to the present theory is the assumption that when strangers meet, their primary concern is one of uncertainty reduction or increasing predictability about the behavior of both themselves and others in the interaction.” ? According to the theory, all of us have a

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need to understand both the self and the other in interpersonal situations. Simply put, we have a desire to reduce the uncertainty built into every new meeting. However, as our ability “to predict which alternative or alternatives are likely to occur next decreases, uncertainty increases.” This uncertainty can take a number of forms, all of which can interfere with intercultural communication.

Diversity of communication purposes
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Communication problems often occur because people have different reasons and motivations for deciding why and when to talk. ? In America, where talking is common, the why behind their actions ranges from the simple to the complex and covers purposes as diverse as seeking the time of day from

strangers to “having our say” as a means of experiencing emotional catharsis.In the intercultural setting, this diversity of purposes can present problems. ? E.g. A difference of communication purposes would be seen if you were an international manager and asked advice from someone whose cultural background does not encourage participatory decision. In India, for instance, bosses, not employees, usually make decisions.
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Stereotyping and prejudice
? Stereotypes
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Stereotyping is a complex form of categorization that mentally organizes our experiences and guides our behavior toward a particular group of people. ? In most cases, stereotypes are the products of limited, lazy, and misguided perceptions. ? Their negative effect on intercultural

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communication is clearly described byAdler: ? Stereotypes become counterproductive when we place people in the wrong groups, when we incorrectly describe the group norm, when we inappropriately evaluate the group or category, when we confuse the stereotype with the description a particular individual, and when we fail to modify the stereotype based on our actual observations and experience.

prejudice
Prejudice refers to “an unfair, biased, or intolerant attitude towards another group of people.” ? When applied to intercultural communication, prejudice places the object of the prejudice at some disadvantage that is not directly related to the actual conduct of the person, but rather is part of the
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misjudgment of the person holding the prejudiced views. ? It is important remember that deep prejudice and hatred not only harm the outgroup but can destroy the prejudiced person and culture.
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“Hatred is a feeling which leads to the extinction of values.” ----Jose Ortega Y Gasset

Misuse of power
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It is not power that represents the potential communication problem, but the misuse of it. Power is present in nearly every human experience, from parent-child relationships to global power politics. ? The methods of power are as diverse as they are widespread. People and cultures have employed guns, bombs, language, space,

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Money,and even history as devices for controlling others. ? Understanding power --- how it can be misused and its effect on communication---is an important part of understanding intercultural communication.

Culture shock
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Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. These signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life: how to give orders, how to make purchases, when and where not to respond. Now these cues which may

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be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we are not consciously aware.

Ethnocentrism(P290)
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Ethnocentrism refers to the belief that one’s culture is primary to all explanations of reality.

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The negative impact of ethnocentrism on intercultural communication is clearly highlighted by Steward and Bennett: ? First, ethnocentric beliefs about one’s own

? culture

shape a social sense of identity which is narrow and defensive. ? Second, ethnocentrism normally involves the perception of members of other cultures in terms of stereotypes. ? Third, the dynamic of ethnocentrism is such that comparative judgments are made between one’s own culture and other cultures under the assumption

? judgments

usually involve that one’s own is normal and natural.As a sequence, ethnocentric invidious comparisons that ennoble one’s culture while degrading those of others.(P291)

Improving Intercultural Communication(P331)
?

Know yourself ? Consider the physical and human settings ? Seek to understand diverse message systems ? Develop empathy ? Encourage feedback ? Learn about cultural adaptation

Know Yourself
? Know

your culture ? Know your attitudes ? Know your communication style

Know your culture
?

Remember, we are products of our culture--and that culture helps control communication. ? “An awareness of American culture along with examples of contrasting cultures contribute to the individual’s understanding of her – or himself as a cultural being.” ? ---Stewart and Bennett

Know your attitudes
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Hidden personal premises, be they directed at ideas, people, or entire cultures, are often the cause of many of our difficulties. ? By exhorting you to examine your attitudes and perceptions, we are asking you to identify those attitudes, prejudices, and opinions that we all carry around and that bias the way the world appears to us.

Know your communication style
?

Our most taken-for-granted behaviors often are hidden from consciousness. ? We should recognize our communication style. ? By communication style is meant the topics people prefer to discuss, their favorite forms of interaction --- ritual, repartee, argument, self-disclosure---and the depth of

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involvement they demand of each other. ? It includes the extent to which communicants rely upon the same channels--vocal, verbal, physical---for conveying information, and the extent to which they are tuned to the same level of meaning, that is, to the factual or emotional content of messages.

Consider the physical and human settings
? Timing ? Physical ? Customs

setting

Timing
? Our

use of timing is also influenced by culture. ? The effective communicator knows the importance of timing and has developed the skill to determine the appropriate time to talk about a subject.

Physical setting
? In

the United States, during business negotiations, the two negotiation teams usually sit facing each other. However, for much of the world, this arrangement maximizes competition, not cooperation. In many Arab countries, people often conduct

? business

while sitting on the floor. And in Finland, there are major corporations that use the sauna bath as a setting for meeting. ? Therefore, being aware of the physical setting, and adapting to that setting, is often the hallmark of a successful intercultural communicator.

Customs
? Your

ability to adapt to the customs of each culture will, to a large extent, determine the success of your intercultural encounters. Specific customs are found in each culture, as the following three illustrations show. ? First, we turn to an important business

?

custom in Japan---the exchanging of business cards. ? Second, there are also subtle yet important cultural customs in the perception and manifestation of rank and status. ? Finally, you can avoid serious communication problems if you know that the number three and sequences that contain three items have significance in the Thai culture.

? Seek

to understand diverse message systems ? Develop empathy ? Encourage feedback

Learn about cultural adaptation
? Acquire

knowledge about the host

culture ? Learn to be open and flexible ? Increase contact with the host culture

Ethical Considerations
?

Because communication is an activity that has a consequence, we must continually ask ourselves if we are behaving in a way that harms our communication partner.

?A

definition of ethics ? Guidelines for an intercultural ethic

A definition of ethics
Ethics refers to judgments that focus “on degree of rightness and wrongness, virtue and vice, and obligation in human behavior.” ? Religious thinkers, philosophers, and ordinary people have been struggling with the issues surrounding the consequences of our facts for thousands of years.
?

Guidelines for an intercultural ethic
?

Be mindful of the consequences of your actions ? Seek commonalties among people and culture ? Recognize the validity of differences ? Take individual responsibility for your actions

The scope of final-exam
?

PATTERNS:

Ⅰ. Definitions (10%) ? Ⅱ.T/F ( 15%) ? Ⅲ. Fill-in task( 15%) ? Ⅳ.Translation (25%) ? Ⅴ.Case study (15%) ? Ⅵ. Topic-discussion (20%)
?


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