当前位置:首页 >> 教学案例/设计 >>

英语教学设计与案例分析


英语教学设计与案例分析
English Teaching Design & Case Analysis
【课程性质】 本课程是为英语教育硕士学位研究生开设的一门专业必修课。 本课程系统地阐述了中 学英语教学设计的基本原理、 方法和教学活动的具体案例, 并通过对教学案例的分析为学习 者更好、更有效地进行英语课堂教学设计提供了方向、具体的操作路径和方法。本课程主要 包括课程的导入、语言知识(语音、词汇、语法)、语言技能(听、说、读、写)、课堂管 理和教学反思等方面的内容, 共分为十个教学专题。 每个专题都将引导学生对英语课堂教学 的各层面与环节进行系统的探讨与学习, 通过理论学习与案例分析相结合的方法, 使学生学 会根据具体的教学目标、 教学内容与教学对象, 在相关理论的指导下进行科学合理的单元整 体设计和分课设计,有效组织课堂教学,灵活应对和处理课堂教学中的问题。 【课程学分】 本课程拟定 60 课时学习完毕,共计 3 学分。 【教学目标】 1. 了解导入环节对一节课的成功与失败起着重要的作用, 掌握各种教学导入的方式和 方法。 2. 了解语音教学贯穿整个中学的英语学习阶段,包括发语音、语调、重音等多个方面 的内容。掌握语音教学的技能和方法。 3. 了解词汇教学的具体内容和呈现方式, 学会使用最恰当方法进行词汇的讲解和教学 活动的设计。 4. 了解语法教学的基本教学模式, 学会使用归纳法进行语法教学的讲解和教学活动的 设计。 5. 了解并掌握听力教学的三个教学阶段和听力理解的学习策略, 并能针对三个不同阶 段的教学任务设计恰当的教学活动。 6. 了解口语教学的策略与方法,能够掌握口语教学活动设计的方法。 7. 了解阅读教学的模式与训练学生阅读策略的方法, 能够根据不同的文章体裁进行不 同阅读教学活动的设计。 8. 了解写作教学不同教学模式,掌握过程写作具体教学活动的设计方法。 9. 了解课堂教学管理的基本原理,学会使用恰当的方式进行课堂管理。 10. 了解并掌握教学反思的各种方式与方法,学会对自已的教学进行系统的反思。 【教学方式】 本课程采用网络授课的方式进行,学生主要采取自主的方式进行学习。在教学过程中 学生可以在网上观看教师的教学录像视频,教学使用的 PPT,同时还可以进行文本的阅读。 【考核方式】 课程学习过程中,包括专题思考讨论题、在线测试和小组合作研究三种考核方式。其 中期中和期末测试和小组合作研究考核结果计入最终的课程通过成绩。

1

1. 专题思考讨论题:提供每个专题的思考讨论题,从而引导学员领悟总结所学知识并 实际运用于英语课堂教学中解决实际教学问题。 2. 小组合作研究:提供 3 个小组合作研究题供学员选择。合作研究题目的在于引导学 员运用所学知识,通过相互合作,解决教学过程中遇到的问题。 3. 期中在线测试: 本阶段性在线测试旨在监控研究生的学习过程,促进研究生注重 平时学习,同时检查研究生对课程基本内容的掌握情况。 4. 期末在线测试:本总结性测试旨在对研究生的整个学习结果进行考核,考核内容侧 重于对教学原理的应用,着重考核学员的实际应用能力。 【学习建议】 1. 学习方法建议 (1)在每个专题的开始,都设有本专题的主要学习内容,在开始学习的时候,需要仔 细阅读这部分的内容,对本单元所学的内容有着整体的把握。 (2)在学习课程内容部分,结合课程中所提供的链接材料,加深自己对内容的理解。 (3)每个专题配有思考讨论题,在每单元学习结束时自觉地进行测试。 (4)拓展阅读部分是本课程所学内容的拓展,在熟悉了解完课程内容所介绍的相关知 识点之后,可以通过拓展资源部分扩展自己的知识面。 (5)学生除了自主学习以外,还应该充分利用“我的空间”实现与老师、同学的交流, 提高学习效率。 2. 拓展资源的利用 拓展资源是本门课程所有资源的集合,既包括课内的资源,也包括课外的资源。 (1)视频资源:除主讲教师所讲授的课程的内容以,本课程还提供了相关的中学英语 教学视频的集合, 学员可以运用所学到的知识对这些教学内容进行点评的分析, 从而提高自 己的教学设计能力。 (2) 文献资源: 文献资源部分是本门课程所学内容的拓展, 是本课程重要的组成部分。 通过文献资源部分, 不仅可以加深学生对本门课程的学习, 而且可以培养学生的基础科研能 力。 (3)课件资源:课件资源部分除本课程的课件以外,还提供了中学英语教师制作的课 件,学员可以从这些课件中学习一些新的见解和创意,开阔视野和思路。 (4)教学设计资源:教学设计资源主要提供了一些中学英语教师的教学设计供学员们 在教学设计过程中进行参考和借鉴。 (5)网站资源:网站资源部分选择的是一些优质的与英语教学设计相关的教学网站, 学员可以通过对这些网站的访问, 搜索可用于英语课堂教学的有用的资源, 也可在网站中进 行有选择的阅读与学习。

Lecture 1 Lesson Opening: How a Lesson Begins

2

Contents of this Lecture
1.1 Four Dimensions of Structuring 1.2 The Opening--What It Is and Why It Is Important 1.3 Steps for Preparing a Lesson Opening 1.4 Types of Opening Activities 1.5 Key Principles for Effective Lesson Openings
In tennis you are allowed two serves for each point. How you play the first serve will allow you to dictate the point. In knitting, how you begin the first row will determine your success with the rest of the stitches. It's all in how you start (Wong & Wong, 2000). At the beginning of every class, teachers need to decide how they can activate students' prior knowledge, how they will connect the day's lesson to the previous class meeting, how they can introduce the topic the text, how they can reduce students' anxiety, and how they can motivate their students for the day's activities (Yan Guiqin, 2010). How a lesson begins is referred to as lesson opening.

1.1 Four Dimensions of Structuring
The process of teaching English is a complicated one: as for many other subjects, it is necessarily to be divided into four dimensions.

1.1.1 Opening
Operas are usually preceded by the short overtures, which prepare the audience for the main show. Brief remarks are often made to introduce a radio or television show. And many books have prefaces explain the authors' aims. Similarly, appropriate lesson openings can help to activate and harness learners' attention, effort, and intelligence and conscious learning strategies in order to enhance learning.

1.1.2 Sequencing
Sequencing is how a lesson is divided into segments and how the segments relate to each other. Basic sequencing rules are listed below. (1) Simple activities should be placed before complex ones. (2) Activities involving receptive skills should be preceded those that involve productive skills. (3) Students should study a grammar rule before trying to use it. (4) Students should practice using a tense or grammar structure before studying the rule that underlies it.
3

(5) Accuracy-focused activities should be preceded fluency-focused ones. (6) There should be a transition within a lesson from mechanical or form-based activities to meaningful-based activities.

1.1.3 Pacing
Pacing is how a sense of movement is achieved within a lesson. English teachers should be aware of the following pacing rules. (1) Avoiding needless or over–lengthy explanations and instructions, and letting students get on with the job of learning. (2) Using a variety of activities within a lesson, rather than spending the whole lesson on one activity. (3) Avoiding predictable and repetitive activities. (4) Selecting activities with an appropriate difficulty level. (5) Setting a goal and time limit for activities. (6) Monitoring students' performance on activities to ensure that students have sufficient but not too much time.

1.1.4 Closure
Closure is the phase when a lesson is brought to an end. Frequently-used closure techniques are listed below. (1) Summarizing what has been covered on the lesson. (2) Reviewing key points of the lesson. (3) Relating the lesson to the course or lesson goals. (4) Pointing out links between the lesson and previous lessons. (5) Showing how the lesson relates to students' real-world needs. (6) Making links to a forthcoming lesson. (7) Praising students for what they have accomplished during the lesson.

1.2 The Opening--What It Is and Why It Is Important 1.2.1 Definition of Opening
The opening of a lesson consists of the procedures the teacher uses to focus the students' attention on the learning aims of the lesson. Research on teaching suggests that the opening or "entry" of a lesson generally occupies the first five minutes and can have an important influence on how much the students learn from the lesson.

1.2.2 Purpose of Opening
Lesson beginnings can serve a variety of purposes. For example, specific lesson openings can be used to (McGrath et al, 1992):
4

(1) Establish appropriate affective framework. a. Create friendly, relaxed atmosphere. b. Focus attention. c. Make class enjoyable. d. Get everyone involved. e. Raise confidence. f. Stimulate interest. (2) Establish proper cognitive framework. a. Provide organizing framework. b. Stimulate awareness of linguistic /cultural need. c. Elicit relevant linguistic knowledge. d. Elicit relevant experience. (3) Encourage students' responsibility and independence. a. Make students be aware of learning skills and strategies. (4) Fulfill required institutional role. a. Give feedback. b. Check on previous learning.

1.2.3 Importance of Opening
A common rookie mistake is to fail to appreciate the importance of a lesson's beginning and end. At the beginning of classes, many if not most teachers jump into lessons without capturing student attention or providing any context for what is about to be learned. Consider the following "lesson opening": "Okay class, open your books and turn to page 321 and begin reading. Then answer questions 3 to 11 on page 322. Any questions?" Lesson opening like this one leave students with no understanding of the lesson purpose, no reason to be engaged, and no incentive to achieve. Consequently beginning a lesson like this will contribute to off-task behavior, student apathy, and minimal progress towards any end goals. Without any sense of what is about to happen, why it is important to be able to answer questions 3-11, or how pages 321-332 connect to what has been done before, students may simply be following directions without connecting their work to any prior knowledge or future experience. Jere Brophy's (1998) summary of academic research verifies the importance of a strong opening for every lesson: Research indicates the value of establishing a learning orientation by beginning lessons and activities with advance organizers or previews. These introductions facilitate students' learning by communicating the nature and purpose of the activity, connecting it to prior knowledge, and cueing the kinds of student responses that the activity requires.
5

1.3 Steps for Preparing a Lesson Opening
Below are six steps to guide you when you create lesson openings. Each step is accompanied by a set of questions meant to prompt reflection and aid you in designing your opening activities (Milkova, 2012).

1.3.1 Outline Learning Objectives
The first step is to determine what you want students to learn at the beginning and be able to do at the end of class. To help you specify your objectives for student learning, answer the following questions: (1) What is the topic of the lesson? (2) What do I want students to learn? (3) What do I want them to understand and be able to do at the end of class? (4) What do I want them to take away from this particular lesson? Once you outline the learning objectives for the class meeting, rank them in terms of their importance. This step will prepare you for managing class time and accomplishing the more important learning objectives in case you are pressed for time. Consider the following questions: (1) What are the most important concepts, ideas, or skills I want students to be able to grasp and apply? (2) Why are they important? (3) If I ran out of time, which ones could not be omitted? (4) And conversely, which ones could I skip if pressed for time?

1.3.2 Develop the Introduction
Now that you have your learning objectives in order based on their importance, design the specific activities you will use to get students to understand and apply what they have learned. Because you will have diverse students with different academic and personal experiences, they may already be familiar with the topic. That is why you might start with a question or activity to gauge students' knowledge of the subject or possibility, their preconceived notions about it. For example, you can take a simple poll: "How many of you have heard of X? Raise your hand if you have." You can also gather background information from your students prior to class by sending students an electronic survey or asking them to write comments on index cards. This additional information can help shape your introduction, learning activities, etc. When you have an idea of the students' familiarity with the topic, you will also have a sense of what to focus on. Develop a creative introduction to the topic to stimulate interest and encourage thinking. You can use a variety of approaches to engage students (e.g., personal anecdote,
6

historical event, thought-provoking dilemma, real-world example, short video clip, practical application, probing question, etc.). Consider the following questions when planning your introduction: (1) How will I check whether students know anything about the topic or have any preconceived notions about it? (2) What are some commonly held ideas (or possibly misconceptions) about this topic that students might be familiar with or might espouse? (3) What will I do to introduce the topic?

1.3.3 Plan the Specific Opening Activities
Prepare several different ways of leading in the topics (real-life examples, analogies, visuals, etc.) to catch the attention of more students and appeal to different learning styles. As you plan your examples and activities, estimate how much time you will spend on each one. Build in time for extended explanation or discussion, but also be prepared to move on quickly to different applications or problems, and to identify strategies that check for understanding. These questions would help you design the learning activities you will use: (1) What will I do to explain the topic? (2) What will I do to illustrate the topic in a different way? (3) How can I engage students in the topic? (4) What are some relevant real-life examples, analogies, or situations that can help students understand the topic? (5) What will students need to do to help them understand the topic better?

1.3.4 Create a Realistic Timeline
Many if not most experienced teachers know how easy it is to run out of time and not cover all of the many points they had planned to cover. A list of ten learning objectives is not realistic, so narrow down your list to the two or three key concepts, ideas, or skills you want students to learn. Instructors also agree that they often need to adjust their lesson plan during class depending on what the students need. Your list of prioritized learning objectives will help you make decisions on the spot and adjust your lesson plan as needed. Having additional examples or alternative activities will also allow you to be flexible. A realistic timeline will reflect your flexibility and readiness to adapt to the specific classroom environment. Here are some strategies for creating a realistic timeline: (1) Estimate how much time each of the activities will take, then plan some extra time for each. (2) When you prepare your lesson plan, indicate how much time you expect it will take. (3) Plan a few minutes at the end of class to answer any remaining questions and to sum up key points. (4) Plan an extra activity or discussion question in case you have time left.
7

(5) Be flexible – be ready to adjust your lesson plan to students' needs and focus on what seems to be more productive rather than sticking to your original plan.

1.4 Types of Opening Activities 1.4.1 Checking Homework
A teacher could choose to go through previous homework, in order to fulfill required institutional role, especially check on previous learning and give feedback. This can be accomplished by (1) Asking questions about concepts or skills taught in the previous lesson. (2) Giving a short quiz at the beginning of class on material from previous lessons or homework assignments. (3) Having students make small groups (two or four students per group) to review homework. (4) Having students prepare questions about previous lessons or homework. They ask questions to each other, or the teacher can ask them to the class. (5) Having students prepare a written summary of the previous lesson. However, according to Sjoberg (2012), although most students expect homework corrections to come right at the beginning of a lesson, it's not the best or most enjoyable way to start off. He suggested the teachers to check homework as a way of 'calming down' after a boisterous group-work session or leave it till the end of the lesson.

1.4.2 Brainstorming
To establish proper cognitive framework, such as eliciting linguistic knowledge, a teacher can organize brainstorming activities at the beginning of class. Brainstorming works is focusing on a problem, and then deliberately coming up with as many solutions as possible and by pushing the ideas as far as possible. One of the reasons why it is so effective is that the barnstormers not only come up with new ideas in a session, but also spark off from associations with other people's ideas by developing and refining them. Brainstorming can either be carried out by individuals or groups. Generally speaking, "individual brainstorming" is the use of brainstorming in solitary. It typically includes such techniques as free writing, free speaking, word association, and drawing a mind map. Individual brainstorming is a useful method in creative writing and has been shown to be superior to traditional group brainstorming (Furnham & Yazdanpanahi, 1995). When done individually, brainstorming tends to produce a wider range of ideas than group brainstorming as individuals are free to explore ideas in their own time without any fear of criticism. On the other hand, groups tend to develop the ideas more effectively due to the wider range of diversity. 1. Free writing
8

Free writing is based on a presumption that, while everybody has something to say and the ability to say it, the mental wellspring may be blocked by apathy, self-criticism, resentment, anxiety about deadlines, fear of failure, or other forms of resistance. How to carry out free writing? Step 1: Select a topic for free writing. If you've chosen to do focus free writing, write this topic at the top of the blackboard. Step 2: Set a timer or use the clock on your computer screen. Give the students 1-3 minutes to write continuously. Step 3: Start your timer. Step 4: Write down whatever comes to mind. Step 5: Continue writing until the designated time has run out. Tell the students not to stop until that point. Ask them not to pay attention to grammar or spelling. If there are any incomplete sentences or misspelled words, don't worry. Just keep going. If they run into a dead end or draw a blank, keep writing the same word or phrase over and over again until something else pops into their mind. When the time has run out, ask the students to look over what they have written and circle or underline ideas that they like or that they think that might be useful for the project. 2. Drawing a mind map A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. Especially in British English, the terms "spider gram" and "spider graph" are more common, but they can cause confusion with the term "spider diagram" used in mathematics and logic. Mind maps are used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying and organizing information, solving problems, making decisions, and writing. The elements of a given mind map are arranged intuitively according to the importance of the concepts, and are classified into groupings, branches, or areas, with the goal of representing semantic or other connections between portions of information. Mind maps may also aid recall of existing memories. By presenting ideas in a radial, graphical, non-linear manner, mind maps encourage a brainstorming approach to planning and organizational tasks.[citation needed] Though the branches of a mind map represent hierarchical tree structures, their radial arrangement disrupts the prioritizing of concepts typically associated with hierarchies presented with more linear visual cues. This orientation towards brainstorming encourages users to enumerate and connect concepts without a tendency to begin within a particular conceptual framework. The mind map can be contrasted with the similar idea of concept mapping. The former is based on radial hierarchies and tree structures denoting relationships with a central

9

governing concept, whereas concept maps are based on connections between concepts in more diverse patterns. However, either can be part of a larger personal knowledge base system. Below is a map mind which helps to elicit ideas and linguistic knowledge about health.

When conducting brainstorm activities, it is important for the teacher to: (1) Establish a warm, supportive environment. (2) Emphasize that a quantity of ideas is the goal. (3) Discourage evaluative or critical comments from peers. (4) Encourage and provide opportunity for all students to participate. (5) Initially emphasize the importance of listening to expressed ideas, and model printing and recording of the ideas, then read each contribution to or with the group.

1.4.3 Introduction
It is wise to begin classes with a short introduction, reminding students of what happened last time and saying what you are going to study this time. Such an introduction may be only three or four sentences and should hardly ever be more than two or three minutes, but neither should it be omitted (Lewis & Hill, 2002). The beginning of a lesson with a short introduction can provide the students with opportunities to learn with clear aims. It is hard for them to achieve the teaching goals if they are not aware of what the teacher expects on them. For example, a teacher could choose to: (1) Describe the goals of a lesson. (2) Describe what students are expected to do in the lesson. (3) State the information or skills the students will learn. (4) Describe the relationship between the lesson activities and a real-world need. (5) State that the activity the students will do is something they will enjoy. The general guidelines on giving effective introduction are listed below.

10

(1) Prepare You may feel perfectly clear in your mind about what need clarify, and therefore think that can improvise a clear introduction. But experience shows that teachers' explanations are often not as clear to their students as they are to themselves. It is worth preparing: think for a while about the words. (2) Make sure you have the students' full attention In ongoing language practice learners' attention may sometimes stray; they can usually make up what they have lost later. But if you are explaining something essential, they must attend. (3) Present the information more than once A repetition or paraphrase of the necessary information may make all the difference: learners' attention wanders occasionally, and it is important to give them more than one chance to understand what they have to do. Also, it helps re-present the information in a different mode: for example, say it and also write it up on the board. (4) Be brief Learners-in fact, all of us-have only a limited attention span; they cannot listen to you for very long at maximum concentration. Make you instruction as brief as you can, compatible with clarity. (5) Illustrate with examples Very often a careful theoretical explanation only 'comes together' for an audience when made real through an example, or preferably several. Similarly, when giving instructions for an activity, it often helps to do a 'dry run': an actual demonstration of the activity yourself with the full class or with a volunteer student before inviting learners to tackle the task on their own. (Ur, 2000)

1.4.4 Applying English Songs
Songs can create a pleasant atmosphere due to the universal appeal of pleasing music. They are a unique teaching tool and a marvelous means of facilitating positive feelings about being in an English-speaking environment. Some course books include songs that specifically focus on grammatical or functional items; these have been specially written and recorded for students of English and they can be used in the same way that you might use an ordinary speech recording (Scrivener, 2002). It is acknowledged that more time and attention to pop music in an English curriculum would increase students' motivation and their involvement in EFL learning; that learning through English songs is more effective than memorization in isolation; and that song lyrics contain rich linguistic and cultural knowledge. English songs are vital in communicative language teaching (Wang Baoan, 2008).
11

1. The advantages of using English songs (1) Popular English songs are motivating Popular songs touch the lives of students, and grow out of their natural experiences and interests. All popular songs are eternally occupied with variations on the same themes of love, friendship, joy, sorrow, dream, and the rest, which are the common feelings of humans, as well as the affective objectives of New English Curriculum Standards. Therefore, more time and attention to pop music in an English curriculum would increase students' motivation because classroom activities would use their knowledge, their music, and their language. English songs offer a change from routine EFL classroom activities by providing fun and creating an active atmosphere. Singing English songs is entertaining and relaxing. Learning English through songs also provides a no threatening atmosphere for students, who usually are tense when speaking English in a formal classroom setting. In this way, students have strong motivation to be involved in the classroom activities. Meanwhile, English songs supply authentic and real-life materials, which help Chinese students understand native speakers of English. As cited by Domoney (1993) "While meaningful context and background are provided for communicative activities by various English songs, students are encouraged to engage in using their knowledge to express their own opinions". And the teacher is able to insert more substance into the class and build relationships with his students as well. (2) English songs contain linguistic information According to the Communicative Language Teaching theory, the primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse (Widdowson, 1978). Students can benefit a lot from English songs if they learn to appreciate them because good English songs can teach them the language, the culture as well as art. Therefore, pop song lyrics can serve as entertaining contexts for English learners to master the usage of some language points and acquire some cultural background. Songs not only can motivate students but also contain rich linguistic information, including pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, rhetoric and language sense. Looking at the text of the song 'Because You Loved Me', teachers find so many parallel sentences. Teachers can teach the students 'parallelism' with the help of this song. As stated above, songs contain rich linguistic knowledge. According to the theory about learning, learning takes place in many ways and all sorts of learning are going on all the time. Sometimes, it is intentional, as when students acquire information presented in a classroom or when they look something up in an encyclopedia. Sometimes, it is unintentional, as when they listen to music. Therefore, it is advisable that English teachers use pop songs because the lyrics may help students acquire those language components

12

through unintentional learning. (3) English songs contain historical and cultural knowledge In many parts of the world, pop music is a primary leisure resource for young people. Pop music features in young people's lives in a variety of different ways and in a diverse range of contexts: from campus studios, cinemas and TV commercials to what Japanese music theorist Hosokawa (1984) refers to as the 'autonomous and mobile' form of listening facilitated through the invention of the personal stereo such as Walkman, tape record and so on. Listening to pop music can make students more aware of the culture they are involving. Popular songs carry rich historical or social knowledge with them. Pop songs ten years ago may sound out-dated to modern students' ears while today's pop songs will be regarded either classics or rubbish in the future. Exploration of the reasons why some certain kind of music is popular at a certain time and deserted at another time can provide much background knowledge for both teachers and students. Therefore, pop songs can also be used to introduce social changes as well as cultural notes to students. 2. Selection of English songs English songs considered suitable must meet the following criteria: ● The melodies should be simple and beautiful so as to be excellent pedagogical devices for motivating students. ● The style of music should be to students' taste, taking account of the social and cultural norms of Chinese society. ● The lyrics of the song should be easily understood and the song can serve specific teaching purposes. For example, when you teach Unit 1 Friendship in New Senior English for China: Student's Book 1, you can use the following song "Be a Friend" to lead in the topic. Be a Friend Friends, friends, you've got to have friends. Friends will stick with you. They'll be there till the end. If you would like to have a friend, then you must be a friend. When you're lonely, when you're sand, Friends cheer you up and help you feel glad. If you would like to have a friend, then you must do what friends do. When you are happy, when you feel great, Friends share your joy and help you celebrate. If you would like to have a friend, then you must do what friends do. When you have got a whole lot to do, Friends will jump in and come to your rescue.

13

If you would like to have a friend, then you must do what friends do. Actually, many websites offer a large amount of wonderful songs which can make language learning more interesting and relaxing. It is worth exploring.

1.4.5 Game
Language learning is hard work. Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information. The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised, the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term. Below is an example of applying game during opening phase.
The teaching objectives of an English lesson At the end of the class, students will be able to:

1. Identify the adverbial clauses of cause, result, purpose. 2. Distinguish between because and because of, such…that and so… that, and practice using them correctly.
The teacher asks the students to guess whether the following statements about her are true or false. Is that me? I have such a lovely son that I carry his photo around everywhere. Because my hometown is Henan province, I can sing a bit Yu Opera. I often practice dancing so that I can have a nice figure. I am so good at cooking that many friends love the meal I cook. I often walk to school because of my inability to drive a car.

The guessing game itself can stimulate interest and get almost everyone involved. Besides, this personalized game can lessen the gap between the teacher and the students. The best time to personalize an activity is during the first five minutes of a lesson.
14

After the game, the teacher asks the students to underline the linking words and sort them into three types, and then complete the table by filling more linking words.
Types of clause Cause Result Purpose Linking words

The benefits of games range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co-operative group dynamics (Lengeling & Malarcher, 1997). (1) Affective: - lowers affective filter - encourages creative and spontaneous use of language - promotes communicative competence - motivates - fun (2) Cognitive: - reinforces - reviews and extends - focuses on grammar communicatively (3) Class Dynamics: - student centered - teacher acts only as facilitator - builds class cohesion - fosters whole class participation - promotes healthy competition (4) Adaptability: - easily adjusted for age, level, and interests - utilizes all four skills - requires minimum preparation after development

1.4.6 Questioning
Questions asked at the opening phase serve as signpost guiding students' attention to the new learning activities. In stead of challenging and testing students' mastery of linguistic knowledge, they primarily aim at helping students activate content scheme, and build connections between what they have already known to what they are expected to learn. It is important for the teachers to know what types of questions to be avoided. Consider these guidelines: (1) Avoid asking questions that can be answered simply with "yes" or "no." You and your students gain little understanding or direction from such pointed questions that have such short answers. Instead, consider questions that start with "What," "How,"
15

"When" and "Where." (2) Avoid leading questions. Leading questions are questions that are asked to lead another to a certain pre-determined conclusion or insight. Those questions can be perceived by the other as manipulative and dishonest. Leading questions often can be answered with "yes" or "no," for example, "You think it is important, right?" (3) Avoid close-ended questions Where possible, use open-ended questions. Open-ended questions are those that are not answered with "yes" or "no." They generate thinking and reflection on the part of the person you are coaching. They also ensure that the person keeps focused in the coaching session. Example: Unit 3 Travel Journal (New Senior English for China, Book 1) The topic of this unit is travelling. At the beginning of the class, the teacher can lead in the topic by asking questions as the following (Ren Zhihong, 2008). ● Do you like travelling? ● Why do you like travelling? ● Where have you ever been before? ● How did you get there? ● If you are given a chance to travel around the world, what kind of transportation would you use and why? Meanwhile the teacher can show students some pictures about different means of transportation for students to discuss in pairs.

1.4.7 Setting the Scene
Setting the scene means getting the students familiarized with the cultural and social background knowledge relevant to the reading text. These purposes can be achieved by using visual aids, such as videotape, slides, pictures, posters, film clips, etc. In many studies, experimental psychologists and educators have found that retention of information three days after a meeting or other event is six times greater when information is presented by visual and oral means than when the information is presented by the spoken word alone. Studies by educational researchers suggest that approximately 83% of human learning occurs visually, and the remaining 17% through the other senses - 11% through hearing, 3.5% through smell, 1% through taste, and 1.5% through touch. The use of visual aids, then, is essential to all presentations, especially in the context of classroom teaching. Visual aids add impact and interest to an opening. They enable the teachers to appeal to more than one sense at the same time, thereby increasing the students' understanding and retention level. With pictures, the concepts or ideas the teachers present are no longer simply words - but words plus images. Visual aids, as a result, reinforce the
16

message, clarify points, and create excitement. Below are tips on preparing visual aids to set the scene. (1) Start with at least a rough outline of the goal and major points of the presentation before selecting the visual aid(s). For example, a particular scene or slides may trigger ideas for the presentation, providing the power of images. Do not proceed too far without first determining what you want to accomplish, what your audience wants to gain, and what the physical setting requires. (2) Keep visual aids brief. Each element of an audio-visual product - a single slide or a page of a flip chart presentation, for example, - must be simple and contain only one message. Placing more than one message on a single image confuses the audience and diminishes the potential impact of visual media. (3) Ask the audience to read or listen, not both. Determine the difference between what you will say and what the visual aid will show. Do not read straight from your visuals. Visual aids should not provide reading material while you talk. Rather, use them to illustrate or highlight your points. (4) Give participants paper copies of various graphic aids used in your presentation. They will be able to write on the paper copies and have them for future reference. (5) Assess your cost constraints. An overhead transparency presentation can always be used in a formal environment if 35 mm slides are too expensive. (6) Account for production time in your planning and selection process. Slides must be developed, videotape edited - you do not want to back yourself against a wall because the visuals are not ready. You can often get production work done in 24-48 hours, but it is much more expensive than work that is done on an extended schedule. (7) Use local photographs and examples when discussing general problems and issues. While a general problem concerning welding safety, for example, may elude someone, illustrating with a system in use at the site can bring the issue home. (8) If you have handouts, don't let them become a distraction during the presentation. They should provide reinforcement following your address. Consider giving them out after the presentation, unless the audience will use them during the presentation or will need to review them in advance of the presentation. (9) Seek feedback on the clarity of your visuals and do early enough to allow yourself time to make needed adjustments. For example: Unit 1 Friendship (New Senior English for China, Book 1)
T: As we all know, during World War II, Jews suffered a lot. We can hardly imagine how miserable they were. The film Schindler's List directed by Steven Spielberg was based on the true story of German industrialist and war profiteer, Oskar Schindler. He gambled his life to rescue 1,300 Jews from the gas 17

chambers. Let's watch a few sections from Schindler's List. (Play the film clip. Having finished watching, the teacher asks the following questions to lead students in to the text.) T::How do you feel after watching the sections? Can you imagine a girl of the same age as you lived such a miserable life? How did she deal with such hard times? (Elicit some students to answer the questions.) T: Let's go through the reading passage.

(Ren Zhihong, 2008)

1.5 Key Principles for Effective Lesson Openings
The lesson opening should clearly communicate what students are going to learn, why it is important, how it relates to what they already known, and how it is going to happen. You'll also want to ensure that your opening engages your students, and that it makes clear any behavioral expectations unique to the particular plan. The following text summarizes key principles with examples. (1) Communicate to students WHAT they are going to learn. "Today you are going to read a passage about earthquakes. And you will be able to find out what strange things happened before the earthquake and how people suffered from this natural disaster." "Our objective today is to learn how to use the present continuous (be +doing) and going to + infinitive to talk about activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged. (2) Communicate to students WHY IT IS IMPORTANT to learn this material. "These reading activities will help you acquire two basic but important reading skills. (3) Communicate to students HOW IT RELATES to what has been done previously. "For the last week we have been analyzing the structure and content of this passage. You all have become pros with that! Today you are going to solve word problems that will allow you to build up your vocabulary." (4) Communicate to students HOW the learning will occur. "I'm going to show you a picture and then ask you some questions about it. You will have a time limit of 2 minutes to remember and you must remember as many details in the picture as you can. Then you will be divided into pairs. When I read out each question about the persons and objects in the picture, you discuss the answers together."

Case Analysis Case# 1: Identify reading types By Kenneth Beare (2012) (Intermediate –upper intermediate)
This lesson aims at helping students identify the different types of reading skills required
18

for different reading situations. These skills are naturally used when reading in the native language, but are often forgotten when applied to English reading. Aim: Awareness raising about different reading styles Activity: Discussion and identification of reading styles with follow-up identification activity Reading Styles Skimming - Reading rapidly for the main points Scanning - Reading rapidly through a text to find specific information required Extensive - Reading longer texts, often for pleasure and for an overall understanding Intensive - Reading shorter texts for detailed information with an emphasis on precise understanding Identify the reading skills required in the following reading situations: Procedures: 1. Ask students about what types of reading they do in their own mother tongue. 2. Ask students to brainstorm different categories of written material, and write students response on board. (a) The TV guide for Friday evening (b) An English grammar book (c) An article in National Geographic magazine about the Roman Empire (d) A good friend's homepage on the Internet (e) The opinion page in your local newspaper (f) The weather report in your local newspaper (g) A novel (h) A poem (i) A bus timetable (j) A fax at the office (k) An advertising email - so called "spam" (l) An email or letter from your best friend (m) A recipe (n) A short story by your favorite author 3. Have students describe how they go about reading each kind of material. You may want to prompt them by asking the following questions: (a) Do you read every word in the TV schedule? (b) Do you understand every word you read when reading a novel? (c) What kind of clues can the presentation of the material give? (d) How much time do you spend reading the newspaper? Do you read every single word? (e) What kind of assumptions do you make when you read the first few lines, or a

19

headline? (i.e. Once upon a time....) (f) How much time do you spend reading the various types of materials? 4. Based on students' answers to such questions; ask them to identify the type of skills they are using in the various reading situations. 5. Divide students into small groups and give them the skills summary and short worksheet. 6. Have students discuss their opinions about the various skills required for the listed materials. 7. Present various "real world" materials (i.e. magazines, books, scientific materials, computer manuals etc.) and ask students to identify the necessary skills required. Discussion These different types of skills are used quite naturally when reading in a mother tongue. Unfortunately, when learning a second or foreign language, people tend to employ only "intensive" style reading skills. I have often noticed that students insist on understanding every word and find it difficult to take my advice of reading for the general idea, or only looking for required information. Students studying a foreign language often feel that if they don't understand each and every word they are somehow not completing the exercise. In order to make students aware of the different types of reading styles, it is useful to provide an awareness raising opening to help them identify reading skills they already apply when reading in their native tongues. Thus, when approaching an English text, students first identify what type of reading skill needs to be applied to the specific text at hand. In this way valuable skills, which students already possess, are easily transferred to their English reading. Case # 2: A transcript of an opening in a public teaching (Cheng Xiaotang, 2009)
T: Good morning everyone. Ss: Good morning, teacher. T: Sit down, please. First of all, I want to say I'm happy to meet all of you in this beautiful coastal city of Qingdao. It is Sunday. I'm sorry that you took all the trouble to come here to work for me. So thank you very much. I really appreciate your help and your kind(ness). Now let's get down to business, all right? Today is my first day here. I miss my son very much. So last night I called home, I wanted to talk to my son, but just after we exchanged a few sentences or greetings, my son started to shout "Mum please, I want to leave. I want to play computer games". Then he dropped the telephone and ran away. So can you guess how old my son is? S1: Nine. T: Ok, and you? S2: Twenty. T: Twenty? Do I look that old? Actually, he is only 4 years old. So this is my son (show the photo to the

20

students), four years old, who has already got in touch with computer games. Now I want to know how old you were when you first got in touch with computers. Ss: …

Discussion This opening included the teacher's gratitude to the students who participated the public teaching on Sunday, how much she missed her family, the talk with her son on the phone, the reason why her son hang up the phone, and her son's great interest in playing computer games. Literally, this teacher's opening utterances were connected with relatively natural transitions. However, such a day-to-day account failed to introduce the main topic and arouse the students' interest. Her opening may unavoidably puzzle many students who could not help wondering why the teacher said so. This kind of monologue in fact is by no means true teacher-student interaction. Most of the teacher's instruction focused on her personal information, which could not attract the students' attention and desire to learn attentively.

Lecture 2 Teaching Pronunciation

Contents of this Lecture
2.1 Definition of Pronunciation 2.2 Different Kinds of Phonetic Alphabet 2.3 The Objectives of Teaching Pronunciation 2.4 Factors Affecting Pronunciation Learning 2.5 Principles of Teaching Pronunciation 2.6 Teaching Steps of a Single Sound 2.7 Types of Pronunciation Practice Activities 2.8 Pronunciation-based Listening Exercises

2.1 Definition of Pronunciation
Definitions of pronunciation differ from researchers to researchers. Before giving a definition to pronunciation, we should first distinguish the two terms pronunciation and phonology. In most cases, pronunciation is a synonym of phonology. However, in pedagogy, it is of

21

great value to distinguish them. We take the distinction between the two terms as crucial and necessary, as do Celce-Murcia (1996), Dalton and Seidlhofer (1994), and Underhill (1994). Phonology is the scientific study of the sound system of a target language (TL). It consists of theory and knowledge about how the sound system of the target language works, including both segmental features (vowels and consonants) and suprasegmental features (intonation, stress and rhythm). The one who studies phonology need to learn how to describe the sounds in TL, recognize the phonemic scripts and word-stress markings, etc. On the other hand, pronunciation in language learning and teaching is the practice and meaningful use of the target language phonological features in TL discourse that one hears. Therefore, most language learners only need to learn how to pronounce the sounds of the TL, rather than to learn about those sounds to any great extent(Burgess and Spencer, 2000). According to Pennington and Richards (1986), pronunciation 'is a dynamic process in which many types of contextual elements interact to produce effects in the communication process'. Pronunciation also refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments like vowels and consonants), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation (change of pitch), stress, timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice is projected (voice quality and accent) and, in its broadest definition, attention to gestures (body movements) and expressions that are closely related to the new way we speak a language. Here we define pronunciation as 'the way in which a language or a particular word or sound is pronounced, including both the segmental and the suprasegmentals (Gerald, 2000).' The following diagram clearly shows the main features and components of pronunciation.

Diagram 2.1 Features of pronunciation (Gerald, 2001: 1)

2.2 Different Kinds of Phonetic Alphabet
The most widely adopted phonetic standard nowadays in China is the one set up by Daniel Jones (1881-1967), which was the most popular one during the 1890s. According to The history of English teaching in China written by Li Youliang, Zhang Risheng and Liu Li in 1988, the English teaching in China formally began in the first new school organized

22

by the Qing government--School of Combined Learning, in 1862. (Zhang Fengtong, 1998) The first major in this school was English. The modern phonetic alphabet has developed through three stages and in each stage, there was an international authoritative theory: The stage of Henry Sweet 1877-1917 The stage of Daniel Jones 1917-1967 The stage of Alfred.C.Gimson 1967-present Sweet is the founder of the modern English phonetic theory and system , whose theory has a great influence on the English teaching during the end of Ming dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty. Jones' phonetic theory has governed the English pronunciation teaching in China for as long as eighty years (Zhang, 1998). He has been internationally regarded as the most influential phonetician in the 20th century. The three books (The Pronunciation of English, An English Pronunciation Dictionary, An Outline of English Phonetics ) he published respectively in 1909, 1917 and 1918 provided a strong theoretical evidence and example both for the English speaking people and the foreigners. In a word, although there were many American professors teaching in the Chinese schools after or before1949, the Received Pronunciation (RP) theory by Jones in English phonetic teaching has never been shaken. RP has always been the most clearly-stated theory with the most widely-used textbooks and the richest recordings. In the 1960s, based on large researches, Gimson revised the definition of RP given by Jones to make it more sociable and popular. In 1961, Edward Arnold Press asked Gimson to write a pronunciation textbook, due to the requirement at home and abroad. The book An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English was published in 1962, which made him more famous in the field. Gimson thought there were three kinds of RP: one is the conservative RP, used by the seniors and some traditional and outdated people; the second one is the general RP, used by the BBC broadcaster and is the most popular among the middle-aged people and the third one is the advanced RP, used by certain social groups, especially the young people from the upper class.

2.3 The Objectives of Teaching Pronunciation
It needs to be said at the outset that the aim of pronunciation improvement is not to achieve a perfect imitation of a native accent, but simply to get the learner to pronounce accurately enough to be easily and comfortably comprehensible to other (competent) speakers. 'Perfect' accents are difficult if not impossible for most of us to achieve in a foreign language anyway, and may not even be desirable. If 'perfect' accent is not the goal, then what are the objectives of learning pronunciation? The realistic objectives of teaching pronunciation should be: (1) Intelligibility: The pronunciation should be understandable to the listeners. (2) Communicative efficiency: The pronunciation should help to convey the meaning
23

that is intended by the speaker. (3) Consistency: The pronunciation should be smooth and natural. When trying to achieve consistency in pronunciation, students do not have to and should not sacrifice intelligibility. Unintelligible speech is useless and my cause unpleasant feelings for both the speaker and the audience. However, consistency and intelligibility are not necessarily enough in real communication. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 93)

2.4 Factors Affecting Pronunciation Learning
According to Kenworthy (1987), the following variables are the factors within learners that affect pronunciation. 1. Native language Clearly, the native language will be the most influential factor affecting a learner's pronunciation. If you are familiar with the sound system of a learner's native language, you will be better able to diagnose students' difficulties. Many L1-L2 carryovers can be overcome through a focused awareness and effort on the learner's part. 2. Age Generally speaking, children under the age of puberty stand an excellent chance of "sounding like a native" if they have continued exposure in authentic contexts. Beyond the age of puberty, while adults will almost surely maintain a "foreign accent", there seems to be no particular advantage attributed to age. A fifty-year-old can be as successful as an eighteen-year-old if all other factors are equal. Remind your students, especially if your students are "older", that youth has no special advantage. 3. Exposure It is difficult to define exposure. One can actually live in a foreign country for some time but not take advantage of being "with the people". Research seems to support the notion that the equality and intensity of exposure is more important than the mere length of time. If class time spent focusing on pronunciation demands the full attention and interest of your students, then they stand a good chance of reaching their goals. 4. Innate phonetic ability Innate phonetic ability often refers to having an "ear" for language, some people manifest a phonetic coding ability that others do not. In many cases, if a person has had exposure to a foreign language as a child, this "knack" is present whether the early language is remembered or not. Others are simply more attuned to phonetic discriminations. Some people would have you believe that you either have such a knack, or you don't. Learner strategy training, however, has proven that some elements of learning are a matter of an awareness of your own limitations combined with a conscious focus on doing something to compensate for those limitations, they should not despair; with some effort and concentration, they can improve their competence. 5. Identity and language ego
24

Yet another influence is one's attitude toward speakers of the target language and the extent to which the language ego identifies with those speakers. Learners need to be reminded of the importance of positive attitudes toward the people who speak the language (if such a target is identifiable), but more importantly, students need to become aware of -- and not afraid of -- the second identity that may be emerging within them. 6. Motivation and concern for good pronunciation Some learners are not particularly concerned about their pronunciation while others are. The extent to which their intrinsic motivation propels them toward improvement will be perhaps the strongest influence of all six of the factors in this list. If that motivation and concern is high, the necessary effort will be expended in pursuit of goals. You can help learners to perceive or develop that motivation by showing, among other things, how clarity of speech is significant in shaping their self-image and ultimately, in reaching some of their higher goals. All six of the above factors suggest that any learner who really wants to learn to pronounce English clearly and comprehensibly. You can assist in the process by gearing your planned and unplanned instruction toward these six factors. (Brown, 2009: 259-261)

2.5 Principles of Teaching Pronunciation
1. Using contrastive analysis to pinpoint difficult spots and decide the key points Contrastive analysis is a useful technique which can help teachers in finding difficult points and key spots for teaching. Thus the teacher will be in a better position to allot time for teaching various pronunciations properly and plan the procedures and specific methods more effectively. Of course contrastive analysis includes the contrast between different English sounds, and especially, the contrast between English and Chinese sounds. Through contrast, the similarities, sameness, and differences will be found and made clear to students. 2. Using imitation steps The procedures of using this method are: listening, imitating, contrasting, and learning to use. The step of listening refers to listening to the standard voice of English native speakers and the voice of the teacher. The next step is imitation –preliminary imitation of the standard voice. This is to check on the result of students' listening. Imitation can be done individually and collectively. It is in the third step that the teacher points out and corrects the errors in students' imitation. Illustrations, diagrams, and explanations are necessary to make students understand and reproduce the correct sounds. 3. Combine the sound system with reading out, listening, and speaking exercises It is not enough just to have pronunciation exercises in class. The teacher should combine them with other types of exercises or drilling such as reading out exercises, listening and speaking exercises. Thus the students will not become bored. This principle links intensive exercises with extensive exercises in teaching English sounds.
25

2.6 Teaching Steps of a Single Sound
Generally speaking, there are seven steps in teaching pronunciation, which can be arranged in the following order. (1) Say the sound alone. (2) Get the students to repeat the sound in chorus. (3) Get individual students to repeat the sound. (4) Explain how to make the sound. (5) Say the sound in a word. (6) Contrast it with other sounds. (7) Say the sound in meaningful context. Many people would put ‘Explain how to make the sound' as the first step, but we suggest it be done at a later stage because if the students can produce the sound correctly after the teacher's modeling, it is not necessary to explain ‘how'. When students have difficulty producing the sound, explanation will do. Some people might put ‘Contrast it with other sounds' as an early step, but this may cause unnecessary confusion. We suggest the step be done at a later stage when the students have obtained a certain degree of mastery of the sound. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 95)

2.7 Types of Pronunciation Practice Activities 2.7.1 Consonants and Vowels
In the teaching of consonants and vowels, it is important to introduce characteristic aspects of their articulation (e.g. voiced vs. voiceless, stops vs. fricatives, aspiration, etc.). The realization of these articulatory features can be practiced through a variety of communicative activities such as those presented below. 1. Information-gap activities One of the easiest techniques for practising consonants and consonant contrasts in a communicative way is to use "information-gap" activities. For example, if students are confusing /b/ and /v/, the following activity can be used. Choose a topic such as food and have students brainstorm and think of as many food words as possible which contain the /b/ and /v/ sounds. It is best for the students to work in groups so that they have more opportunity to generate these words in a communicative fashion. If students are beginners, clues or pictures can be provided to help them with the generation of words. Students might come up with 'berry', 'veal', 'liver', 'brown bread', 'vegetables', 'vitamins', 'vanilla', 'beans', 'bacon', etc. Students may also be asked to generate examples of names containing these two sounds. In this case, students might come up with Bill, Bob, Vickie, Barbara, Steve, and Virginia. It may be necessary to provide students, especially beginners, with some of these names.
26

When enough words have been generated, the teacher can number the names and foods on slips of paper and hand out even-numbered foods and odd-numbered names to one group and odd-numbered foods and even-numbered names to the other group. Blank grids can be handed out and students can work in pairs or in groups questioning each other about 'Who bought what' at the store. Once the grids are filled out, the result of the activity can be presented to the class. In so doing, the students gain further communicative practice with these sounds. Role plays which incorporate some of the food words and names identified above can be used as a follow-up to this activity. 2. Matching exercises Another way of practicing a sound contrast such as /b/ and /v/ involves the use of matching exercises. Divide the class into two groups. Group A has a written description of several people. Group B has a picture containing all of the people for which there are descriptions. The object of this activity is to match the written descriptions with the appropriate people. Some sample descriptions might be: Becky has big boots. Vicky has a velvet vest. Barbara is carrying a big bag. Virginia is wearing gloves. Bill has a shiny belt-buckle. In attempting to match the descriptor with the appropriate person, the students gain practice producing the relevant sounds. A variation on this activity has these descriptors generated by the students themselves. Creating such descriptors, especially in groups, provides additional communicative practice of these consonant and vowel sounds. 3. Chain stories Each student receives a phrase containing the sound contrasts being practiced. The first student must embed that phrase in a short story (or string of related sentences) of no longer than four sentences. The task of the other students is to guess the embedded phrase based on the correct pronunciation of the relevant sound or sound contrasts. The next student continues the story using the phrase that he or she received. Sample phrases might include: big beautiful baby very bad brakes lovely building oven gloves broken bracelet seventy vehicles

2.7.2 Connected Speech
One of the results of the characteristic rhythm of English is the use of contraction, linking, and common reduced expressions such as 'gonna', 'hafta', and 'wanna'. At first, many students have to be convinced that it is 'correct' to use these expressions. However, as they begin to practice them, they notice their use in spoken language and realize their
27

importance for comprehensibility. The following activities provide communicative practice in these important aspects of English pronunciation. 1. Questionnaires and surveys Many common contractions occur with questions in English such as: How long've you been looking for an apartment? Where'd'you live now? Wheredja live before? Why d'ya want to move? Students can make up questions commonly found in surveys and opinion polls and then follow through by actually conducting a survey either inside or outside the classroom. The questionnaire will undoubtedly contain many common question contractions. Be sure to practice these expressions in class before students conduct their own research. 2. Rhymalogues It is a way of practicing contractions and reduced expressions in a semi-communicative fashion. For example, students can work in pairs or in groups with one member of the pair asking a question and the other providing a response. Q: What did you do, Lou? (Whaddja do, Lou?) A: I lost my pen, Ben. Q: When's the play, Ray? A: It's at eight, Kate. Q: Where did you go, Joe? (Wheredja go, Joe?) A: To the play, May. 3. Dialogues and role plays Common reduced expressions such as 'gonna', 'wanna', 'hafta', shoulda', and 'coulda' can be practiced in dialogues and role plays. It is often necessary to provide students with models of such dialogues. When possible, these should be done with the students attempting to generate the dialogues and the teacher serving primarily as a resource person . For example,words can be provided or generated to practise linking of final stop consonants (/p/,/t/, /k/, /b/, /d/, /g/)with following vowels. Students can construct dialogues which contain these words. In addition, they should be instructed to use examples of 'and', 'or', 'in', 'under', 'over', 'of', and 'about' in their dialogues so that the final stop consonants have to be linked to the vowels that follow. Thus, sentences such as the following could be constructed.

(Avery 1995:165-169)

&

Ehrlich,

28

2. 8 Pronunciation-based Listening Exercises 2.8.1 Minimal Pairs
Minimal pairs are pairs of words which have only one sound different from each other. Minimal pairs can make students aware of troublesome sounds. In selecting pairs, try to use words with which your students are familiar so that they will appreciate the importance of performing well. 1. Identification task Give the students two columns of words which are minimal pairs, such as those listed under 'Vowels' below. Read one member of a pair and have the students indicate whether you are reading from Column 1 or Column 2.
Vowels Contrast 1 pan sand land laughed ham 2 pen send lend left hem Consonants 1 thank thick thumb tenth mouth 2 sank sick some tense mouse

2. Discrimination task Prepare a list of word pairs such as those under 'Vowels' below. Some of these pairs should repeat the same word and some should be minimal pairs. Read each pair aloud to the students, having them indicate on a piece of paper whether the words are the same (S) or different (D). This exercise serves as a good diagnostic test, as you can determine the particular sound contrasts which present difficulties for your students.
Vowels (1) beet (2) green (3) (4) sin slip bit D Consonants (1) chair (2) sheet (3) sherry (4) watch share D sheet S cherry D watch S

green S scene D slip S

3. Isolation task Read aloud a list of four words, three of which are the same, and have the students identify the one which is different.
bit bit bit pit (No. 4 is different.) (No. 2 is different.) (No. 3 is different.) (No. 2 is 29

lid

led

lid

lid

bag load

bag loud

back load

bag load

different.)

4. Sorting task Give the students one word as a representative of each vowel sound you have introduced. Read aloud a number of common one-syllable words which contain these sounds. Have the students place the words in the appropriate column (i.e. Under the word with the same vowel sound).
1 beat 2 bit 3 bait 4 bet 5 bat

5. Minimal pair sentence task Give students pairs of sentences which differ in terms of a single sound. Read one of the sentences aloud. Have the students indicate which one you are reading. Notice that the students must make this choice solely on the basis of a single sound contrast because each sentence is meaningful. Be careful! It is difficult to create meaningful sentences which contain minimal pairs. E.g.:
(1) a John bit the dog. b dog. John beat the (1) a He wants to sell his boat. b He wants to sail his boat.

(2) a Show me your bag. (2) a He loves sweet yams. b Show me your b He loves sweet jams. (Avery & Ehrlich, 1995:199-201)

back.

6. Completion Read a series of words which have only one different sound. The students complete the words they hear. e.g: The teacher reads gate, late, mate, fate, date, hate, rate, and Kate, the students complete the following: __ate __ate __ate __ate __ate __ate __ate __ate Another one is : __ight __ight __ight __ight __ight __ight (Wang Qiang, 2006: 96)

2.8.2 Stress Assignment
There are two kinds of stress: word-level stress, phrase-level or sentence-level stress. 1. Schwa identification task Prepare a list of two-syllable words, all of which are related to your daily classroom work. Read them aloud and have your students cross out the reduced vowel. E.g.: student forget lettuce open connect 2. Stress identification task Prepare a list of polysyllabic words. Read them aloud in random order and have your

30

students indicate which syllable is stressed. Stressed syllable: first Music Photograph Fortune 3. Sentence stress task Read a list of sentences aloud and have the students indicate which words are stressed and which are unstressed. As with the telegram exercise, this develops students' ability to distinguish between stressed and unstressed words, helping them to become aware of which words in a sentence should be reduced (i.e. the unstressed ones). second musician photography forgive third sympathetic photographic admiration

2.8.3 Intonation Practice
The Importance of Practicing Intonation (1) Intonation can greatly affect the intention of the speaker’s message. (2) Intonation is used by native speakers to express meanings in many subtle ways such as surprise, complaint, sarcasm, friendliness, threats, etc. (3)Intonation is "as important as grammar or lexis.” Kelly (2005: 12) provides a useful summary which may be adapted for classroom practice.
Rising or falling a. Falling on a statement b. Falling and rising within a statement c. Falling on a question d. Rising on a question Example He’s moved to Glasgow. He’s moved to Glasgow. (about a year ago). Where do you live? Where do you live? I’m telling

I haven’t finished I’m

I know

1. Recognizing final rising intonation Prepare a series of sentences with declarative word order. Read them aloud, varying the intonation so that some must be interpreted as yes-no questions and others must be interpreted as statements. Have the students indicate which questions are and which statements are. Alternatively, if the students hear the sentence as a question, instruct them to answer the question. (1) You're coming. (2) He's leaving. (3) The class is over? 2. Recognizing non-final rising intonation Prepare a number of 'shopping lists'. Read each one aloud to your students. At times, stop reading before the list. At other times, read the list to the end. Have the students tell you

31

when the list is finished and when they expect to hear more items. In this way, the students must recognize the difference between non-final rising intonation and final rising-falling intonation. (1) I need apples (and oranges) (and cheese). (2) She ordered a hamburger (and French fries) (and a coke). 3. Tag questions Read aloud a number of tag questions, varying the intonation contour of the gat. Have the students indicate whether you are stating a fact (i.e. expecting an affirmative response, and thus engaging in social 'small talk') or genuinely requesting information. (1) It's a beautiful day, isn't it? (falling intonation) (2) You're not hungry, are you? (rising intonation)

Case Analysis Lesson 1:'Alice' Planning an Integrated Lesson

(Intermediate)(Gerald, 2000: 23-24)
Lesson type: Integrated Materials: Taped listening, map, pictures for eliciting, picture story In the pronunciation of regular past tense endings, the words walked, lived and started all have -ed at the end, but all have different pronunciations (/t/, /d/ and /id/ respectively). Problems which students may have with these will often become apparent when the teacher is dealing with regular past tenses or past participles. There are some 'rules' here which can be given to students in order to help them generate further examples:
-ed is pronounced as /t/ after most unvoiced consonants like /k/, as /d/ after most voiced consonants like /v/, and as /id/ after /t/ or /d/. Also, if a verb ends in -y (as in hurry, worry or marry), the simple past form will end in -ied, and the pronunciation can be /i:d/, according to personal preference or habit.

In practice, the physical difficulty of pronouncing -ed as /d/ after an unvoiced consonant means that the incorrect use of /d/ instead of /t/ is seldom a pronunciation problem. What does tend to happen is that many students are tempted to insert the vowel sound /e/, taking a cue from the spelling, and so they say /'w?:ked/, /'st?ped/, /'m?ried/ and so on, amongst other possible variations. Work needs to be done here to eliminate the unnecessary vowel sound. Perhaps the most important factor to bear in mind is that such work arises out of the study of a larger grammatical area. As well as the learning of verbs and the formation of past tenses, an essential part of the analysis is the pronunciation difficulties students might have with verb endings. If these are not dealt with, then the language is not being investigated thoroughly. Consider the lesson:

32

As can be seen from the 'language' section on the left-hand side of the plan, pronunciation here takes its place in the overall analysis of the language being practiced in this lesson. The lesson itself is a revision lesson, and so (bearing in mind also the Intermediate level of the students), the grammar lexis and pronunciation are likely to have been covered before. Let us look at the actual procedure of the lesson. This is a reasonably standard plan, with the kind of detail expected from teachers undergoing initial or in-service training. Looking through the lesson, we can see that pronunciation is an integral feature. New (or revised) words and verb forms are practiced, students listen out for the practiced forms in the listening exercises (which also test their understanding of the meaning), and are then given the opportunity to further practice the forms in an extended speaking activity. The teacher also leaves time for correction at the end, where the lesson (including pronunciations of -ed endings) can be recapped, and further pronunciation work can be done if necessary.

33

The above Integrated lesson shows pronunciation teaching taking a full role in all stages of a lesson, from planning through to enactment. The next lesson shows how pronunciation work can be slipped into a lesson, when appropriate, in a Remedial or reactive lesson.

Lesson

2:'Organizing

a

party':

Remedial

lessons

(Pre-Intermediate) (Gerald, 2000: 24-27)
Lesson type: Remedial Materials: Flashcards of food and drink The teacher has set up the context of planning a party (for example by showing students a party invitation). She has used picture prompts of food and drink to elicit ideas for things which people might take to the party. She then tells the students that they are invited, and asks a few of them what they might bring along with them, eliciting the sentence I'll bring x, where the x can be any item of food or drink. The sentence is drilled both chorally and individually, using one of the items of vocabulary (e.g. I'll bring some pizza). The teacher then uses her flashcards to elicit the sentence pattern again with other items of vocabulary in turn. Each sentence is again drilled chorally and individually:

34

As a subsequent practice activity, students have been given the task of planning their own party. This gives them the opportunity to use the sentences which have been practised so far, as well as the chance to add other relevant language (e.g. I'll bring some CDs, or I'll write the invitations). In the course of this activity some of the students have had difficulty in pronouncing new items, and so a major role for the teacher is in providing Remedial correction. This is an inevitable and necessary part of the processes of both teaching and learning a language. For example, during the drilling stage, a student mispronounce wine as /vain/ (i.e. He repeats the sentence as I'll bring some /vain/).The teacher encourages students to have another go, by saying I'll bring some..., leaving the sentence open for completion. It is always a good idea to allow students the opportunity to correct themselves. It may be that the student can pronounce the word correctly, but this is simply a slip of the tongue. Let's imagine that the student again repeats the word as /vain/. The teacher then invites the other students to provide a correction (for example by asking Can anyone help?). Not only does this ensure the whole class is involved, but it also helps the teacher to decide if this pronunciation problem is particular to the original student, or if others are having difficulty with it too. If other students cannot provide the correct pronunciation, then the teacher knows that it is necessary to work on that word again at class level, through remedial drilling. Later on in the 'party' lesson, the drilling stage was followed up by groupwork or pairwork, where students were given the opportunity to further practise the structure and vocabulary. The teacher's main role during such an activity is usually to monitor what is going on, making a note of any difficulties the students might have. These difficulties might be with the structure (e.g. a student might say I bring..., or I bringing...), with vocabulary (e.g. a
35

student might forget a word, or use the wrong word), or with pronunciation (e.g. I'll bring some /vain/, or I'll /briηk/ some wine). Intervention at this stage by the teacher is not usually necessary, unless for some reason there is a breakdown in communication. In many instances it is pronunciation which leads to a breakdown, making it necessary for the teacher to intervene in order to get the students back on track. The teacher may, in such instances, need to do some remedial 'on the spot' drilling with a student or a small group of students, so as to make the task achievable once more. It is always useful to save some time at the end of the lesson in order to both recap what has been covered in a lesson, and to do some Remedial correction. The pronunciation difficulties noted while monitoring earlier can be dealt with here. This stage can, of course, also cover any other aspects of the lesson which may have given students difficulties. Progress in language learning tends to be a matter of two steps forward and one step back, and so it is useful to drill again anyway. It is also worth noting that the students' pronunciation during the later activities may not be as accurate as during earlier drilling as they will not have been concentrating so hard on just that aspect of the language. Generally, Remedial pronunciation work prompted by what has been going on in a class, can be very motivating for students. I can remember the satisfaction of the Japanese learner who finally mastered I'd like to rent a flat, and the group of Italian learners who coached each other in saying He'll have a half pint of Heineken. Both of these opportunities for working on difficult sounds arose from exchanges in the classroom. Teachers should always be on the lookout for opportunities like these; a student-generated suggestion is more likely to be useful than something provided in good faith by the teacher.

Lecture 3 Teaching Grammar

36

Contents of this Lecture
3.1 Grammar and Grammar Teaching 3.2 The Aspects of English Grammar 3.3 The Process of Grammar Learning 3.4 The Principles of Teaching Grammar 3.5 Grammar Presentation 3.6 Teaching Grammar from the Text 3.7 Grammar Practice

3.1 Grammar and Grammar Teaching 3.1.1 Definition of Grammar
Grammar may be roughly defined as the way a language manipulates and combines words (or bits of words) in order to form longer units of meaning (Penny Ur, 2009). According to Ellis (2006), a broad definition of grammar is that grammar teaching involves any instructional technique that draws learners' attention to some specific grammatical form in such a way that it helps them either to understand it meta-linguistically and/or process it in comprehension and/or production so that they can internalize it. Grammar is the study or use of the rules about how words change their form and combine with other words to make sentences. Paterson (2010) described this field as applied grammar, in which there are descriptive and prescriptive grammar. Prescriptive grammar is the rules that direct written and spoken language. These rules can be subdivided into the rules of usage and syntax. Grammar teaching in the primary and secondary levels is composed of these syntax rules, in other words, the prescriptive rules of syntax and usage.

3.1.2 Definition of Grammar Teaching
Traditionally, in teacher handbooks grammar teaching is viewed as the presentation and practice of discrete grammatical structures, however, according to Ellis (2006), this definition is narrow. As Ellis put it, grammar teaching need not consist of the presentation and the practice of the grammatical items. For one thing, grammar lesson can only consist

37

of the presentation or only contain the practice part. For another thing, the grammar teaching can entail neither the presentation nor the practice, but make students discover the grammatical rules by themselves or immerse students by exposing students to input which contains great quantities of exemplars of the target language. Finally, grammar teaching can be conducted by corrective feedback on learner errors arising in the communicative tasks.

3.2 The Aspects of English Grammar
(1) inflection e.g. plural of nouns, tenses of verbs… (2) structure or function words e.g. articles: the, a/an prepositions: of , to, by, for, … (3) word order e.g. a lexical item: chocolate mild, milk chocolate functional item: He is … Is he… Where is he? I know where he is… (4) derivation or word formation e.g. They put on a drama. The dramatic changes have taken place recently. They wanted to dramatize their novel. (5) concord or agreement e.g. The teacher reads a lot. The teachers read a lot. this man; these men; (6) government e.g. I gave him a book. He gave me a book. (7) stress and intonation (Wei Liming, 2001: 261-262)

3.3 The Process of Grammar Learning
1. Noticing Learners pick out specific features of the language and pay attention to them, that is, they 'notice' items of language. e.g.: I don't know it. They don't have the book.
38

We don't want to go there. It is only after noticing that 'don't' seems to occur in regular ways in English to express negation that a learner can work on the relationship between meaning and form and begin to make sense of the rule involved in placing 'don't' before a main verb. In order for the learner to notice, the language feature has to be noticeable. The criteria for being noticeable include: (1) It occurs frequently; (2) It relates to the learner's common sense about basic functions of language; (3) Its functions are those to which a learner would be likely to pay attention. 2. Reasoning and hypothesizing Adult learners in particular tend to use their capacity to analyze new language. They are able to see the patterns in the language, create hypotheses about the rules these patterns might demonstrate, and gradually revise their hypotheses according to new information. (1) Reasoning deductively Learners apply rules they already know to working out the meaning of what they hear or to the formulation of what they want to say. A common error which derives from this is the inappropriate application of inverted interrogative word order, for example: "Can you tell me where is the station?" She doesn't know where are they. (2) Analyzing contrastively A learner may compare his or her first and second languages and work out their similarities and differences. Or the comparison may be between the new language and others already learned. (3) Translating The need to translate mentally in the early and consolidation stages of FL learning is a process of using native language as a meta-language for getting learners' ideas straight on the structure and semantic range of the FL. (4) Transferring Transferring is what learners do when they apply knowledge of one language to the understanding or production of another. 3. Structuring and restructuring As learners work out new rules, these have to be integrated into the representation of English grammar they hold in their minds, and this information has to be restructured as the learner moves on to another stage of development. 4. Automatizing Once a learner can achieve regular and consistent responses in conversation to a certain type of input, then it can be said that the language involved has been automatized. (adapted from Hedge, 2002:146-149)

39

3.4 The Principles of Teaching Grammar 3.4.1 Principle One: Effectiveness = Brevity + Easiness + Fitness
First, brevity means that the shorter, the better. When teaching a new grammar rule, teachers should only illustrate one and should not teach more than one use at a time. If teachers explain too much at first, students are more likely to become confused. For example, the tense, show the tense creating meaning in the context, then get out and do something else, have a chat or have exercises or ask students how they feel about the text etc. In general, do not spend more than ten minutes on one grammar point. At the same time, it is also brief when teachers plan time and make use of every kind of resources. Second, easiness means that the easier the activity is, the better. When planning activity, teachers should take operability into consideration. Just ask students to make decisions in authentic context, get students to talk about what they had during a holiday, etc. The focus of activity is on grammar, not on the organization of activity. Third, fitness means that teachers should select attracting tasks and materials, which are related to students' needs and interests. The materials should be challengeable to the students. According to the above demonstration, noticing is a necessary and sufficient condition for second language acquisition. So in grammar teaching, teachers should try to attract students' attention and avoid students' distraction. At the same time, the awareness without comprehension and the awareness without memory are also a waste of time. Thus some external factors, such as tests, materials, and opportunities for using language, should be taken into considerations to stimulate students' comprehension and memory.

3.4.2 Principle Two: Appropriateness
Students of different classes have different needs, language levels, interest and goals. Thus one method is suitable for one class, but not necessarily appropriate to another class. Therefore, grammar instruction not only meets the effectiveness standard, but also the standard of appropriateness. Whether a method is appropriate or not depends on the following factors of learners: (1) Age (2) Language level (3) The size of class (4) The makeup of the class, for example, monolingual or multilingual (5) The specific needs, for example, needs to pass a public examination

40

(6) Interests (7) Usable materials and resources (8) Prior experiences and current expectations (9) The cultural factors which may affect their learning attitude, for example, their attitude toward the function and status of teachers (10) The educational background, such as the public school or the private school, and at home or abroad (Thornbury, 1999) The above factors can determine the effectiveness of one grammar class. For example, the age of learners is very vital. For children, they tend to acquisition activity, not the learning activity, so the implicit method is appropriate for children; for adults, they achieve better effects in analytical activity, so the explicit method is suitable for them.

3.5 Grammar Presentation
As for grammar, the first controversial issue is about whether to teach it or not. Nowadays, grammar is considered as the basis for language skills and teaching grammar is convincing. However, another issue regarding how to teach grammar is the question of whether to teach it inductively or deductively. In other words, should grammar be taught using the inductive approach in which students discover grammatical rules from examples? Or should grammar be taught using the deductive approach in which teachers give explicit rules to students followed by lots of exercises to practice the rules? This part will talk about these two approaches in detail.

3.5.1 The Deductive Method
The deductive method relies on reasoning, analyzing and comparing. The following are the procedures to teach grammar with a deductive method. (1) The teacher writes an example on the board or draws attention to an example in the textbook. (2) The teacher explains the underlying rules regarding the forms and positions of certain structural words. a. The explanations are often done in the student's native language. b. Sometimes, comparisons are made between the native language and the target language or between the newly presented structure and previously learned structures. (3) The students practise applying the rule to producing sentences with given prompts. So when is the deductive approach suitable? According to Thornbury (1999), whether the deductive is suitable or not largely depends on the difficulty level of the grammatical rules. The grammatical rules with the following properties can be taught in deductive approach. (1) Authenticity. The grammatical rules must be true to the usage in the context.
41

(2) Clear range of application. When the teacher teaches a grammatical rule, they must make it clear the usable range of this grammatical rule. For example, the word'will', it is not enough and useless to say that the word 'will' indicates the future. The teacher should tell the difference between 'will' and 'be going to'. (3) Clear grammatical rules. If the grammatical rule is not explained clearly, it may lead to ambiguous meaning. For Example, 'will' and 'be going to', if we explain them like this: will,going to,students may ask questions in reply to this explanation. (4) Brevity. Don't cover all the content of a grammatical rule in a class. In general, do not spend more than ten minutes on one grammar point. (5) Familiarity. The explanation should be based on students' experience and knowledge. It is better that the teacher uses the concepts students are familiar with. (6) Relevant. A grammatical rule should answer the questions that students want to know. For example, for Arabics, the perfect present tense does not exist in their language, while for French, there is a similar grammar. So when dealing with the perfect present tense, the teacher should adopt different ways for different people. Authenticity. The grammatical rules must be true to the usage in the context. Based on the features of grammatical rules, the teacher should carefully choose the approach. However, once the teacher selects the deductive approach, the effective explanation should have the following features: (1) The explanations should be elaborated based on the examples. (2) Be brief. (3) Check the understanding of students. (4) Students have chance to have personalized learning about the grammatical rules. The demerits of the deductive method (1) It teaches grammar in an isolated way. (2) Little attention is paid to meaning. (3) Practice is often mechanical. The merits of the deductive method (1) It could be very successful with selected and motivated students. (2) It could save time when students are confronted with a grammar rule which is complex but which has to be learned. (3) It may help increase students' confidence in those examinations which are written with accuracy as the main criterion of success.

42

3.5.2 The Inductive Method
The inductive approach is one in which the students' attention is paid to the structure being learned and students are required to formulate for themselves and then verbalize the underlying rules. In the inductive method, the teacher provides learners with authentic language data and induces the learners to realize grammar rules without any form of explicit explanation. (1) It is believed that the rules will become evident if the students are given enough appropriate examples. e.g. In order to present the two forms 'this is' and 'these are', the teacher will first hold up a book, saying 'This is a book.' He/She will do the same showing other objects. Then the teacher holds up several books and says 'These are books.' (2) After several similar examples, it is hoped students will understand that newly presented structure can be used to produce sentences with given visual aids or verbal prompts. (3) The teacher tries to say nothing except to correct when necessary. (4) The teacher may elicit the grammar rule from the students. Therefore the following will conclude the differences between these approaches. Let's look at a contrastive study of the approaches as shown below:

43

Since it is unrealistic that the foreign language grammar can be entirely discovered by the learner, the deductive approach thus cannot be ruled out totally. It is necessarily understood that grammar teaching cannot be absolutely inductive or deductive. Teachers need to have knowledge of what is practically possible and beneficial for the learners and how to balance the different phrases of grammar teaching. Notice: In practice, learner variables and instructional variables need to be considered when teachers decide which method to use in presenting a particular grammatical structure. (adapted from Wang, 2006: 104-107)

3.6 Teaching Grammar from the Text
According to Nunan (1998), effective communication involves the harmony between functional interpretation and form appropriacy by giving students tasks that dramatize the relationship between items and the discoursal contexts in which they occur. The contexts can be created in four ways: the course book, the authentic materials (newspaper, songs and internet and etc), teachers and students. Example: Using an authentic text to teach the passive (Intermediate) This teacher has chosen the following authentic text, i.e. a text that was not written specifically for language teaching purposes, as a vehicle for introducing the passive:
DOG ATTACK Jessica Johnson was out walking with her husband when he was attacked by an unsupervised Alsatian dog. Jessica's leg was bitten, and she had to have stitches in two wounds. Two days later, because the wounds had become infected, Jessica was admitted to hospital. Even after she was discharged, she needed further treatment from her GP- and she was told to rest for two weeks. Jessica is self-employed and her business was affected while she was sick. Also, the trousers and shoes she'd been wearing at the time of the attack were ruined by bloodstains, and had to be thrown away. Jessica told us, 'I'm now trying to get compensation from the owners of the dog.' (from Axworthy, A. Et al, Which? January 1991)

Step 1 Before handing out the text, the teacher tells students the title to guide them to guess what words may appear in the text and the teacher then adds the left-out words, for example, stitches, wounds, infected and bloodstains. Additionally, the teacher writes these words on the blackboard. Step 2 The teacher asks students to read the text silently and answer the following questions: Who was attacked? Where? How badly? Who was to blame? Before checking in open class, the teacher asks students to check their answers in pairs. Then the teacher continues to ask questions based on the text, such as How long was she off work? What

44

other losses did she suffer? Step 3 The teacher asks the students to turn the text over and then writes the following two sentences on the blackboard: 1. An unsupervised Alsatian dog attacked her. 2. She was attacked by an unsupervised Alsatian dog. Then the teacher asks which sentence is in the text. If necessary, allow them to look at the text. Then the teacher elicits from the students a description of the difference in form between the two sentences, identifying 1 as an active construction and 2 as passive. He points out that while in 1 the subject of the verb (the dog) is the agent, or actor, in 2 the subject of the verb (she) is the person who is affected by the action. He elicits the structure of the passive sentence: subject + auxiliary verb to be + past participle. He then asks the students to study the text again and decide why sentence 2 was considered appropriate in this context. He elicits the answer: Because the woman is the topic, or theme, of the story, not the dog. (Themes typically go at the beginning of sentence.) Step 4 The teacher asks the students to find the other passive sentences in the text, to underline them, and to discuss in pairs or small groups the rationale for the use of the passive in each case. In checking this task in open class, the following points are made: 1. The passive is typically used: (1) to move the theme to the beginning of the sentence, and / or (2) when the agent is unimportant, or not known. 2. Where the agent is mentioned, 'by + agent' is used. Step 5 The teacher asks the students to cover the text and, working in pairs, to try and reconstruct it from memory. They then compare their versions with the original. Step 6 The teacher asks students if they (or people they know) have had a similar experience. Having recounted their stories in English they are asked to write their stories (or one of their classmate's stories) and this is checked for appropriate use of passive structures.

3.7 Grammar Practice 3.7.1 Factors contribute to successful practice
According to Ur (1988:11), practice can be defined as "any kind of engaging with the language on the part of the learner, usually under the teacher's supervision, whose primary objective is to consolidate learning". Ur also predicts the following six factors affecting successful practice. (1) Pre-learning
45

Practice is the second or third stage in the process of learning a structure--not the first. Practice is more effective when a new language is clearly perceived and taken into short-term memory by the learners. Learners benefit from clear perception and short-term memory of the new language. (2) Volume and repetition The more language the learners are exposed to or produce, the more they are likely to learn. The learners should have plenty of time and opportunities to listen to, speak, read and write different examples of the structure's form and meaning. (3) Success-orientation Practice is most effective if it is based on successful practice. (4) Heterogeneity Practice should be able to elicit different sentences and generate different levels of answers from different learners. (5) Teacher assistance Practice is most effective when teacher assistance is available such as suggestions, hints and prompts. (6) Interest Interest is an essential feature of successful practice. Learners who are bored find it difficult to concentrate and their attention wanders. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 108-109)

3.7.2 Mechanical practice and meaningful practice
1. Mechanical practice (1) Mechanical practice involves activities that are aimed at form accuracy. (2) By doing mechanical practice, the students pay repeated attention to a key element in a structure. (3) Substitution and transformation drills are most frequently used in mechanical practice. a. In substitution drills, the students substitute a part in a structure so that they get to know how that part functions in a sentence. b. In transformation drills, the students change a given structure in a way so that they are exposed to another similar structure. This type of exercise also helps the students have a deeper understanding of how the structures are formed and how they are used. 2. Meaningful practice In meaningful practice the focus is on the production, comprehension or exchange of meaning though the students 'keeping an eye on' the way newly learned structures are used in the process. Meaningful practice usually comes after mechanical practice. e.g: Look at the table below. Rank the items on the left column according to the criteria
46

listed on the top.

Notice: There is no clear cut between mechanical and meaningful practice. Very often an activity can have elements of both. E.g: Chain of events The first student starts a sentence with a second conditional clause. The next student takes the result of the sentence and reforms it into another condition and suggests a further result. For example, the first student says, 'If I had a million dollars, I would buy a yacht.' The second student says 'If I bought a yacht, I would go for a sail.' This activity can involve all the students in the class. The students may come up with sentences like the following: If I went for a sail, there might be a storm. If there were a storm, my yacht would sink. If I died, my parents would cry… (adapted from Wang Qiang, 2006:109-112)

Meaningful practice activities
1. Ranking the item E.g: Use of comparative adjectives, 'as...as', 'not so...as', to rank items on a scale. Teacher gives sets of five or six linked nouns, and another four or five adjectives that express criteria that might be applied to them. The nouns and adjectives are laid out in the form of a grid (e.g. the following boxes) and presented to the class on individual worksheets, on the board, or on the overhead projector. Teacher checks that the meanings of all the nouns and adjectives are known. Then students discuss in what order the items should be rated under each criterion. Then, by discussing which of the other items is more or less fattening, they will decide on a final order. And so on, with all the other criteria, until the grid is filled.

47

2. Chain of events E.g: Teacher suggests some well-known superstitions, defining them through conditional sentences: If you walk under a ladder you will have bad luck. If a girl catches the bride's bouquet after a wedding she will be the next to marry. Students are then invited to suggest further superstitions they know, which may be written on the board, or copied down. They will probably need some new vocabulary; supply as needed. 3. Detectives E.g: Practicing the possessive pronouns 'mine', 'yours', 'his', 'hers'. Teacher sends one student (the 'detective') outside, and asks another student for something that belongs to him or her, but is not easily identifiable -- a pencil, a textbook, etc. The detective comes back, is given the object, and asks one of the students: Is this yours? The student -- whether it is in fact his or hers or not -- denies it: No, it isn't mine. It's his. (indicating another student) The detective then asks the student indicated, and so on round the class; at the end, he or she has to try to identify who in fact was lying and is the owner of the object. 4. Using prompts for practice a. Using picture prompts b. Using mime or gestures as prompts E.g: Practicing the formation of adverbs with '-ly' Teacher selects a manner adverb (e.g. 'slowly', 'secretly'), and tells all the class but one what it is. The one who does not know gives a command to one of the others -- for example:

48

Get up and turn round! If the adverb chosen has been 'slowly', then the student will do the action slowly. If the guesser cannot yet identify the adverb, he or she will give another command to someone else -- and so on, until the word is guessed or revealed. c. Using information sheet as prompts E.g: Practicing prepositional phrases of time and place, and their order (place before time) by using a set of sheets. Teacher gives individual copies of three-by-three grids, showing alternative versions of a sentence that includes definitions of time and place: examples in the box.
Preposition grids

Each student marks the particular alternatives he or she prefers, and tries to find other students with the same choices, by asking simple questions based on the text of the grid: Are you going to be in town? Are you going to be in town at six o'clock? Are you going to be in town on Saturday? d. Using key phrases or key words as prompts E.g: Use of present perfect tense to describe past events leading up to present situation. Teacher gives the students a series of exclamations ('Oh!', 'Ah!', 'Great!', etc.), and asks them what they think has just happened to make the speaker say them. For example, 'Oh!' might mean that: She has had a surprise. Or: He has just remembered something. They might brainstorm their ideas orally, or write them down. If possible, record the exclamations, or say them, rather than giving them in writing; this gives the extra dimension of intonation, and makes the meaning clearer. e. Using chained phrases for story telling E.g: Use of past for narrative Teacher gives each student a single past form ('thought' or 'spoke' or 'went'). Then the teacher begins improvising a story -- for example: Once upon a time there was a very old fisherman who lived in a cave near the sea. Every
49

day he went out in his little boat to catch fish. One day there was a terrible storm... When the teacher stops, a student has to continue, bringing his or her past form into the story. For example, if wit was 'thought', he or she might say: ...and he could not go out to sea in his little boat. 'What can I do?' he thought, 'if I don't catch any fish, I won't have any money, or any food...' And on to the next student, until all have contributed, and all past forms have been woven in. Unlike the previous activity, students do not have to repeat what the one before them has said, and their contributions can be much longer and more elaborate. f. Using created situations E.g: Use of modals Teacher offers a situation either described in language or depicted in graphic form. For example: a moral dilemma of some kind, or a survival situation. Then teacher asks the students to brainstorm comments, suggestions or questions in order to suggest possible, advisable or necessary courses of action. The verb to be used may be dictated in advance: 'must' or 'have to', 'should' or 'ought to', 'may', 'might' or 'could'. Or the formulation of ideas may be left open to the students: the task will tend to generate modals anyway. (Adapted from Ur, 2009)

Case Analysis Lesson 1: Use the rule-explanation way to teach the interrogative sentences (Thornbury, 1999: 33-37)
Step 1 The teacher writes the following sentence on the blackboard.

In this step, the teacher lets students find the verb in the sentence'phoned', the subject'the president' and the object'the Queen'. Then the teacher tells students that the English words in general follow the order, that is, the sentence pattern, subject--verb--object (SVO). Step 2 The teacher replaces the subject'the president' with'someone', and then the sentence is like this:

50

Then the teacher asks a question or leads students to ask a question like this: who phoned the Queen? Moreover, the teacher writes down this question and the answer on the blackboard and numbers it as one:

Then the teacher comes back to the original sentence and replaces 'the Queen' with 'someone'.

Additionally, the teacher asks another question 'Who did the president phone?' Finally the blackboard looks like this:

Then the teacher guides students to think about the question one and the question two, and find the differences between them. Step 3 The teacher explains the differences between the two sentences and points that the
51

sentence order needs not changing when asking questions about the subject. However, the sentence order needs changing when asking questions about the object. Finally, it can be concluded that the inversion is the characteristic of the interrogative sentences in English. At this time, the blackboard is like this:

Step 4 Then the teacher connects four people with arrows like this:

The arrow symbolizes making the phone. According to this diagram, the teacher can ask some questions like this: Who phoned Tom? Who phoned Marry? Who phoned John? Who phoned Sophia? The teacher asks students to do practice in pairs, and students can change the person in the diagram. Step 5 The teacher writes the following sentences on the blackboard:

The teacher lets students do ask-answer activity. When students are doing practicing, the teacher may as well rub the sentences on the blackboard out to avoid students depending
52

on them. Then the teacher can invite several students to report their findings. Additionally, the teacher can add some examples like these:

Discussion The success of a good explanation depends in part on the students' understanding of the metalanguage, i.e. the terminology used. The aim of Step 1, therefore, is to establish, from the outset, the terminology necessary to explain the difference between subject and object questions. Step 2 establishes a contrast between two grammatical forms, in this case, subject questions and object questions, with a view to raising the students' awareness of the difference. A similar contrast could be made between, for example, active and passive sentences: A man bit a dog. A dog was bitten by a man. Or between direct and reported speech: He said, ' I am hungry.' He said he was hungry. Or between two aspects of the same tense: I read a book last night.I was reading a book last night. I was reading a book last night. The principal operating here is that it is often easier to establish a language rule in students' minds by contrasting two forms that are different in only one respect. These are known as minimal grammar pairs. (The same principle holds true for teaching pronunciation, e.g. by contrasting minimal pairs such as ship and sheep.) Note that the teacher asks the students simply to think about the difference, but not necessarily to verbalize it. Doing this gives the learner unpressured time in which to reflect on, and understand, the material being presented. Sometimes language learning is a silent activity. This does not necessarily mean it is passive. In Step 3, having engaged the students' curiosity, and having primed them to be prepared for a grammar explanation, the teacher explains the language point. She also uses the board to provide a visual reinforcement of her explanation. Step 4 is designed to test the learners' grasp of the rule, and to prepare them for

53

independent practice. Notice that, initially, the students simply have to distinguish between the two sorts of question, without at this stage producing them. The exercise, restricted to the verb 'phone', is linguistically very controlled, so that learners are not overburdened with, for example, new vocabulary. They are free to devote maximum attention to the grammar contrast. The students are then allowed some less teacher-led practice, with the opportunity of providing their own content to the exercise. Step 5 continues in the direction of greater freedom and creativity, by offering the students a chance to personalize the language point. Also, by having them report on their findings, Step 5 encourages them to listen to each other, with a focus on meaning as much as on form.

Lesson 2: Teach the simple present using the teaching aids (Thornbury, 1999: 57-59)
Step 1 The teacher shows students a pile of things, and says those are found in a bag in the waiting room of the teachers'. In the bag, there is a French novel, a swimming hat, an insurance certificate of famous-brand watch, a bus-card, a program for a Jazz festival and a glass case and a guitar pick. On these things are there no names. Then the teacher divides the class into the pairs and gives out a pair one object. Students are required to speak out some characteristics of the master according to the object. After seeing the object, the pair should pass on the object to the left pair until they have the opportunity to see all of the things. In this way does the teacher find the master of the bag. Step2 The teacher asks the whole class a question 'Do you think it's a man or a woman?', then the teacher can use he or she to indicate the master. After that the teacher guides students to speak out the sentences, and then writes them on the blackboard using the simple present tense. He likes Jazz. He wears a watch. He takes the bus. He wears glasses. He plays the guitar. He reads French. He goes swimming. Step 3 In this step, the teacher diverts students' attention to the form of verbs and underlines the verbs ending up 's'. Then the teacher asks students 'Is this past, present or future?' When one student answers 'present', the teacher responds to him or her 'Right now, or every day?' to elicit the answer 'every day'.
54

Next, the teacher rubs the verbs out and lets students finish the list in pair. Finally, the teacher checks the task. Step 4 In this step, students are asked to write a similar list based on one student in the class. The teacher controls the process and provides help when needed. Finally, one or two students are asked to speak out the written sentences and the other students guess who he or she is. Discussion Visual aids and realia are useful in that they circumvent the need for translation, and they can communicate a greater range of meanings than can actions. In this example, the teacher uses real objects to engage students' interest in a piece of detective work (Step 1). One problem here is that students may lack the necessary vocabulary to express their deductions. This may require the teacher to pre-teach the names of the individual objects (although this is not going to provide them with the verbs they will need). With a monolingual class, allowing the students to consult bilingual dictionaries is a possibility. Alternatively, the teacher simply cuts Step 1 short at the point where the students go into pairs, and provides the vocabulary at Step 2. The language-focus stage (Step 3) may make more or less use of grammatical terminology, according to the teacher's assessment of the class. The 'zero option' would be to leave the rule unstated, and simply move straight on to Step 4, on the assumption that the context has made the meaning obvious, and that there are sufficient examples for the students to work out the rule.

Lesson 3: Teach the grammar'should have done' using the generative context (Thornbury, 1999: 59-62)
Step 1: setting the context The teacher first introduces a person called Lucy using a picture. Lucy painted a rough sketch of Australia and there is a four wheel-drive. The teacher guides students to set this scene: Lucy decided to travel through the big Australia desert from east to west. Furthermore, students are guided to speak out the preparations Lucy has to make for her trip. Then the teacher writes them on the blackboard: To do this kind of journey, you should: Take a map Take water Not travel alone Advice the police Not travel in the wet season
55

Step 2: setting another scene In this step, the teacher tells students that Lucy does not make any preparations. She did not take a map, water and she went on the journey alone. The students are asked to imagine what will happen to Lucy. Then a story can be made up like this: She set out. However, on her way, she was lost. What was worse, she was very thirsty. Under this situation, she went out of the car and asked for help. Unfortunately, she was surrounded by the sudden floods. The police tried their best to find her here and there. However, the effort was in vain because she left her car, but she left no message in the car. Finally, the teacher asks one or two students to retell the story to make sure the story. Step 3 The teacher begins with the question 'Well, what do you think of Lucy?' to steer students to speak out the answers like 'She was stupid.' Then the teacher asks the reasons. Students may make sentences like 'She must take a map', which indicates students disapprove of Lucy's actions before the journey. A t this time, the teacher can demonstrate this sentence 'She should have taken a map' and repeats this sentence over twice. Students can repeat this sentence together, and then the individual can speak out the sentence, following by a series of questions 'Did she take a map?', 'Was that a good idea?' to lead students to answer with the sentence 'She should have taken a map.' Then the teacher repeats this process by pattern drills to check this sentence 'She shouldn't have traveled alone.' Step 4 In this step, the teacher rubs the blackboard out and writes down the following form:

Then the teacher asks students to add more sentences to the form and read them aloud. Step 5 The teacher asks the students to imagine that the police find Lucy and the teacher writes the following dialogue on the blackboard. Police: You should have taken a map. Lucy: I know I should. I didn't think. Then the teacher divides the students in pairs and asks them continue the conversation in role play. Discussion The above example represents a type of grammar presentation procedure within which there is scope for many variations. For example, the situation (Step 1) can be introduced using board-drawings, magazine pictures, personal photos, or video. Alternatively, the situation could emerge out of a text the students have read or listened to. The point is that however it is established, the situation generates several examples of the targeted
56

grammar item. By eliciting some of the content of the presentation, the teacher aims both to involve the learners more actively in the lesson, and to monitor their developing understanding of both the situation and the target language. Likewise, some teachers might choose not to drill the example sentences (Step 3), but rather let the students silently reflect on them, in the belief that the mental and physical demands of immediate production distract attention from the brain work involved in working out the rules. The number of examples of the targeted item is at the teacher's discretion. However, the more data the students have to work with, the greater the likelihood of their hypothesis being correct. But, in the interests of time and as this is only the presentation stage, four or five examples of a structure are probably sufficient. The decision to withhold the written form (until Step 4) is based on the belief -- inherited from Audiolingualism -- that the written form might interfere with the correct pronunciation. However, it is likely that learners are going to make spelling-sound mismatches anyway, and perhaps the sooner that these are dealt with the better. Also, it is generally easier to pick up grammatical and lexical information from the written form than from the spoken, which suggests that, in the interests of rule induction, it may not be a good idea to withhold the written form too long. Notice that in the example, no attempt is made by the teacher to elicit a statement of the rule. She relies instead on frequent checks of students' understanding of 'should have done'. Nevertheless, this is no guarantee that learners will formulate the correct rule. Eliciting a statement of the rule (e.g. that 'should have' is used to criticize past actions) might help, but this will depend on the learners' command of terminology. In a monolingual class, a translation of one or two of the examples could be elicited instead.

Lecture 4 Teaching Vocabulary

57

Contents of this Lecture
4.1 Basic Concepts Concerning Vocabulary 4.2 Elements of Vocabulary Teaching 4.3 The Abilities Involved in Knowing a Word 4.4 Theories on Vocabulary Learning 4.5 Factors Affecting Vocabulary Learning 4.6 Ways of Presenting Vocabulary 4.7 Ways of Consolidating Vocabulary 4.8 Ways of Developing Vocabulary Learning Strategies

4.1 Basic Concepts Concerning Vocabulary
To better understand the strategy of learning and teaching vocabulary, it is necessary to know some basic concepts about vocabulary.

4.1.1 Definition of Vocabulary
Generally speaking, all the words in one language together constitute what is known as its vocabulary. Vocabulary is the building material of a language. Just as a building cannot be constructed without the building materials, no language is conceivable without vocabulary. Since vocabulary plays such an important role in language, it is important to know how vocabulary can be better taught.

4.1.2 Productive and Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge
Productive or receptive vocabulary is defined in relation to the language skills of reading, listening, speaking and writing. Receptive vocabulary refers to the words and expressions that students can understand when reading or hearing them. Productive vocabulary refers to the words and expressions that the students can use correctly when producing oral or written language. The stages of vocabulary acquisition from the receptive stage to the productive stage are as the followings:

58

(1) Apperceived input is when students are made to "notice" the vocabulary and then connect it to the past learning. (2) Comprehended input is similar to Krashen(1985)'s "comprehensible input" but goes a further step in assuring that the student has understood it. (3) Intake is when the student uses the vocabulary in various situations. (4) Integration is the internalization of the new vocabulary. (5) Output is the use of the lexical items in the student's production. From the framework, it can be inferred that repeated exposure and manipulation of the vocabulary would be of much value for the students to internalize and in turn produce newly acquired vocabulary (Du Xuejian, 2008).

4.1.3 Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary
When presenting information of the target words, teachers would pay more attention to the depth and breadth of them. Depth of vocabulary involves not only meaning, but also morphology, phonology, syntax, sociolinguistic aspects, difference between written and spoken uses, and strategies of approaching unknown words. Breadth of vocabulary deals with its synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms, or whatever words those are associated with it (Du Xuejian, 2008).

4.2 Elements of Vocabulary Teaching 4.2.1 Pronunciation and Spelling
Pronunciation and spelling are fairly obvious characteristics of a word. Teachers need to make sure that both aspects are accurately presented and learned. In the initial stages of language learning it is usually best for teachers to present new items orally first to help learners acquire the correct stress pattern of syllables, which is similar to the sequence of acquiring one's mother language. Other aspects of language like written form and usage can be acquired in the later process.

4.2.2 Grammar
There is no doubt that learners need an idea of how new words function in sentences, so the instruction of vocabulary should be integrated with that of grammar. In learning, English learners should first learn the basic grammar and then vocabulary, as grammatical rules are limited while vocabulary is limitless. Once grammar is grasped, students can acquire more words through reading and listening.

4.2.3 Meaning of a Word
Geoffrey Leech (1974)categorizes word meaning into seven types, which gives vocabulary teaching a wider space and deeper enlightenment. They are conceptual
59

meaning, connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective meaning, reflected meaning, collocative meaning and thematic meaning. 1. Conceptual meaning It is the fundamental meaning of a word, which defines the meaning of a word in terms of its constituent features. For example, by using the componential analysis, the conceptual meaning of the word 'woman' can be defined by such properties as [+ human], [- male] and [+ adult]. It is necessary for students to know the conceptual meaning of a word first and other meanings will be easier for them to understand. 2. Connotative meaning Different people, who have been subjected to different experiences in life, have different mental images when they hear a word. When different people hear the word 'woman', such qualities as beauty, compassion and emotion will feature with relatively different significance. Moreover, the significance of features will change as society changes. The association of housewife is much less prevalent in modern society than it was fifty years ago. Such association is called connotative meaning by Leech (Du Xuejian, 2008). 3. Stylistic meaning A word may be more appropriate in a particular style. For example, the word 'cast' is associated with literary style while 'guy' is informal. This is stylistic meaning. Stylistic meaning is 'that which a piece of language conveys about the social circumstances of its use'(Geoffrey Leech, 1974). So teacher should stress the stylistic meaning to make sure that students use the new words correctly. 4. Affective meaning Three kinds of words (common words, formal words and informal words) are used on different occasions. 'Shut up' in the sense of being quiet similarly has stylistic meaning, being colloquial, but it is also indicative of a disrespectful attitude on the part of the speaker, which is the affective meaning. 5. Reflected meaning One's response to one sense of a word may be affected by another sense of that word. Take the word 'guy' for example,which is scarcely used in its older sense of merry as it now invokes homosexuality. This is called reflected meaning. 6. Collocative meaning Collocative meaning consists of the association a word acquires on a count of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment. For example, pretty and handsome share common ground in the meaning of 'good-looking', but may be distinguished by the nouns they are likely to occur with. We usually say pretty woman and seldom say handsome woman. 7. Thematic meaning A speaker's choice of grammatical structure or his or her use of stress gives different

60

meanings to one sentence. If the speaker stresses the name Jack in saying the sentence 'Jack bought a book', the question to be resolved is 'who bought a book?' Whereas if he stresses the word book, the question is 'What did Jack buy?' (Stuart, 2000). The meaning of a word is multi-faceted. That is to say no one can completely grasp a word but one can understand its meaning comparatively completely. This requires learners to focus on what relationships exist among words in the lexical system of the English language. The system, to some extent, concerns both the link between meaning and the world to which words refer, and the sense relations that exist among words. A more subtle aspect of meaning that often needs to be taught is whether or not a particular item is the appropriate one to use in a certain context.

4.3 The Abilities Involved in Knowing a Word
(1) recognizing a word in its spoken or written form; (2) recalling it at will; (3) relating it to an appropriate object or concept; (4) using it in the appropriate grammatical form; (5) in speech: pronouncing it in a recognizable way; (6) in writing: spelling it correctly; (7) using it with the words it can go correctly with, i.e. in the correct collocation; (8) using it at the appropriate level of formality; (9) knowing its connotation and associations. (Wei Liming, 2001: 277)

4.4.1 Theory of Memory
Memorizing plays an important role in the process of learning vocabulary and the faculty of memory is an essential part of one's intelligence, which to a large extent determines the result of studying. Memory is a process that information is encoded, stored and retrieved. The storing stage can be further divided into three memorizing systems, namely, sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. All the information is analyzed and processed in the short-term memory and then become long-term memory. Unlike long-term memory that information can be stored for quite a long time, short-term memory can only keep information for a short period of time. Once transformed into long-term memory, the information will not need to be reviewed. And the capacity of long-term memory is limitless. In this regard, teachers should try to help students turn the word from short-term into long-term memory, which requires teachers to expose students to the various aspects of a word.

61

4.4.2 Theory of Forgetting
Forgetting is the foe of language learning. German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) revealed the process of forgetting. According to him, the speed of forgetting turns from fast to slow so timely revision of newly learnt words is very essential.

One final point about forgetting is the rate at which we forget. It is generally believed that , eighty percent of the information we forget is lost within twenty-four hours of initial learning. This may help to explain why testing activities carried out the day after input may yield rather distressing result, while further testing activities carried out a week later appear quite satisfactory.

4.4.3 The Depth of Processing Hypothesis
The Depth of Processing Hypothesis (DPH) was advanced by Craik and Lockhart (1972). The 'levels of processing' view of human memory holds that the durability of a memory trace is determined chiefly by the level of cognitive analysis to which material is subjected. 'Shallow' analyses such as those which focus on physical aspects of the stimulus result in less permanent retention than 'deeper' levels of processing which stress meaning. That is to say the chance of some piece of new information being transferred into long-term memory is not determined by the length of time that it is held in short-term memory but by the depth to which it is initially processed. As a matter of fact, this theory points out the key deficiency, in language teaching class, that new words which are isolated from context or any communicative situations that can provide learners with information about the target word, thus leaving a shallow impression on learner's mind.

4.4.4 The Task-Induced Involvement Hypothesis
Based on the DPH, Laufer and Hustijn (2001) put forward the task-induced Involvement Hypothesis. Its basic assumption is that the amount of retention was related to the amount of task-induced involvement load. In their experiment, learners in two countries participated in two parallel experiments to test whether retention of vocabulary acquired
62

incidentally is influenced by the amount of task-induced involvement. The concept of involvement can be formalized by devising tasks with various degrees of needs. The need is moderate when it is imposed by an external agent while the need is strong when internally motivated, that is, self-imposed by the learners. For example, when a student is asked to use a word in a sentence by the teacher, his need is moderate. On the other hand, the need is strong when the students decide to look up a word in a dictionary to write a composition or give a speech. As it had been predicted, the retention of new words is higher in high-involvement tasks, lower in low-involvement tasks. So when designing tasks for students, we should take the involvement amount into consideration.

4.5 Factors Affecting Vocabulary Learning 4.5.1 Frequency
Frequency has been accorded a high level of significance in ELT for many years. The rationale for this is quite simply that the most frequently occurring words in the English language will be those most useful to learners. The beginner level of many series of course books or the first stage of many series of graded readers will have a basic lexical syllabus formulated from the first 500 to 800 most frequently occurring words in English. A well-used frequency list was that of West (1953), which has some 2,000 headwords, each accompanied by its inflected forms, together with a list of common derivatives and compounds. Another way in which the concept of frequency has influenced ELT is the repetition of words in texts. A study made by Kachru (1962), who tested his Indian students to see which words they knew on their course books, showed that most learners knew the words that appeared more than seven times, but they did not know half of the words that appeared only once or twice. Repetition of words in materials can aid the process of lexical inference and has been used as a principle for constructing graded reading material for many years. Certainly, if learners are to be exposed to a wide range of word meanings and associations then it will be important for them to encounter words in a variety of different situations through extensive reading and listening.

4.5.2 Pronunciation
At the initial stages of language learning it is common for teachers to insist on a fair amount of pronunciation practice of new words to help learners acquire the correct stress pattern of syllables. However, at latter stages, this is often discontinued as the focus of learning changes to other aspects of language and individual learners pick up vocabulary in their own way and at their own rates. And yet it has been claimed (Tarone, 1974; Channel,1988) that learners use stress to select what is important as they listen to a stream of English and that they therefore need
63

to know for each word both the stress patterns that would be found in a dictionary and patterns that might be heard in continuous speech. This would suggest that, if the purpose of learning English is to listen and understand, learning word stress is important. If learners process speech partly by recognizing syllable patterns and stress, knowledge of those stored in the mental lexicon will facilitate quick comprehension. And there is no doubt that a learner who wishes to be intelligible in English needs to be able to stress words correctly. There are implications here both for teaching techniques and for learning strategies in dealing with new words

4.5.3 Contextualization
One of the most cogent criticisms of the traditional practice of presenting lists of isolated word to learners is given by Schurten-van Parreren (1989), whose reasons are listed as follows: (1) If the words are presented as isolated elements, there is no point of support, no 'cognitive hold' for them learners' memory, so despite sometimes considerable learning effort, they are quickly forgotten again. (2) If the words are presented in alphabetically ordered word lists, pupils will often suffer from interference. This not only hampers learning,but can be decidedly harmful. Since unlearning is far more difficult than learning. (3) Isolated words do not present a linguistic reality, as the meaning of a word is in most cases partly defined by the context (Beheydt, 1987). (4) Isolated words or words in isolated sentences do not present a psychological reality, because they do not carry a message. For this reason they cannot evoke emotions or involvement in the learner, a factor which plays an often underestimated, but yet important part in long-term acquisition (Leontjew, 1979; Schouten-van Parreren1989). As a result, when teaching vocabulary, teachers should not undermine the function of context.

4.6 Ways of Presenting Vocabulary
(1) Try to provide a visual or physical demonstration whenever possible, using pictures, photos, video clips, mime or gestures to show meaning. Visuals are extensively useful for conveying meaning and are particularly useful for teaching concrete items of vocabulary such as food or furniture, and certain areas of vocabulary such as places, professions, descriptions of people, actions and activities (such as sport and verbs of movement). Mime and gesture are often used to supplement other ways of conveying meaning. When teaching an item such as 'to swerve', a teacher might build a situation to illustrate it, making use of the blackboard and gesture to reinforce the concept. (2) Provide a verbal context to demonstrate meaning. Then ask students to tell the meaning first before it is offered by the teacher.
64

(3) Use synonyms or antonyms to explain meanings. (4) Use lexical sets or hyponyms to show relations of words and their meanings. e.g. cook: fry, boil, bake, grill, etc. (5) Translate and exemplify, especially with technical words or words with abstract meaning. (6) Use word formation rules and common affixes to build new lexical knowledge on what is already known. (7) Teach vocabulary in chunks. Chunks refer to a group of words that go together to form meaning. (8) Think about the context in real life where the word might be used. Relate newly learned language to students' real life to promote high motivation. (9) Think about providing different context for introducing new words. (10) Prepare for possible misunderstanding or confusion that students may have. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 124) In reality, most teachers draw on a range of techniques--situations, synonyms, example sentences, etc. -- in their presentations of word meaning. Here for example, is an extract from a lesson in which the teacher uses a variety of means -- including words that the students are already familiar with -- to introduce 'petrified':
T: OK is anyone very frightened of ghosts? Would you be frightened of you saw a ghost? Frightened. OK, I know if I saw, for example, if I saw a ghost, there is one feeling I would feel. I would feel frightened. [writes] But even more than frightened, how would you feel if you saw a ghost? More than frightened, stronger, than frightened. S: Terrified. T: Good, terrified. [writes] Terrified. Anything even stronger than terrified? A word in English. Even, really, you're so frightened you're... S: Scared? T: That's not, that's the same as frightened. There's something that's stronger. S: Astonished. T: Astonished. Astonished is a little bit more like surprised. I think -- terrified; there's an even stronger word, which would be petrified. [writes] And it means when you are so frightened that you can't speak, you can't think, and you can't move. You're absolutely petrified. And I think if I saw a ghost I would probably be [laughs] probably be petrified, being the rather pathetic soul that I am. (Thornbury, 2007)

4.7 Ways of Consolidating Vocabulary
1. Labeling Students are given a picture. They are to write the names of objects indicated in the picture. A competitive element can be introduced by making the first student to finish the

65

task the winner. 2. Spotting the differences Students are put into pairs. Each member of the pair receives a picture which is slightly different from his partner's. Students hide the pictures from one another and then, by a process of describing, questioning, answering, discover what the differences are. 3. Describing and drawing Students are put into pairs. One student has a picture, and the other has a blank piece of paper and a pencil. The student with the picture must tell his/her partner what to draw so that the drawing ends up with the same as the original picture. The student can not show the picture until the drawing is completed. 4. Playing a game Useful games are those that encourage learners to recall words and, preferable, at speed. Or consistent with the principle that learners need to make multiple decisions about words, a useful game would be one like a 'dictionary race', where students first sort words into alphabetical order, then into parts of speech, and then into lexical sets--the first group to complete all three tasks correctly being the winner (Thornbury, 2007). There are some other kinds of games, for example: Students are put into groups. For each group, they have to prepare a list of food for a birthday party. There should be 20 kinds of food on the list. After they finish the list, each group ask the other group in turns: 'Do you have…' If the group have the food asked, they have to cross out the food in the list. After several rounds, the group which have the most words on the list will be the winner. 5. Using word series Students construct the series following an example. Example: Cutlery: knife, fork, spoon Transport: _______ _________ _________ _________ Vehicles: ________ _________ _________ _________ Furniture: _______ __________ _________ _________ Buildings: _______ __________ _________ _________ 6. Using word association The teacher says a key word, e.g. traveling. The students then have to write down all the words they can think of connected with traveling. They have a time limit, e.g. two minutes. When time is up, the person with the highest number of acceptable words is the winner. 7. Finding synonyms and antonyms Students are given a list of words and asked to find pairs of words, either synonyms or antonyms. 8. Using categories This kind of activities requires learners to sort words into different categories. The

66

categories can either be given, or guessed. Here is an example:
Put these adjectives into two groups--positive and negative. emotional entered friendly offensive good-humored selfish outgoing nice confident ambitious rude kind self-c

There is another activity in which learners (at a fairly advanced level) decide the categories themselves:
Put these words into four groups of three words each. Then, think of a title for each group. Goal net piece club racket shoot board green court hole pitch referee check serve tee move

9. Using word net-work Students fill in the ovals in a net-work with words that are under the same category or sub-category. e.g.:

10. Ranking and sequencing This kind of activities require learners to put the words into some kind of order. This may involve arranging the words on a cline: for example, adverbs of frequency (always, sometimes, never, occasionally, often, etc.). Or learners may be asked to rank items according to preference (Thornbury, 2007): E.g.:
Imagine you have just moved into a completely empty flat. You can afford to buy one piece of furniture a week. Put the following in the order in which you would buy them: fridge chair bed chest of drawers bookcase wardrobe cooker dining table sofa desk

dishwasher

washing machine

67

11. Using the Internet resources for more ideas (Wang Qiang, 2006: 127-129)

4.8

Ways

of

Developing

Vocabulary

Learning

Strategies
1. Review regularly In the classroom, students should be given opportunities to pick up new vocabulary on a variety of tasks and they need to be encouraged to revise the newly learnt vocabulary on a regular basis so that they are able to take ‘ownership’ of these words and start using them confidently. Ist review 2nd review 3rd review 4th review after 10mins 24hours 1 week 1month

Further review if necessary 2. Guess meaning from context One of the vocabulary learning strategies that a learner can master is guessing word meaning by using context clues and this strategy consists of several steps: (1) Find the part of speech of the unknown word (2) Look at the immediate context of the unknown word and simplifying this context if necessary. Immediate context can be elaborated by listing possible sources of information that learners can look for. Students can use the context to make use of the relationship between the unknown word and the surrounding words and make use of any related phrases or relative clauses. (3) Look at the wider context of the unknown word. This means looking at the relationships between the clauses containing the unknown word and surrounding clauses and sentences. These relationships include cause and effect, contrast, generalization detail, exclusion, explanation, time and sequence arrangement. These relationships may be signaled, but most often they are left for the reader to infer (He Daorui, 2007). Guessing ability is one of the abilities being tested in the exam, so grasp the skills of guessing is necessary but I strongly suggest students to check the real meaning of a word after guessing. E.g: a. I overslept this morning. b. My work varies from week to week. c. The captain asked the seamen to throw the anchor. In the first example the new word comprises parts that are already familiar and the student might also have met the same prefix in other words e.g. Overtime. This knowledge should
68

enable the student to work out the meaning. In the second example the students' knowledge of the more common noun 'variety' may be sufficient to deduce the meaning of 'varies' and understand the sentence. Teachers can devise classroom activities to develop the ability to guess from context, one of the most common being the substitution of a nonsense word for a particular item in order to make the students focus on the context to decide exactly what is being substituted. E.g. Can you turn the zong on, it's cold in here. After the students have guessed that a 'zong' is some form of hearter, the exercise could be extended to sensitize students to the importance of the grammar of the item and prefixes/suffixes as a clue to meaning. E.g. This particular dish cannot be rezonged. Following on from this type of exercises where the target word is clearly isolated, one can approach denser texts in which a wider context needs to be understood before the meaning of a single item surfaces. E.g. The newspaper has suffered during the past year because advertising money has fallen by ten per cent. However, this fall has been offset by increasing the price of the paper from 20 pence to 22 pence. 'Offset' here means: (a) made worse, (b) made better, (c) balanced. This example illustrates the importance of understanding discourse markers, in this case 'however' deduce the meaning. 3. Organize vocabulary effectively There is an evidence that if information is organized and stored in special ways, e.g. related information is stored together or new information is related to previously stored information, it is more likely to be retained and easier to retrieve. 4. Use a dictionary The ability to use a dictionary properly to aid learning is a very important strategy for independent learning. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 129-130) Summers (1988:111) argues that dictionary use is a valid activity for foreign learners of English, as an aid to both comprehension and production. There are many advantages for students to use dictionaries properly. (1) Dictionary can provide accurate comprehension which will make differentiation from other similar words easily. (2) Examples in dictionaries are absolutely essential to both extending the user’s comprehension and providing models for students to remember and perhaps eventually produce, by putting individual words into arrange of typical contexts and appropriate phrases. (3) Dictionary is a valuable support which is as a backup to contextual guesswork. It is not

69

uncommon for an item in a particular context to appear ambiguous, and in such cases, the dictionary is an important resource to clarify the uncertainty. E.g.: He went to a school where the policy was to allow students to make their won decisions about whether or not to attend lessons. They were actively encouraged to consider them carefully. In his particular case, he loafed for three years before he made up his mind to go to the car maintenance class. In the example, 'loafed' might mean 'to do nothing' or perhaps 'to consider' if looked at from the learner's point of view. The dictionary would allow him to solve the ambiguity. But as it suggested by many scholars, it is best for learners to use monolingual dictionaries, rather than bilingual dictionaries, because learners are immersed in the target language all along by using monolingual dictionaries, which is more helpful for them to learn the target language well, and understand the word more accurately (He Daorui, 2007). 5. Use visuals Visuals are an extremely useful framework for storage of lexis, and they can be used to highlight the relationships between items. Word field diagrams are of interest here and the example below could be used as a testing activity by omitting some of the items. Learners could also be asked to organise their own diagrams of this type.

6. Use a personal category sheets
70

Learners can store new vocabulary as it arises on appropriate category sheets which they can keep in a ring binder or on separate pages of a notebook. The sheet could have headings such as topic areas or situations, these heading being selected by the students himself. As he acquires new vocabulary, he can add to the sheets and cross-reference them where necessary. He will have to decide where to categorise and when to open an new category sheet. It is also possible for learners to use index card; each card would contain information about lexical item and their derivatives, and the cards could be filed thematically. 7. Use comprehensive memory It is a method which mainly resorts to logically thinking, to the linking between old and new words. The students associate what they already know with what is new, finding the similarity and difference between these two words. Comprehensible memory is more flexible, meaningful, and interesting, and therefore gets better results than the mechanical memory. (1) Word formation Use—useful—usefully—usefulness—useless—uselessly-uselessness (2) Spelling rules fight, night, might, light, sight, tight, right, slight, … (3) Word inflexion Rise—rose—risen; ride—rode—ridden; drive—drow—driven; (4) Similarities arrive at ; shout at; aim at; look at; swear at; … (5) Synonyms and antonyms speak, talk, say; high, low, up, down, etc…. (6) Cognitive grouping Family: mother, father, brother, sister, son, daughter, grandfather, grandmother, mother-in-law, father-in-law, sister-in-law, … Vehicle: bus, trolley-bus, tram, car, cab, cart, bicycle, carriage, … (Wei, 2001: 280-281)

Case Analysis Lesson Extract 1
Teacher: Mary bought a pair of shoes and a wallet. A wallet, OK? No? Well, this is my wallet—look. Have you got a wallet, Yuri? Ah, yes. Is it full of money? Learner: No…it’s nearly empty! Teacher: Ah, like mine. Lesson Extract 2

71

Teacher: Look at this picture. This is a knight, and this is a castle. A knight. A castle. What’s this, David? Learner 1: A knight. Teacher: Right. And this, Rebecca? Learner 2: A castle. Teacher: Right. A knight and a castle. Lesson Extract 3 Teacher: Kangaroos can jump ten meters. Can you jump, Stefan? Learner: Yump? Teacher: Yes, like this. (The teacher demonstrates.) Learner: Oh, yes. Teacher: Can you jump ten meters? Learner: No! Lesson Extract 4 Teacher: What’s his name? No? Well, his name’s Sting. He’s a singer. Sting’s a singer. A singer… Whitney Houston’s a singer, and Michael Bolton, and … Come on, singers, names of singers.. Learner 1: Pavarotti. Teacher: Yes! Pavarotti’s an opera singer. Learner 2: Madonna. Teacher: Yes, she’s a pop singer. Lesson Extract 5 Teacher: She doesn’t understand—she’s a foreigner. A foreigner? No? A person from another country. Is Paul McCartney a foreigner when he’s here in this country? Learner 1: Yes. Teacher: Is he a foreigner in the USA? Learner 2: Yes. Teacher: That’s right. He isn’t American. Is he a foreigner in England? Learner: No—he’s English. Lesson Extract 6 Teacher: Look at the expression on her face. She’s upset. What do you think ‘upset’ is in Spanish? Learner 1: Molesta? Teacher: Yes…more or less… Learner 2: Perturbada. Teacher: Right.! (Davies & Pearse, 2005:61-62)

72

Discussion
Extract 1 Meaning is presented with real object (realia). Extract 2 Meaning is presented with pictures. Extract 3 Meaning is presented with demonstration. Extract 4 Meaning is presented with examples Extract 5 Meaning is presented with definition. Extract 6 Meaning is presented with translation. Realia, pictures, and demonstration are especially useful for presenting the concrete vocabulary of beginners’ and elementary courses. Examples are often useful at these levels. Definitions as well as examples are especially useful for the more abstract vocabulary of upper elementary and intermediate courses. Translation, as we have already said, is best used as a last resort. It is also best, when possible, to elicit the translation from a learner, as in Extract 6. Involving learners actively can motivate them and help them remember the item. An important point to note about the extracts above is that the vocabulary is presented in a context, not as isolated words. An appropriate context helps learners begin to understand the use of the item as well as its basic meaning. The item is associated with a certain type of context or situation. ‘Upset’, for example, is associated with people’s feeling or reactions to events. Another important point to note about the extracts is that the teacher usually checks that the learners have understood. For example, in Extract I the teacher gets a learner to show his own wallet, and in Extract 4 the teacher gets the learners to give more examples of singers. Note also that in Extracts 1 and 5 the teacher checks whether any learners already know the item—‘she doesn’t understand—she’s a foreigner. A foreigner? No?’ Remember, they may be learners who do already know the item. Giving them the opportunity to show that knowledge can be motivating for them and set a good example of active participation for the whole group. This is especially true with false beginner and intermediate learners. (Davies & Pearse, 2005:63)

Lecture 5 Teaching Listening

73

Contents of this Lecture
5.1 Definition of Listening 5.2 Psychological Processing of Listening 5.3 Micro-skills of Listening 5.4 Types of Classroom Listening Performance 5.5 Potential Problems in Learning to Listen 5.6 The Factors Influencing L2 Listening Comprehension 5.7 Principles for Teaching Listening 5.8 Principles for Selecting and Using Listening Activities 5.9 Activities in the Three Teaching Stages

5.1 Definition of Listening
In history, academics have defined listening in terms of their theoretical interests. For example, in the 1940s when advances in telecommunications were exploding and information-processing was seen as the new scientific frontier, listening was defined in terms of successful transmission and recreation of ‘messages’. While with the renewed interest in anthropology in the 1970s, definitions of listening as interpreting the cultural significance of ‘speech behavior’ gained acceptance. In the 1980s and 1990s, with the development of computer software for dealing with types of data, listening came to be defined as parallel processing of input. Rost (2005) concluded that there were four orientations that personal definition of listening drew upon. There are four orientations which include receptive, constructive, collaborative, or transformative. Receptive definition is ‘listening is receiving what the speaker actually says.’ Constructive definition is ‘listening is constructing and representing meaning.’ Collaborative definition is ‘listening is negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding.’ Transformative definition is listening is creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy. Another definition of listening is 'Listening is the activity of paying to and trying to get information from something we hear. To listen successfully, we need to be able to work out what speakers mean when they use particular words in particular ways on particular occasions and not simply to understand the words themselves (Underwood, 1983: 13).'
74

From the above definitions, we can conclude that listening is a complex cognitive process which needs listeners not only have background knowledge of the related listening materials but also that listeners should be conscious to use some strategies to grasp the meaning of the listening material to achieve right comprehension of the text.

5.2 Psychological Processing of Listening 5.2.1 Bottom-up Processing
It assumes that listening is a process of decoding the sounds that one hears in a linear fashion from the smallest meaning units (or phonemes) to complete texts. According to this view, phonemic units are decoded and linked together to form words, words are linked together to form phrases, phrases are linked together to form utterances, and utterances are linked together to form complete meaningful texts. It involves the listener in paying close attention to every detail of the language input. This process of listening expects the listener to have a very effective short-term memory as they have to make sense of every sound in order to figure out the meaning of words, phrases, and structures.

5.2.2 Top-down Processing
It suggests that the listener actively constructs (or, more accurately, reconstructs) the original meaning of the speaker using incoming sounds as clues. In this reconstruction process, the listener uses prior knowledge of the context and situation within which the listening takes place to make sense of what he or she hears. It involves the listener's ability to bring prior information to bear on the task of understanding the 'hear' language. In such a case, listeners can understand better if they know something about the speaker, the setting, the topic and the purpose of the talk. These are often referred to as contextual clues. Listeners can certainly understand better if they already have some knowledge in their mind about the topic. Such knowledge is also termed as prior knowledge or schematic knowledge--mental frameworks for various things and experiences we hold in our long-term memory. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 143)

5.3 Micro-skills of Listening
According to the English Curriculum Standards (2003), the micro-skills of listening should including the followings: (1) Suppress interference of accent and background noise (2) Detect key words (3) Listen and carry out instructions (4) Identify gist and themes

75

(5) Establish the sequence or logical relationship of events (6) Predict what people are going to talk about (7) Understand the speaker’s intention and attitude (8) Evaluate what has been heard (9) Infer the implied meaning

5.4 Types of Classroom Listening Performance
Commonly, classroom listening performance can be divided into seven types.

5.4.1 Imitative listening
This kind of listening fully embodies pronunciation techniques of 'demonstration, imitation, props, contrast, and practice', which is the most effective method in pronunciation teaching. The learner listens to the surface structure of an utterance for the sole purpose of repeating. The listener’s attention is focused more on the fidelity of the replication than on the depth of comprehension, more on surface processing than meaningful processing. The text is used as a model for imitation. While this kind of listening performance requires little meaningful processing, it nevertheless may be a legitimate aspect of an interactive, communicative classroom. Imitation may apply to a discrete feature, such as intonation, pronunciation, or to the text as a whole. The role of the listener as merely a 'tape recorder' must be very limited, because this kind of listening does not capture all the relevant features of comprehension. On occasions foreign listeners can remember input that they do not understand, although their comprehension is poor.

5.4.2 Intensive Listening
The listener focuses on components such as phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers and so on either to clarify some components of the listening which may be obscure to the listener or to get specific information about the discourse. The bottom-up skills are often used here which are important at all levels of proficiency. Students listen for cues in certain drills or single out a specified element such as stress, intonation, a contraction, a grammatical structure, etc. in a sentence or a longer stretch of discourse. This kind of listening performance may be represented by the intermediate or low-level listeners who have been fully familiar with the components of the foreign language. It can also distinguish the advanced listeners from the intermediate by comparing the amount of detail one can understand.

5.4.3 Responsive Listening
The listener responds physically, graphically, or linguistically in the listening process. For responding physically, the listener is usually involved in large-muscle activities. The activities may include building something or making a recipe or using a certain product by

76

following movement directions. The listener may also select from alternatives such as pictures, objects, graphics, texts, or actions. This kind of selection may involve making a match or placing pictures in order, selecting from alternative story titles, picking up objects according to their description, or matching pictures with the products. The listener can respond orally or in written form to the questions or commands delivered from the teacher or the tape recorder. Such responses which are one-sided are not like communicative ones which require interaction between speaker and listener.

5.4.4 Selective Listening
In longer stretches of discourse such as monologues of a couple of minutes or considerably longer, the task of the student is not to process everything that has been said but rather to ‘scan’ the material selectively for certain information. This kind of listening performance allows for the conscious neglect of certain information which is not pertinent to the listening task or purpose. The purpose of such performance is not to look for global or general meanings, but to be able to find important information in a field of potentially distracting information. This preset orientation to certain information may involve determining the essential facts about the text, specifying people’s names, dates, location, situation, context, certain events or facts, etc. Selective listening differs from intensive listening in that the discourse is in relatively long lengths. Such discourse includes speeches, media broadcasts, stories and anecdotes, conversations in which learners are eavesdroppers.

5.4.5 Extensive Listening
This sort of performance aims to develop a top-down, global understanding of spoken language. It is the actual comprehension of the message. The listener brings to the text a bank of prior knowledge, global expectations and other background information. This listening performance is more concerned with the activation of schemata, with deriving meaning by making inference, with global understanding, and with the interpretation of a text. Understanding main ideas depends heavily on recognition of vocabulary. This global understanding typically distinguishes the intermediate listener from the novice. Extensive performance could range from listening to lengthy lectures to listening to a conversation and deriving a comprehensive message or purpose. Extensive listening may require other skills such as note-taking, discussion, etc. for full comprehension.

5.4.6 Interactive Listening
This sort of listening performance gives more emphasis on the communicative function of language. The listener may be an active, even a controlling, participant in face-to-face conversations. In this interactive listening, the listener has the opportunity to answer back, clarify understanding, or check that he or she has comprehended correctly. Therefore, this
77

kind of listening performance is close to the real-life communication. It can be classified into interpersonal and transactional listening. Interpersonal listening occurs in the course of social interaction, and transactional listening exists for the exchange of goods and services. In this listening performance, the listener actively participates in discussions, debates, conversations, role-plays and other pair and group work. The most prominent feature is that their listening performance must be intricately integrated with speaking skills in the authentic communicative interchange.

5.4.7 Comprehensive Listening
The listener is interested in the whole message, essentially the main ideas plus the details. The listener has no difficulty whatever in understanding the whole message. The comprehension process is so natural and smooth that it is exactly like that of a native speaker. The ability to function at this level is clearly the goal of listening proficiency. With a given text, a listener who can perform this way will have a higher proficiency than one who is limited to either main ideas or specific facts.

5.4.8 Other types of listening performance
Condensing Listening:The message is reduced. Usually the condensation takes the forms of written or oral summaries, abstracts, or outlines. Extending Listening : The listener provides text that goes beyond what is given, such providing the ending, changing the ending, continuing the story beyond the ending, or solving a problem. The text may also be filled in internally, as when the listener fills in missing lines or completes partial lines. Duplicative Listening: The exact message is replicated. This listening performance involves dictation, translation, and simple oral repetition.

5.5 Potential Problems in Learning to Listen
In foreign language learning, both listening and reading are receptive skills, but listening can be more difficult than reading. Because learners often meet the following problems: (1) Lack of control over the speed at which speakers speak (2) Not being able to get things repeated (3) The listener’s limited vocabulary (4) Failure to recognize the ‘signals’ e.g. Secondly…then (5) Problems of interpretation (6) Inability to concentrate (7) Established learning habits (Underwood, 1989:16-19) Below are the problems reported by learners.
78

(1) Quickly forget what is heard (2) Do not recognize words they know (3) Understand the words but not the intended message (4) Neglect the next part when thinking about meaning (5) Unable to form a mental representation from words heard (6) Do not understand subsequent parts of input because of earlier problems. The reasons why such difficulties arise can be quite complicated. However, one major reason for students' poor listening skill is that listening is often neglected in language teaching due to lack of teaching materials, both with print materials and audio or video tapes, lack of equipment (tape player, VCRs, VCDs, computers) in some schools; and lack of real-life situations where language learners need to understand spoken English. (Wang Qiang, 2006: 136)

5.6

The

Factors

Influencing

L2

Listening

Comprehension
Rubin (1994:199-221) cited Anderson’s mode and state that there are five major factors that researchers believe affect listening comprehension: (1) text characteristics (variation in a listening passage/ text or associated visual support); (2) interlocutor characteristics (variation in the speaker’s personal characteristics); (3) task characteristics (variation in the purpose for listening and associated response); (4) listener characteristics (variation in the listener’s personal characteristics); (5) process characteristics(variation in the listener’s cognitive activities and in the nature of the interaction between speaker and listener).

5.7 Principles for Teaching Listening
1. Focus on process The skills of listening and reading are often thought of as passive skills. However, they are not at all. People must do many things to process information that they are receiving. First they have to hear what is being said, and then they have to pay attention, and construct a meaningful message in their mind by relating what they hear to what they already know. If the listeners do not have enough previous knowledge of what is being said, it is more difficult to make sense of what is said. So, listening is as active a skill as speaking, and it is very important to design the performance tasks which show how well the students have comprehended the listening material. 2. Combine listening with other skills It is important to develop listening skills together with other skills, especially speaking, because ordinarily, listening is not an isolated skill. Most of the time in real life listening
79

occurs together with speaking and it also occurs with writing, e.g. Taking notes while listening to a lecture. Therefore, Listening can be pracised with note-taking, and answers, role plays, retelling, interviewing, discussions, or a writing task. 3. Focus on comprehending meaning It is important to design tasks that do not ask learners to remember details that they wouldn't even remember in their native language. In fact, psycholinguistic studies have shown that people do not remember the exact form of the message they hear, that is, they don't remember what they hear word for word, rather, they remember the meaning. 4. Grade difficulty level appropriately When designing listening tasks, it is very important to grade the difficulty level of the tasks. Most textbooks do not provide enough variety of types of listening tasks, so the teacher will need to evaluate the tasks provided, adapt and design your own tasks to provide more varieties. 5. Combine intensive listening with extensive listening

5.8 Principles for Selecting and Using Listening Activities
(1) The listening activity must have a real, communicative purpose. (2) The activity must use authentic language without significantly slower or simpler speech than would normally be used in everyday life. (3) Pre-listening tasks (e.g. discussing the topic, brainstorming, presenting vocabulary, sharing of related articles) must be used to stimulate the appropriate background knowledge and help learners identify the purpose of the listening activity. (4) The listening text must offer content that is personally interesting and motivating to learners. (5) To allow listeners to infer meaning from body language and related context clues, the speaker must be visible whenever possible (unless the explicit purpose is to help students understand radio programs or audiotapes) (6) The listening activity must offer many environmental clues to meaning, just as in real-life listening. (7) When possible, the whole listening text should be given, and then it should be divided into parts that can be repeated. This sequence gives listeners time to think and rethink their hypotheses about the meaning of what is said. (8) At the end, the whole text should be given again, and learners should have the opportunity to discuss their hypotheses and how they tested and altered them. (9) The listening activity must require listeners to respond in some meaningful fashion, either individually or in small groups or pairs by saying something, following a command or request, asking a question, taking notes, and so on.
80

(10) The listening activity must be fashioned so that listeners with normal background knowledge are able to understand the topic without doing specialized research, unless the class is focused on language for special purposes. (11) The text of the listening activity must by typical for its own speech type; that is, an informal conversation must have short, redundant, rapid chunks of speech, while a lecture must be more formalized and orderly. (12) The classroom climate surrounding the listening activity must be non-threatening and positive, and simple affective strategies should be used to reduce anxiety if it is present before or during the listening activity. (Oxford, 1993: 210)

5.9 Activities in the Three Teaching Stages 5.9.1. Pre-listening
(1) Looking at pictures before listening Students are asked to look at a picture (or pictures). You may want to assist by checking that the students can name the items which will feature in the listening text. This can be done by question and answer or by general or group discussion. Giving long lists of unknown words and long explanations should be avoided as this does not help the students to listen naturally. Pre-listen 'looking and talking about' is an effective way of reminding students of lexis which may have been forgotten (or perhaps never really known) and of focusing attention on the topic to be listened to. (2) Looking at a list of items/thoughts/etc before listening This type of activity is particularly helpful for practicing newly learned vocabulary with early learners. The list should not consist merely of words which may prove difficult, but should have some purpose of its own in the total listening activity. It could, for example, be a list on which certain items/ideas will be ticked/circled/underlined at the while-listening stage. It should be an integral part of the listening activity as far as the students are concerned but can be exploited as pre-listening material by the teacher. (3) Making lists of possibilities / ideas / suggestions / etc When a listening text contains lists, even short lists, of possibilities / ideas / suggestions or whatever, it is often a good idea to use list-making as the pre-listening activity and then the students can use their own lists as the basis for a while-listening activity. The great advantage of students making lists for themselves is that their lists can only contain words and expressions which they know, or which they learn by asking for help as they make their lists. Any checking-type activity carried out while listening can then be limited to matching with known language. This increases the likelihood of the students succeeding with the task and is therefore motivating, particularly for less able students.
81

(4) Reading a text before listening Frequently, students can be asked to read a text before listening and then to check certain facts while listening. This type of activity is popular with students who feel more secure when they have a printed text in front of them. To be ready to check when they hear the listening text, students need to read quite carefully. Concentration on the written text brings the language which is likely to be heard to mind. Unfortunately, reading in advance in this way may leave those who have learned their English mainly from the printed word still in difficulty when they are listening, as they may be unable to connect the sounds which they hear with the words which they have seen printed on the page. If this is the case, you can assist by contriving, during the pre-listening stage, to speak some of the words which are printed and which you know will occur in the listening text. (5) Reading through questions (to be answered while listening) Many listening activities require students to answer questions based on information they hear. It is very helpful indeed for the students to see the questions before they begin listening to the text. Not only do they then know what they have to seek from the text, but they also benefit from the reading itself, as explained in (4). In addition, the type of questions is jumbled, as their expectations of the order of presentation will not be met. (6) Labeling a picture This is another activity which can be used to revise already known language. It is suitable for pairwork and can generate a lot of discussion. The pre-listening part consists of endeavoring to label a picture or diagram. Even if the students are able to complete all the labels before they hear the listening text, it is still a good activity as they can listen and check whether they are right and get the feeling of satisfaction which comes from immediate feedback. (7) Completing part of a chart This activity can get the students involved in a personal way if they are invited to fill in their own views, judgments or preferences. It is a popular type of activity, perhaps because it is a challenge and an opportunity for students to compare their views and judgments with other people's. How far it assists students in matching the printed word with the heard word depends on the quantity and relevance of the writing used in the chart. (8) Predicting / speculating Predicting precisely what the speaker will say next is a while-listening activity but predicting/speculating in a more general way can be a pre-listening activity. Students can be told something about the speaker(s) and the topic and then asked to suggest what they are likely to hear in the listening text. This is a useful activity with advanced students and adult students who are perhaps more interested in speculating on the likely behavior of individuals in particular situations.

82

(9) Previewing the language which will be heard in the listening text There sometimes are occasions when you have a listening text which provides a good example of the uses of particular language forms in an 'authentic' situation and which you want to use because your class has recently studied these forms. Although you will not wish to neglect the content, or to use an uninteresting topic, you may want to focus on the language itself. In this case, a preview of the language might be the most appropriate form of pre-listening activity. This can be done either through discussion initiated by the teacher or by using prompts in the form of a written text. (10) Informal teacher talk and class discussion This is a very common form of pre-listening activity, particularly when students are about to hear a recorded text. Teachers generally give their students some background information, begin to talk about the topic and indicate what the students should expect to hear. It does, however, require preparations as you need to know in advance what must be included in this talk, otherwise it is easy to go off at a tangent and fail to clarify or establish significant points. You can use this time to motivate the students by making them feel that the actual listening text is really interesting/exciting/amazing. (adapted from Underwood, 1994:35-43)

5.9.2. While listening
(1) Marking/checking items in pictures Having carried out some pre-listening work using a picture, students are then asked to respond to various stimuli (questions/statements) by marking things on the picture. The teacher who has checked through the actual listening text in advance will have used the pre-listening stage to introduce any lexis or expressions which the students are not familiar with or need reminding about, so that the chances of everyone succeeding with the task will be enhanced. There are many activities which fall into this category: identifying people and things, marking items mentioned by the speaker, marking errors, checking details, marking choices, etc. (2) Listen and tick e.g. Which picture? Students hear a description or a conversation and have to decide, from the selection offered, which picture is the 'right' one. The most common pictures used are drawings/photos of people or scenes, indoors or out of doors. This is an activity where the level of difficulty can be changed both by the degree of similarity or contrast between the pictures and by the level of sophistication of the description /conversation. (3) Listen and sequence e.g. Putting pictures in order A number of pictures are presented to the students. The aim is to arrange the pictures in the correct order according to the listening text. Generally the ordering can only be done
83

by numbering each picture, because most exercises of this kind are done from books. It is important not to have too many pictures (up to five or six) and to have a series which cannot be put in order easily without listening at all. (4) Listen and act e.g. Carrying out actions This kind of activity is generally carried out with young learners at the beginning of their course. Simply instructing the class to do a series of actions produces good listening practices, and this can be made more motivating by turning it into some sort of game. (5) Following a route Following a route on a road plan or a map is a popular and reasonably authentic activity. It is the easiest if the map covers a fairly small area, uses road names which are easily recognized and has a small number of features marked on it which will help the listener by confirming that he/she is going the right way, e.g. 'Turn right into Church Road and then go past the station and down to the post office.' When students have got used to following routes, they can be presented with more complicated maps and routes to follow. As pre-listening work they might be asked to suggest the quickest way from A to B, and then the listening text can tell them which is, in fact, the quickest way. (6) Listen and draw e.g. Completing pictures This activity is popular with younger students and is particularly useful at the very early stages of learning when the level of difficulty can be kept very low. It is one of a vast range of activities which entail carrying out instructions. Having looked at the basic outline of the picture, the student is required to follow the instructions and draw in (or colour) various items. (7) Listen and fill e.g. Chart, form, text completion (gap-filling) There is a range of 'information gap' activities based on forms, charts, etc. In all of these students are required to take information from the listening text and use it in various kinds of written (or drawn) completion exercises. This kind of activity proves motivating for most learners, perhaps because it is generally easier to respond to a number of individual stimuli rather than to write down information without a ready-made framework. (8) Listen and label Listening to a short talk/lecture in English and labeling familiar diagrams using English words is a good way of mastering the lexis of a subject with which you are already familiar in your own language. But in addition to this, if the spoken presentation reflects the way

84

lectures on the subject are given in English, then the students also begin to appreciate the format of English lectures. (9) True/False (10) Multiple-choice questions (11) Listen and guess (12) Spotting mistakes This activity can be based on a picture, a printed text or simply facts established orally at the pre-listening stage. If you are in a situation which depends almost entirely on the coursebook, you can use any clear picture in the book as the focus of the activity. You then talk about the picture, making some deliberate mistakes, and the students are required to indicate each time that they spot a mistake. Unless the work is at a fairly elementary level, it is worth preparing this activity as carefully as you prepare the rest of your lesson so that you avoid 'mistake' which might not be clear to your student. (adapted from Underwood, 1994: 49-68)

5.9.3. Post-listening
(1) Answering question (2) Note-taking and gap-filling This is a good example of how while-listening and post-listening is combined. First the students listen to a fairly ling text (depending on the level). The students take note while they are listening. When the listening is finished, the students are given two or three minutes to tidy up the notes. Then the teacher gives the students an incomplete summary of the text that the students have listened to. The students complete the summary based on their notes. They do not have to use the original words from the text. (3) Discussion (4) Extending notes into written responses Brief notes made at the while-listening stage can be extended into written texts, although taking notes while listening is a difficult activity and can only be done by students at a fairly advanced level. The written text which is required can be anything from one-sentence answers to specific questions to long pieces of prose. It is a good idea for the students to listen again after the post-listening writing stage to check their work, as this helps them to make connections between how the language looks and how it sounds. (5) Summarizing Teacher can simply asks for a single sentence or phrase which sums up a passage, in the shape of a possible title. If the material is in dialogue form, students might be asked to define in one sentence what one (or both) of the participants is saying. (6) Using information from the listening text for problem solving and decision-making In these exercises students hear all the information relevant to a particular problem and
85

then set themselves to solve, either individually or through group discussion. They will probably need to hear the information two or three times at first in order to master the details; they may be allowed to hear it again in the course of the solving process. (7) Identifying relationships between speakers (8) Establishing the mood/attitude/behaviour of the speaker (9) Role-play/simulation (10) Dictogloss It is a type of activity in which the teacher reads out a passage in normal speed for two or three times and students are to note down the words they could catch as they listen as much as possible. Then they discuss their understanding of the overall meaning with their classmates. The aim is to stress the use of various listening strategies for overall understanding and 'to guide students towards noting the differences between their reconstructed text and the original and then discover the reasons for their listening difficulties.' (11) Jigsaw listening In jigsaw listening different groups of students listen to different but connected passages, each of which supplies some part of what they need to know. They then come together to exchange and pool their information and are thereby enabled to reconstruct a complete picture of a situation, or perform a task. In other words, the listening comprehension functions as a basis for various other linguistic intellectual activities: paraphrasing and summarizing the heard information for transmission to others; discussing and organizing it into coherent form; applying the results in order to solve a problem. The different passages may simply complement one another,or there may be contradictions or inconsistencies to be resolved. (adapted from Underwood, 1994 ,Wang Qiang, 2006, & Harmer, 2000)

Lecture 6 Teaching Speaking

86

Contents of this Lecture
6.1 Definition of Speaking 6.2 Microskills of Oral Communication 6.3 Characteristics of a Successful Speaking Activity 6.4 Problems with Speaking Activities 6.5 The Principles to Solve Some of the Problems 6.6 The guidelines for Organizing a Communicative Speaking Activity 6.7 Types of Speaking Activities 6.8 The Role of the Teacher 6.9 Tips for Pair Work and Group Work

6.1 Definition of Speaking
Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to conveying meaning. Speaking comes naturally to human, but it is not as simple as it seems. Speaking takes place in 'real time', and speakers do not usually have time to construct their utterances carefully. In conversation, the commonest kind of speaking, we have to do many things all together: understand what the other person is saying, say what we want to when we get the chance to speak, be prepared for unexpected changes of topic, and think of something to say when there is a long pause (Davies & Pearse, 2002). Many people feel that speaking in a new langue is harder than reading, or listening for two reasons. First, unlike reading or writing, speaking happens in real time; usually the person we are talking to is waiting for us to speak right then. Second, when we speak, we cannot edit and revise what we wish to say, as we can if we are writing. Like listening ability, speaking ability should partly be the natural result of using English as the main means of communication in the classroom. But speaking will probably develop more slowly than listening (Davies & Pearse, 2002).

87

6.2 Microskills of Oral Communication
(1) According to the English Curriculum Standards (2003), speaking includes the following strategies. (2) Initiating a topic (3) Keeping a conversation going (4) Chiming in (5) Changing a topic (6) Taking turns (7) Getting others' attention (8) Clarifying meanings (9) Asking for clarification (10) Showing the state of listening attentively and understanding (11) Indicating the closing of a conversation (12) Closing a conversation (13) Using phonetic sounds and intonation to convey meanings Here are also some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to: (1) pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions. (2) use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said. (3) use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, change in the tense, case, or gender. (4) put words together in correct word order. (5) use vocabulary appropriately. (6) use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner. (7) make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses. (8) make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information. (9) make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying.

6.3 Characteristics of a Successful Speaking Activity
1. Maximum foreign talk In successful speaking tasks, the students talk a lot in the foreign language. One common problem in speaking activities is that students often produce one or two simple utterances in the foreign language and spend the rest of the time chatting in their native language. Another common problem is that the teacher talks too much of the time, thus takes away valuable practice time from the students.
88

2. Even participation Whether the task takes place among the whole class or in small groups, a successful task should encourage speaking

相关文章:
幼儿园英语教学设计案例分析
幼儿园英语教学设计案例分析_韩语学习_外语学习_教育专区。幼儿园英语教学设计案例分析 篇一:幼儿园英语教学案例分析 幼儿园英语教学案例分析 为迎接一年一度的万圣节...
初中英语阅读教学设计和案例分析报告
初中英语阅读教学设计和案例分析报告_英语_小学教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档初中英语阅读教学设计和案例分析报告_英语_小学教育_教育专区。初中...
英语教学案例分析
英语教学案例分析 - 英语教学案例分析 Letters and sounds 时间:40 分钟 教材分析: 修订后教材中的字母教学不仅要求学生学习听、说、读、写,辨析字母本身 的音...
初中英语教学设计与案例分析
英语教学案例分析普洱市景东县安定镇中学教师:王彩虹 七年级上册 Unit7 第一课时 一 设计思路 本节课的词汇主要是服饰类的,课型属于听说课。所以在课前先营 造...
英语教学设计与案例分析_图文
英语教学设计与案例分析 - 1. 本课程主要包括课程的导入、语言知识(语音、词汇、语法) 、语言技能(听、说、读、 写) 、课堂管理和教学反思等方面的内容,共分...
初中英语教学设计与案例分析
初中英语教学设计与案例分析上传: 朱秀萍 更新时间:2012-5-19 16:26:20 扩充学生的词汇和习语; 扩充和巩固学生的语法项目; 发展一般性的阅读技能; 掌握推导性...
英语教学设计与案例分析_图文
英语教学设计与案例分析 English Teaching Design & Case Analysis 【课程性质】 本课程是为英语教育硕士学位研究生开设的一门专业必修课。 本课程系统地阐述了中 ...
小学英语教学案例分析
小学英语教学案例分析_教学案例/设计_教学研究_教育专区。教学案例的写法一、案例的结构要素 (1)背景 教学案例应该把背景交代清楚,即说明故事发生的环境和条件,以便...
初中英语阅读教学设计与案例分析
初中英语阅读教学设计与案例分析广西横县横州镇第一初中韦燕妮 阅读是读者与文章的交互过程。传统观点认为阅读就是要从文章中获取信 息,了解文章的内容就是达到了...
初中英语阅读教学设计与案例分析
初中英语阅读教学设计与案例分析石马川学校 杜建军 扩充学生的词汇和习语;扩充和巩固学生的语法项目;发展一般 性的阅读技能;掌握推导性的阅读技能;掌握批判性的阅读...
更多相关标签: