当前位置:首页 >> 文学 >>

胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)各章节提纲笔记及练习


第一部分 各章节提纲笔记 Chapter 1 Invitations to Linguistics

1.1 Why study language? 1. Language is very essential to human beings. 2. In language there are many things we should know. 3. For further understanding, we need to study language scientifically. 1.2 What is language? Language is a means of verbal communication. It is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. 1.3 Design features of language The features that define our human languages can be called design features which can distinguish human language from any animal system of communication. 1.3.1 Arbitrariness Arbitrariness refers to the fact that the forms of linguistic signs bear no natural relationship to their meanings. 1.3.2 Duality Duality refers to the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization. 1.3.3 Creativity Creativity means that language is resourceful because of its duality and its recursiveness. Recursiveness refers to the rule which can be applied repeatedly without any definite limit. The recursive nature of language provides a theoretical basis for the possibility of creating endless sentences. 1.3.4 Displacement Displacement means that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events and concepts which are not present (in time and space) at the moment of conversation. 1.4 Origin of language 1. The bow-wow theory In primitive times people imitated the sounds of the animal calls in the wild environment they lived and speech developed from that. 2. The pooh-pooh theory In the hard life of our primitive ancestors, they utter instinctive sounds of pains, anger and joy which gradually developed into language. 3. The “yo-he-ho” theory As primitive people worked together, they produced some rhythmic grunts which gradually developed into chants and then into language. 1.5 Functions of language
1

As is proposed by Jacobson, language has six functions: 1. Referential: to convey message and information; 2. Poetic: to indulge in language for its own sake; 3. Emotive: to express attitudes, feelings and emotions; 4. Conative: to persuade and influence others through commands and entreaties; 5. Phatic: to establish communion with others; 6. Metalingual: to clear up intentions, words and meanings. Halliday (1994) proposes a theory of metafunctions of language. It means that language has three metafunctions: 1. Ideational function: to convey new information, to communicate a content that is unknown to the hearer; 2. Interpersonal function: embodying all use of language to express social and personal relationships; 3. Textual function: referring to the fact that language has mechanisms to make any stretch of spoken and written discourse into a coherent and unified text and make a living passage different from a random list of sentences. According to Hu Zhuanglin, language has at least seven functions: 1.5.1 Informative The informative function means language is the instrument of thought and people often use it to communicate new information. 1.5.2 Interpersonal function The interpersonal function means people can use language to establish and maintain their status in a society. 1.5.3 Performative The performative function of language is primarily to change the social status of persons, as in marriage ceremonies, the sentencing of criminals, the blessing of children, the naming of a ship at a launching ceremony, and the cursing of enemies. 1.5.4 Emotive function The emotive function is one of the most powerful uses of language because it is so crucial in changing the emotional status of an audience for or against someone or something. 1.5.5 Phatic communion The phatic communion means people always use some small, seemingly meaningless expressions such as Good morning, God bless you, Nice day, etc., to maintain a comfortable relationship between people without any factual content. 1.5.6 Recreational function The recreational function means people use language for the sheer joy of using it, such as a baby’s babbling or a chanter’s chanting. 1.5.7 Metalingual function The metalingual function means people can use language to talk about itself. E.g. I can use the word “book” to talk about a book, and I can also use the expression “the word
2

book” to talk about the sign “b-o-o-k” itself. 1.6 What is linguistics? Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It studies not just one language of any one community, but the language of all human beings. 1.7 Main branches of linguistics 1.7.1 Phonetics Phonetics is the study of speech sounds, it includes three main areas: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, and auditory phonetics. 1.7.2 Phonology Phonology studies the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables. 1.7.3 Morphology Morphology studies the minimal units of meaning – morphemes and word-formation processes. 1.7.4 Syntax Syntax refers to the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences in a language, or simply, the study of the formation of sentences. 1.7.5 Semantics Semantics examines how meaning is encoded in a language. 1.7.6 Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context. 1.8 Macrolinguistics Macrolinguistics is the study of language in all aspects, distinct from microlinguistics, which dealt solely with the formal aspect of language system. 1.8.1 Psycholinguistics Psycholinguistics investigates the interrelation of language and mind, in processing and producing utterances and in language acquisition for example. 1.8.2 Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is a term which covers a variety of different interests in language and society, including the language and the social characteristics of its users. 1.8.3 Anthropological linguistics Anthropological linguistics studies the relationship between language and culture in a community. 1.8.4 Computational linguistics Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which centers around the use of computers to process or produce human language. 1.9 Important distinctions in linguistics 1.9.1 Descriptive vs. prescriptive To say that linguistics is a descriptive science is to say that the linguist tries to discover and record the rules to which the members of a language-community actually conform and does not seek to impose upon them other rules, or norms, of correctness.
3

Prescriptive linguistics aims to lay down rules for the correct use of language and settle the disputes over usage once and for all. For example, “Don’t say X.” is a prescriptive command; “People don’t say X.” is a descriptive statement. The distinction lies in prescribing how things ought to be and describing how things are. In the 18th century, all the main European languages were studied prescriptively. However, modern linguistics is mostly descriptive because the nature of linguistics as a science determines its preoccupation with description instead of prescription. 1.9.2 Synchronic vs. diachronic A synchronic study takes a fixed instant (usually at present) as its point of observation. Saussure’s diachronic description is the study of a language through the course of its history. E.g. a study of the features of the English used in Shakespeare’s time would be synchronic, and a study of the changes English has undergone since then would be a diachronic study. In modern linguistics, synchronic study seems to enjoy priority over diachronic study. The reason is that unless the various state of a language are successfully studied it would be difficult to describe the changes that have taken place in its historical development. 1.9.3 Langue & parole Saussure distinguished the linguistic competence of the speaker and the actual phenomena or data of linguistics as langue and parole. Langue is relative stable and systematic, parole is subject to personal and situational constraints; langue is not spoken by an individual, parole is always a naturally occurring event. What a linguist should do, according to Saussure, is to draw rules from a mass of confused facts, i.e. to discover the regularities governing all instances of parole and make them the subject of linguistics. 1.9.4 Competence and performance According to Chomsky, a language user’s underlying knowledge about the system of rules is called the linguistic competence, and the actual use of language in concrete situations is called performance. Competence enables a speaker to produce and understand and indefinite number of sentences and to recognize grammatical mistakes and ambiguities. A speaker’s competence is stable while his performance is often influenced by psychological and social factors. So a speaker’s performance does not always match his supposed competence. Chomsky believes that linguists ought to study competence, rather than performance. Chomsky’s competence-performance distinction is not exactly the same as, though similar to, Saussure’s langue-parole distinction. Langue is a social product and a set of conventions of a community, while competence is deemed as a property of mind of each individual. Saussure looks at language more from a sociological or sociolinguistic point of view than Chomsky since the latter deals with his issues psychologically or psycholinguistically. 1.9.5 Etic vs. emic Being etic means researchers’ making far too many, as well as behaviorally and inconsequential, differentiations, just as often the case with phonetics vs. phonemics
4

analysis in linguistics proper. An emic set of speech acts and events must be one that is validated as meaningful via final resource to the native members of a speech community rather than via appeal to the investigator’s ingenuity or intuition alone. Following the suffix formations of (phon)etics vs (phon)emics, these terms were introduced into the social sciences by Kenneth Pike (1967) to denote the distinction between the material and functional study of language: phonetics studies the acoustically measurable and articulatorily definable immediate sound utterances, whereas phonemics analyzes the specific selection each language makes from that universal catalogue from a functional aspect. Chapter 2 Speech Sounds 2.1 Speech production and perception Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. It includes three main areas: 1. Articulatory phonetics – the study of the production of speech sounds 2. Acoustic phonetics – the study of the physical properties of the sounds produced in speech 3. Auditory phonetics – the study of perception of speech sounds Most phoneticians are interested in articulatory phonetics. 2.2 Speech organs Speech organs are those parts of the human body involved in the production of speech. The speech organs can be considered as consisting of three parts: the initiator of the air stream, the producer of voice and the resonating cavities. 2.3 Segments, divergences, and phonetic transcription 2.3.1 Segments and divergences As there are more sounds in English than its letters, each letter must represent more than one sound. 2.3.2 Phonetic transcription International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): the system of symbols for representing the pronunciation of words in any language according to the principles of the International Phonetic Association. The symbols consists of letters and diacritics. Some letters are taken from the Roman alphabet, some are special symbols. 2.4 Consonants 2.4.1 Consonants and vowels A consonant is produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some places to divert, impede, or completely shut off the flow of air in the oral cavity. A vowel is produced without obstruction so no turbulence or a total stopping of the air can be perceived. 2.4.2 Consonants The categories of consonant are established on the basis of several factors. The most important of these factors are: 1. the actual relationship between the articulators and thus the way in which the air
5

2.4.3

2.4.4

passes through certain parts of the vocal tract (manner of articulation); 2. where in the vocal tract there is approximation, narrowing, or the obstruction of the air (place of articulation). Manners of articulation 1. Stop/plosive: A speech sound which is produced by stopping the air stream from the lungs and then suddenly releasing it. In English, [??????] are stops ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? and [???] are nasal stops. ?? ?? 2. Fricative: A speech sound which is produced by allowing the air stream from the lungs to escape with friction. This is caused by bringing the two articulators, e.g. the upper teeth and the lower lip, close together but not closes enough to stop the airstreams completely. In English, [?????????] are fricatives. ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? 3. (Median) approximant: An articulation in which one articulator is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced. In English this class of sounds includes [???]. ?? ?? 4. Lateral (approximant): A speech sound which is produced by partially blocking the airstream from the lungs, usually by the tongue, but letting it escape at one or both sides of the blockage. [?] is the only lateral in English. Other consonantal articulations include trill, tap or flap, and affricate. Places of articulation 1. Bilabial: A speech sound which is made with the two lips. 2. Labiodental: A speech sound which is made with the lower lip and the upper front teeth. 3. Dental: A speech sound which is made by the tongue tip or blade and the upper front teeth. 4. Alveolar: A speech sound which is made with the tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge. 5. Postalveolar: A speech sound which is made with the tongue tip and the back of the alveolar ridge. 6. Retroflex: A speech sound which is made with the tongue tip or blade curled back so that the underside of the tongue tip or blade forms a stricture with the back of the alveolar ridge or the hard palate. 7. Palatal: A speech sound which is made with the front of the tongue and the hard palate. 8. Velar: A speech sound which is made with the back of the tongue and the soft palate. 9. Uvular: A speech sound which is made with the back of the tongue and the uvula, the short projection of the soft tissue and muscle at the posterior end of the velum. 10. Pharyngeal: A speech sound which is made with the root of the tongue and the walls of the pharynx.
6

11. Glottal: A speech sound which is made with the two pieces of vocal folds pushed towards each other. 2.4.5 The consonants of English Received Pronunciation (RP): The type of British Standard English pronunciation which has been regarded as the prestige variety and which shows no regional variation. It has often been popularly referred to as “BBC English” or “Oxford English” because it is widely used in the private sector of the education system and spoken by most newsreaders of the BBC network. A chart of English consonants Place of articulation Manner of PostLabioarticulation Palatal Velar Glottal Bilabial Dental Alveolar dental alveolar Stop ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ??? Nasal ? ? ? Fricative ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ? Approximant ? ? ? Lateral ? Affricate ???? ? In many cases there are two sounds that share the same place and manner of articulation. These pairs of consonants are distinguished by voicing, the one appearing on the left is voiceless and the one on the right is voiced. Therefore, the consonants of English can be described in the following way: [p] voiceless bilabial stop [b] voiced bilabial stop [s] voiceless alveolar fricative [z] voiced alveolar fricative [m] bilabial nasal [n] alveolar nasal [l] alveolar lateral [j] palatal approximant [h] glottal fricative [r] alveolar approximant 2.5 Vowels 2.5.1 The criteria of vowel description 1. The part of the tongue that is raised – front, center, or back. 2. The extent to which the tongue rises in the direction of the palate. Normally, three or four degrees are recognized: high, mid (often divided into mid-high and mid-low) and low. 3. The kind of opening made at the lips – various degrees of lip rounding or spreading. 4. The position of the soft palate – raised for oral vowels, and lowered for vowels
7

which have been nasalized. 2.5.2 The theory of cardinal vowels Cardinal vowels are a set of vowel qualities arbitrarily defined, fixed and unchanging, intending to provide a frame of reference for the description of the actual vowels of existing languages. By convention, the eight primary cardinal vowels are numbered from one to eight as follows: CV1[?], CV2[?], CV3[?], CV4[?], CV5[?], CV6[?], CV7[?], CV8[?]. A set of secondary cardinal vowels is obtained by reversing the lip-rounding for a give position: CV9 – CV16. [I am sorry I cannot type out many of these. If you want to know, you may consult the textbook p. 47. 2.5.3 Vowel glides Pure (monophthong) vowels: vowels which are produced without any noticeable change in vowel quality. Vowel glides: Vowels where there is an audible change of quality. Diphthong: A vowel which is usually considered as one distinctive vowel of a particular language but really involves two vowels, with one vowel gliding to the other. 2.5.4 The vowels of RP [??] high front tense unrounded vowel [?] high back lax rounded vowel [?] central lax unrounded vowel [?] low back lax rounded vowel 2.6 Coarticulation and phonetic transcription 2.6.1 Coarticulation Coarticulation: The simultaneous or overlapping articulation of two successive phonological units. Anticipatory coarticulation: If the sound becomes more like the following sound, as in the case of lamp, it is known as anticipatory coarticulation. Perseverative coarticulation: If the sound displays the influence of the preceding sound, as in the case of map, it is perseverative coarticulation. Nasalization: Change or process by which vowels or consonants become nasal. Diacritics: Any mark in writing additional to a letter or other basic elements. 2.6.2 Broad and narrow transcriptions The use of a simple set of symbols in our transcription is called a broad transcription. The use of more specific symbols to show more phonetic detail is referred to as a narrow transcription. The former was meant to indicate only these sounds capable of distinguishing one word from another in a given language while the latter was meant to symbolize all the possible speech sounds, including even the minutest shades of pronunciation. 2.7 Phonological analysis Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. It includes three main areas: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, and auditory phonetics. On the other hand, phonology studies the rules
8

governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables. There is a fair degree of overlap in what concerns the two subjects, so sometimes it is hard to draw the boundary between them. Phonetics is the study of all possible speech sounds while phonology studies the way in which speakers of a language systematically use a selection of these sounds in order to express meaning. That is to say, phonology is concerned with the linguistic patterning of sounds in human languages, with its primary aim being to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages, and to explain the variations that occur. 2.8 Phonemes and allophones 2.8.1 Minimal pairs Minimal pairs are two words in a language which differ from each other by only one distinctive sound and which also differ in meaning. E.g. the English words tie and die are minimal pairs as they differ in meaning and in their initial phonemes /t/ and /d/. By identifying the minimal pairs of a language, a phonologist can find out which sound substitutions cause differences of meaning. 2.8.2 The phoneme theory 2.8.3 Allophones A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. Any of the different forms of a phoneme is called its allophones. E.g. in English, when the phoneme /?/ occurs at the beginning of the word like peak /????/, it is said with a little puff of air, it is aspirated. But when /?/ occurs in the word like speak /?????/, it is said without the puff of the air, it is unaspirated. Both the aspirated [??] in peak and the unaspirated [?=] in speak have the same phonemic function, i.e. they are both heard and identified as /?/ and not as /?/; they are both allophones of the phoneme /?/. 2.9 Phonological processes 2.9.1 Assimilation Assimilation: A process by which one sound takes on some or all the characteristics of a neighboring sound. Regressive assimilation: If a following sound is influencing a preceding sound, we call it regressive assimilation. Progressive assimilation: If a preceding sound is influencing a following sound, we call it progressive assimilation. Devoicing: A process by which voiced sounds become voiceless. Devoicing of voiced consonants often occurs in English when they are at the end of a word. 2.9.2 Phonological processes and phonological rules The changes in assimilation, nasalization, dentalization, and velarization are all phonological processes in which a target or affected segment undergoes a structural change in certain environments or contexts. In each process the change is conditioned or triggered by a following sound or, in the case of progressive assimilation, a preceding sound. Consequently, we can say that any phonological process must have three aspects to it: a set of sounds to undergo the process; a set of sounds produced by the process; a set of
9

situations in which the process applies. We can represent the process by mans of an arrow: voiced fricative → voiceless / __________ voiceless. This is a phonological rule. The slash (/) specifies the environment in which the change takes place. The bar (called the focus bar) indicates the position of the target segment. So the rule reads: a voiced fricative is transformed into the corresponding voiceless sound when it appears before a voiceless sound. 2.9.3 Rule ordering Distinctive features Distinctive feature: A particular characteristic which distinguishes one distinctive sound unit of a language from another or one group of sounds from another group. Binary feature: A property of a phoneme or a word which can be used to describe the phoneme or word. A binary feature is either present or absent. Binary features are also used to describe the semantic properties of words. 2.11 Syllables Suprasegmental features: Suprasegmental features are those aspects of speech that involve more than single sound segments. The principal suprasegmental features are syllables, stress, tone, and intonation. Syllable: A unit in speech which is often longer than one sound and smaller than a whole word. Open syllable: A syllable which ends in a vowel. Closed syllable: A syllable which ends in a consonant. Maximal onset principle: The principle which states that when there is a choice as to where to place a consonant, it is put into the onset rather than the coda. E.g. The correct syllabification of the word country should be /??????/. It shouldn’t be /??????/ or /??????/ ? ? ? according to this principle. 2.12 Stress Stress refers to the degree of force used in producing a syllable. In transcription, a raised vertical line [?] is used just before the syllable it relates to. Chapter 3 Lexicon 3.1 What is word? 1. What is a lexeme? A lexeme is the smallest unit in the meaning system of a language that can be distinguished from other similar units. It is an abstract unit. It can occur in many different forms in actual spoken or written sentences, and is regarded as the same lexeme even when inflected. E.g. the word “write” is the lexeme of “write, writes, wrote, writing and written.” 2. What is a morpheme? A morpheme is the smallest unit of language in terms of relationship between expression and content, a unit that cannot be divided into further smaller units without destroying or drastically altering the meaning, whether it is lexical or grammatical. E.g. the word “boxes”
10

2.10

has two morphemes: “box” and “es,” neither of which permits further division or analysis shapes if we don’t want to sacrifice its meaning. 3. What is an allomorph? An allomorph is the alternate shapes of the same morpheme. E.g. the variants of the plurality “-s” makes the allomorphs thereof in the following examples: map – maps, mouse – mice, ox – oxen, tooth – teeth, etc. 4. What is a word? A word is the smallest of the linguistic units that can constitute, by itself, a complete utterance in speech or writing. 3.1.1 Three senses of “word” 1. A physically definable unit 2. The common factor underlying a set of forms 3. A grammatical unit 3.1.2 Identification of words 1. Stability Words are the most stable of all linguistic units, in respect of their internal structure, i.e. the constituent parts of a complex word have little potential for rearrangement, compared with the relative positional mobility of the constituents of sentences in the hierarchy. Take the word chairman for example. If the morphemes are rearranged as * manchair, it is an unacceptable word in English. 2. Relative uninterruptibility By uninterruptibility, we men new elements are not to be inserted into a word even when there are several parts in a word. Nothing is to be inserted in between the three parts of the word disappointment: dis + appoint + ment. Nor is one allowed to use pauses between the parts of a word: * dis appoint ment. 3. A minimum free form This was first suggested by Leonard Bloomfield. He advocated treating sentence as “the maximum free form” and word “the minimum free form,” the latter being the smallest unit that can constitute, by itself, a complete utterance. 3.1.3 Classification of words 1. Variable and invariable words In variable words, one can find ordered and regular series of grammatically different word form; on the other hand, part of the word remains relatively constant. E.g. follow – follows – following – followed. Invariable words refer to those words such as since, when, seldom, through, hello, etc. They have no inflective endings. 2. Grammatical words and lexical words Grammatical words, a.k.a. function words, express grammatical meanings, such as, conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns, are grammatical words. Lexical words, a.k.a. content words, have lexical meanings, i.e. those which refer to substance, action and quality, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, are lexical words.
11

Closed-class words and open-class words Closed-class word: A word that belongs to the closed-class is one whose membership is fixed or limited. New members are not regularly added. Therefore, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, etc. are all closed items. Open-class word: A word that belongs to the open-class is one whose membership is in principle infinite or unlimited. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and many adverbs are all open-class items. 4. Word class This is close to the notion of parts of speech in traditional grammar. Today, word class displays a wider range of more precisely defined categories. Here are some of the categories newly introduced into linguistic analysis. (1) Particles: Particles include at least the infinitive marker “to,” the negative marker “not,” and the subordinate units in phrasal verbs, such as “get by,” “do up,” “look back,” etc. (2) Auxiliaries: Auxiliaries used to be regarded as verbs. Because of their unique properties, which one could hardly expect of a verb, linguists today tend to define them as a separate word class. (3) Pro-forms: Pro-forms are the forms which can serve as replacements for different elements in a sentence. For example, in the following conversation, so replaces that I can come. A: I hope you can come. B: I hope so. (4) Determiners: Determiners refer to words which are used before the noun acting as head of a noun phrase, and determine the kind of reference the noun phrase has. Determiners can be divided into three subclasses: predeterminers, central determiners and postdeterminers. 3.2 The formation of word 3.2.1 Morpheme and morphology Morphology studies the internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed. 3.2.2 Types of morphemes 1. Free morpheme and bound morpheme Free morphemes: Those which may occur alone, that is, those which may constitute words by themselves, are free morphemes. Bound morphemes: Those which must appear with at least another morpheme are called bound morphemes. 2. Root, affix and stem A root is the base form of a word that cannot further be analyzed. An affix is the collective term for the type of formative that can be used only when added to another morpheme. A stem is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an inflectional affix can be added.
12

3.

3.2.3

A root is the base form of a word that cannot further be analyzed without total loss of identity. That is to say, it is that part of the word left when all the affixes are removed. In the word internationalism, after the removal of inter-, -al and -ism, what is left is the root nation. All words contain a root morpheme. A root may be free or bound. E.g. black in blackbird, blackboard and blacksmith; -ceive in receive, conceive and perceive. A few English roots may have both free and bound variants. E.g. the word sleep is a free root morpheme, whereas slep- in the past tence form slept cannot exist by itself, and therefore bound. A stem is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an inflectional affix can be added. E.g. friend- in friends and friendship- in friendships are both stems. The former shows that a stem can be equivalent to a root, whereas the latter shows that a stem may contain a root and a derivational affix. 3. Inflectional affix and derivational affix Inflection is the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness, aspect and case, which do not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached. The distinction between inflectional affixes and derivational affixes is sometimes known as a distinction between inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes. We can tell the difference between them with the following ways: (1) Inflectional affixes very often add a minute or delicate grammatical meaning to the stem. E.g. toys, walks, John’s, etc. Therefore, they serve to produce different forms of a single word. In contrast, derivational affixes often change the lexical meaning. E.g. cite, citation, etc. (2) Inflectional affixes don’t change the word class of the word they attach to, such as flower, flowers, whereas derivational affixes might or might not, such as the relation between small and smallness for the former, and that between brother and brotherhood for the latter. (3) Inflectional affixes are often conditioned by nonsemantic linguistic factors outside the word they attach to but within the phrase or sentence. E.g. the choice of likes in “The boy likes to navigate on the internet.” is determined by the subject the boy in the sentence, whereas derivational affixes are more often based on simple meaning distinctions. E.g. The choice of clever and cleverness depends on whether we want to talk about the property “clever” or we want to talk about “the state of being clever.” (4) In English, inflectional affixes are mostly suffixes, which are always word final. E.g. drums, walks, etc. But derivational affixes can be prefixes or suffixes. E.g. depart, teacher, etc. Inflection and word formation 1. Inflection Inflection is the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness, aspect and case, which do
13

not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached. 2. Word formation Word formation refers to the process of word variations signaling lexical relationships. It can be further subclassified into the compositional type (compound) and derivational type (derivation). (1) Compound Compounds refer to those words that consist of more than one lexical morpheme, or the way to join two separate words to produce a single form, such as ice-cream, sunrise, paper bag, railway, rest-room, simple-minded, wedding-ring, etc. The head of a nominal or an adjectival endocentric compound is deverbal, that is, it is derived from a verb. Consequently, it is also called a verbal compound or a synthetic compound. Usually, the first member is a participant of the process verb. E.g. Nouns: self-control, pain-killer, etc. Adjectives: virus-sensitive, machine washable, etc. The exocentric compounds are formed by V + N, V + A, and V + P, whereas the exocentric come from V + N and V + A. E.g. Nouns: playboy, cutthroat, etc. Adjectives: breakneck, walk-in, etc. (2) Derivation Derivation shows the relation between roots and suffixes. In contrast with inflections, derivations can make the word class of the original word either changed or unchanged. 3.2.4 The counterpoint of phonology and morphology 1. Allomorph: Any of the different forms of a morpheme. 2. Morphophonology / morphophonemics: Morphophonology is a branch of linguistics referring to the analysis and classification of the phonological factors that affect the appearance of morphemes, and correspondingly, the grammatical factors that affect the appearance of phonemes. It is also called morphonology or morphonemics. 3. Assimilation: Assimilation refers to the change of a sound as a result of the influence of an adjacent sound, which is more specifically called “contact” or “contiguous” assimilation. 4. Dissimilation: Dissimilation refers to the influence exercised by one sound segment upon the articulation of another, so that the sounds become less alike, or different. 3.3 Lexical change 3.3.1 Lexical change proper 1. Invention Since economic activities are the most important and dynamic in human life, many new lexical items come directly from the consumer items, their producers or their brand names. 2. Blending
14

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.3.4

Blending is a relatively complex form of compounding, in which two words are blended by joining the initial part of the first word and the final part of the second word, or by joining the initial parts of the two words. 3. Abbreviation / clipping A new word is created by cutting the final part, cutting the initial part or cutting both the initial parts of the original words. 4. Acronym Acronym is made up from the first letters of the name of an organization, which has a heavily modified headword. 5. Back-formation Back-formation refers to an abnormal type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imaged affix from a longer form already in the language. 6. Analogical creation The principle of analogical creation can account for the co-existence of two forms, regular and irregular, in the conjugation of some English verbs. 7. Borrowing English in its development has managed to widen her vocabulary by borrowing words from other languages. Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, Arabic and other languages have all played an active role in this process. Phonological change 1. Loss The loss of sound can first refer to the disappearance of the very sound as a phoneme in the phonological system. The loss of sounds may also occur in utterances at the expense of some unstressed words. 2. Addition Sounds may be lost but they may also be added to the original sound sequence. 3. Metathesis Metathesis is a process involving an alternation in the sequence of sounds. Metathesis had been originally a performance error, which was overlooked and accepted by the speech community. 4. Assimilation Assimilation refers to the change of a sound as a result of the influence of an adjacent sound, which is more specifically called “contact” or “contiguous” assimilation. Morpho-syntactical change 1. Morphological change The form of inflectional affixes may also change. 2. Syntactical change There are more instances of changes in the syntactical features of words Semantic change
15

Broadening Broadening is a process to extend or elevate the meaning from its specific sense to a relatively general one. 2. Narrowing Contrary to broadening, the original meaning of a word can be narrowed or restricted to a specific sense. 3. Meaning shift All semantic changes involve meaning shift. Here meaning shift is understood in its narrow sense, i.e. the change of meaning has nothing to do with generalization or restriction as mentioned above. 4. Class shift By shifting the word class one can change the meaning of a word from a concrete entity or notion to a process or attribution. This process of word formation is also known as zero-derivation, or conversion. 5. Folk etymology Folk etymology refers to a change in form of a word or phrase, resulting from an incorrect popular notion of the origin or meaning of the term or from the influence of more familiar terms mistakenly taken to be analogous. 3.3.5 Orthographic change Changes can also be found at the graphitic level. Since writing is a recording of the sound system in English, phonological changes will no doubt set off graphitic changes. Chapter 4 Syntax 4.1 The traditional approach 4.1.1 Number, gender and case 4.1.2 Tense and aspect For these two sections, please consult materials on traditional English grammar. 4.1.3 Concord and government Concord (a.k.a. agreement) may be defined as the requirement that the forms of two or more words in a syntactic relationship should agree with each other in terms of some categories. E.g. in English the determiner and the noun it precedes should concord in number as in this man, these men. And the form of a subject should agree with that of the verb in terms of number in the present tense, e.g. He speaks English; They speak English. Government is another type of control over the form of some words by other words in certain syntactic construction. It differs from concord in that this is a relationship in which a word of a certain class determines the form of others in terms of certain category. E.g. in English, the pronoun after a verb or a preposition should be in the object form as in She gave him a book; She gave a book to him. In other words, the verb, or the preposition, governs the form of the pronoun after it. The former is the governor, and the latter is the governed. 4.2 The structural approach
16

1.

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations Syntagmatic (a.k.a. horizontal / chain) relation is a relation between one item and others in a sequence, or between elements which are all present, such as the relation between weather and the others in the following sentence: If the weather is nice, we’ll go out. Paradigmatic (a.k.a. vertical / choice) relation is a relation holding between elements replaceable with each other at a particular place in a structure, or between one element present and the others absent. 4.2.2 Immediate constituent analysis (IC analysis) 1. How to do it Immediate constituents are constituents immediately, directly, below the level of a construction, which may be a sentence or a word group or a word. Immediate constituent analysis, IC analysis for short, refers to the analysis of a sentence in terms of its immediate constituents – word groups (phrases), which are in turn analyzed into the immediate constituents of their own, and the process goes on until the ultimate sake of convenience. The IC analysis of a sentence may be carried out with brackets or shown with a tree diagram. E.g. Poor John ran away. → (1) ((Poor) (John)) ((ran) (away)). (2) Poor John ran away

4.2.1

2. Its advantages Through IC analysis, the internal structure of a sentence may be demonstrated clearly, any ambiguities, if any, will be revealed in that IC analysis emphasizes not only the linear structure of the sentence but also the hierarchical structure of the sentence. E.g. the sentence Leave the book on the shelf. is ambiguous. It has two meanings: (1) Put the book on the shelf; (2) Don’t touch the book on the shelf. These two meanings can be shown by the following tree diagrams. (Omitted. See the textbook p125~128.) 3. Its problems However, IC analysis has three disadvantages. First, at the beginning, some advocator insisted on binary divisions. Any construction, at any level, will be cut into two parts. But this is not possible. E.g. Old men and women is ambiguous in that it may mean old + men and women or old men + and women. It’s impossible to combine with only the preceding part or only the succeeding part. Second, constructions with discontinuous constituents will pose technical problems for tree diagrams in IC analysis. E.g. the phrasal verbs like make up, turn on, or give up will cause problems in that when the object is expressed by a pronoun, it will interrupt the phrasal verb as in make it up. The most serious problem is that there are structural ambiguities which cannot be revealed by IC analysis. E.g. the tree diagram and the labels can only do one analysis for the love of God.
17

Endocentric and exocentric constructions An endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent, or approaching equivalence, to one of its constituents, which serves as the center, or head, of the whole. It is also called headed construction. Typical endocentric constructions are noun phrases, verb phrases and adjective phrases. They may be further divided into two subtypes: subordinate and coordinate constructions. Those, in which there is only one head, with the head being dominant and the other constructions dependent, are subordinate constructions. In the coordinate construction, there are more than one head, e.g. boys and girls, in which the two content constituents, boys and girls, are of equal syntactic status, and no one is dependent on the other. The exocentric construction is defined negatively as a construction whose distribution is not functionally equivalent to any of its constituents. There is no noticeable center or head in it. Typical exocentric constructions are prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, English basic sentences, and the verb plus object constructions. 4.3 The generative approach 4.3.1 Deep and surface structures In transformational generative grammar (a.k.a. T-G grammar), the deep structure may be defined as the abstract representation of the syntactic properties of a construction, i.e. the underlying level of structural relations between its different constituents, such as the relation between the underlying subject and its verb, or a verb and its object. The surfaces structure is the final stage in the syntactic derivation of a construction, which closely corresponds to the structural organization of a construction people actually produce and receive. The example for the surface structure is The newspaper was not delivered today. The deep structure of the above sentence would be something like: (negative) someone (past tense) deliver the newspaper today (passive). The items in brackets are not lexical items but grammatical concepts which shape the final form of the sentence. Rules which describe deep structure are in the first part of the grammar (base component). Rules which transform these structures into surface structures (transformational rules) are in the second part of the grammar (transformational component). 4.3.2 The standard theory and after What is the trace theory? After the movement of an element in a sentence there will be a trace left in the original position. This is the notion trace in T-G grammar. It’s suggested that if we have the notion trace, all the necessary information for semantic interpretation may come from the surface structure. E.g. The passive Dams are built by beavers. differs from the active Beavers built dams. in implying that all dams are built by beavers. If we add a trace element represented by the letter t after built in the passive as Dams are built t by beavers, then the deep structure information that the word dams was originally the object of built is also captured by the surface structure. Trace theory proves to be not only theoretically significant but also empirically valid.
18

4.2.3

4.3.3

Government, binding, etc. 1. Constituent command / C-command: α c-commands β if α does not dominate β and every γ that dominates α also dominates β, as shown in the diagram below: γ

α 2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

β Binding theory: Part of the government / binding theory. It examines connections between noun phrases in sentences and explores the way they relate and refer to each other. (1) An anaphor is bound in its governing category. (2) A pronominal is free in its governing category. (3) An r-expression is free. Binding: The notion binding is borrowed from logic, which refers to the relation between a quantifier and a variable, that is a variable is bound by a quantifier. In the generative approach, binding refers to the relation between different referring word and the subject of a sentence containing it. Anaphor: A process where a word or phrase refers back to another word or phrase which was used earlier in a text or conversation. In a narrow sense, it used to include only reflexives like myself and reciprocals like each other. Pronominal: A pronominal refers to pronouns other than reflexives and reciprocals. R-expression: A r-expression, as the abbreviation of a referential-expression, covers all the other r-expressions except anaphors and pronominals, e.g. John, Bill, the man. The D-structure and the S-structure In Government / Binding theory, the D-structure is an abstract level of sentence representation where semantic roles such as an agent (the doer of an action) and patient (the entity affected by an action) are assigned to the sentence. Agent is sometimes also referred to as the logical subject and patient as the rheme of the sentence. E.g. (in simplified form) Vera shoot intruders Agent or logical subject patient or rheme The next level of sentence representation is the S-structure where syntactic / grammatical cases such as nominative / grammatical subject and accusative / grammatical object are assigned. E.g. (in simplified form) Vera (agent) shoot intruders (patient / rheme) Grammatical subject grammatical object The phonetic form (PF) component and the logical form (LF) component are then needed to turn the S-structure into a surface sentence. The PF component
19

presents the S-structure as sound, and the LF component gives the syntactic meaning of the sentence. 4.4 The functional approach 4.4.1 Functional sentence perspective 1. Functional sentence perspective (FSP) The functional sentence perspective (FSP) is a type of linguistic analysis associated with the Prague School which describes how information is distributed in sentences. FSP deals particularly with the effect of the distribution of known information and new information in discourse. The known information (known as theme), refers to information that is not new to the reader or listener. The rheme refers to information that is new. FSP differs from the traditional grammatical analysis of sentences because the distribution between subject-predicate is not always the same as theme-rheme contrast. E.g. (1) John sat in the front seat Subject predicate Theme rheme (2) In the front seat sat John. Predicate subject Theme rheme John is the grammatical subject in both sentences, but theme in (1) and rheme in (2). 2. Communicative dynamism (CD) By CD Firbas means the extent to which the sentence element contributes to the development of the communication. 4.4.2 Systemic-functional grammar 1. The material process (a process of doing): the representation of outer experience. 2. The mental process (a process of sensing): the representation of inner experience. 3. The relational process (a process of being): the relation between one experience and another. 4. The behavioral process (a process of behavioring): physiological and psychological behavior. 5. The verbal process (a process of saying): any kinds of symbolic exchange of meaning. 6. The existential process (a process of happening): a representation of something in existence or happening. Chapter 5 Meaning 5.1 Meanings of “meaning” 1. Meaning: Meaning refers to what a language expresses about the world we live in or any possible or imaginary world. 2. Connotation: The additional meaning that a word or phrase has beyond its central meaning. 3. Denotation: That part of the meanings of a word or phrase that relates it to phenomena in
20

the real world or in a fictional or possible word. 4. Different types of meaning (Recognized by Leech, 1974) (1) Conceptual meaning: Logical, cognitive, or denotative content. (2) Associative meaning a. Connotative meaning: What is communicated by virtue of what language refers to. b. Social meaning: What is communicated of the social circumstances of language use. c. Affective meaning: What is communicated of the feelings and attitudes of the speaker / writer. d. Reflected meaning: What is communicated through association with another sense of the same expression. e. Collocative meaning: What is communicated through association with words which tend to occur in the environment of another word. (3) Thematic meaning: What is communicated by the way in which the message is organized in terms of order and emphasis. 5. The difference between meaning, concept, connotation, and denotation Meaning refers to the association of language symbols with the real world. There are many types of meaning according to different approaches. Concept is the impression of objects in people’s mind. Connotation is the implied meaning, similar to implication. Denotation, like sense, is not directly related with objects, but makes the abstract assumption of the real world. 5.2 The referential theory 1. The referential theory: The theory of meaning which relates the meaning of a word to the thing it refers to, or stands for, is known as the referential theory. 2. The semantic triangle theory Ogden and Richards presented the classic “Semantic Triangle” as manifested in the following diagram, in which the “symbol” refers to the linguist elements (word, sentence, etc.), the “referent” refers to the object in the world of experience, and the “thought” or “reference” refers to concept or notion. Thus the symbol of a word signifies “things” by virtue of the “concept,” associated with the form of the word in the mind of the speaker of the language. The concept thus considered is the meaning of the word. The connection (represented with a dotted line) between symbol and referent is made possible only through “concept.” Concept / notion Thought / reference

Symbolizes

Refers to

21

---------------------Symbol object Word stands for reality Signifier referent Code signified 5.3 Sense relations 5.3.1 Synonymy Synonymy is the technical name for the sameness relation. 5.3.2 Antonymy Antonymy is the name for oppositeness relation. There are three subtypes: gradable, complementary and converse antonymy. 1. Gradable antonymy Gradable antonymy is the commonest type of antonymy. They are mainly adjectives, e.g. good / bad, long / short, big / small, etc. 2. Complementary antonymy The members of a pair in complementary antonymy are complementary to each other. That is, they divide up the whole of a semantic filed completely. Not only the assertion of one means the denial of the other, the denial of one also means the assertion of the other, e.g. alive / dead, hit / miss, male / female, boy / girl, etc. 3. Converse antonymy Converse antonyms are also called relational opposites. This is a special type of antonymy in that the members of a pair do not constitute a positive-negative opposition. They show the reversal of a relationship between two entities, e.g. buy / sell, parent / child, above / below, etc. 5.3.3 Hyponymy Hyponymy involves us in the notion of meaning inclusion. It is a matter of class membership. That is to say, when x is a kind of y, the lower term x is the hyponym, and the upper term y is the superordinate. Two or more hyponyms of the same one superordinate are called co-hyponyms, e.g. under flower, there are peony, jasmine, tulip, violet, rose, etc., flower is the superordinate of peony, jasmine, etc., peony is the hyponym of flower, and peony, jasmine, tulip, violet, rose, etc. are co-hyponyms. 5.4 Componential analysis Componential analysis defines the meaning of a lexical element in terms of semantic components. That is, the meaning of a word is not an unanalyzable whole. It may be seen as a complex of different semantic features. There are semantic units smaller than the meaning of a word. E.g. Boy: [+human][-adult][+male] Girl: [+human][-adult][-male] Son: child (x, y) & male (x) Daughter: child (x, y) & -male (x) Take: cause (x, (have (x, y)))
22

Give: cause (x, (-have (x, y))) 5.5 Sentence meaning 5.5.1 An integrated theory 1. Compositionality: A principle for sentence analysis, in which the meaning of a sentence depends on the meanings of the constituent words and the way they are combine. 2. Selection restrictions: Restrictions on the choice of individual lexical units in construction with other units. E.g. the word breathe will typically select an animate subject (boy, man, woman, etc.) not an abstract or an inanimate (table, book, etc.). The boy was still breathing. The desk was breathing. 5.5.2 Logical semantics 1. Prepositional logic / prepositional calculus / sentential calculus: Prepositional logic is the study of the truth conditions for propositions: how the truth of a composite proposition is determined by the truth value of its constituent propositions and the connections between them. 2. Predicate logic / predicate calculus: Predicate logic studies the internal structure of simple propositions. Chapter 6 Language Processing in Mind 6.1 Introduction 1. Language is a mirror of the mind in a deep and significant sense. 2. Language is a product of human intelligence, created a new in each individual by operation that lie far beyond the reach of will or consciousness. 3. Psycholinguistics “proper” can perhaps be glossed as the storage, comprehension, production and acquisition of language in any medium (spoken or written). 4. Psycholinguistics is concerned primarily with investigating the psychological reality of linguistic structures. 5. The differences between psycholinguistics and psychology of language. Psycholinguistics can be defined as the storage, comprehension, production and acquisition of language in any medium (spoken or written). It is concerned primarily with investigating the psychological reality of linguistic structures. On the other hand, the psychology of language deals with more general topics such as the extent to which language shapes thought, and from the psychology of communication, includes non-verbal communication such as gestures and facial expressions. 6. Cognitive psycholinguistics: Cognitive psycholinguistics is concerned above all with making inferences about the content of the human mind. 7. Experimental psycholinguistics: Experimental psycholinguistics is mainly concerned with empirical matters, such as speed of response to a particular word. 6.1.1 Evidence 1. Linguists tend to favor descriptions of spontaneous speech as their main source of evidence, whereas psychologists mostly prefer experimental studies.
23

The subjects of psycholinguistic investigation are normal adults and children on the one hand, and aphasics----people with speech disorders-----on the other. The primary assumption with regard to aphasic patient that a breakdown in some part of language could lead to an understanding of which components might be independent of others. 6.1.2 Current issues 1. Modular theory: Modular theory assumes that the mind is structured into separate modules or components, each governed by its own principles and operating independently of others. 2. Cohort theory: The cohort theory hypothesizes that auditory word recognition begins with the formation of a group of words at the perception of the initial sound and proceeds sound by sound with the cohort of words decreasing as more sounds are perceived. This theory can be expanded to deal with written materials as well. Several experiments have supported this view of word recognition. One obvious prediction of this model is that if the beginning sound or letter is missing, recognition will be much more difficult, perhaps even impossible. For example: Gray tie------ great eye; a name-----an aim; an ice man-----a nice man; I scream-----ice cream; See Mable----seem able; well fare----welfare; lookout------look out ; decade-----Deck Eight; Layman------laymen; persistent turn------persist and turn 3. Psychological reality: The reality of grammar, etc. as a purported account of structures represented in the mind of a speaker. Often opposed, in discussion of the merits of alternative grammars, to criteria of simplicity, elegance, and internal consistency. 4. The three major strands of psycholinguistic research: (1) Comprehension: How do people use their knowledge of language, and how do they understand what they hear or read? (2) Production: How do they produce messages that others can understand in turn? (3) Acquisition: How language is represented in the mind and how language is acquired? 6.2 Language comprehension 6.2.1 Word recognition 1. An initial step in understanding any message is the recognition of words. 2. One of the most important factors that effects word recognition is how frequently the word is used in a given context. 3. Frequency effect: describes the additional ease with which a word is accessed due to its more frequent usage in the language. 4. Recency effect: describe the additional ease with which a word is accessed due to its repeated occurrence in the discourse or context. 5. Another factor that is involved in word recognition is Context.
24

2.

6.2.2

6.2.3

Semantic association network represents the relationships between various semantically related words. Word recognition is thought to be faster when other members of the association network are provided in the discourse. Lexical ambiguity 1. lexical ambiguity: ambiguity explained by reference to lexical meanings: e.g. that of I saw a bat, where a bat might refer to an animal or, among others, stable tennis bat. 2. There are two main theories: (1) All the meanings associated with the word are accessed, and (2) only one meaning is accessed initially. e.g. a. After taking the right turn at the intersection…. “right” is ambiguous: correct vs. rightward b. After taking the left turn at the intersection… “left” is unambiguous Syntactic processing 1. Once a word has been dentified , it is used to construct a syntactic structure. 2. As always, there are cinokucatuibs due to the ambiguity of individual words and to the different possible ways that words can be fit into phrases. Sometimes there is no way to determine which structure and meaning a sentence has. e.g. The cop saw the spy with the binoculars. “with the binoculars” is ambiguity (1) the cop employed binoculars in order to see the spy. (2) it specifies “the spy has binoculars.” 3. Some ambiguities are due to the ambiguous category of some of the words in the sentence. e.g. the desert trains, trains (培训;列车) the desert trains man to be hardly. 沙漠使人坚韧。 The desert trains seldom run on time.沙漠列车从不准时。 4. One interesting phenomenon concerning certain ambiguous sentences is called the “garden path.” Garden path sentences are sentences that are initially interpreted with a different structure than they actually have. It typically takes quite a long time to figure out what the other structure is if the first choice turns out to be incorrect. Sometimes people never figure it out. They have been “led up the garden path”, fooled into thinking the sentence has a different structure than it has. Reduced relative clauses quite frequently cause this feeling of having been garden-pathed. e.g. “The horse raced past the barn fell.” means “the horse that was raced past the barn fell.” 5. the minimal attachment theory: It would be inefficient for people to assume all these infinite structures until they get some positive evidence for one of them. And if they arbitrarily choice one of the possibilities, they are most likely to choose the simplest. The idea is that people initially construct the simplest (or
25

6.

least complex) syntactic structure when interpreting the structure of sentences. This is called the minimal attachment theory. 6.2.4 Semantics and sentence memory 1. Assimilation theory: Assimilation theory refers to language (sound, word, syntax, etc.) change or process by which features of one element change to match those of another that precedes or follows. 2. Context effect: Context effect helps people recognize a word more readily when the preceding words provide an appropriate context for it. 3. Inference in context: Inference in context refers to any conclusion drawn from a set of propositions, from something someone has said, and so on. It includes things that, while not following logically, are implied in an ordinary sense. 6.2.5 Basic processes in reading 1. Perceptual span: The perceptual span is the range of letters from which useful information is extracted. The perceptual span varies depending on factors such as the size of the print, the complexity of the text, and so on. It is typically the case, however, that the perceptual span encompasses about three or four letters to the left of fixation and some fifteen letters to the right of fixation. 2. The immediacy assumption: The reader is supposed to carry out the processes required to understand each word and its relationship to previous words in the sentence as soon as that word is encountered. 6.3 Discourse / text interpretations 1. General context effects: General context effects occur when our general knowledge about the world influences language comprehension. 2. Specific context effects: Specific context effects involve information obtained from earlier parts of a discourse. 6.3.1 Schemata and inference drawing 1. Schemata refers to packets of stored knowledge. Its features are as follows: (1) Schemata can vary considerably in the information they contain, from the very simple to the very complex. (2) Schemata are frequently organized hierarchically; e.g. in addition to a rather general restaurant schema or script, we probably also have more specific restaurant schemata for different kinds of restaurant (e.g. fast-food places, up-market French restaurant, and so on.) (3) Schemata operate in a top-down or conceptually driven way to facilitate interpretation of environmental stimuli. 2. The inferences which people draw are stored in long-term memory along with information about the sentences actually presented. As a result, they will sometimes mistakenly believe on a subsequent memory test that they previously heard or saw an inference. 6.3.2 Story structure 1. Story structure refers to the way in which various parts of story are arranged or
26

organized. 2. A macroproposition refers to the general proposition used to form an overall macrostructure of the story. 6.4 Language production 6.4.1 Speech production 1. Five different levels of representation involved in speaking a sentence: (1) The massage-level representation: this is an abstract, pre-linguistic representation of the idea or ideas that the speaker wants to communicate. (2) The functional-level representation: this is an outline of the proposed utterance having grammatical structure; in other words, the slots for nouns, adjectives, and so on are allocated, but there are no actual words to fill the slots. (3) The positional-level representation: this differs from the functional level representation in that it incorporates the words of the sentence that is to be produced. (4) The phonetic-level representation: this indicates some of the necessary information about the ways in which words in the intended sentences are pronounced. (5) The articulatory-level representation: this is the final representation, and contains a set of instructions for articulating the words in the sentence in the correct order. 2. Spoonerism / slip of the tongue: Spoonerism refers to the fact that the initial letter or letters of two words are transposed. 3. Anticipation error: An anticipation error occurs when a word is spoken earlier in the sentence than it should be. E.g. the sentence “The school is at school.” is wrong. The correct form should be “The boy is at school.” 4. Exchange error: An exchange error refers to the fact that two items within a sentence are swapped. E.g. the sentence “This is the happiest life of my day.” is wrong. The correct form should be “This is the happiest day of my life.” 5. Morpheme-exchange error: A morpheme-exchange error refers to the fact that the roots or basic forms of two words are switched leaving the grammatical structure unchanged. E.g. the sentence “He has already trunked two packs.” is wrong. The correct form should be “He has already packed two trunks.” 6.4.2 Written language 1. Writing process: According to Hayes and Flower (1986), writing consists of three interrelated processes: (1) The planning process, which involves producing ideas and arranging them into a writing plan appropriate to the writer’s goals. (2) The sentence generation process, which translates the writing plan into actual sentences that can be written down. (3) The revision process, which involves an evaluation of what has been written
27

so far; this evaluation can encompass individual words at one extreme or the overall structure of the writing at the other extreme. 2. The strategic knowledge and the knowledge-telling theory The strategic knowledge is knowledge of the methods used in constructing a writing plan in order to make it coherent and well-organized. The knowledge-telling strategy means that children simply write down everything they can think of that is relevant to a topic without organizing the information in any way, because they often lack the strategic knowledge. Chapter 7 Language, Culture and Society 7.1 Language and culture 1. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis What the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests is like this: our language helps mould our way of thinking and, consequently, different languages may probably express our unique ways of understanding the world. Following this argument, two important points could be captured in the theory. On the one hand, language may determine our thinking patterns; on the other hand, similarity between language is relative, the greater their structural differentiation is, the more diverse their conceptualization of the world will be. For this reason, this hypothesis has alternatively been referred to as linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity. This hypothesis has two versions: a strong and a weak version. The strong version of the theory refers to the claim the original hypothesis suggests, emphasizing the decisive role of language as the shaper of our thinking patterns. The weak version, however, is a modified type of its original theory, suggesting that there is a correlation between language, culture, and thought, but the cross-cultural differences thus produced in our ways of thinking are relative, rather than categorical. 2. Context of situation (1) The relevant features of the participants: persons, personalities: a. The verbal action of the participants b. The non-verbal action of the participants (2) The relevant objects (3) The effects of the verbal action 3. Speech community: Speech community refers to a group of people who form a community, e.g. a village, a region, a nation, and who have at least one speech variety in common. 4. Gender difference: Gender difference is the difference in a speech between men and women. 5. Linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity: Linguistic determinism is one of the two points in S-W hypothesis, i.e. language determines thought. Linguistic relativity is the other point: there is no limit to the structural diversity of languages. 6. Ethnography of communication: The study of place of language in culture and society. Language is not studied in isolation but within a social or cultural setting. Ethnography of communication studies, e.g. how people in a particular group or community communicate
28

with each other and how the social relationships between these people affect the type of language they use. 7. Cross-cultural communication: An exchange of ideas, information, etc. between persons from different cultural backgrounds. 8. What are the aims of teaching culture in language class? There are at least three objectives for us to teach culture in our class: (1) To get the students familiar with cultural differences; (2) To help the students transcend their own culture and see things as the members of the target culture will; (3) To emphasize the inseparability of understanding language and culture through various classroom practices. All this lead to a belief that a good understanding of structural things in some cases has much to do with a conscious understanding of the cultural background of the target language from language learners. In other words, a successful master of a given language has much to do with an understanding of that culture, because language and culture are correlated with each other at different levels of linguistic structure. 7.2 Language and society 1. How many social factors are believed to influence our language behaviors in a social context? The following social factors are believed to influence our language behaviors in a social context: (1) Class; (2) Gender; (3) Age; (4) Ethnic identity; (5) Education background; (6) Occupation; (7) Religious belief. 2. What are the sociolinguistic study of society and the sociolinguistic study of language> If we want to know more about a given society or community by examining the linguistic behavior of its members, we are doing a sociolinguistic study of society. That is to say, we are doing sociolinguistics at a macro level of investigation. At this level of discussion things that we are interested in include bilingualism or multilingualism, language attitude, language choice, language maintenance and shift, language planning and standardization, vernacular language education, etc. On the other hand, if we want to know more about some linguistic variations in language use by turning to potential socio-cultural factors for a description and explanation, we are doing a sociolinguistic study of language. Consequently, we are more interested in examining micro linguistic phenomena such as structural variants, address forms, gender differences, discourse analysis, Pidgin and Creole languages, and other more language-related issues. 3. What are vernacular, Pidgin and Creole?
29

Vernacular refers to the native language of a country, not of a foreign origin or learned formation; or the indigenous language or dialect of a region. Pidgin is a mixed or blended language used by people who speak different languages for restricted purposes such as trading. Pidgins arose as a result of mixing two languages such as a Chinese dialect and English, an African dialect and French, etc. Creole is a pidgin that has become the primary language of a speech community, and is acquired by the children of that community as their native language. 4. What is discourse analysis? Discourse analysis refers to the study of how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units such as paragraphs, conversation, interviews, etc. Analysis of spoken discourse is sometimes called conversational analysis. Some linguistics use the term text linguistics for the study of written discourse. Recent analyses have been carried out on discourse in the classroom. Such analyses can be useful in finding out bout the effectiveness of teaching methods and the types of teacher-student relationships. 5. What are bilingualism, diglossia, and multilingualism? Bilingualism refers to the use of at least two languages either by an individual or by a group of speakers, such as the inhabitants of a particular region or a nation. Bilingualism is common in the province of Quebec in Canada where both English and French are spoken, and parts of Wales, where both Welsh and English are spoken. When two languages or language varieties exist side by side in a community and each one is used for different purposes, this is called diglossia. Usually, one is a more standard variety called the high variety, which is sued in government, the media, education, and for religious services. The other one is usually a non-prestige variety called the low variety, which is used in the family, with friends, when shopping, etc. Multilingualism refers to the use of three or more languages by an individual or by a group of speakers such as the inhabitants of a particular region or a nation. Multilingualism is common in Malaysia, Singapore, Israel, etc. Chapter 8 Language in Use What is pragmatics? What’s the difference between pragmatics and semantics? Pragmatics is the study of the use of language in communication, particularly the relationships between sentences and the contexts and situations in which they are used. Pragmatics includes the study of (1) How the interpretation and use of utterances depends on knowledge of the real world; (2) How speakers use and understand speech acts; (3) How the structure of sentences is influenced by the relationship between the speaker and the hearer. Pragmatics is sometimes contrasted with semantics, which deals with meaning without reference to the users and communicative functions of sentences. 8.1 Speech act theory 8.1.1 Performatives and constatives 1. Performative: In speech act theory an utterance which performs an act, such as
30

Watch out (= a warning). 2. Constative: An utterance which asserts something that is either true or force. E.g. Chicago is in the United States. 3. Felicity conditions of performatives: (1) There must be a relevant conventional procedure, and the relevant participants and circumstances must be appropriate. (2) The procedure must be executed correctly and completely. (3) Very often, the relevant people must have the requisite thoughts, feelings and intentions, and must follow it up with actions as specified. 8.1.2 A theory of the illocutionary act 1. What is a speech act? A speech act is an utterance as a functional unit in communication. In speech act theory, utterances have two kinds of meaning. Propositional meaning (locutionary meaning): This is the basic literal meaning of the utterance which is conveyed by the particular words and structures which the utterance contains. Illocutionary meaning (illocutionary force): This is the effect the utterance or written text has on the reader or listener. E.g. in I’m thirsty, the propositional meaning is what the utterance says about the speaker’s physical state. The illocutionary force is the effect the speaker wants the utterance to have on the listener. It may be intended as request for something to drink. A speech act is a sentence or utterance which has both propositional meaning and illocutionary force. A speech act which is performed indirectly is sometimes known as an indirect speech act, such as the speech act of the requesting above. Indirect speech acts are often felt to be more polite ways of performing certain kinds of speech act, such as requests and refusals. 2. Locutionary act: A distinction is made by Austin in the theory of speech acts between three different types of acts involved in or caused by the utterance of a sentence. A locutionary act is the saying of something which is meaningful and can be understood. 3. Illocutionary act: An illocutionary act is using a sentence to perform a function. 4. Perlocutionary act: A perlocutionary act is the results or effects that are produced by means of saying something. 8.2 The theory of conversational implicature 8.2.1 The cooperative principle 1. The cooperative principle (CP) Cooperative principle refers to the “co-operation” between speakers in using the maxims during the conversation. There are four conversational maxims: (1) The maxim of quantity: a. Make your contribution as informative as required. b. Don’t make your contribution more informative than is required.
31

8.2.2 ?

?

?

?

?

(2) The maxim of quality: Try to make your contribution one that is true. a. Don’t say what you believe to be false. b. Don’t say that for which you lack adequate evidence. (3) The maxim of relation: Say things that are relevant. (4) The maxim of manner: Be perspicuous. a. Avoid obscurity of expression. b. Avoid ambiguity. c. Be brief. d. Be orderly. 2. Conversational implicature: The use of conversational maxims to imply meaning during conversation is called conversational implicature. Violation of the maxims 1. Conversational implicature In our daily life, speakers and listeners involved in conversation are generally cooperating with each other. In other words, when people are talking with each other, they must try to converse smoothly and successfully. In accepting speakers’ presuppositions, listeners have to assume that a speaker is not trying to mislead them. This sense of cooperation is simply one in which people having a conversation are not normally assumed to be trying to confuse, trick, or withhold relevant information from one another. However, in real communication, the intention of the speaker is often not the literal meaning of what he or she says. The real intention implied in the words is called conversational implicature. For example: [1] A: Can you tell me the time? B: Well, the milkman has come. In this little conversation, A is asking B about the time, but B is not answering directly. That indicates that B may also not no the accurate time, but through saying “the milkman has come”, he is in fact giving a rough time. The answer B gives is related to the literal meaning of the words, but is not merely that. That is often the case in communication. The theory of conversational implicature is for the purpose of explaining how listeners infer the speakers’ intention through the words. 2. The CP The study of conversational implicature starts from Grice (1967), the American philosopher. He thinks, in daily communication, people are observing a set of basic rules of cooperating with each other so as to communicate effectively through conversation. He calls this set of rules the cooperative principle (CP) elaborated in four sub-principles (maxims). That is the cooperative principle. We assume that people are normally going to provide an appropriate amount of information, i.e. they are telling the relevant truth clearly. The cooperative principle given by Grice is an idealized case of communication. However, there are more cases that speakers are not fully adhering to the
32

?

?

?

principles. But the listener will assume that the speaker is observing the principles “in a deeper degree”. For example: [2] A: Where is Bill? B: There is a yellow car outside Sue’s house. In [2], the speaker B seems to be violating the maxims of quantity and relation, but we also assume that B is still observing the CP and think about the relationship between A’s question and the “yellow car” in B’s answer. If Bill has a yellow car, he may be in Sue’s house. If a speaker violate CP by the principle itself, there is no conversation at all, so there cannot be implicature. Implicature can only be caused by violating one or more maxims. 3. Violation of the CP (1) The people in conversation may violate one or more maxims secretly. In this way, he may mislead the listener. For this case, in the conversation [2] above, we assume that B is observing the CP and Bill has a yellow car. But if B is intentionally trying to mislead A to think that Bill is in Sue’s house, we will be misled without knowing. In this case, if one “lies” in conversation, there is no implicature in the conversation, only the misleading. (2) He may declare that he is not observing the maxims or the CP. In this kind of situation, the speaker directly declares he is not cooperating. He has made it clear that he does not want to go on with the conversation, so there is no implicature either. (3) He may fall into a dilemma. For example, for the purpose observing the first principle of the maxim of quantity (make your contribution as informative as is required), he may be violating the second principle of the maxim of quality (do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence). For this case, Grice gave an example: [3] A: Where does C live? B: Somewhere in the south of France. In [3], if B knows that A is going to visit C, his answer is violating the maxim of quantity, because he is not giving enough information about where C lives. But he has not declared that he will not observe the maxims. So we can know that B knows if he gives more information, he will violate the principle “do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence”. In other words, he has fallen into a “dilemma”. So we can infer that his implicature is that he does not know the exact address of C. In this case, there is conversational implicature. (4) He may “flout” one or more maxims. In other words, he may be obviously not observing them. The last situation is the typical case that can make conversational implicature.
33

Once the participant in a conversation has made an implicature, he or she is making use one of the maxims. We can see that from the following examples: [4] A: Where are you going with the dog? B: To the V-E-T. In [4], the dog is known to be able to recognize the word “vet” and to hate being taken there. Therefore, A makes the word spelled out. Here he is “flouting” the maxim of manner, making the implicature that he does not want the dog to know the answer to the question just asked. [5] (In a formal get-together) A: Mrs. X is an old bag. B: The weather has been quite delightful this summer, hasn’t it? B is intentionally violating the maxim of relation in [5], implicating that what A has said is too rude and he should change a topic. 8.2.3 Characteristics of implicature 1. Calculability 2. Cancellability / defeasibility 3. Non-detachability 4. Non-conventionality 8.3 Post-Gricean developments 8.3.1 Relevance theory This theory was formally proposed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson in their book Relevance: Communication and Cognition in 1986. They argue that all Gricean maxims, including the CP itself, should be reduced to a single principle of relevance, which is defined as: Every act of ostensive communication communicates the presumption of its own optimal relevance. 8.3.2 The Q- and R-principles These principles were developed by L. Horn in 1984. The Q-principle is intended to invoke the first maxim of Grice’s Quantity, and the R-principle the relation maxim, but the new principles are more extensive than the Gricean maxims. The definition of the Q-principle (hearer-based) is: (1) Make your contribution sufficient (cf. quantity); (2) Say as much as you can (given R). The definition of the R-principle (speaker-based) is: (1) Make your contribution necessary (cf. Relation, Quantity-2, Manner); (2) Say no more than you must (given Q) 8.3.3 The Q-, I- and M-principles This tripartite model was suggested by S. Levinson mainly in his 1987 paper Pragmatics and the Grammar of Anaphor: A Partial Pragmatic Reduction of Binding and Control Phenomena. The contents of these principles are: Q-principle: Speaker’s maxim: Do not provide a statement that is informationally weaker than
34

your knowledge of the world allows, unless providing a stronger statement would contravene the I-principle. Recipient’s corollary: Take it that the speaker made the strongest statement consistent with what he knows, and therefore that: (1) If the speaker asserted A (W), and <S, W> form a Horn scale, such that A (S) || (A (W)), then one can infer K ~ (A (S)), i.e. that the speaker knows that the stronger statement would be false. (2) If the speaker asserted A (W) and A (W) fails to entail an embedded sentence Q, which a stronger statement A (S) would entail, and {S, W} form a contrast set, then one can infer ~ K (Q), i.e. the speaker does not know whether Q obtains or not. I-principle Speaker’s maxim: the maxim of minimization Say as little as necessary, i.e. produce the minimal linguistic information sufficient to achieve your communicational ends. Recipient’s corollary: the enrichment rule Amplify the informational content of the speaker’s utterance, by finding the most specific interpretation, up to what you judge to be the speaker’s m-intended point. M-principle Speaker’s maxim: Do not use a prolix, obscure or marked expression without reason. Recipient’s corollary: If the speaker used a prolix or marked expression M, he did not mean the same as he would have, had he used the unmarked expression U – specifically he was trying to avoid the stereotypical associations and I-implicatures of U. Chapter 9 Language and Literature 9.1 Theoretical background 1. Style: Style refers to variation in a person’s speech or writing or a particular person’s use of speech or writing at all times or to a way of speaking or writing at a particular period of time. 2. Stylistics: According to H. G. Widdowson, stylistics is the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. He treated literature as discourse, thus adopting a linguistic approach. This brings literature and linguistics closer. 9.2 Some general features of the literary language 9.2.1 Foregrounding and grammatical form 1. Foregrounding: Foreground refers to the part of a scene nearest to the viewer, or figuratively the most noticeable position. Foregrounding means to put something or someone in the most essential part of the description or narration, other than in a background position. 2. In literary texts, the grammatical system of the language is often exploited, experimented with, or in Mukarovsky’s words, made to “deviate from other, more everyday, forms of language, and as a result creates interesting new patterns in form and in meaning. 9.2.2 Literal language and figurative language
35

Literal language: The first meaning for a word that a dictionary definition gives is usually called literal meaning. 2. Figurative language: A. k. a. trope, which refers to language used in a figurative way for a rhetorical purpose. We can use some figures of speech such as simile, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, etc. 9.2.3 The analysis of literary language (Omit. Refer to p288-290 of the textbook.) 9.3 The language in poetry 9.3.1 Sound patterning 9.3.2 Different forms of sound patterning 1. Rhyme (end rhyme): The last word of a line has the same final sounds as the last word of another line, sometimes immediately above or below, sometimes one or more lines away (cVC). 2. Alliteration: The initial consonants are identical in alliteration (Cvc). 3. Assonance: Assonance describes syllables with a common vowel (cVc). 4. Consonance: Syllables ending with the same consonants are described as having consonance (cvC). 5. Reverse rhyme: Reverse rhyme describes syllables sharing the vowel and initial consonant (CVc). 6. Pararhyme: Where two syllables have the same initial and final consonants, but different vowels, they pararhyme (CvC). 7. Repetition: A complete match of the syllable (CVC). 9.3.3 Stress and metrical patterning 1. Iamb: An iambic foot contains two syllables, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one. 2. Trochee: A trochaic foot contains two syllables as well, but in this case, the stressed syllable comes first, followed by an unstressed syllable. 3. Anapest: An anapestic foot consists of three syllables; two unstressed syllables are followed by a stressed one. 4. Dactyl: A dactylic foot is similar to anapest, except reversed – a stressed syllable is followed by two unstressed ones. 5. Spondee: A spondaic foot consists of two stressed syllables; lines of poetry rarely consist only of spondees. 6. Pyrrhic: A pyrrhic foot consists of two unstressed syllables. 7. Metrical patterning (1) Dimeter (2) Trimeter (3) Tetrameter (4) Pentameter (5) Hexameter
36

1.

9.3.4

9.3.5

9.3.6

(6) Heptameter (7) Octameter Conventional forms of meter and sound 1. Couplets: Couplets are two lines of verse, usually connected by a rhyme. 2. Quatrains: Stanzas of four lines, known as quatrains, are very common in English poetry. 3. Blank verse: Blank verse consists of lines in iambic pentameter which do not rhyme. The poetic functions of sound and meter 1. For aesthetic pleasure 2. To conform to a convention / style / form 3. To express or innovate with a form 4. To demonstrate technical skill, and for intellectual pleasure 5. For emphasis or contrast 6. Onomatopoeia How to analyze poetry? 1. Read a poem more than once. 2. Keep a dictionary and use it. Other reference books will also be invaluable. A good book on mythology and a Bible. 3. Read so as to hear the sounds of the words in your mind. Poetry is written to be heard: its meanings are conveyed through sound as well as through print. One should read a poem as slowly as he can. Lip reading is a good habit. 4. Always pay careful attention to what the poem is saying. One should make an effort to follow the thought continuously and to grasp the full implications and suggestions. 5. As aids to the understanding of a poem, we may ask some questions about. (1) Who is the speaker and what kind of person is he? (2) To whom is he speaking? What kind of person is he? (3) What is the occasion? (4) What is the setting in time (time of day, season, century)? (5) What is the setting in place (in doors or out, city or country, nation)? (6) What is the central purpose of the poem? (7) State the central idea or theme of the poem in a sentence. (8) Discuss the tone of the poem. How is it achieved? (9) Outline the poem so as to show its structure and development; or summarize the events of the poems. (10) Paraphrase the poem. (11) Discuss the diction of the poem. Point out words that are particularly well chosen and explain why. (12) Discuss the imagery of the poem. What kinds of imagery are used? (13) Point out examples of metaphor, simile, personification, and metonymy,
37

etc., and explain their appropriateness. (14) Point out and explain any symbols. (15) Point out and explain examples of paradox, overstatement, understatement and irony. What is their function? (16) Point and explain any allusions. What is their function? (17) Point out significant examples of sound repetition and explain their function. (18) What is the meter of the poem? Copy the poem and mark its scansion. (19) Discuss the adaptation of sound to sense. (20) Describe the form or pattern of the poem. (21) Criticize and evaluate the poem. 9.4 The language in fiction 9.4.1 Fictional prose and point of view 1. First-person narrator (I-narrator): The person who tells the story may also be a character in the fictional world of the story, relating the story after the event. In this case, the critics call the narrator a first-person narrator or an I-narrator because when the narrator refers to himself or herself in the story the first person pronoun “I” is used. 2. Third-person narrator: If the narrator is not a character in the fictional world, he or she is usually called a third-person narrator, because reference to all the characters in the fictional world of the story will involve the use of the third-person pronouns, he, she, it or they. 3. Deixis: A term for a word or phrase which directly relates an utterance to a time, place, or a person. 9.4.2 Speech and thought presentation 1. Speech presentation (1) Direct speech (DS): A kind of speech presentation in which the character said in its fullest form. (2) Indirect speech (IS): A kind of speech presentation in which the speaker’s words are not reported as they were actually said. (3) Free indirect speech (FIS): A further category which is an amalgam of direct and indirect speech features. (4) Narrator’s representation of speech acts (NRSA): A minimalist kind of presentation in which a part of passage can be seen as a summary of a longer piece of discourse, and therefore even more back-grounded than indirect representation would be. (5) Narrator’s representation of speech (NRS): A possibility of speech presentation which is more minimalist than narrator’s representation of speech acts, namely a sentence which merely tells us the speech occurred, and which does not even specify the speech acts involved. 2. Thought presentation
38

(1) Direct thought (DT): Direct thought tends to be used for presenting conscious, deliberative thought. E.g. “He will be late,” she thought. (2) Indirect thought (IT): A kind of categories used by novelists to represent the thoughts of their characters are exactly as that used to present indirect speech. E.g. She thought that he would be late. (3) Free indirect thought (FIS): A kind of mixture of direct and indirect features. E.g. He was bound to be late! (4) Narrator’s representation of thought acts (NRTA): A kind of categories used by novelists to represent the thoughts of their characters is exactly as that used to present speech acts. E.g. She considered his unpunctuality. (5) Narrator’s representation of speech (NRS): A possibility of speech presentation which is more minimalist than narrator’s representation of speech acts, namely a sentence which merely tells us the speech occurred, and which does not even specify the speech acts involved. (6) Stream of consciousness writing: The term stream of consciousness was originally coined by the philosopher William James in his Principle of Psychology (1890) to describe the free association of ideas and impressions in the mind. It was later applied to the writing of William Faulkner, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf and others experimenting early in the 20th century with the novelistic portrayal of the free flow of thought. 9.4.3 Prose style 1. Authorial style: When people talk of style, they usually mean authorial style. This refers to the “world view” kind of authorial style. In other words a way of writing which recognizably belongs to a particular writer, say Jane Austin or Earnest Hemingway. 2. Text style: Text style looks closely at how linguistic choices help to construct textual meaning. Just as authors can be said to have style, so can text. 9.4.4 How to analyze the language of fiction? 1. Patterns of lexis (vocabulary); 2. Patterns of grammatical organization; 3. Patterns of textual organization (how the units of textual organization, from sentences to paragraphs and beyond, are arranged); 4. Fore-grounded features, including figures of speech (rhetorical devices); 5. Whether any patterns of style variation can be discerned; 6. Discoursal patterning of various kinds, like turn-taking or patterns of inferencing; 7. Patterns of viewpoint manipulation, including speech and thought presentation. 9.5 The language in drama Chapter 10 Language and Computer What is computational linguistics? Computational linguistics is a branch of applied linguistics, dealing with computer processing of human language.
39

(1) It includes the analysis of language data so as to establish the order in which learners acquire various grammatical rules or the frequency of occurrence of some particular item. (2) It includes electronic production of artificial speech and the automatic recognition of human speech. (3) It includes research on automatic translation between natural languages. (4) It also includes text processing and communication between people and computers. 10.1 Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) 10.1.1 CAL / CAI vs. CALL CAI (Computer-assisted instruction) means the use of a computer in a teaching program. CAL (Computer-assisted learning) refers to the use of a computer in teaching and learning and in order to help achieve educational objectives. CAI aims at seeing educational problems on the part of the teacher, whereas CAL emphasizes the use of a computer in both teaching and learning. CALL (Computer-assisted language learning) means the use of a computer in the teaching or learning of a second or foreign language. If CAI or CAL deals with teaching and learning problems in general, CALL deals with language teaching and learning in particular. 10.1.2 Phases of CALL development (4 periods) 1. During this period, computers were large mainframe machines kept in research institutions. 2. Small computers appeared and cost cheaper than before, which made a generation of programs possible. 3. The learning was not so much supplied by the language of the text itself as by the cognitive problem-solving techniques and the interaction between students in the group. 4. Instead of writing specific programs for language teaching, word-processing has adapted to language teaching by enabling students to compose and try our their writings in a non-permanent form. 10.1.3 Technology 1. Customizing, template, and authoring programs. 2. Computer networks. 3. Compact disk technology 4. Digitized sound. 10.2 Machine translation (MT) 10.2.1 History of development 1. The independent work by MT researchers 2. Towards good quality output 3. The development of translate tools 10.2.2 Research methods 1. Linguistic approach 2. The practical approaches (1) The transfer approach
40

(2) The inter-lingual approach (3) Knowledge-based approach 10.2.3 MT Quality 10.2.4 MT and the Internet 10.2.5 Spoken language translation 10.2.6 MT and human translation At the beginning of the new century, it is apparent that MT and human translation can and will co-exist in relative harmony. Those skills which the human translators can contribute will always be in demand. (1) When translation has to be of “publishable” quality, both human translation and MT have their roles. MT plays an important part in large scale and rapid translation of boring technical documentation, highly repetitive software localization manuals, and many other situations where the costs of human translation are much higher than the ones of MT. By contrast, the human translators are and will remain unrivalled for non-repetitive linguistically sophisticated texts (e.g. in literature and law), and even for one-off texts in specific highly-specialized technical subjects. (2) For the translation of texts where the quality of output is much less important, MT is often an ideal solution. (3) For the one-to-one interchange of information, there will probably always be a role for the human translators. But for the translation of personal letters, MT systems are likely to be increasingly used; and, for electronic mail and for the extraction of information from web pages and computer-based information services, MT is the only feasible solution. (4) As for spoken translation, there must surely always be a market for the human translators. But MT systems are opening up new areas where human translation has never featured: the production of draft versions for authors writing in a foreign language, who need assistance in the translation of information from databases; and no doubt, more such new applications will appear in the future as the global communication networks expand and as the realistic usuality of MT becomes familiar to a wider public. 10.3 Corpus linguistics 10.3.1 Definition 1. Corpus (pl. corpora): A collection of linguistic data, either compiled as written texts or as a transcription of recorded speech. The main purpose of a corpus is to verify a hypothesis about language – for example, to determine how the usage of a particular sound, word, or syntactic construction varies. 2. Corpus linguistics: Corpus linguistics deals with the principles and practice of using corpora in language study. A computer corpus is a large body of machine-readable texts. 10.3.2 Criticisms and the revival of corpus linguistics 10.3.3 Concordance 10.3.4 Text encoding and annotation
41

It should be possible to remove the annotation from an annotated corpus in order to revert to the raw corpus. 2. It should be possible to extract the annotation by themselves from the text. 3. The annotation scheme should be based on guidelines which are available to the end user. 4. It should be made clear how and by whom the annotation was carried out. 5. The end user should be made aware that the corpus annotation is not infallible, but simply a potentially useful tool. 6. Annotation schemes should be based as far as possible on widely agreed and theory-neutral principles. 7. No annotation scheme has a priori right to be considered as a standard. 10.3.5 The roles of corpus data 1. Speech research 2. Lexical studies 3. Semantics 4. Sociolinguistics 5. Psycholinguistics 10.4 Information retrieval (IR) 10.4.1 Scope defined Data retrieval vs. information retrieval Data retrieval Information retrieval Matching Exact match Partial or best match Inference Deduction Induction Data retrieval Information retrieval Model Deterministic Probabilistic Classification Monothetic Polythetic Query language Artificial Natural Query specification Complete Incomplete Items wanted Matching Relevant Error response Sensitive Insensitive 10.4.2 An information retrieval system 10.4.3 Three main areas of research 1. Content analysis 2. Information structure 3. Evaluation 10.5 Mail and news Chapter 11 Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching 11.1 The relation of linguistics to foreign language teaching 1. Both linguistics and foreign language teaching take language as their subject. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, so it is clearly related with language teaching. However,
42

1.

linguistics and language teaching differ in their attitudes, goals and methods towards language. 2. Linguistics regards language as a system of forms, while the field of foreign language teaching considers it as a set of skills. Linguistics research is concerned with the establishment of theories which explain the phenomena of language use, whereas foreign language teaching aims at the learners’ mastery of language. 3. Applied linguistics serves to reconcile and combine linguistics and foreign language teaching. (1) Applied linguistics extends theoretical linguistics in the direction of language learning and teaching, so that the teacher is enabled to make better decisions on the goal and content of the teaching. (2) Applied linguistics states the insights and implications that linguistic theories have on the language teaching methodology. 11.2 Various linguistic views and their significance in language learning and teaching 11.2.1 Traditional grammar Traditional grammar, as a pre-20th century language description and a pre-linguistic product of research, was based upon earlier grammars of Latin or Greek, and laid emphasis on correctness, literary excellence, the use of Latin models, and the priority of written language. Prescription was its key tone. 11.2.2 Structuralist linguistics Modern linguistics, in spite of theoretical diversities, is primarily descriptive. Structuralist linguistics describes linguistics features in terms of structures and systems. It describes the current spoken language, which people use in daily communication. Its focus, however, is still on grammatical structures. 11.2.3 Transformational-generative (TG) linguistics TG grammar sees language as a system of innate rules. A native speaker possesses a linguistic competence, or a language acquisition device. Although Chomsky does not intend to make his model a representation of performance, i.e., the language actually used in communication, applied linguistics find TG grammar useful in certain aspects. But because it is a formal and abstract grammar, it remains limited in language teaching. 11.2.4 Functional linguistics Taking a semantic-sociolinguistic approach, M. A. K. Halliday’s systemic-functional linguistics sees language as an instrument used to perform various functions in social interaction. It concerns not only with the formal system of language but also the functions of language in society, and its scope is wider than that of former theories. 11.2.5 The theory of communicative competence The concept competence originally comes from Chomsky. It refers to the grammatical knowledge of the ideal language user and has nothing to do with the actual use of language in concrete situations. This concept of linguistic competence has been criticized for being too narrow. To expand the concept of competence, D. H. Hymes (1971) proposes communicative competence, which has four components:
43

Possibility – the ability to produce grammatical sentences; Feasibility – the ability to produce sentences which can be decoded by the human brain; 3. Appropriateness – the ability to use correct forms of language in a specific socio-cultural context; 4. Performance – the fact that the utterance is completed. What is the role of grammar in language teaching? Currently, the general consensus is that although language learning should be meaning-focused and communication-oriented, it is still necessary and beneficial for language learners to pay a certain degree of attention to the study of grammar. Research in second language acquisition has indicated that grammar has its due value in the process of language learning. The study of grammar facilitates the internalization of the structures of the target language. The problems unsolved are what grammar or what aspects of grammar learners should learn and how they can learn them. 11.3 Syllabus design 11.3.1 What is syllabus? Syllabus is the planning of a course of instruction. It is a description of the course content, teaching procedures and learning experiences. 11.3.2 Major factors in syllabus design 1. Selecting participants 2. Process 3. Evaluation 11.3.3 Types of syllabus 1. Structural syllabus: Influenced by structuralist linguistics, the structural syllabus is a grammar-oriented syllabus based on a selection of language items and structures. The vocabulary and grammatical rules included in the teaching materials are carefully ordered according to factors such as frequency, complexity and usefulness. The major drawback of such a syllabus is that it concentrates only on the grammatical forms and the meaning of individual words, whereas the meaning of the whole sentence is thought to be self-evident, whatever its context may be. As a result, students trained by a structural syllabus often prove to be communicatively incompetent. 2. Situational syllabus: The situational syllabus does not have a strong linguistic basis, yet it can be assumed that the situationalists accept the view that language is used for communication. The aim of this syllabus is specifying the situations in which the target language is used. The selection and organization of language items are based on situations. Because it relies on structuralist grammar, it is essentially grammatical. The situations described in a textbook cannot be truly “authentic.” Moreover, the arrangement of the situations is not systematic. 3. Notional-functional syllabus: Notional-functional syllabus is directly influenced by Halliday’s functional grammar and Hymes’s theory of communicative
44

1. 2.

competence. Notion refers to the meaning one wants to convey, while function refers to what one can do with the language. Its problems are: first of all it is impossible to make an exhaustive list of notions and functions, and it is hard to order them scientifically. Secondly, there is on one-to-one relationship between notions / functions and language forms. Thirdly, the notional-functional syllabus treats language as isolated units, only they are notional rather than structural isolates. Such a syllabus cannot achieve the communicative competence which it aims at. 4. Communicative syllabus: The communicative syllabus aims at the learner’s communicative competence. Based on a notional-functional syllabus, it teaches the language needed to express and understand different kinds of functions, and emphasizes the process of communication. 5. Fully communicative syllabus: The communicative syllabus stresses that linguistic competence is only a part of communicative competence. If we focus on communicative skills, most areas of linguistic competence will be developed naturally. Therefore, what we should teach is communication through language rather than language for communication. 6. Communicative-grammatical approach (only cases, so this part is omitted.) 11.4 Language learning 11.4.1 Grammar and language learning 1. Focus on form: Although language learning should generally be meaning-focused and communication-oriented, it is still necessary and beneficial to focus on form occasionally. 2. Universal grammar: A theory which claims to account for the grammatical competence of every adult no matter what language he or she speaks. It claims that every speaker knows a set of principles which apply to all languages and also a set of parameters that can vary from one language to another, but only within certain limits. 11.4.2 Input and language learning The Input hypothesis is a theory proposed by Krashen (1985) to deal with the relationship between language input and learners’ acquiring language. According to this hypothesis, learners acquire a language as a result of comprehending input addressed to them. Krashen brought forward the concept of “i + 1” principle, i.e. the language that learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still be challenged to make progress. Input should neither be so far beyond their reach that they are overwhelmed, nor so close to their current stage that they are not challenged at all. 11.4.3 Interlanguage in language learning Interlanguage is a language system between the target language and the learner’s native language. It formed when the learner attempts to learn a new language, and it has features of both the first language and the second language but is neither.
45

11.5 Error analysis 11.5.1 Errors, mistakes, and error analysis 1. Error: Error is the grammatically incorrect form. 2. Mistake: Mistake appears when the language is correct grammatically but improper in a communicational context. 3. Lapse: Lapse refers to slips of the tongue or pen made by either foreign language learners or native speakers. 4. Error analysis: Error analysis is the study and analysis of error and is confined to the language learner. 11.5.2 Attitudes to errors 1. The structuralist view 2. The post-structuralist view 11.5.3 Procedure of error analysis 1. Recognition 2. Description 3. Explanation 11.5.4 Contrastive analysis and non-contrastive analysis 1. Contrastive analysis (CA): CA is the comparison of the linguistic systems of two languages. E.g. the comparison of the sound or the grammatical system. 2. Transfer: Transfer refers to the carrying over of learned behavior from one situation to another. (1) Positive transfer (facilitation): Positive transfer is learning in one situation which helps or facilitates learning in another later situation. E.g. when the structures of the two languages are similar, we can get positive transfer. (2) Negative transfer (interference): Negative transfer is learning in one situation which interferes with learning in another later situation. 3. Overgeneralization: A process common in both first and second language learning, in which a learner extends the use of a grammatical rule of linguistic item beyond its accepted uses, generally by making words or structures follow a more regular pattern. E.g. in the sentence “* He speaked English.”, “speaked” is wrong (overgeneralized). 4. Hypercorrection: Overgeneralization of a rule in language use. E.g. some learners constantly miss the articles in English, and after they are corrected, they tend to overuse them. 11.6 Testing 11.6.1 Two different approaches to testing 1. Psycholinguistic-structuralist approach 2. Psycholinguistic-sociolinguistic approach 11.6.2 Types of test 1. Aptitude test: Aptitude tests attempt to measure the learner’s aptitude or natural abilities to learn languages. This type of test usually consists of some different
46

tests which measure respectively the ability to identify and remember sound patterns in a new language, etc. In order to assess these abilities, artificial languages are often employed. 2. Proficiency test: The purpose of proficiency tests is to discover what the testee already knows about the target language. Proficiency tests are not concerned with any particular course but the learner’s general level of language mastery. An example of proficiency tests is the American TOEFL. 3. Achievement test: Achievement tests assess how much a learner has mastered the contents of a particular course. Clearly, the items in such tests should be based on what has been taught. The midterm and final term exams held in schools and colleges are often typical tests of this kind. 4. Diagnostic test: Diagnostic tests are designed to discover mainly what the testee does not know about the language, e.g. a diagnostic English pronunciation test may be used to show which sounds a student is and is not able to pronounce. A test of such kind can help the teacher to find out what is wrong with the previous learning and what should be included in the future work. 11.6.3 Requirements of a good test Validity and reliability are the two basic requirements for a good test, as was proposed by R. Lado (1961). 1. Validity is the degree to which a test measure what is meant to. If the candidates know some items before the exam the validity will be reduced. There are four kinds of validity. (1) Content validity refers to the extent to which the test adequately covers the syllabus area to be tested. (2) Construct validity requires the test to prove the theoretical construct whereupon it is based. (3) Empirical validity demands the results of the test to correlate with some external criteria. (4) Face validity is based on the subjective judgment of an observer, unlike the other forms of validity. If the test appears to be measuring what it intends to measure, the test is considered to have face validity. 2. Reliability can be defined as consistency. If a test produces the same results when given to the same candidates twice in succession or graded by different people, it is regarded as having a high degree of reliability. There are two kinds of reliability. (1) Stability reliability is estimated by testing and retesting the same candidates and ten correlating their scores. (2) Equivalence reliability means that a measuring device is equivalent to another if they produce the same results when used on the same objects and subjects. 11.6.4 Test contents and test form
47

1. Structural tests 2. Communicative tests 11.6.5 Marking and interpretation of scores Chapter 12 Theories and Schools of Modern Linguistics 12.0 Introduction – Ferdinand de Saussure The Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857~1913) is “father of modern linguistics” and “a master of a discipline which he made modern.” His important ideas about linguistics were collected in Course in General Linguistics (1916), which was published by his students C. Bally and A. Sechehaye. Saussure argues that the linguistic unit is a sign. The linguistic sign unites, not a sign and a name, but a concept and a sound image. He called the concept signified and the sound image signifier. The linguistics sign has two characteristics. First, the relationship between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary. Secondly, the linguistic sign is characterized by the linear nature of the signifier. Saussure makes a distinction between langue and parole. He suggests that the task of a linguist is to study langue, since it is a coherent and analyzable object. It is this distinction that leads to the distinction of phonetics and phonology. Distinction between diachronic and synchronic studies is another great contribution Saussure makes to general linguistics. 12.1 The Prague School 12.1.1 Introduction The Prague School has three points of special importance: (1) It stresses that the synchronic study of language is fully justified as it can draw on complete and controllable material for investigation. (2) It emphasizes the systemic character of language, arguing that no element of any language can be satisfactory analyzed or evaluated if viewed in isolation. In other words, elements are held to be in functional contrast or opposition. (3) It looks on language as a tool performing a number of essential functions or tasks for the community using it. 12.1.2 Phonology and phonological oppositions The Prague School is best known and remembered for its contribution to phonology and the distinction between phonetics and phonology, and its most important contribution to linguistics is that it sees language in terms of function. Following Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole, Trubetzkoy argued that phonetics belonged to parole whereas phonology belonged to langue. On this basis he developed the notion of “phoneme” as an abstract unit of the sound system as distinct from the sounds actually produced. In classifying distinction features, he proposed three criteria” (1) their relation to the whole contrastive system (2) relations between the opposing elements (3) their power of discrimination These oppositions can be summarized as:
48

(1) bilateral opposition (2) multilateral opposition (3) proportional opposition (4) isolated opposition (5) privative opposition (6) gradual opposition (7) equipollent opposition (8) neutralisable opposition (9) constant opposition 12.1.3 Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP) 1. Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP): It is a theory of linguistic analysis which refers to an analysis of utterances (or texts) in terms of the information they contain. The principle is that the role of each utterance part is evaluated for its semantic contribution to the whole. 2. Theme: The point of departure of a sentence is equally present to the speaker and to the hearer – it is their rallying point, the ground on which they meet. This is called the theme. 3. Rheme: The goal of discourse of a sentence presents the very information that is to be imparted to the hearer. This is called the rheme. 12.2 The London School The London School has a tradition of laying stress on the functions of language and attaching great importance to contexts of situation and the system aspect of language. It is these features that have made this school of thought known as systemic linguistics and functional linguistics. It is an important and admirable part of the London School tradition to believe that different types of linguistic description may be appropriate for different purposes. 12.2.1 Malinowski’s theories 1. The meaning of an utterance does not come from the ideas of the words comprising it but from its relation to the situational context in which the utterance occurs. His assertion is based on two kinds of observations. (1) In primitive communities there is no writing, and language has only one type of use. (2) In all societies, children learn their languages in this way. 2. The meaning of spoken utterances could always be determined by the context of situation. Malinowski distinguished three types of context of situation. (1) situations in which speech interrelates with bodily activity (2) narrative situations (3) situations in which speech is used to fill a speech vacuum – phatic communion 12.2.2 Firth’s theories 1. The meaning of any sentence consists of the following five parts: (1) the relationship of each phoneme to its phonetic context
49

12.2.3

(2) the relationship of each lexical item to the others in the sentence (3) the morphological relations of each word (4) the sentence type of which the given sentence is an example (5) the relationship of the sentence to its context of situation 2. In analyzing typical context of situation, one has to carry out the analysis on the following four levels. (1) The internal relations of the text a. the syntagmatic relations between the elements in the structure b. the paradigmatic relations between units in the system and find their values (2) The internal relations of the context of situation a. the relations between text and non-linguistic elements, and their general effects b. the analytical relations between “bits” and “pieces” of the text (words, parts of words, phrases) and the special elements within the situation (items, objects, persons, personalities, events). Halliday and Systemic-Functional Grammar 1. M.A.K. Halliday has sought to create an approach to linguistics that treats language as foundational for the building of human experience. His insights and publications form an approach called systemic-functional linguistics. A student of JR Firth (a British linguists who himself was influenced by Malinowsky), Halliday's work stresses that language cannot be dissassociated from meaning. Systemic-functional linguistics (SFL), as it's name suggests, considers function and semantics as the basis of human language and communicative activity. Unlike structural approaches that privilege syntax, SFL-oriented linguists begin an analysis with social context and then look at how language acts upon, and is constrained and influenced by, this social context. A key concept in Halliday's approach is the "context of situation" which obtains "through a systematic relationship between the social environment on the one hand, and the functional organization of language on the other" (Halliday, 1985:11). 2. Description and terms for analyzing spoken and written language (1) Tokens: the number of individual items/words (2) Types: the different kinds of words used, e.g., lexical (content) items and grammatical (function) items (3) Lexical Density: The ratio of lexical and grammatical items in an utterance or text; a "measure of information density within a text" (Yates, 1996:37). (4) Take-home message: Written language is lexically dense, while oral language is syntactically more complex. 3. Systemic semantics
50

(1) Textual function: type/token ratios, vocabulary use, register (2) Interpersonal function: speech-function, exchange structure, involvement and detachment, personal reference, use of pronouns, "interactive items" showing the position of the speaker (just, whatever, basically, slightly), discourse markers (words that moderate/monitor the interaction, e.g., well, might, good, so, anyway) A spoken corpus is primarily an "I", "You" text; the world as seen by you and me. Illustrates INVOLVEMENT A written corpus often takes 3rd person and objective reporting styles (it, he, she, and passive voice).Illustrates DETACHMENT (3) Ideational function: propositional content; modality through (in English) modal auxiliaries, e.g., (in Yates, 1996:42) modals of obligation (must, need, should) modals of ability and possibility (can, could) modals of epistemic possibility (may, might) modals of volition and prediction (will, shall) hypothetical modals: (would, should) 4. The analysis of context Field: what is happening, the nature of the social interaction taking place: what is it that the participants are engaged in, in which language figures as an essential component? Tenor: who is taking part; the social roles and relationships of participant, the status and roles of the participants Mode: the symbolic organization of the text, rhetorical modes (persuasive, expository, didactic, etc); the channel of communication, such as spoken/written, monologic / dialogic, + / - visual contact, computer-mediated communication/telephone/F2F, etc. 12.3 American Structuralism American Structuralism is a branch of synchronic linguistics that developed in a very different style from that of Europe. While linguistics in Europe started more than two thousand years ago, linguistics in America started at the end of the 19th century. While traditional grammar plays a dominating role in Europe, it has little influence in America. While many European languages have their own historical traditions and cultures, English is the dominating language in America, where there is no such a tradition as in Europe. In addition, the pioneer scholars in America were faced with the urgent task of recording the rapidly perishing Native American Indian languages because there was no written record of them. However, these languages were characterized by features of vast diversity and differences which are rarely found in other parts of the world. To record and describe these exotic languages, it is probably better not to have any presuppositions about the nature of language in general. This explains why there was not much development in linguistic theory during this period but a lot of discussion on descriptive procedures. Structuralism is based on the assumption that grammatical categories should be defined not in
51

terms of meaning but in terms of distribution, and that the structure of each language should be described without reference to the alleged universality of such categories as tense, mood and parts of speech. Firstly, structural grammar describes everything that is found in a language instead of laying down rules. However, its aim is confined to the description of languages, without explaining why language operates the way it does. Secondly, structural grammar is empirical, aiming at objectivity in the sense that all definitions and statements should be verifiable or refutable. However, it has produced almost no complete grammars comparable to any comprehensive traditional grammars. Thirdly, structural grammar examines all languages, recognizing and doing justice to the uniqueness of each language. But it does not give an adequate treatment of meaning. Lastly, structural grammar describes even the smallest contrasts that underlie any construction or use of a language, not only those discoverable in some particular use. 12.3.1 Early period: Boas and Sapir 1. Boas (1) There was no ideal type or form of languages, for human languages were endlessly diverse. (2) In the Introduction to his Handbook, Boas discussed the framework of descriptive linguistics. He held that such descriptions consist of three parts: the sound of languages, the semantic categories of linguistic expression, and the process of grammatical combination in semantic expression. 2. Sapir (1) He started from an anthropological viewpoint to describe the nature of language, with his main focus on typology. He defines language as “a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols.” (2) He also compares speech with walking, saying that walking is “an inherent, biological function of men,” and it is “a general human activity that varies only in circumscribed limits as we pass from individual to individual,” and its variability is “involuntary and purposeless.” (3) In discussing between speech and meaning, Sapir holds that the association of speech and meaning is a relation that may be, but need not be, present. (4) In discussing the relation between language and thought, Sapir holds that although they are intimately related, they are not to be considered the same. Language is the means, and thought is the end product. Without language, thought is impossible. (5) He says that all human races and tribes, no matter how barbaric or underdeveloped, have their own languages. Language is the oldest human legacy, and no other aspects of any culture can be earlier than its language. Without language, there is no culture. 12.3.2 Bloomfield’s theory
52

Structuralism, also called in different cases “structuralist linguistics school,” “structural linguistics,” and “structural grammar,” in its broad meaning, refers to the study of any language that regards language itself as an independent, phonological, grammatical and lexical system. In its narrow sense, it refers to the linguistic approach of Prague School, American Structuralism, or any other similar school, which supposes that any individual linguistic element must be associated for an analysis with other elements wherewith it occurs. L. Bloomfield is regarded as one of the founders and representative figures of American Structuralism at the beginning of the 20th century. He laid much emphasis on the objectivity and systematicity of observable data in his study of language. He was more interested in the ways items were arranged than in meaning. To him meaning was simply the relationship between a stimulus and a verbal response, which could hardly be explained by any rigorous analytical method. It was claimed that by following some of the “discovering procedures” that he and his followers were able to arrive at an appropriate phonological and grammatical description of language under investigation. For Bloomfield, linguistics is a branch of psychology, and specifically of the positivistic branch of psychology known as behaviorism. Behaviorism is a Principal scientific method, based on the belief that human beings cannot know anything they have not experienced. Behaviorism in linguistics holds that children learn language through a chain of “stimulus-response reinforcement,” and the adult’s use of language is also a process of “stimulus-response.” When the behaviorist methodology entered linguistics via Bloomfield’s writing, the popular practice in linguistic studies was to accept what a native speaker says in his language and to discard what he says about it. This is because of the belief that a linguistic description was reliable when based on observation of unstudied utterances by speakers; it was unreliable if the analyst had resorted to asking speakers questions such as “Can you say … in your language?” 12.3.3 Post-Bloomfieldian linguistics Influenced by Bloomfield’s Language, American linguists such as Z. Harris (1909 – ), C. Hockett (1916 – 2000), G. Trager, H. L. Smithm, A. Hill, and R. Hall further developed structuralism, characterized by a strict empiricism. Harris’s Methods in Structural Linguistics (1951) is generally taken as marking the maturity of American descriptive linguistics. Hockett was both a linguist and anthropologist, remaining firmly within the structuralist paradigm and hailed as a star of post-Bloomfieldian linguistics. The most significant figure in continuing the structuralist tradition may be K. Pike (1912 – 2000), who and his followers have a special name for their technique of linguistic analysis — tagmemics. 12.4 Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar 1. Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Chomsky believes that language is somewhat innate, and that children are born with what he calls a Language Acquisition Device, which is a unique kind of knowledge that fits them
53

for language learning. He argues the child comes into the world with specific innate endowment, not only with general tendencies or potentialities, but also with knowledge of the nature of language. According to this view, children are born with knowledge of the basic grammatical relations and categories, and this knowledge is universal. The relations and categories exist in all human languages and all human infants are born with knowledge of them. According to Chomsky, there are aspects of linguistic organization that are basic to the human brain and that make it possible for children to acquire linguistic competence in all its complexity with little instruction from family or friends. He argues that LAD probably consists of three elements: a hypothesis-maker, linguistic universal, and an evaluation procedure. 2. Development of TG grammar Chomsky’s TG grammar has seen five stages of development. (1) The Classical Theory aims to make linguistics a science. (2) The Standard Theory deals with how semantics should be studied in a linguistic theory. (3) The Extended Standard Theory focuses discussion on language universals and universal grammar. (4) The Revised Extended Standard Theory (or GB) focuses discussion on government and binding. (5) The Minimalist program is a further revision of the previous theory. The development of TG grammar can be regarded as a process of constantly minimalising theories and controlling the generative power. Although TG grammar has involved putting forward, revising, and cancelling of many specific rules, hypotheses, mechanisms, and theoretical models, its aims and purposes have been consistent, i.e. to explore the nature, origin and the uses of human knowledge or language. 3. Features of TG grammar The starting point of Chomsky’s TG grammar is his innateness hypothesis, based on his observations that some important facts can never be otherwise explained adequately. TG grammar has the following features: (1) Chomsky defines language as a set of rules or principles. (2) Chomsky believes that the aim of linguistics is to produce a generative grammar which captures the tacit knowledge of the native speaker of his language. This concerns the question of learning theory and the question of linguistic universals. (3) Chomsky and his followers are interested in any data that can reveal the native speaker’s tacit knowledge. They seldom use what native speakers actually say; they rely on their own intuition. (4) Chomsky’s methodology is hypothesis-deductive, which operates at two levels: a. the linguist formulates a hypothesis about language structure – a general linguistic theory; this is tested by grammars for particular languages b. each such grammar is a hypothesis on the general linguistic theory (5) Chomsky follows rationalism in philosophy and mentalism in psychology.
54

第二部分 重点章节测试题

Test One: Invitations to Linguistics I. 1. Choose the best answer. (20%)

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human __________. A. contact B. communication C. relation D. community 2. Which of the following words is entirely arbitrary? A. tree B. typewriter C. crash D. bang 3. The function of the sentence “Water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.” is __________. A. interrogative B. directive C. informative D. performative 4. In Chinese when someone breaks a bowl or a plate the host or the people present are likely to say“碎碎(岁岁)平安”as a means of controlling the forces which they believes feel might affect their lives. Which functions does it perform? A. Interpersonal B. Emotive C. Performative D. Recreational 5. Which of the following property of language enables language users to overcome the barriers caused by time and place, due to this feature of language, speakers of a language are free to talk about anything in any situation? A. Transferability B. Duality C. Displacement D. Arbitrariness 6. Study the following dialogue. What function does it play according to the functions of language? — A nice day, isn’t it? — Right! I really enjoy the sunlight. A. Emotive B. Phatic C. Performative D. Interpersonal 7. __________ refers to the actual realization of the ideal language user’s knowledge of the rules of his language in utterances. A. Performance B. Competence C. Langue D. Parole 8. When a dog is barking, you assume it is barking for something or at someone that exists hear and now. It couldn’t be sorrowful for some lost love or lost bone. This indicates the design feature of __________. A. cultural transmission B. productivity C. displacement D. duality 9. __________ answers such questions as how we as infants acquire our first language. A. Psycholinguistics B. Anthropological linguistics C. Sociolinguistics D. Applied linguistics 10. __________ deals with language application to other fields, particularly education. A. Linguistic theory B. Practical linguistics C. Applied linguistics D. Comparative linguistics II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%)
55

11. Language is a means of verbal communication. Therefore, the communication way used by the deaf-mute is not language. 12. Language change is universal, ongoing and arbitrary. 13. Speaking is the quickest and most efficient way of the human communication systems. 14. Language is written because writing is the primary medium for all languages. 15. We were all born with the ability to acquire language, which means the details of any language system can be genetically transmitted. 16. Only human beings are able to communicate. 17. F. de Saussure, who made the distinction between langue and parole in the early 20th century, was a French linguist. 18. A study of the features of the English used in Shakespeare’s time is an example of the diachronic study of language. 19. Speech and writing came into being at much the same time in human history. 20. All the languages in the world today have both spoken and written forms. III. Fill in the blanks. (10%) 21. Language, broadly speaking, is a means of __________ communication. 22. In any language words can be used in new ways to mean new things and can be combined into innumerable sentences based on limited rules. This feature is usually termed __________. 23. Language has many functions. We can use language to talk about itself. This function is __________. 24. Theory that primitive man made involuntary vocal noises while performing heavy work has been called the __________ theory. 25. Linguistics is the __________ study of language. 26. Modern linguistics is __________ in the sense that the linguist tries to discover what language is rather than lay down some rules for people to observe. 27. One general principle of linguistic analysis is the primacy of __________ over writing. 28. The description of a language as it changes through time is a __________ study. 29. Saussure put forward two important concepts. __________ refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all members of a speech community. 30. Linguistic potential is similar to Saussure’s langue and Chomsky’s __________. IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. 32. 33. 34. Design feature Displacement Competence Synchronic linguistics

56

V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. Why do people take duality as one of the important design features of human language? Can you tell us what language will be if it has no such design feature? (南开大学,2004) 36. Why is it difficult to define language? (北京第二外国语大学,2004) VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. How can a linguist make his analysis scientific? (青岛海洋大学,1999)

57

Test Two: Phonetics and Phonology

I. 1.

Choose the best answer. (20%)

Pitch variation is known as __________ when its patterns are imposed on sentences. A. intonation B. tone C. pronunciation D. voice 2. Conventionally a __________ is put in slashes (/ /). A. allophone B. phone C. phoneme D. morpheme 3. An aspirated p, an unaspirated p and an unreleased p are __________ of the p phoneme. A. analogues B. tagmemes C. morphemes D. allophones 4. The opening between the vocal cords is sometimes referred to as __________. A. glottis B. vocal cavity C. pharynx D. uvula 5. The diphthongs that are made with a movement of the tongue towards the center are known as __________ diphthongs. A. wide B. closing C. narrow D. centering 6. A phoneme is a group of similar sounds called __________. A. minimal pairs B. allomorphs C. phones D. allophones 7. Which branch of phonetics concerns the production of speech sounds? A. Acoustic phonetics B. Articulatory phonetics C. Auditory phonetics D. None of the above 8. Which one is different from the others according to places of articulation? A. [n] B. [m] C. [b] D. [p] 9. Which vowel is different from the others according to the characteristics of vowels? A. [i:] B. [u] C. [e] D. [i] 10. What kind of sounds can we make when the vocal cords are vibrating? A. Voiceless B. Voiced C. Glottal stop D. Consonant II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Suprasegmental phonology refers to the study of phonological properties of units larger than the segment-phoneme, such as syllable, word and sentence. 12. The air stream provided by the lungs has to undergo a number of modification to acquire the quality of a speech sound. 13. Two sounds are in free variation when they occur in the same environment and do not contrast, namely, the substitution of one for the other does not produce a different word, but merely a different pronunciation. 14. [p] is a voiced bilabial stop. 15. Acoustic phonetics is concerned with the perception of speech sounds.
58

16. All syllables must have a nucleus but not all syllables contain an onset and a coda. 17. When pure vowels or monophthongs are pronounced, no vowel glides take place. 18. According to the length or tenseness of the pronunciation, vowels can be divided into tense vs. lax or long vs. short. 19. Received Pronunciation is the pronunciation accepted by most people. 20. The maximal onset principle states that when there is a choice as to where to place a consonant, it is put into the coda rather than the onset. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) 21. Consonant sounds can be either __________ or __________, while all vowel sounds are __________. 22. Consonant sounds can also be made when two organs of speech in the mouth are brought close together so that the air is pushed out between them, causing __________. 23. The qualities of vowels depend upon the position of the __________ and the lips. 24. One element in the description of vowels is the part of the tongue which is at the highest point in the mouth. A second element is the __________ to which that part of the tongue is raised. 25. Consonants differ from vowels in that the latter are produced without __________. 26. In phonological analysis the words fail / veil are distinguishable simply because of the two phonemes /f/ - /v/. This is an example for illustrating __________. 27. In English there are a number of __________, which are produced by moving from one vowel position to another through intervening positions. 28. __________ refers to the phenomenon of sounds continually show the influence of their neighbors. 29. __________ is the smallest linguistic unit. 30. Speech takes place when the organs of speech move to produce patterns of sound. These movements have an effect on the __________ coming from the lungs. IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. 32. 33. 34. Sound assimilation Suprasegmental feature Complementary distribution Distinctive features

V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. What is acoustic phonetics?(中国人民大学,2003) 36. What are the differences between voiced sounds and voiceless sounds in terms of articulation? (南开大学,2004)

59

VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic descriptions; then give an English word that contains this sound. Example: voiced alveolar stop [d] dog. (青岛海洋大 学,1999) (1) voiceless bilabial unaspirated stop (2) low front vowel (3) lateral liquid (4) velar nasal (5) voiced interdental fricative

60

Test Three: Morphology

I. 1.

Choose the best answer. (20%)

Nouns, verbs and adjectives can be classified as __________. A. lexical words B. grammatical words C. function words D. form words 2. Morphemes that represent tense, number, gender and case are called __________ morpheme. A. inflectional B. free C. bound D. derivational 3. There are __________ morphemes in the word denationalization. A. three B. four C. five D. six 4. In English –ise and –tion are called __________. A. prefixes B. suffixes C. infixes D. stems 5. The three subtypes of affixes are: prefix, suffix and __________. A. derivational affix B. inflectional affix C. infix D. back-formation 6. __________ is a way in which new words may be formed from already existing words by subtracting an affix which is thought to be part of the old word. A. affixation B. back-formation C. insertion D. addition 7. The word TB is formed in the way of __________. A. acronymy B. clipping C. initialism D. blending 8. The words like comsat and sitcom are formed by __________. A. blending B. clipping C. back-formation D. acronymy 9. The stem of disagreements is __________. A. agreement B. agree C. disagree D. disagreement 10. All of them are meaningful except for __________. A. lexeme B. phoneme C. morpheme D. allomorph II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Phonetically, the stress of a compound always falls on the first element, while the second element receives secondary stress. 12. Fore as in foretell is both a prefix and a bound morpheme. 13. Base refers to the part of the word that remains when all inflectional affixes are removed. 14. In most cases, prefixes change the meaning of the base whereas suffixes change the word-class of the base. 15. Conversion from noun to verb is the most productive process of a word. 16. Reduplicative compound is formed by repeating the same morpheme of a word. 17. The words whimper, whisper and whistle are formed in the way of onomatopoeia. 18. In most cases, the number of syllables of a word corresponds to the number of morphemes.
61

19. Back-formation is a productive way of word-formations. 20. Inflection is a particular way of word-formations. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) 21. An __________ is pronounced letter by letter, while an __________ is pronounced as a word. 22. Lexicon, in most cases, is synonymous with __________. 23. Orthographically, compounds are written in three ways: __________, __________ and __________. 24. All words may be said to contain a root __________. 25. A small set of conjunctions, prepositions and pronouns belong to __________ class, while the largest part of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs belongs to __________ class. 26. __________ is a reverse process of derivation, and therefore is a process of shortening. 27. __________ is extremely productive, because English had lost most of its inflectional endings by the end of Middle English period, which facilitated the use of words interchangeably as verbs or nouns, verbs or adjectives, and vice versa. 28. Words are divided into simple, compound and derived words on the __________ level. 29. A word formed by derivation is called a __________, and a word formed by compounding is called a __________. 30. Bound morphemes are classified into two types: __________ and __________. IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. 32. 33. 34. Blending Allomorph Closed-class word Morphological rule

V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. How many types of morphemes are there in the English language? What are they? (厦门大 学,2003) 36. What are the main features of the English compounds? VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. Match the terms under COLUMN I with the underlined forms from COLUMN II(武汉大学, 2004) I II (1) acronym a. foe (2) free morpheme b. subconscious
62

(3) derivational morpheme (4) inflectional morpheme (5) prefix I. 1.

c. UNESCO d. overwhelmed e. calculation Test Four: Syntax Choose the best answer. (20%)

The sentence structure is ________. A. only linear B. only hierarchical C. complex D. both linear and hierarchical 2. The syntactic rules of any language are ____ in number. A. large B. small C. finite D. infinite 3. The ________ rules are the rules that group words and phrases to form grammatical sentences. A. lexical B. morphological C. linguistic D. combinational 4. A sentence is considered ____ when it does not conform to the grammati-cal knowledge in the mind of native speakers. A. right B. wrong C. grammatical D. ungrammatical 5. A __________ in the embedded clause refers to the introductory word that introduces the embedded clause. A. coordinator B. particle C. preposition D. subordinator 6. Phrase structure rules have ____ properties. A. recursive B. grammatical C. social D. functional 7. Phrase structure rules allow us to better understand _____________. A. how words and phrases form sentences. B. what constitutes the grammaticality of strings of words C. how people produce and recognize possible sentences D. all of the above. 8. The head of the phrase “the city Rome” is __________. A. the city B. Rome C. city D. the city Rome 9. The phrase “on the shelf” belongs to __________ construction. A. endocentric B. exocentric C. subordinate D. coordinate 10. The sentence “They were wanted to remain quiet and not to expose themselves.” is a __________ sentence. A. simple B. coordinate C. compound D. complex II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Universally found in the grammars of all human languages, syntactic rules that comprise the system of internalized linguistic knowledge of a language speaker are known as linguistic competence. 12. The syntactic rules of any language are finite in number, but there is no limit to the number of sentences native speakers of that language are able to produce and comprehend.
63

13. In a complex sentence, the two clauses hold unequal status, one subordinating the other. 14. Constituents that can be substituted for one another without loss of grammaticality belong to the same syntactic category. 15. Minor lexical categories are open because these categories are not fixed and new members are allowed for. 16. In English syntactic analysis, four phrasal categories are commonly recognized and discussed, namely, noun phrase, verb phrase, infinitive phrase, and auxiliary phrase. 17. In English the subject usually precedes the verb and the direct object usually follows the verb. 18. What is actually internalized in the mind of a native speaker is a complete list of words and phrases rather than grammatical knowledge. 19. A noun phrase must contain a noun, but other elements are optional. 20. It is believed that phrase structure rules, with the insertion of the lexicon, generate sentences at the level of D-structure. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) 21. A __________ sentence consists of a single clause which contains a subject and a predicate and stands alone as its own sentence. 22. A __________ is a structurally independent unit that usually comprises a number of words to form a complete statement, question or command. 23. A __________ may be a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence that usually precedes the predicate. 24. The part of a sentence which comprises a finite verb or a verb phrase and which says something about the subject is grammatically called __________. 25. A __________ sentence contains two, or more, clauses, one of which is incorporated into the other. 26. In the complex sentence, the incorporated or subordinate clause is normally called an __________ clause. 27. Major lexical categories are __________ categories in the sense that new words are constantly added. 28. __________ condition on case assignment states that a case assignor and a case recipient should stay adjacent to each other. 29. __________ are syntactic options of UG that allow general principles to operate in one way or another and contribute to significant linguistic variations between and among natural languages. 30. The theory of __________ condition explains the fact that noun phrases appear only in subject and object positions. IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. Syntax
64

32. IC analysis 33. Hierarchical structure 34. Trace theory V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. What are endocentric construction and exocentric construction? (武汉大学,2004) 36. Distinguish the two possible meanings of “more beautiful flowers” by means of IC analysis. (北京第二外国语大学,2004) VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. Draw a tree diagram according to the PS rules to show the deep structure of the sentence: The student wrote a letter yesterday. Test Five: Semantics I. 1. Choose the best answer. (20%)

The naming theory is advanced by ________. A. Plato B. Bloomfield C. Geoffrey Leech D. Firth 2. “We shall know a word by the company it keeps.” This statement represents _______. A. the conceptualist view B. contexutalism C. the naming theory D. behaviorism 3. Which of the following is NOT true? A. Sense is concerned with the inherent meaning of the linguistic form. B. Sense is the collection of all the features of the linguistic form. C. Sense is abstract and decontextualized. D. Sense is the aspect of meaning dictionary compilers are not interested in. 4. “Can I borrow your bike?”_______ “You have a bike.” A. is synonymous with B. is inconsistent with C. entails D. presupposes 5. ___________ is a way in which the meaning of a word can be dissected into meaning components, called semantic features. A. Predication analysis B. Componential analysis C. Phonemic analysis D. Grammatical analysis 6. “Alive” and “dead” are ______________. A. gradable antonyms B. relational antonyms C. complementary antonyms D. None of the above 7. _________ deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience.
65

A. Reference B. Concept C. Semantics D. Sense 8. ___________ refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form. A. Polysemy B. Synonymy C. Homonymy D. Hyponymy 9. Words that are close in meaning are called ______________. A. homonyms B. polysemies C. hyponyms D. synonyms 10. The grammaticality of a sentence is governed by _______. A. grammatical rules B. selectional restrictions C. semantic rules D. semantic features II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Dialectal synonyms can often be found in different regional dialects such as British English and American English but cannot be found within the variety itself, for example, within British English or American English. 12. Sense is concerned with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience, while the reference deals with the inherent meaning of the linguistic form. 13. Linguistic forms having the same sense may have different references in different situations. 14. In semantics, meaning of language is considered as the intrinsic and inherent relation to the physical world of experience. 15. Contextualism is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from or reduce meaning to observable contexts. 16. Behaviorists attempted to define the meaning of a language form as the situation in which the speaker utters it and the response it calls forth in the hearer. 17. The meaning of a sentence is the sum total of the meanings of all its components. 18. Most languages have sets of lexical items similar in meaning but ranked differently according to their degree of formality. 19. “It is hot.” is a no-place predication because it contains no argument. 20. In grammatical analysis, the sentence is taken to be the basic unit, but in semantic analysis of a sentence, the basic unit is predication, which is the abstraction of the meaning of a sentence. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) 21. __________ can be defined as the study of meaning. 22. The conceptualist view holds that there is no __________ link between a linguistic form and what it refers to. 23. __________ means what a linguistic form refers to in the real, physical world; it deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience. 24. Words that are close in meaning are called __________. 25. When two words are identical in sound, but different in spelling and meaning, they are called
66

26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

__________. __________ opposites are pairs of words that exhibit the reversal of a relationship between the two items. __________ analysis is based upon the belief that the meaning of a word can be divided into meaning components. Whether a sentence is semantically meaningful is governed by rules called __________ restrictions, which are constraints on what lexical items can go with what others. A(n) __________ is a logical participant in a predication, largely identical with the nominal element(s) in a sentence. According to the __________ theory of meaning, the words in a lan-guage are taken to be labels of the objects they stand for.

IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. 32. 33. 34. Entailment Proposition Componential analysis Reference

V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. What are the sense relations between the following groups of words? Dogs, cats, pets, parrots; trunk, branches, tree, roots (青岛海洋大学,1999) 36. What are the three kinds of antonymy? (武汉大学,2004) VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. For each group of words given below, state what semantic property or properties are shared by the (a) words and the (b) words, and what semantic property or properties distinguish between the classes of (a) words and (b) words. (1) a. bachelor, man, son, paperboy, pope, chief b. bull, rooster, drake, ram (2) a. table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship, car b. milk, alcohol, rice, soup (3) a. book, temple, mountain, road, tractor b. idea, love, charity, sincerity, bravery, fear (青岛海洋大学,1999) Test Six: Pragmatics I. Choose the best answer. (20%) 1. What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning _________ is considered.
67

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

A. reference B. speech act C. practical usage D. context A sentence is a _________ concept, and the meaning of a sentence is often studied in isolation. A. pragmatic B. grammatical C. mental D. conceptual If we think of a sentence as what people actually utter in the course of communication, it becomes a (n) _________. A. constative B. directive C. utterance D. expressive Which of the following is true? A. Utterances usually do not take the form of sentences. B. Some utterances cannot be restored to complete sentences. C. No utterances can take the form of sentences. D. All utterances can be restored to complete sentences. Speech act theory did not come into being until __________. A. in the late 50’s of the 20the century B. in the early 1950’s C. in the late 1960’s D. in the early 21st century __________ is the act performed by or resulting from saying something; it is the consequence of, or the change brought about by the utterance. A. A locutionary act B. An illocutionary act C. A perlocutionary act D. A performative act According to Searle, the illocutionary point of the representative is ______. A. to get the hearer to do something B. to commit the speaker to something’s being the case C. to commit the speaker to some future course of action D. to express the feelings or attitude towards an existing state of affairs All the acts that belong to the same category share the same purpose, but they differ __________. A. in their illocutionary acts B. in their intentions expressed C. in their strength or force D. in their effect brought about __________ is advanced by Paul Grice A. Cooperative Principle B. Politeness Principle C. The General Principle of Universal Grammar D. Adjacency Principle When any of the maxims under the cooperative principle is flouted, _______ might arise. A. impoliteness B. contradictions C. mutual understanding D. conversational implicatures

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Pragmatics treats the meaning of language as something intrinsic and inherent. 12. It would be impossible to give an adequate description of meaning if the context of language use was left unconsidered. 13. What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning the context of use is considered.
68

14. The major difference between a sentence and an utterance is that a sentence is not uttered while an utterance is. 15. The meaning of a sentence is abstract, but context-dependent. 16. The meaning of an utterance is decontexualized, therefore stable. 17. Utterances always take the form of complete sentences 18. Speech act theory was originated with the British philosopher John Searle. 19. Speech act theory started in the late 50’s of the 20th century. 20. Austin made the distinction between a constative and a performative. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) 21. The notion of __________ is essential to the pragmatic study of language. 22. If we think of a sentence as what people actually utter in the course of communication, it becomes an __________. 23. The meaning of a sentence is __________, and decontexualized. 24. __________ were statements that either state or describe, and were thus verifiable. 25. __________ were sentences that did not state a fact or describe a state, and were not verifiable. 26. A(n) __________ act is the act of uttering words, phrases, clauses. It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon and phonology. 27. A(n) __________ act is the act of expressing the speaker’s intention; it is the act performed in saying something. 28. A(n) _________ is commit the speaker himself to some future course of action. 29. A(n) ________ is to express feelings or attitude towards an existing state. 30. There are four maxims under the cooperative principle: the maxim of __________, the maxim of quality, the maxim of relation and the maxim of manner. IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. 32. 33. 34. Conversational implicature Performative Locutionary act Q-principle (Horn)

V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. Explain the following remarks with examples or make some comments. “Both semantics and pragmatics are concerned with meaning, but the difference between them can be traced to two different uses of the verb mean: (a) What does X mean? (b) What did you mean by X?” (东北师范大学,2006) 36. Do you think B is cooperative in the following dialogue? Support your argument with
69

Cooperative Principle. (南开大学,2004) A: When is the bus coming? B: There has been an accident further up the road. VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. What is the function of context in communication? Try to explain the following utterances rather than just state facts. (1) The room is messy. (2) It would be good if she had a green skirt on. Test Seven: Language, Culture and Society I. Choose the best answer. (20%) 1. _______ is concerned with the social significance of language variation and language use in different speech communities. A. Psycholinguistics B. Sociolinguistics C. Applied linguistics D. General linguistics The most distinguishable linguistic feature of a regional dialect is its __________. A. use of words B. use of structures C. accent D. morphemes __________ is speech variation according to the particular area where a speaker comes from. A. Regional variation B. Language variation C. Social variation D. Register variation _______ are the major source of regional variation of language. A. Geographical barriers B. Loyalty to and confidence in one’s native speech C. Physical discomfort and psychological resistance to change D. Social barriers _________ means that certain authorities, such as the government choose, a particular speech variety, standardize it and spread the use of it across regional boundaries. A. Language interference B. Language changes C. Language planning D. Language transfer _________ in a person’s speech or writing usually ranges on a continuum from casual or colloquial to formal or polite according to the type of communicative situation. A. Regional variation B. Changes in emotions C. Variation in connotations D. Stylistic variation A ____ is a variety of language that serves as a medium of communication among groups of people for diverse linguistic backgrounds. A. lingua franca B. register C. Creole D. national language Although _______ are simplified languages with reduced grammatical features, they are
70

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

rule-governed, like any human language. A. vernacular languages B. creoles C. pidgins D. sociolects 9. In normal situations, ____ speakers tend to use more prestigious forms than their ____ counterparts with the same social background. A. female; male B. male; female C. old; young D. young; old 10. A linguistic _______ refers to a word or expression that is prohibited by the “polite” society from general use. A. slang B. euphemism C. jargon D. taboo II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Language as a means of social communication is a homogeneous system with a homogeneous group of speakers. 12. The goal of sociolinguistics is to explore the nature of language variation and language use among a variety of speech communities and in different social situations. 13. From the sociolinguistic perspective, the term “speech variety” can not be used to refer to standard language, vernacular language, dialect or pidgin. 14. The most distinguishable linguistic feature of a regional dialect is its grammar and uses of vocabulary. 15. A person’s social backgrounds do not exert a shaping influence on his choice of linguistic features. 16. Every speaker of a language is, in a stricter sense, a speaker of a distinct idiolect. 17. A lingua franca can only be used within a particular country for communication among groups of people with different linguistic backgrounds. 18. A pidgin usually reflects the influence of the higher, or dominant, language in its lexicon and that of the lower language in their phonology and occasionally syntax. 19. Bilingualism and diglossia mean the same thing. 20. The use of euphemisms has the effect of removing derogatory overtones and the disassociative effect as such is usually long-lasting. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) The social group isolated for any given study is called the speech __________. Speech __________ refers to any distinguishable form of speech used by a speaker or group of speakers. 23. From the sociolinguistic perspective, a speech variety is no more than a __________ variety of a language. 24. Language standardization is also called language __________. 25. Social variation gives rise to __________ which are subdivisible into smaller speech categories that reflect their socioeconomic, educational, occupational background, etc. 26. __________ variation in a person’s speech or writing usually ranges on a continuum from
71

21. 22.

27. 28. 29. 30.

casual or colloquial to formal or polite according to the type of communicative situation. A regional dialect may gain status and become standardized as the national or __________ language of a country. The standard language is a __________, socially prestigious dialect of language. Language varieties other than the standard are called nonstandard, or __________ languages. A pidgin typically lacks in __________ morphemes.

IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) 31. 32. 33. 34. Lingua franca Regional dialect Register Sociolinguistics

V. Answer the following questions. (20%) 35. Is American English superior to African English? Why or why not? (中国人民大学,2003) 36. If we take it as rule that language is intimately related to culture, then how do the kinship words, such as uncle and aunt, reflect the cultural differences between English and Chinese? (东北师范大学,2004) VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. Explain the differences between registers and regional/social dialects. Give examples if necessary. (东北师范大学,2005) Test Eight: Theories and Schools of Modern Linguistics I. Choose the best answer. (20%) 1. 2. The person who is often described as “father of modern linguistics” is __________.. A. Firth B. Saussure C. Halliday D. Chomsky The most important contribution of the Prague School to linguistics is that it sees language in terms of __________. A. function B. meaning C. signs D. system The principal representative of American descriptive linguistics is __________. A. Boas B. Sapir C. Bloomfield D. Harris Generally speaking, the __________ specifies whether a certain tagmeme is in the position of the Nucleus or of the Margin in the structure. A. Slot B. Class C. Role D. Cohesion __________ Grammar is the most widespread and the best understood method of discussing Indo-European languages.
72

3. 4.

5.

A. Traditional B. Structural C. Functional D. Generative 6. __________ Grammar started from the American linguist Sydney M. Lamb in the late 1950s and the early 1960s. A. Stratificational B. Case C. Relational D. Montague 7. In Halliday’s view, the __________ function is the function that the child uses to know about his surroundings. A. personal B. heuristic C. imaginative D. informative 8. The rheme in the sentence “On it stood Jane” is __________. A. On it B. stood C. On it stood D. Jane 9. Chomsky follows __________ in philosophy and mentalism in psychology. A. empiricism B. behaviorism C. relationalism D. mentalism 10. TG grammar has seen __________ stages of development. A. three B. four C. five D. six II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%) 11. Following Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole, Trubetzkoy argued that phonetics belonged to langue whereas phonology belonged to parole. 12. The subject-predicate distinction is the same as the theme and rheme contrast. 13. London School is also known as systemic linguistics and functional linguistics. 14. According to Firth, a system is a set of mutually exclusive options that come into play at some point in a linguistic structure. 15. American Structuralism is a branch of diachronic linguistics that emerged independently in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century. 16. The Standard Theory focuses discussion on language universals and universal grammar. 17. American descriptive linguistics is empiricist and focuses on diversities of languages. 18. Chomsky’s concept of linguistic performance is similar to Saussure’s concept of parole, while his use of linguistic competence is somewhat different from Saussure’s langue. 19. Glossematics emphasizes the nature and status of linguistic theory and its relation to description. 20. If two sentences have exactly the same ideational and interpersonal functions, they would be the same in terms of textual coherence. III. Fill in the blanks. (20%) 21. The Prague School practiced a special style of __________ Linguistics. 22. The Prague School is best known and remembered for its contribution to phonology and the distinction between __________ and phonology. 23. The man who turned linguistics proper into a recognized distinct academic subject in Britain was __________. 24. Halliday’s Systemic Grammar contains a functional component, and the theory behind his
73

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. IV. 31. 32. 33. 34. V. 35. 36.

Functional Grammar is __________. Systemic-Functional Grammar is a(n) __________ oriented functional linguistic approach. Structuralism is based on the assumption that grammatical categories should be defined not in terms of meaning but in terms of __________. In the history of American linguistics, the period between 1933 and 1950 is also known as __________ Age. __________ in language theories is characteristic of America. The starting point of Chomsky’s TG grammar is his __________ hypothesis. Chomsky argues that LAD probably consists of three elements, that is a __________, linguistic universal, and an evaluation procedure. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%) FSP Cohesion LAD Case Grammar Answer the following questions. (20%) Why is Saussure hailed as the father of modern linguistics? What is behaviorism? What is behaviorism in linguistics? What is the relationship between linguistics and behaviorism according to Bloomfield? Does behaviorism have any limitations? If yes, what are they?

VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%) 37. Can you make a brief introduction to some important schools and their influential representatives in modern linguistics? 第三部分 测试题参考答案 Test One I. 1~5 BACCC 6~10 BACAC II. 11~15 FFTFF 16~20 FFFFF III. 21. verbal 22. productivity / creativity 23. metalingual function 24. yo-he-ho 25. scientific 26. descriptive 27. speech 28. diachronic linguistic 29. langue 30. competence IV. 31. Design feature: It refers to the defining properties of human language that tell the difference between human language and any system of animal communication. 32. Displacement: It means that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events
74

and concepts, which are not present (in time and space) at the moment of communication. 33. Competence: It is an essential part of performance. It is the speaker’s knowledge of his or her language; that is, of its sound structure, its words, and its grammatical rules. Competence is, in a way, an encyclopedia of language. Moreover, the knowledge involved in competence is generally unconscious. A transformational-generative grammar is a model of competence. 34. Synchronic linguistics: It refers to the study of a language at a given point in time. The time studied may be either the present or a particular point in the past; synchronic analyses can also be made of dead languages, such as Latin. Synchronic linguistics is contrasted with diachronic linguistics, the study of a language over a period of time. V. 35. Duality makes our language productive. A large number of different units can be formed out of a small number of elements – for instance, tens of thousands of words out of a small set of sounds, around 48 in the case of the English language. And out of the huge number of words, there can be astronomical number of possible sentences and phrases, which in turn can combine to form unlimited number of texts. Most animal communication systems do not have this design feature of human language. If language has no such design feature, then it will be like animal communicational system which will be highly limited. It cannot produce a very large number of sound combinations, e.g. words, which are distinct in meaning. 36. It is difficult to define language, as it is such a general term that covers too many things. Thus, definitions for it all have their own special emphasis, and are not totally free from limitations. VI. 37. It should be guided by the four principles of science: exhaustiveness, consistency, economy and objectivity and follow the scientific procedure: form hypothesis – collect data – check against the observable facts – come to a conclusion. Test Two I. 1~5 ACDAA 6~10 DBABB II. 11~15 TTTFF 16~20 TTTFF III. 21. voiced, voiceless, voiced 22. friction 23. tongue 24. height 25. obstruction 26. minimal pairs 27. diphthongs 28. Co-articulation 29. Phonemes 30. air stream IV.
75

31. Sound assimilation: Speech sounds seldom occur in isolation. In connected speech, under the influence of their neighbors, are replaced by other sounds. Sometimes two neighboring sounds influence each other and are replaced by a third sound which is different from both original sounds. This process is called sound assimilation. 32. Suprasegmental feature: The phonetic features that occur above the level of the segments are called suprasegmental features; these are the phonological properties of such units as the syllable, the word, and the sentence. The main suprasegmental ones includes stress, intonation, and tone. 33. Complementary distribution: The different allophones of the same phoneme never occur in the same phonetic context. When two or more allophones of one phoneme never occur in the same linguistic environment they are said to be in complementary distribution. 34. Distinctive features: It refers to the features that can distinguish one phoneme from another. If we can group the phonemes into two categories: one with this feature and the other without, this feature is called a distinctive feature. V. 35. Acoustic phonetics deals with the transmission of speech sounds through the air. When a speech sound is produced it causes minor air disturbances (sound waves). Various instruments are used to measure the characteristics of these sound waves. 36. When the vocal cords are spread apart, the air from the lungs passes between them unimpeded. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiceless; consonants [p, s, t] are produced in this way. But when the vocal cords are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibration effect. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiced. [b, z, d] are voiced consonants. VI. 37.Omit. Test Three I. 1~5 AACBB 6~10 BCADB II. 11~15 TTFTT 16~20 FTFFF III. 21. initialism, acronym 22. vocabulary 23. solid, hyphenated, open 24. morpheme 25. close, open 26. back-formation 27. conversion 28. morpheme 29. derivative, compound 30. affix, bound root IV. 31. Blending: It is a process of word-formation in which a new word is formed by combining the meanings and sounds of two words, one of which is not in its full form or both of which are
76

not in their full forms, like newscast (news + broadcast), brunch (breakfast + lunch) 32. Allomorph: It is any of the variant forms of a morpheme as conditioned by position or adjoining sounds. 33. Close-class word: It is a word whose membership is fixed or limited. Pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, etc. are all closed-class words. 34. Morphological rule: It is the rule that governs which affix can be added to what type of base to form a new word, e.g. –ly can be added to a noun to form an adjective. V. Omit. VI. 37. (1) c (2) a (3) e (4) d (5) b Test Four I. 1~5 DCDDD 6~10 ADDBA II. 11~15 TTTTF 16~20 FTFTT III. 21. simple 22. sentence 23. subject 24. predicate 25. complex 26. embedded 27. open 28. Adjacency 29. Parameters 30. Case IV. 31. Syntax: Syntax refers to the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences in a language, or simply, the study of the formation of sentences. 32. IC analysis: Immediate constituent analysis, IC analysis for short, refers to the analysis of a sentence in terms of its immediate constituents – word groups (phrases), which are in turn analyzed into the immediate constituents of their own, and the process goes on until the ultimate sake of convenience. 33. Hierarchical structure: It is the sentence structure that groups words into structural constituents and shows the syntactic category of each structural constituent, such as NP, VP and PP. 34. Trace theory: After the movement of an element in a sentence there will be a trace left in the original position. This is the notion trace in T-G grammar. It’s suggested that if we have the notion trace, all the necessary information for semantic interpretation may come from the surface structure. E.g. The passive Dams are built by beavers. differs from the active Beavers built dams. in implying that all dams are built by beavers. If we add a trace element represented by the letter t after built in the passive as Dams are built t by beavers, then the deep structure information that the word dams was originally the object of built is also captured by the surface structure. Trace theory proves to be not only theoretically significant
77

but also empirically valid. V. 35. An endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent, or approaching equivalence, to one of its constituents, which serves as the center, or head, of the whole. A typical example is the three small children with children as its head. The exocentric construction, opposite to the first type, is defined negatively as a construction whose distribution is not functionally equivalent to any of its constituents. Prepositional phrasal like on the shelf are typical examples of this type. 36. (1) more | beautiful flowers (2) more beautiful | flowers VI. S NP Det. NP V Det. The student wrote a Test Five I. 1~5 ABDDB 6~10 CACDA II. 11~15 FFTFT 16~20 TFTTT III. 21. Semantics 22. direct 23. Reference 24. synonyms 25. homophones 26. Relational 27. Componential 28. selectional 29. argument 30. naming IV. 31. Entailment: It is basically a semantic relation (or logical implication), and it can be clarified with the following sentences: a. Tom divorced Jane. b. Jane was Tom’s wife. In terms of truth value, the following relationships exist between these two sentences: when A is true, B must be also true; when B is false, A must also be false. When B is true, A may be
78

VP NP N. letter yesterday. Adv.

true or false. Therefore we can say A entails B. 32. Proposition: It is the result of the abstraction of sentences, which are descriptions of states of affairs and which some writers see as a basic element of sentence meaning. For example, the two sentences “Caesar invaded Gaul” and “Gaul was invaded by Caesar” hold the same proposition. 33. Compositional analysis: It defines the meaning of a lexical element in terms of semantic components, or semantic features. For example, the meaning of the word boy may be analyzed into three components: HUMAN, YOUNG and MALE. Similarly girl may be analyzed into HUMAN, YOUNG and FEMALE. 34. Reference: It is what a linguistic form refers to in the real world; it is a matter of the relationship between the form and the reality. V. 35. Hyponymy, metonymy or part-whole relationship 36.(Omit.) VI. 37. (1) The (a) words and (b) words are male. The (a) words are human, while the (b) words are non-human. (2) The (a) words and (b) words are inanimate. The (a) words are instrumental, while the (b) words are edible. (3) The (a) words and (b) words are worldly or conceptual. The (a) words are material, while the (b) words are spiritual. Test Six I. 1~5 DBCBA 6~10 CBCAD II. 11~15 FTTFF 16~20 FFFTT III. 21. context 22. utterance 23. abstract 24. Constatives 25. Performatives 26. locutionary 27. illocutionary 28. commissive 29. expressive 30. quantity IV. 31. Conversational implicature: In our daily life, speakers and listeners involved in conversation are generally cooperating with each other. In other words, when people are talking with each other, they must try to converse smoothly and successfully. In accepting speakers’ presuppositions, listeners have to assume that a speaker is not trying to mislead them. This sense of cooperation is simply one in which people having a conversation are not normally
79

assumed to be trying to confuse, trick, or withhold relevant information from one another. However, in real communication, the intention of the speaker is often not the literal meaning of what he or she says. The real intention implied in the words is called conversational implicature. 32. Performative: In speech act theory an utterance which performs an act, such as Watch out (= a warning). 33. Locutionary act: A locutionary act is the saying of something which is meaningful and can be understood. 34. Horn’s Q-principle: (1) Make your contribution sufficient (cf. quantity); (2) Say as much as you can (given R). V. 35. Pragmatics is the study of the use of language in communication, particularly the relationships between sentences and the contexts and situations in which they are used. Pragmatics includes the study of (1) How the interpretation and use of utterances depends on knowledge of the real world; (2) How speakers use and understand speech acts; (3) How the structure of sentences is influenced by the relationship between the speaker and the hearer. Pragmatics is sometimes contrasted with semantics, which deals with meaning without reference to the users and communicative functions of sentences. 36. Yes, B is cooperative. On the face of it, B’s statement is not an answer to A’s question. B doesn’t say “when.” However, A will immediately interpret the statement as meaning “I don’t know” or “I am not sure.” Just assume that B is being “relevant” and “informative.” Given that B’s answer contains relevant information, A can work out that “an accident further up the road” conventionally involves “traffic jam,” and “traffic jam” preludes “bus coming.” Thus, B’s answer is not simply a statement of “when the bus comes”; it contains an implicature concerning “when the bus comes.” VI. 37. It occurs before and / or after a word, a phrase or even a longer utterance or a text. The context often helps in understanding the particular meaning of the word, phrase, etc. The context may also be the broader social situation in which a linguistic item is used. (1) a. A mild criticism of someone who should have cleaned the room. b. In a language class where a student made a mistake, for he intended to say “tidy.” c. The room was wanted for a meeting. (2) a. A mild way to express disagreement with someone who has complimented on a lady’s appearance.
80

b. c.

A regret that the customer had not taken the dress. That she wore a red shirt was not in agreement with the custom on the occasion. Test Seven

I. 1~5 BCAAC 6~10 DACAD II. 11~15 FTFFF 16~20 TFTFF III. 21. community 22. variety 23. dialectal 24. planning 25. sociolects 26. Stylistic 27. official 28. superposed 29. vernacular 30. inflectional IV. 31. Lingua franca: A lingua franca is a variety of language that serves as a common speech for social contact among groups of people who speaks different native languages or dialects. 32. Regional dialect: Regional dialect, also social or class dialect, is a speech variety spoken by the members of a particular group or stratum of a speech community. 33. Register: Register, also situational dialect, refers to the language variety appropriate for use in particular speech situations on which degrees of formality depends. 34. Sociolinguistics: Defined in its broadest way, sociolinguistics, a subdiscipline of linguistics, is the study of language in relation to society. It is concerned with language variation, language use, the impact of extra-linguistic factors on language use, etc. V. 35. American English is not superior to African English. As different branches of English, African English and American English are equal. Similar as they are, they are influenced by their respective cultural context and thus form respective systems of pronunciation, words and even grammar. 36. In China, Chinese has a more strict and complex relationship system. So in Chinese there are a lot more kinship words than in English. VI. 37. (Omit.) Test Eight I. 1~5 BACAA 6~10 ABDCC II. 11~15 FFTTF 16~20 FTTTF III.
81

21. synchronic 22. phonetics 23. J. R. Firth 24. systemic 25. sociologically 26. distribution 27. Bloomfieldian 28. Descriptivism 29. innateness 30. hypothesis-maker IV. 31. FSP: It stands for Functional Sentence Perspective. It is a theory of linguistic analysis which refers to an analysis of utterances (or texts) in terms of the information they contain. 32. Cohesion: The Cohesion shows whether a certain tagmeme is dominating other tagmemes or is dominated by others. 33. LAD: LAD, that is Language Acquisition Device, is posited by Chomsky in the 1960s as a device effectively present in the minds of children by which a grammar of their native language is constructed. 34. Case Grammar: It is an approach that stresses the relationship of elements in a sentence. It is a type of generative grammar developed by C. J. Fillmore in the late 1960s. V. VI. Omit.

82


相关文章:
英语专业考研语言学复习资料
英语专业考研语言学复习资料 - 英语专业考研语言学复习资料 主要内容 第一部分 胡壮麟《语言学教程》 第一章 《语言学教程》各章节提纲笔记 第二章 《语言学教程...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》笔记第12章
胡壮麟《语言学教程》笔记第12章_教育学_高等教育_...吃哪些食物不发胖 在家全套瑜伽练习教程104份文档 2014...胡壮麟 语言学教程修订版... 5页 免费 胡壮麟 语言...
胡壮麟语言学教程笔记、重点
胡壮麟语言学教程笔记、重点_研究生入学考试_高等教育_教育专区。《语言学教程》重难点学习提示 第一章 语言的性质 语言的定义:语言的基本特征(任意性、二重性、多...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》测试题及答案
胡壮麟《语言学教程》测试题及答案_研究生入学考试_高等教育_教育专区。胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)测试题 第一章:语言学导论 I. Choose the best answer. (...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》笔记第5-6章
胡壮麟《语言学教程》笔记第5-6章 - Chapter 5 Meaning 1. Semantics(语义学) Semantics is the study of meaning of the ...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)笔记(2006-11-3全部更新...
英语专业考研专业课笔记英语专业考研专业课笔记隐藏>> 胡壮麟《语言学教程》 (修订版)测试题——第二章:语音 您所查看的帖子来源于考研加油站考研论坛(bbs.kaoyan...
胡壮麟的语言学教程试卷测试
胡壮麟语言学教程笔记、... 24页 4下载券胡​壮​麟​的​语​言​...胡壮麟《语言学教程》 (修订版)测试题 Chapter 1 Introductions to Linguistics ...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)测试题(1-12章,含答案)4
胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)测试题(1-12章,含答案)4_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。语言学资料 胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)测试题(1-12 章,含答案) ...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》测试题[1]
胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订... 24页 免费喜欢此文档的还喜欢 胡壮麟《语言学教程》分章... 24页 免费 英语语言学试卷精粹(10套题... 91页 免费 笔记_新编...
胡壮麟《语言学教程》笔记第四章
语言学教程(第三版)胡壮... 3页 1下载券 语言学教程(胡壮麟)笔记 44页 1...麟​《​语​言​学​教​程​​笔​记​第​四​章...
更多相关标签: