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2014 考研英语(一)暑期测试题 考研英语( 暑期测试题

Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Many foreigners who have not visited Britain call all the inhabitants English, for they are used to thinking of the British Isles as England. 1 , the British Isles contain a variety of peoples, and only the people of England call themselves English. The others 2 to themselves as Welsh, Scottish, or Irish, 3 the case may be; they are often slightly annoyed 4 being classified as “English”. Even in England there are many 5 in regional character and speech. The chief 6 is between southern England and northern England. South of a 7 going from Bristol to London, people speak the type of English usually learnt by foreign students, 8 there are local variations. Further north regional speech is usually “ 9 “ than that of southern Britain. Northerners are 10 to claim that they work harder than Southerners, and are more 11 . They are open-hearted and hospitable; foreigners often find that they make friends with them 12 . Northerners generally have hearty 13 : the visitor to Lancashire or Yorkshire, for instance, may look forward to receiving generous 14 at meal times. In accent and character the people of the Midlands 15 a gradual change from the southern to the northern type of Englishman. In Scotland the sound 16 by the letter “R” is generally a strong sound, and “R” is often pronounced in words in which it would be 17 in southern English. The Scots are said to be a serious, cautious, thrifty people, 18 inventive and somewhat mystical. All the Celtic peoples of Britain (the Welsh, the Irish, the Scots) are frequently 19 as being more “fiery” than the English. They are 20 a race that is quite distinct from the English. 1. [A]In consequence [B]In brief [C]In general [D]In fact 2. [A]confine [B]attach [C]refer [D]add 3. [A]as [B]which [C]for [D]so 4. [A]with [B]by [C]at [D]for 5. [A]similarities [B]differences [C]certainties [D]features 6. [A]factor [B]virtue [C]privilege [D]division 7. [A]line [B]row [C]border [D]scale 8. [A]who [B]when [C]though [D]for 9. [A]wider [B]broader [C]rarer [D]scarcer 10. [A]used [B]apt [C]possible [D]probable 11. [A]perfect [B]notorious [C]superior [D]thorough 12. [A]swiftly [B]promptly [C]immediately [D]quickly
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Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 On March 9th the US Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit overturned the District of Columbia's long-standing ban on handguns. Some might say, so what? Last year the police recovered 2,655 guns in the District, which hardly suggests that the ban was keeping guns out of circulation. Nonetheless, Washington, DC, has long been a small spot of resistance to a culture all too tolerant of firearms. In a 2-1 decision, the judges rejected the District's claim that the Second Amendment applies only to militias. The rights protected in the amendment “are not limited to militia service”, the majority argued, “Nor is an individual's enjoyment of the right contingent upon...enrolment in the militia”. The debate about the meaning of the second amendment is one of the fiercest in constitutional law. In 1939 the Supreme Court ruled, in the case of “United States v Miller”, that the amendment was adopted “with the obvious purpose” of protecting the ability of states to organize militias, and “must be interpreted and applied with that end in view”. More recently, the individual-rights view has been gathering support, and not just from the Bush administration and the National Rifle Association (NRA). In 2001 the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (which includes gun-loving Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas) embraced the individual-rights view. The DC lawsuit was filed in 2003, nine months after the then attorney-general, John Ashcroft, argued that individual gun bans are unconstitutional. If the District appeals the ruling, as Mayor Adrian Fenty says it will, there is a good chance that the Supreme Court, with its conservative majority, will come down on the side of individual rights. The Court of Appeals decision is just the latest in an almost unbroken series of advances for the gun-rights lobby. The NRA has made a steady progress in loosening local gun controls, particularly in pushing “concealed carry” laws, which now exist in 48 states. The Democrats have softened their anti-gun stance in an attempt to make advances in “red America”—particularly in the all-important mountain West where gun rights are sacrosanct and the next presidential election may be decided. Brian Schweitzer, the Democratic governor of Montana, speaks for a new breed of pro-gun Democrats when he says that he has “more guns than I need but not as many as I want”.
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A few clouds loom on the horizon for gun-rights supporters. On the very day of the DC ruling the Police Executive Research Forum, a police think-tank, reported that violent crime, including homicides, had been rising rapidly since 2004. Meanwhile, the NRA is slowly losing one of its most important constituencies: the proportion of Americans holding hunting licenses has declined from 10% in 1985 to 6% last year. If both trends continue, more and more Americans will come to associate guns not with healthy outdoorsman ship, as the NRA would like, but with swift and violent human death. What does the author intend to illustrate with the case of “United States v Miller”? [A]The second amendment was once interpreted as only to protect the right of militias. [B]The second amendment is not supposed to support the individual right of carrying guns. [C]American Supreme Court has never changed its interpretation of the second amendment. [D]The individual-rights view has been on the rise since earlier 20th century. 22 What we can infer from the first two paragraphs? [A]Washington, DC will continue to maintain its ban on handguns. [B]The individual-rights view barely attains support from the government. [C]The Bush Administration is going to rewrite the second amendment. [D]U.S. is growing more tolerant of firearms. 23 The third and fourth paragraphs suggest that _______. [A]the Republicans traditionally maintains the anti-gun stance [B]most Supreme Court members are against individual-rights view [C]the issue of gun right might influence the next presidency campaign [D]individual gun right may negatively stimulate people’s desire for violence 24 What does the author mean by “A few clouds loom on the horizon for gun-rights supporters” (Line 1, Last Paragraph)? [A]Gun-rights supporters are pessimistic about the future of individual gun-rights. [B]People might relate the spread of guns to the increase of crime rate. [C]The public opinion turns to be negative for gun-rights supporters. [D]There are some opponents who are against individual gun-rights. 25 Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? [A]Washington, DC is the last place in America to abandon the ban on gun. [B]Individual gun right began to legal in some states since 2001. [C]American constitutional law is not easy to interpret. [D]NRA has been playing an active role in promoting the gun legalization. Text 2 The American military tribunals set up to pass judgment on terrorism suspects at Guantánamo Bay lurched into life this week when David Hicks, the “Australian Taliban”, unexpectedly pleaded guilty. The Pentagon will be relieved that the tribunals have started to show results after five years of controversy over the status of “enemy combatants”, claims of torture, the admissibility of forced confessions and a Supreme Court ruling last year that halted an earlier version of the tribunals. Yet the Hicks case is hardly an impressive start for America's offshore justice. Critics say the 31-year-old Mr. Hicks, a former kangaroo skinner and alleged al-Qaeda fighter, faces a “kangaroo court”. Two of his civilian lawyers were barred from the hearing on
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March 26th. His military lawyer, Major Michael Mori, has been threatened with prosecution for harshly criticizing the tribunals. The prosecutor, Colonel Morris Davis, said the defense lawyer may have breached military law that bans officers from using “contemptuous words” against the president or senior officials. Major Mori filed a counter-charge against the prosecution, saying it was trying to intimidate him. In the end the motion will not be heard because Mr. Hicks, looking pale and bedraggled, admitted the charge of “providing material support for terrorism”. A charge of “attempted murder in violation of the laws of war” was dropped. As The Economist went to press, the tribunal was due to hear details of his plea and pass sentence, which Mr. Hicks is expected to serve out in Australia. His father, Terry Hicks, said his son had had “five years of absolute hell” since being captured in Afghanistan and allegedly suffering beatings, rape and forced injections in American custody—accusations rejected by the Pentagon. The guilty plea was just “a way to get home”, said Mr. Hicks's father. Many in Australia regard Mr. Hicks as more of a lost soul than a dangerous terrorist. Indeed, his charge sheet portrays him as little more than an al-Qaeda foot-soldier, and a poor one at that. His jihadi CV is pitiful compared with the evidence being given by some of the 14 “high value detainees” belatedly brought to Guantánamo from CIA secret prisons in September. They include al-Qaeda's operational chief, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who in a closed hearing to determine whether he was an “enemy combatant” earlier this month boasted that he had organized the September 11th attacks “from A to Z”, and 30 other plots. Meanwhile, Ahmed GhalfanGhailani and Waleed bin Atttash, from Tanzania and Yemen respectively, have admitted supplying equipment for the bombing of the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998. Many of these big names will face trial, and perhaps the death penalty. But the tribunals are expected to try only 60-80 of the more than 380 prisoners currently in Guantánamo. Over the years hundreds of detainees have been sent back to their countries, where some have been jailed and most have been released—and sometimes re-arrested. The Bush Administration says it wants to phase out and eventually close the jail. But it is unlikely to do so for some years, either because it lacks the evidence to prosecute detainees (even under the more lax military rules it is using), or because other countries are unwilling to take them back. What does the author intend to illustrate with the Hicks case? [A]The case is not encouraging in promoting justice. [B]The Pentagon is working effectively to try the detainees. [C]The detainees are not supposed to have civilian lawyers. [D]Talibans were involved in illegal kangaroo trade. 27 What can we infer from the second paragraph? [A]Hicks’s military lawyer was also sued by the prosecutor. [B]The reason that Mr. Hicks pleaded guilty was to escape from the bad treatment. [C]Mr. Hicks has admitted guilty of both charges by the prosecutor. [D]The Pentagon is unaware of the accusation toward the American custody. 28 What does “kangaroo court” (Line 8, Paragraph 1) mean? [A]A court dealing with kangaroo smuggle. [B]A weird court. [C]An unfair court. [D]A military. 29 The fourth paragraph suggests that _______.
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Text 3 No one can accuse Howard Schultz of inaction since he returned as chief executive of Starbucks, the firm he built into a multinational only to watch it stumble under his successes. Barely a month has gone by over the past year without the firm announcing some new initiative or other. The latest came on February 17th in NewYork, when Mr. Schultz unveiled Via, an instant coffee which, he claims, tastes just as good as Java brewed in the shop by one of the firm’s baristas. Mr. Schultz hopes to win a share of the $17 billion or so the world spends on instant coffee―a product which, he sniffs, has not improved in decades. Starbucks itself has spent 20 years pursuing the holy grail of an instant coffee that tastes as good as the fresh stuff. Don Valencia, the firm’s first head of research and development, who created the blended and frozen Frappuccino drinks that earn Starbucks $2 billion a year, could never find a way to scale upan instant formula he had developed at home. When Mr Schultz returned as chief executive, he noticed that there had been some technological advances, allowing finer grinding, for example. So he asked the R&D team to repeat the recently deceased Valencia’s experiments, and found that “we had broken the code”. The name Via is a hat-tip to Valencia——though during development it was known as Jaws (just add water, stir). Starbucks says it has patents that should prevent competitors from quickly replicating Via, which will go on sale in some American stores next month. The opportunity may, however, be biggest in other countries: in Britain over 80% of coffee sold is instant, compared with just 10% in America. Assuming Starbucks drinkers decide that Via tastes good, the company will have to get the price right. At first, it will come in packets of 12 or 3 individual servings, for 83 and 98 cents a cup respectively. That is much more than other instants, but much less than a cup of coffee at one of Starbucks’ stores. The risk is that the firm’s existing customers may abandon counter service and start making their own cup of instant. That would encourage them to visit Starbucks less often, a trend that is already gathering pace with the recession. For the first time in Starbucks’ history, same-store sales have fallen. Mr Schultz has had to accelerate the store-closure programme that he had started in order to correct the over-expansion which prompted his return to the helm. To keep customers coming to remaining outlets, he might experiment with discounts such as cheap “combination meals” of a drink and food. He also wants a visit to a Starbucks shop to be a “uniquely uplifting experience”. Improving the smell in stores by changing the cheese used in breakfast sandwiches was a start. But ensuring that staff are enthusiastic will be especially difficult when jobs are disappearing. Mr
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[A]the jail in Guantánamo Bay will be closed in the new future [B]the government is too optimistic in closing the jail [C]the tribunals will eventually try all the detainees [D]all the detainees will be sent back to their own countries Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? [A]Mr. Hicks is a big name in the al-Qaeda organization. [B]All the detainees in Guantánamo Bay are proved guilty. [C]Most detainees will face permanent jail when sent back home. [D]It is ironic to say that the Hicks case shows America’s justice.

Schultz remains hostile to unions, but has decided to maintain the firm’s popular health benefits, while cutting his own pay. Will all this be enough? So far, investors seem skeptical: Starbucks’ share price remains barely a quarter of its all-time high in 2006. 31. The author maintains that Howard Schultz should not be blamed of inaction is most probably because____. [A] he would not allow his successor to destroy Starbucks [B] Starbucks spent the entire last year developing the new instant coffee [C] the new instant coffee is of the same quality as that brewed in the shop [D] he launched the new instant coffee after his return 32.The word”hat-tip” (Paragraph 2) most probably means____. [A] reward [B] achievement [C] surprise [D] tribute 33. The risk of launching the instant coffee Via is that____. [A] it can be quickly imitated by market competitors [B] customers may patronize Starbucks store less [C] it may fail to cater to customers’ taste [D] the high price will prohibit people from mass purchase 34. According to the text, which of the following was a common practice in Starbucks before? [A] Starbucks hired baristas to guarantee the quality of the coffee brewed. [B] Starbucks was a major player in the market ofinstant coffee. [C] Starbucks provided “combination meals” withfair discounts. [D] Starbucks’ employees had a high pressure oflosing job. 35. The author’s attitude towards Schultz’s new measures seems to be____. [A] biased [B] critical [C] objective [D] pessimistic Text 4 Here’s the scary thing about the identity-theft ring that the feds cracked last week: there was nothing any of its estimated 40,000 victims could have done to prevent it from happening. This was an inside job, according to court documents. A lowly help-desk worker at Teledata Communications, a software firm that helps banks access credit reports online, allegedly stole passwords for those reports and sold them to a group of 20 thieves at $60 a pop. That allowed the gang to cherry-pick consumers with good credit and apply for all kinds of accounts in their names. Cost to the victims:$3 million and rising. Even scarier is that this, the largest identity-theft bust to date, is just a drop in the bit bucket. More than 700,000 Americans have their credit hijacked every year. It’s one of crime’s biggest growth markets. A name, address and Social Security number—which can often be found on the Web—is all anybody needs to apply for a bogus line of credit.Credit companies make $1.3 trillion annually and lose less than 2% of that revenue to fraud, so there’s little financial incentive for them to make the application process more secure. As it stands now, it’s up to you to protect your identity. The good news is that there are plenty of steps you can take. Most credit thieves are opportunists, not well-organized gangs. A lot of them go Dumpster diving for those millions of “pre-approved” credit-card mailings that go out every day. Others steal wallets and return them,
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taking only a Social Security number. Shredding your junk mail and leaving your Social Security card at home can save a lot of agony later. But the most effective way to keep your identity clean is to check your credit reports once or twice a year. There are three major credit-report outfits: Equifax (at equifax.com), Trans-Union (www.transunion. com) and Experian (experian.com). All allow you to order reports online, which is a lot better than wading through voice-mail hell on their 800 lines. Of the three, I found Trans Union’s website to be the cheapest and most comprehensive―laying out state-by-state prices, rights and tips for consumers in easy-to-read fashion. If you’re lucky enough to live in Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey or Vermont, you are entitled to one free report a year by law. Otherwise it’s going to cost $8 to $14 each time. Avoid services that offer to monitor your reports year-round for about $70; that’s $10 more than the going rate among thieves. If you think you’re a victim of identity theft, you can ask for fraud alerts to be put on file at each of the three credit-report companies. You can also download a theft-report form at www.consumer.gov/idtheft, which, along with a local police report, should help when irate creditors come knocking. Just don’texpect justice. That audacious help-desk worker was one of the fewer than 2% of identity thieves who are ever caught. 36. What is the trend of credit-theft crime? [A] Tightly suppressed. [B] More frightening. [C ] Rapidly increasing. [D] Loosely controlled. 37. The expression “inside job” (Paragraph 1) most probably means____. [A] a crime that is committed by a person working for the victim [B] a crime that should be punished severely [C] a crime that does great harm to the victim [D] a crime that poses a great threat to the society 38. The creditors can protect their identity in the following way EXCEPT____. [A] destroying your junk mail [B] leaving your Social Security card at home [C] visiting the credit-report website regularly [D] obtaining the free report from the government 39. Why is it easy to have credit-theft? [A] More people are using credit service. [B] The application program is not safe enough. [C] Creditors usually disclose their identity. [D] Creditors are not careful about their identity. 40. What is the best title of the text? [A] The danger of credit-theft. [B] The loss of the creditors. [C] How to protect your good name. [D] Why the creditors lose their identity. Part B Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10
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points) At picnics, ants are pests. But they have their uses. In industries such as mining, farming and forestry, they can help gauge the health of the environment by just crawling around and being antsy. It has been recognized for decades that ants—which are highly sensitive to ecological change—can provide a near-percent barometer of the state of an ecosystem. Only certain species, for instance, will continue to thrive at a forest site that has been cleared of trees. (41)_______________ And still others will move in and take up residence. By looking at which species populate a deforested area, scientists can determine how “stressed” the land is. (42) _______________ Ants are used simply because they are so common and comprise so many species. Where mine sites are being restored, for example, some ant species will recolonize the stripped land more quickly than others.(43) _______________ Australian mining company Capricorn Coal Management has been successfully using ant surveys for years to determine the rate of recovery of land that it is replanting near its German Creek mine in Queensland. Ant surveys also have been used with mine-site recovery projects in Africa and Brazil, where warm climates encourage dense and diverse ant populations. “We found it worked extremely well there,” says Jonathan Majer, a professor of environmental biology. Yet the surveys are perfectly suited to climates throughout Asia, he says, because ants are so common throughout the region. As Majer puts it: “That’s the great thing about ants.” Ant surveys are so highly-regarded as ecological indicators that governments worldwide accept their results when assessing the environmental impact of mining and tree harvesting. (44) _______________ Why not? Because many companies can’t afford the expense or the laboratory time needed to sift results for a comprehensive survey. The cost stems, also, from the scarcity of ant specialists. (45) _______________ [A] This allowed scientists to gauge the pace and progress of the ecological recovery. [B] Yet in other businesses, such as farming and property development, ant surveys aren’t used widely. [C] Employing those people is expensive. [D] They do this by sorting the ants, counting their numbers and comparing the results with those of earlier surveys. [E] The evolution of ant species may have a strong impact on our ecosystem. [F] Others will die out for lack of food. [G]Gretaceous ants shared a couple of wasp-like traits together with modern ant-like characteristics. Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially announced, has been with us for a long time now, and will be with us for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows
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freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base. (46) The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use. (47) New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and plentiful energy we have had in the times past. For an indefinite period from here on, mankind is going to advance cautiously, and consider itself lucky that it can advance at all. To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world’s population is in sight. Although the birth-rate has dropped in some nations, including the United States, the population of the world seems sure to pass six billion and perhaps even seven billion as the twenty-first century opens. (48) The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match the increase of population, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food. Taking all this into account, what might we reasonably estimate supermarkets to be like in the year 2001? To begin with, the world food supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years -- even here in the United States. By 2001, the population of the United States will be at least two hundred fifty million and possibly two hundred seventy million, and the nation will find it difficult to expand food production to fill the additional mouths. (49) This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields. It seems almost certain that by 2001 the United States will no longer be a great food-exporting nation and that, if necessity forces exports, it will be at the price of belt-tightening at home. In fact, as food items will tend to decline in quality and decrease in variety, there is very likely to be increasing use of flavoring additives. (50) Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more “unnatural food”. Section III Writing Part A 51 Directions: You want to apply for the following position—a waiter or waitress required for evening work. Write a letter to Mr. Brown: 1) show your interest, 2) describe your previous experience, and 3) explain why you would be suitable for the job. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
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