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Effects of high pressure level and holding time on properties of duck muscle gels

Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11 (2010) 538–542

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Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / i f s e t

Effects of high pressure level and holding time on properties of duck muscle gels containing 1% curdlan
Conggui Chen ?, Rui Wang, Gaojun Sun, Hongmei Fang, Daorong Ma, Shoulian Yi
School of Biology & Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui province, People's Republic of China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on properties of duck muscle gels (DMG) containing 1% curdlan was investigated. The application of N 300 MPa could result in the decrease of cooking loss of DMG in water binding capacity, the increase of L value and the decrease of a value and b value in color, the increase of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness in textural parameters (P b 0.05), while the pressureholding time had no obvious in?uence. Those experimental results could be attributed to the interactions among protein molecules and the interactions between protein molecules and curdlan molecules created or enhanced by HPP. Overall, the use of curdlan instead of fat and the application of HPP may provide a novel approach to achieve low-fat (b6% fat) and low-salt (1% salt) DMG products with good properties and high yields. Industrial relevance: To provide healthier meat foods like low-fat (b 6% fat) and low-salt (about 1% salt) duck meat products, the application of HPP might be of great interest for industrial manufacture and can yield the products bearing high water binding capacity and good textural properties. ? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 19 February 2010 Accepted 6 May 2010 Editor proof receive date 20 May 2010 Keywords: High pressure processing Curdlan Duck muscle gels Water binding capacity Color Texture

1. Introduction Cooked duck meat products have been widely popular among consumers in China and Southeast Asia because of its delicate ?avor and texture (Xu, Xu, Zhou, Wang & Li, 2008), but consumers have also been concerned with their abundant fat (sebum). Epidemiological research has demonstrated a clear relationship between an overload of fat intake and a range of chronic diseases including cancer and obesity diseases (Lichtenstein et al., 1998). However, a reduction in fat can decrease many of the properties of meat products, such as texture and juiciness (Luruena-Martinez, Vivar-Quintana & Revilla, 2004). Polysaccharides are considered as the most effective fat substitutes for their contribution to desirable binding characteristics, texture and appearance of the meat products (Luruena-Martinez et al., 2004; Chen, Gerelt, Jiang, Nishiumi & Suzuki, 2006). A number of researchers have investigated the effects of various polysaccharides on properties of restructured low-fat meat products as meat binders, texture stabilizers and fat substitutes (Funami, Yada & Nakao, 1998a; Chen et al., 2006; Ayadi, Kechaou, Makni & Attia, 2009). Curdlan is a thermo-gelable bacterial polysaccharide and an effective fat substitute in meat products. It may be added to meat products to modify their texture, improve their water holding capacity (WHC), and increase their elasticity and breaking strain

? Corresponding author. Tel.: + 86 551 2901506 8537; fax: + 86 551 2901539. E-mail address: chen_conggui@hotmail.com (C. Chen). 1466-8564/$ – see front matter ? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2010.05.004

(Funami, Yada & Nakao, 1998b). Besides, curdlan may also play a role of dietary ?ber for enhancing the functionality of meat products. In fact, it has been approved for food use in Korea, Taiwan and Japan as an inert dietary ?ber and been registered in the United States as a food additive (McIntosh, Stone & Stanisich, 2005). It was also approved by the Ministry of Health of China for use in meat and poultry products in 2007. High pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal processing method to improve the yield, shelf-life and mouth-feel of the meat products (Cheftel & Culioli, 1997; Tassou, Galiatsatou, Samaras & Mallidis, 2007). The HPP could change the molecular composition of meat, enhance the stability of meat gels and modify the texture properties of biopolymers such as proteins and polysaccharides yielding gel-type products, thus allowing lower salt levels to be used while still achieving high water binding capacity and improved texture (Chen et al., 2006; Chattong, Apichartsrangkoon & Bell, 2007; Sikes, Tobin & Tume, 2009). Nowadays, HPP is being successfully applied to a variety of products including fruit juices, sauces, desserts, rice dishes, oysters and meat products (Tassou et al., 2007). The HPP technology can now be used to produce healthier versions of meat products (Sikes et al., 2009). However, there is no literature about the effects of various pressures on the properties of low-fat and low-salt duck muscle gels (DMG) containing curdlan. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high pressure level and pressure-holding time on water binding capacity, color, textural properties and microstructure of DMG containing 1% curdlan and 1% salt.

C. Chen et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11 (2010) 538–542


2. Materials and methods 2.1. Preparation of initial material Curdlan (in powder), a product of Kirin Food-Tech Company Limited (Japan), was kindly provided by Shanghai Folo Trading Co., Ltd (China). The frozen duck legs used for this work was purchased from a local Hypermarket of the Carrefour Group. The proper amount of frozen duck legs was thawed for 24 h at 2– 4 °C. Skin, bone, visible fat and connective tissue were removed from these legs, and then the legs were ground twice with a meat grinder (Shangyuan, SYP-MM12, Guangdong, China) ?tted with a plate of 6 mm diameter holes. The proximate compositions of the ground meat were moisture 74.80 ± 0.36%, protein 19.01 ± 0.20%, fat 5.45 ± 0.16%, and ash 0.92 ± 0.03% (all in triplicates). As shown in Table 1, salt (NaCl ≥ 99.5%, analytical reagent), curdlan and deionized water were mixed, added sequentially to the ground duck, then blended for 5 min, stored in a refrigerator at 2–4 °C for 24 h. The ?nal mixture was stuffed into Nylon/PE multilayer casing (19 mm in diameter, 150 mm in length) without entrapped air, and clipped for further treatment. 2.2. Forming of DMG The stuffed casings were pressurized using a HPP apparatus UHPF750 (BaoTou Kefa High Pressure Technology Co., Ltd, China) at room temperature (20–22 °C), according to the method described by Chen et al. (2006). These pressurized casings were heated for 30 min in a water bath at 80 ± 1 °C, then immediately cooled in cooling water for about 10 min. These cooled samples were removed from the water and stored at 2–4 °C overnight (about 12 h). All experiments were performed in triplicates. The unpressurized casing was as the control. 2.3. Water binding capacity (cooking loss and WHC) Cooking loss (CL) value of DMG was determined according to the methods of Pietrasik (2003) and Chen et al. (2006). The chilled sample was removed from the casing and the gel was wiped with ?lter paper. CL was calculated as a percentage based on the raw stuffed net weight. All measurements were carried out in triplicates. WHC value was measured as mentioned in Ayadi et al. (2009) and Chen et al. (2006) with a slight modi?cation. One gram of DMG was cut into small pieces (approximately 1 × 1 × 1 mm), wrapped with ?lter paper (0.3–0.5 μm in aperture), placed in a centrifuge tube (16 mm in diameter) ?lled with absorbent cotton in the bottom, and then submitted to 5000 rpm (2124 g) for 10 min at 4 °C in a centrifuge (Beckman, Allegra64R, California, USA). WHC was expressed as the percentage of the retained sample weight after centrifugation in relation to the corresponding initial gel weight (in triplicate). 2.4. Color The color of samples was determined using the Hunter scale with an automatic colorimeter WB-2000 IX A (Beijing Kangguang Instrument Co., Ltd, China). The cylindrical slices (about 5 mm height) were taken from each DMG and were immediately determined. Six measurements for each of three replicates were expressed as L value (lightness), a value (redness) and b value (yellowness).
Table 1 Formulations of minced duck meat. GDMa 60.00 g
a b

2.5. Texture pro?le analysis (TPA) Texture pro?le analysis was performed by using a TA-XT Plus Texture Analyser (Stable Micro System Co., England) at room temperature, according to the method described by Kotwaliwale, Bakane and Verma (2007). Six cylindrical replicates (19 mm in diameter, 10 mm height), from the triplicate samples (two per sample) respectively, were axially compressed twice with a cylindrical probe (P/ 36R, stainless steel) at trigger type Button, pre-test speed 1.0 mm/s, test speed 1.0 mm/s, post-test speed 1.0 mm/s, distance 4.0 mm, trigger force 0.05 N, time lag 5 s between two compressions. The TPA parameters, namely hardness (N), springiness (dimensionless), cohesiveness (dimensionless) and chewiness (N), were computed. 2.6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) The microstructure of DMG was performed according to the method of Tabilo-Munizaga and Barbosa-Canovas (2005). Cubes of 1 mm were cut with a razor blade from inside the DMG. These cubes were ?xed with a mixture (1:1 v/v) of glutaraldehyde (2.5%) and formaldehyde (4%) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH = 7.2) for 2 h, rinsed three times in the buffer (10 min each), and subsequently dehydrated in increasing series of ethanol solutions (from 30% to 100%, v/v), for 10 min each. Dehydration was completed with three 10 min washes in 100% ethanol. And then the cubes were dried for 15–16 h using a lyophilizer (Martin Christ, Alpha1-4lsc, Osterode, Germany). They were ?nally sputter-coated (Jeol JFC-1600 Tokyo, Japan) with gold/palladium and examined in a Scanning Electron Microscope (Jeol, JSM 6490LV, Tokyo, Japan) at 10 kV. 2.7. Statistical analysis The Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and then analyzed by Excel 2003 (Microsoft of?cial Excel 2003 for Windows). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was introduced to determine the signi?cance of samples at P b 0.05 level. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. CL The effect of HPP on CL of DMG was shown in Fig. 1. Compared with the control, pressurization of 100 MPa increased obviously CL value of DMG and that of ≥ 200 MPa decreased it signi?cantly (P b 0.05). However, there was no distinctive change in CL (P N 0.05) when the pressure increased from 300 MPa to 500 MPa (Fig. 1a), while there was a similar effect of holding time on CL when the time was prolonged to 40 min from 10 min (Fig. 1b). Apparently, the effect of pressure level on CL of DMG was more signi?cant than that of pressure holding time, and the application of 200–300 MPa had more potential bene?t than that of other pressure levels in increasing yield of low-salt and low-fat DMG. The similar result of 100 MPa was also observed in the pressurized lean beef meat containing 0.5–1.0% salt (Macfarlane, Mckenzie, Turner & Jones, 1984) and the pressurized pork muscle gels containing 0–1.0% sodium alginate (Chen et al., 2006). The result of 200 MPa was similar to that of the low-salt (containing NaCl 0.5–1.0%) beef batters treated at the same pressure level (Sikes et al., 2009) and restructured pork meat under 100–200 MPa (Hong, Park, Kim & Min, 2006). Treatment of 50–200 MPa can induce dissociation of oligomer, electrostriction and clathrate formation around hydrophobic residues within protein (Boonyaratanakornkit, Park & Clark, 2002), while there are hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in curdlan gels (Funami, Funami, Yada & Nakao, 1999). These indicate that more water can be absorbed in the structure of DMG pressurized and/or

Deionized water 11.40 mL

Curdlan 0.60 g

Salt 0.60 g

Total 72.60 g

Curdlan contentb 1.00%

GDM means Ground duck meat. Curdlan content means Curdlan percent of GDM.


C. Chen et al. / Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11 (2010) 538–542

these pressure levels, it was similar between 100 MPa and the control, and was also similar among each pressure holding time (Fig. 2b). The result of 100 MPa was consistent with that of cold-smoked salmon pressurized for 20 min under 100–200 MPa (Lakshmanan, Parkinson & Piggott, 2007) and restructured pork meat (Hong et al., 2006), but that of 200 MPa was obviously decreased (P b 0.05) in present work. Many factors have impacts on water binding capacity (indicated by CL and WHC) of protein gels, such as hydration, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, Van der Waals forces. The mechanism of water binding in muscle/curdlan/salt and pressure system has not yet been fully understood. But previous results provided some clues to gain an insight of the mechanism. The addition of curdlan and application of HPP could introduce more hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, etc., and hence enhance the water binding capacity, because there are hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in curdlan gels (Funami et al., 1999), and HPP has been proposed to promote the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds within proteins and protein–water interactions (Boonyaratanakornkit et al., 2002). This might provide a possible explanation for the decrease of CL of DMG, because curdlan may absorb the free or released water with the inhibition of hydrogen bond formation in the cross-linking of junction zones, but it could not explain the result of WHC here. Therefore it was speculated that hydrophobic interactions within muscle protein and curdlan might be responsible for the decreased CL and WHC of DMG.
Fig. 1. Effects of pressure level and holding time on CL of DMG with 1% curdlan. (a): pressure-holding time 20 min; (b): pressure 300 MPa.

3.3. Color Pressurization of exceeding 300 MPa increased signi?cantly (P b 0.05) the L value of DMG, and decreased the a value and b value in the present work. Such pressure-induced change of color did not only correspond to the result of color of pork meat pressurized and added with binders, which was described by Hong et al. (2006), but also supported their view that the increase in moisture content of meat product resulted in lighter color, because present pressureinduced decreases in CL of DMG could result in higher moisture content of the gel. The decrease of a value might be due to reduction of metmyoglobin portion in pressurized samples (Jung, Ghoul & Lamballerie-Anton, 2003) and oxidation of ferrous myoglobin to ferric metmyoglobin (Carlez, Veciana-Nogues & Cheftel, 1995). Although the phenomena that moderate pressures (100–200 MPa) cause an improvement in meat color with an increase in redness was not observed here, the remarkable decrease of the a value above 300 MPa levels was consistent with the result observed by Jung et al. (2003). And the result under 100–200 MPa was also consistent with the result described by Chevalier, Bail and Ghoul (2001). In addition, the L value of the pressurized DMG was increased obviously with prolonged pressure-holding time from 10 min to 40 min, while the increase of a value and b value were insigni?cant (P N 0.05). These above results con?rmed that the effect of pressure level was more signi?cant than that of the holding time on the color parameters (Jung et al., 2003). 3.4. Texture Comparing with the unpressurized DMG, the hardness and chewiness of the pressurized were increased signi?cantly (P b 0.05) at each pressure level, the springiness and cohesiveness were also increased signi?cantly (P b 0.05) above 300 MPa levels. But four TPA parameters changed insigni?cantly (P N 0.05) for each pressureholding time. Additionally, the hardness was signi?cantly increased with elevated pressure from 100 to 200 MPa, while it was evidently decreased from 400 to 500 MPa (P b 0.05). The change of chewiness was the same as the hardness. The maximum hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness occurred at 300 MPa, 400 MPa, 500 MPa

added with curdlan. These factors could be applied to understand the decrease of CL at ≥200 MPa, but useless for the result at 100 MPa.

3.2. WHC As presented in Fig. 2a, WHC values of the samples pressurized under 200–500 MPa were signi?cantly (P b 0.05) lower than that of unpressurized, although there were no differences (P N 0.05) among

Fig. 2. Effects of pressure level and holding time on WHC of DMG with 1% curdlan. (a): pressure-holding time 20 min; (b): pressure 300 MPa.

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and 300 MPa, respectively. Such a result bears a practical value that TPA of pressurized meats gels could be controlled by the change of pressure level. The result of hardness was in agreement with those of low-salt (1% salt) beef batters pressurized at 100–400 MPa (Sikes et al., 2009), but the cohesiveness was in con?ict with those results. Boonyaratanakornkit et al. (2002) demonstrated that HPP could induce the decreases in compressibility, due to electrostriction of the solvent around charged and polar groups, the collapse of internal cavities and the shortening of hydrogen bonds. The decrease of compressibility, in the addition of pressure-induced protein unfolding and the addition of 1% curdlan into samples, might lead to the formation of compact gel and the increases of DMG hardness. However, the decrease of hardness of DMG pressurized under ≥400 MPa might result from complete protein disintegration and the loss of secondary structure (Boonyaratanakornkit et al., 2002). Above pressure-induced result also showed that the effect of pressure level was more signi?cant than that of the holding time on the TPA parameters of DMG containing 1% curdlan. Meanwhile, the application of 300 MPa to low-fat and low-salt DMG might be attributed to good textural properties accompanied with high water binding capacity, according to the present result of CL, WHC, color and TPA. 3.5. Microstructure As shown in Fig. 3, in unpressurized gel, there was a large, dense networks with many cavities (Fig. 3a) and large clusters (Fig. 3c), which formed part of the protein matrix. However, in the HPPinduced (300 MPa) gel, these large clusters were dispersed as small clusters (Fig. 3d), the amount of cavities was decreased, and the dense

networks were distributed (Fig. 3b), even though it can be seen that a few of the cavities are within pressurized gels. Similar result was also observed in ?sh mince gels which were added with various gums and pressurized under 200–375 MPa (Montero, Solas and Perez-Mateos, 2001; Gomez-Guillen, Montero, Solas & Perez-Mateos, 2005). HPP might enhance the ?lling of curdlan in protein matrix and induce the loss of the cavities, leading to a formation of smooth, compact, continuous and uniform gel matrix and hence the increase in the hardness of pressurized DMG accompanied with the decrease in CL of it. So the application of HPP could not only improve the textural properties of DMG, but also indicate the potential bene?t of increasing DMG yield. 4. Conclusions According to the present results, it could be concluded that the application of HPP could not only improve the textural properties of muscle products, but also indicates the potential bene?t of increasing these products' yield. With respect to low-fat (b6% fat) and low-salt (about 1% salt) DMG containing 1% curdlan, the application of 300 MPa might be attributed to high water binding capacity and good textural properties. The effect of pressure level was more signi?cant than that of pressure-holding time on water binding capacity, color and TPA parameters of this DMG. However, further research to reveal the mechanism of the interaction, which occurred in protein–curdlan–salt system, is in progress in our lab. Acknowledgements This research work was ?nanced by Project No. 090411007 of the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, No. 08010301080 of

Fig. 3. SEM micrographs of unpressurized and pressurized DMG with 1% curdlan. (1) a and c: non-pressurized; b and d: pressurized under 300 MPa. (2) a and b: 500× magni?cation; c and d: 2000× magni?cation.


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the Science and Technology Support in Eleventh Five Plan of Anhui Province in China. We thank Miss Jixia Wang and Miss Liucui Shi for their help.

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