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Quality Problem Solving Handbook
Tools Skills Methods

“Execution Excellence” is decisive for our future. We have set for ourselves ambitious goals that will only be achieved through empowerment, discipline and sense of urgency. More than ever, we need to act as entrepreneurs and accept responsibility on results, be focused and dedicated, pay attention to details and respect commitments, anticipate events and move quickly. “Execution Excellence” needs methods, skills and tools. This Quality Problem Solving Handbook reminds us of the basic approaches for continuous improvement through TQM. These give us a universal improvement language, and a common approach to quality improvement and problem solving. They make us more efficient in our everyday work. The Quality Problem Solving Handbook shows the way to “Execution Excellence”. Use it.

Carlo Bozotti President and Chief Executive Officer

Introduction

Table of Contents
SMART Objectives 01 Tools 5Ws-2Hs 02 Flow Diagram 04 Brainstorming 08 Cause-effect Diagram 10 Data Collection 12 Graphs and Charts 13 Pareto Analysis 15 Scatter Diagram 18 Histogram 22 Box Plot 26 Stratification 29 Affinity Diagram 32 Tree Diagram 35 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 38

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Methods DMAIC 40 Quality Improvement Process 44 Team Problem Solving (8D) 47 Business Process Management 50 Project Management Effectiveness 53 Skills Team Performance 65 Remote Teams 71 5-S 74 Other Training and Help 78

Table of Contents

SMART Objectives
A good objective is unambiguously clear and easily understood by all. That is why today we define objectives as “SMART objectives”. What is it? The easy to remember acronym stands for: ● Specific ● Measurable ● Achievable ● Relevant ● Time bound Why use it? Failure to formulate objectives as SMART, integrating these key elements in all defined objectives, invariably leads to incompletion and non-compliance.

SMART Objectives

01

5Ws—2Hs
5Ws—2Hs is a method to describe a problem and help your supplier to give you a better solution the first time. Who? Determine the target of your query— whether a person(s) or unit(s) lies at the source or the end of the production process. Specify to whom the response must be given. What? Describe the nature of the problem and its impact on current operations and business relationship. Draw up a complete list of items to enable immediate investigation. Define action to be taken for prompt recovery. Where? As soon as the symptoms appear, define exact location of failure, on site, in production, etc. Identify where a solution is needed. When? Specify the stage in the process where the problem occurs, spanning supplier through to completed operation, incoming inspection, production and field failure. Specify the information you receive. Provide the target date for the response. Why? A problem has occurred—we must react. Propose reasons based on facts for the root causes. 02 5Ws-2Hs

How? Once the problem has been identified, define the environmental conditions and possible causes. Assess how the problem could impact other similar production/customer scenarios. How Many? Base your inquiry on facts. Provide figures for each parameter that could affect the process and list possible areas that could be impacted.

5Ws-2Hs

03

Flow Diagram
A flow diagram is a graphic representation of the sequence of steps performed to produce an output. This may be a physical product, a service, information, or a combination of the three. The flow diagram is used at the beginning of a project to determine the project’s scope and boundaries, during a project to provide a common understanding of the process under investigation, as well as towards the end of a project for making comparisons between current (old) and improved (new) processes. What does it do? The flow diagram helps to understand how a process works. This is like a map. It shows in pictorial form your actions and makes it easy to trace. It makes the invisible visible. How to do a flow diagram? 1 Define how the flow diagram will be used in your project. 2 Decide on desired outcome of the flow diagram: high level, matrix or detailed? Start by construct a high level diagram before constructing a detailed diagram (see “High level and matrix flow diagram”). 3 Define boundaries to the process by identifying first and last steps. 04 Tools: Flow Diagram

4 Document each step in the sequence, starting from the first (or last) step. Draw the process accurately and consistently (see “Common symbols for flow diagrams”) from the top left to the bottom right edge of the page. 5 For a decision symbol, select one of its branches and continue the flow diagram of that branch. 6 If you run into an unfamiliar step, make a note and continue the flow diagram. 7 Repeat steps 4, 5 and 6 until the last (or first, if starting from the back) activity is reached. 8 Go back and flow diagram the other branches of the decision symbols. 9 Review the diagram for any missed decision points or special cases that might cause some work to follow a different process. 10 Discuss how to fill in the unfamiliar steps or areas of the flow diagram, and verify its accuracy (observe the process, etc.). High level and matrix flow diagrams A high level flow diagram groups all related activities and decisions in blocks or sub-processes, so that the final diagram is a collection of subprocesses linked together from start to finish. A matrix (or cross-functional) flow diagram shows the process flow both sequentially and by function. It is divided into rows or columns, each representing a department, function or other responsible sub-unit of the system under study. Tools: Flow Diagram 05

Common Symbols for Flow Diagrams

The activity symbol is a simple rectangle box with a brief description (1-2 words) of an activity in the process.

The decision symbol is a diamond shaped box that denotes a point in the process where a decision—such as yes/no, up/down or on/off—must be made, leading to different process branches.

The terminal symbol is a rather flat rectangle with rounded corners, used to denote the beginning and end of a process or sub-process, often using the words “Start”, “Begin”, or “End”.

Flow lines have an arrow, indicating the process’ flow to the next activity or step. Besides the usual downward flow, they can indicate a process loop (going back to an activity) or a process branch (going to a different set of activities or a sub-process), based on the decision made.

The database symbol is a cylinder and is used when the activity involves access to or retrieval from a database.

The wait symbol is a trapezoid, providing a means to show where normal processing is halted or suspended to be continued later on.

A

The connector or continuity symbol is a circle with a letter or number in it, used to denote a break point in the process (most frequently used when the flow diagram reaches the edge of the paper). An identical symbol is then used to show where the diagram continues.

06

Tools: Flow Diagram

The document symbol has the shape of a printout or paper and is used when the activity described is a printed form.

How to understand a process? The best way understand a process is to walk it through the flow diagram step by step, following the flow indicated by the arrows. To do this: 1 Examine each decision symbol: ● Is this a checking activity? ● Is this a complete check, or do some type of n errors go undetected? ● Is this a redundant check? 2 Examine each rework loop: ● Would we need to perform these activities if n we had no failures? ● How long is this rework loop (steps, time lost, n resources consumed, etc.)? ● Does this rework loop prevent the problem n from re-occurring? 3 Examine each activity symbol: ● Is this a redundant activity? ● What is the value of this activity relative to its cost? ● How have we prevented errors in this activity? 4 Examine each document or data base symbol: ● Is this necessary? ● How is this kept up to date? ● Is there a single source for this information?
Flow diagram Start Do I need a flow diagram? No Yes Stop Stop Look in data-base Read this chapter Seek more Don’t know information

Tools: Flow Diagram

07

Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a proven way for generating new ideas, using a few simple rules for discussion that increase the chances for creativity and innovation. It calls for creativity and open mindedness. Brainstorming lists usually contain more new and innovative ideas than lists obtained in other ways. How is it done? 1 Phrase the statement properly: ● Focus on the issue, but be open minded n enough for creativity. 2 Prepare the session: ● Communicate the subject to participants ahead s of time ● Determine the ideal number of participants ● Provide an appropriate medium to list all s contributions 3 Strictly follow the conceptual rules: ● No criticism or evaluation of any kind ● Be unconventional ● Aim for quantity of ideas ● "Hitch-hike" on other ideas 4 Follow the practical rules: ● Make contributions in turn, presenting only s one idea per turn (you may pass if necessary) ● Do not provide explanation of ideas 08 Tools: Brainstorming

5 A leader should facilitate the brainstorming session: ● Explain the issue and write it down where s everyone can see it ● Have a scribe write all contributions where s they can be seen by everyone ● Stop before fatigue sets in 6 Process the ideas: ● Clarify each contribution ● Combine and group similar ideas ● Agree on evaluation criteria How to analyze the results? Team leader should narrow down the list to the vital few, which the team could comfortably focus on. This prioritizing of ideas can take the form of voting, a Pareto analysis or consensus.
Note: While brainstorming is a great way to generate lists of ideas, it should not be used as a substitution for data.

Tools: Brainstorming

09

Cause-effect Diagram
A cause-effect diagram is an effective way to organize and display theories about what the root causes to an observed symptom might be. It illustrates the causal relationships between the various identified contributions and the observed symptom or effect. A cause-effect diagram is a prelude to developing the data needed to establish causation empirically. An example is shown below. Losing the control of a car can be caused by several factors, such as a flat tire, (branch 1), which can be generated by a nail, a rock, glass, or a blow-out. This approach is repeated for every main cause.
Cause-effect diagram for “lost control of car”
Flat tire
Nail Blow-out Rock Glass

Slippery road
Oil Rain Ice Snow

Broken Stuck Poor the rod accelerator training Worn pads Brake failure Reckless Fluid loss

Chemically impaired Poor reflexes Sleepy

LOST CONTROL OF CAR

Mechanical failure

Driver effort

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Tools: Cause-effect Diagram

How does it work? The most important in the construction of a causeeffect diagram is the clear understanding of the cause-effect relationship. All possible sources of causes need to be considered. In addition to the five Ws (What, When, Where, Who, Why), the five Ms (Man, Machine, Method, Material, Measurement) in manufacturing and the five P’s (People, Process, Place, Provision, Patron) in services can help remember to consider several classes of possible causes for a problem. Such Ms or Ps are often main branches of the causeeffect diagram. Generally, each main branch will have at least three or four additional branches. To create a cause effect diagram: 1 Define the effect or symptom for which the n causes must be identified. 2 Place the effect or symptom being explained at n the right, enclosed in a box. Draw the central n spine as a thick line pointing to it. 3 Use brainstorming or a rational, step-by-step n approach to identify possible causes. 4 Each of the major cause areas should be placed n in a box and connected with the central spine n by a sloping line (thereby forming a branch). 5 Add causes for each main area. 6 Add subsidiary causes for each cause entered. Tools: Cause-effect Diagram 11

Data Collection
Data collection is used to gather data in a systematic fashion in order to obtain a clear, objective picture of the facts. The facts should speed up problem solving. Therefore, it is fundamental to gather good data using simple data collection tools. How is it done? To generate the right information and data: ● Decide precisely the kind of data to collect ● Define what data analysis tools (Pareto, s histogram, graph, etc.) we plan to use ● Establish the process to get this data ● Minimize effort and chance of error ● Test the form and process and train the data s collectors ● Audit the collection process and validate results Make sure that: ● The entire scope of the process has been s investigated ● The collection process does not affect the s process being studied ● The formula and methods used to calculate s are correct
Note: Before collecting new data, ensure that the answer cannot be found using already existing data.

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Tools: Data Collection

Graphs and Charts
Graphs and charts are pictorial representations of quantitative data. They can summarize large amounts of information in a small area and communicate complex situations concisely and clearly. They exist in various forms, each one with its’ particular purpose. How is it used?
Cost of Quality (% of revenue) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 Failure Appraisal Prevention

Trend Line graphs are useful for showing progress.

Cost of Quality (% of revenue) 6 Total costs of quality 5 4 3 2 1 0 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 Failure Appraisal Prevention
Cost of Quality (% of revenue) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 Failure Appraisal Prevention

Area graphs are useful for showing relative contribution of different parameters.

Bar graphs are useful for showing comparisons among categories.

Tools: Graphs and Charts

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Cost of Quality (% of revenue) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 Failure Appraisal Prevention Cost of Quality (% of revenue)

Stacked bar graphs are useful for comparing categories through several periods.

Pie charts are useful for showing proportions.

2001

2005

Failure Appraisal Prevention

How is it done? When constructing a graph, it is important to determine the right axis, upper and lower limits of the graph, the unit and labels in order to gain best understanding.
Note: Make sure scales, symbols and labeling are consistent and appropriate across a set of graphs and be sure not to obscure information with unnecessary lines, colors, 3-D or shading.

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Tools: Graphs and Charts

Pareto Analysis
Pareto analysis is a ranked comparison of factors related to a problem. It helps quality improvement project teams identify and focus on selected vital factors (vital few) as compared to the less significant ones (useful many). One key application of Pareto charts is to make comparisons between "before" and "after" charts, to show the impact of remedial or improvement actions in the "vital few" areas addressed. How is it done? Well-constructed Pareto diagrams and tables include three basic elements: ● Contributors to the total effect, ranked by the s magnitude of their contribution ● Magnitude of the contribution of each factor s expressed numerically ● Cumulative percent of total effect of the s ranked contributors
150 S S Vital few S S 100 S S S S 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 S 86 S S 50 S S S S S 0

Useful many

Cumulative % of Total

Number of Errors

Event Item

Tools: Pareto Analysis

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1 Total the data on the effect of each event, and s sum these to determine the grand total. 2 Re-order the event from the largest to the n smallest. 3 Determine the cumulative percent of total in n order of descending magnitude. 4 Draw and label the left vertical axis (label the n axis from 0 to the grand total or just beyond). 5 ● s ● s ● 6 n n n n 7 n n n 8 n n n 16 Draw and label the horizontal axis: Divide the axis into as many divisions as there are events List the labels from the largest to the smallest going from left to right Label each event Draw and label the right vertical axis (label the axis from 0 to 100%). Line up the 100% mark with the grand total on the left axis and label the axis (for example, "Cumulative Percent of Total"). Draw bars to represent the magnitude of each contributor's effect. The height of each bar corresponds to the magnitude of the contribution as measured on the left axis. Draw a line graph to represent the cumulative percent of total. The plotted points correspond to the cumulative percent as measured on the right axis.

Tools: Pareto Analysis

How is it used? Since the goal of Pareto analysis is to separate the vital few from the useful many, the easiest way to do this is to look for a break point in the slope of the cumulative percentage of total line graph on the Pareto diagram. A quality improvement team interpreting a Pareto diagram that does not show a clear break point usually takes the following approach: Identify those few contributors which account for about 80% or more of the quality effect. Call these the “vital few”, and begin the diagnostic journey. When the diagnostic and remedial journeys are completed for these vital few, repeat the Pareto analysis. The contributors that were in the awkward zone—not clearly part of the vital few or the useful many—may now be among the vital few. Repeat steps 1 through 3 as long as profitable projects can be identified.
Note: Pareto analysis has to use objective data and facts, rather than opinions, to rank the order of the categories.

Tools: Pareto Analysis

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Scatter Diagram
A scatter diagram is a graphic representation of the relationship between two variables. In quality improvement, scatter diagrams are usually used to test cause-effect relationships in the diagnostic journey.

Example of Scatter diagram
Expected vs. Received Support 25 Expected Support (hours) Less that expected

20

Ideal

15

10

5 More that expected 5 10 15 20 Received Support (hours) 25

Why use it? Scatter diagram helps discovering true causeeffect relationships, which is a key to effective 18 Tools: Scatter Diagram

problem solving, and makes it easier to identify the cause effect relationship. How is it done? 1 From the table of raw data, determine the s maximum and minimum values for each s variable. 2 Decide which variable will be plotted on the s horizontal axis (if showing a cause-effect s relationship, put the suspected cause variable s on the horizontal axis). 3 Draw and label the horizontal and vertical axes. s For each label, make the lowest label slightly s lower than the minimum value and the highest s label slightly higher than the maximum value. 4 Plot the paired data. Use concentric circles to s indicate identical paired-data points. 5 Title the chart and provide other appropriate s notations. How does it work? Scatter diagram is analyzed in a 4-step process: 1 Develop a plausible and relevant theory about s the suspected relationship between 2 variables s of interest. 2 Collect appropriate paired data and construct s a scatter diagram. 3 Identify and classify the pattern of correlation. 4 Question your original theory and consider s the other explanations for the observed s pattern of correlation. Tools: Scatter Diagram

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General interpretation of each type is as follows:
Strong, positive correlation The value of Y clearly increases as the value of X increases.

Strong, negative correlation The value of Y clearly decreases as the values of X increases.

Because the points in the two above cases are so conspicuously grouped around an imaginary line (the trend line) through the middle of the mass of the points, we are very confident of the relationship between X and Y. This suggests that the system under study is one where control of one variable results in control of the other.
Complex correlation The value of Y appears to be related to X, but the relationship is not simple or smooth. It requires examination. Weak, positive correlation The value of Y increases somewhat as the value of X increases.

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Tools: Scatter Diagram

Weak, negative correlation The value of Y decreases somewhat as the value of X increases.

No correlation For any value of X, Y can have both large and small values. There does not appear to be any particular relationship between them. Look for other variables influencing Y.

Be careful about: The range of the data Do not to draw conclusions beyond the range of the data. The Effect of scale Draw the axes of scatter diagrams such that (1) the maximum and minimum values on each axis correspond closely to the maximum and minimum values of each variable, and (2) the axes are roughly the same length. Not using numerical summaries, such as the correlation coefficient and equations of regression lines, focus on the graphic picture of the data. Scatter diagrams only show relationships; they do not prove cause and effect. You must have a plausible fact based explanation to establish cause and effect relation.

Tools: Scatter Diagram

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Histogram
A histogram is a graphic summary of variation in a set of data. The pictorial nature of the histogram enables us to see patterns that are difficult to see in a simple table of numbers. It is important to notice that: ● Values in a set of data almost always show s variation. ● Variation displays a pattern. ● Patterns of variation are difficult to see in simple s tables of numbers. ● Patterns of variation are easier to see when the s data are summarized pictorially in a histogram. Histograms could be used to interpret data to verify the existence of a problem. How is it done?
Values of 120 events
8.1 8.2 9.1 11.5 9.3 8.4 7.9 9.9 8.7 8.1 8.5 8.6 10.4 8.9 8.4 8 9.7 9.1 8.5 10.6 9.8 10.1 8.2 9.2 8.8 10.1 9.6 7.9 8.7 10.1 9.2 8.6 8.5 9.6 9 8.5 9.7 9.4 11.1 8.3 8.2 7.8 8.7 9.4 8.9 8.3 10.2 9.6 7.8 9.2 7.9 8.7 8.9 8.1 10.2 8.8 9.1 8 9.5 9 9.9 11.7 7.9 9.5 8.5 8.7 10 9.4 8.6 9.5 8.8 8 7.9 9.8 8.2 10.5 8.4 8.1 9.8 9 8.3 8.9 10.7 8.6 8 10.9 7.8 9 9.4 9.2 8.3 9.7 9.5 8.9 9.1 10 9.3 7.8 10.5 9.2 8.8 8.4 9 9.1 8.7 8.1 10.3 8.8 9 8.3 8.5 10.7 8.3 7.8 9.6 8 9.3 9.7 8.4 8.6

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Tools: Histogram

1 From the table of raw data, determine the range, high and low values (Range = high value - low value). 2 Decide on the number of cells to use from the following table:
# Data Points # Cells to use 20-50 6 51-100 7 101-200 201-500 501-1000 >1000 8 9 10 11-20

Note: Consider using a box plot if the total number of data points is less than 40, unless this is a result of data stratification. 3 Construct the cells by listing the cell boundaries. The first cell should include the lowest value. Cell boundaries should be one more significant digit than the data. 4 Tally the number of data points in each cell. Check that the total tally equals the number of data points. 5 The range on the horizontal axis should include one cell width beyond the lowest and highest value. 6 Draw the bars to represent the number of data points in each cell. The height of the bars should equal the number of data points in that cell as measured on the vertical axis. 7 Show nominal values and limits if applicable.

Tools: Histogram

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How does it work? The values in any set of data will vary and variation will display some pattern. The goal of our analysis of a histogram is to: ● Identify and classify the pattern of variation ● Develop a plausible and relevant explanation s for the pattern. The explanation must be based on the team's knowledge and observation of the specific situation, and it must be confirmed through additional analysis.
The Bell-Shaped Distribution is the normal, natural distribution of data from a normally operating process.

Double-Peaked Distribution is usually a combination of two bellshaped distributions and suggests that two distinct processes are at work.

Plateau Distribution is likely to be the result of many different bellshaped distributions with centers spread evenly throughout the range of the data.

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Tools: Histogram

Comb Distribution typically indicates data errors.

Skewed Distribution typically occurs when a practical or specification limit relatively close to the nominal value on one side exists. Such skewed distributions are not inherently bad, but a team should question the impact of the values in the long tail. Truncated Distribution is often a smooth, bell-shaped distribution with a part removed, or truncated, by some external force, i.e. screening, 100% inspection, or a review process. These efforts are an added cost and are therefore good candidates for removal. The Isolated-Peak Distribution suggests that two distinct processes are at work. But the small size of the second peak indicates an abnormality that doesn't happen often or regularly. The Edge-Peaked Distribution occurs when the extended tails of the smooth distribution has been cut off and lumped into a single category at the edge of the range of the data. This shape very frequently indicates inaccurate recording of the data.

Note: Be careful not to use histograms in an inappropriate context. On the other hand, be sure to recognize and use this tool in appropriate situations.

Tools: Histogram

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Box Plot
Values in any set of data will vary, and the variation will display some pattern. Box plots provide a graphic summary of the pattern of variation in a set of data. They are a good way to compare patterns of variation among data sets. Box plots can be used in a variety of ways depending upon the application and are especially useful when working with small sets of data or when comparing many different distributions. How does it work? The basic box plot is a five-number summary of a set of data. These five numbers are defined as follows:
Highest Value

3rd Quartile

Median

1st Quartile

Lowest Value

Highest value The largest value in the set of data Third quartile The point below where 75% of the data lie Median The middle value in the set of data First quartile The point below where 25% of the data lie Lowest value The smallest value in the set of data

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Tools: Box Plot

The box on a box plot encloses the central 50% of the observations. Its beginning and end are the first and third quartiles, respectively. The line dividing the box is the median, which divides the data into two equal groups. Half of the observations lie below the median, and half lie above it. The lowest and highest values are at the end of lines, sometimes called whiskers, extending from the box (for this reason, the box plot is often referred to as a box and whisker chart). Why do it? The key benefit of the tool is that the five simple summary statistics, shown in the form of a box plot, enable a team to see some of the aspects of the pattern of variation inherent in the data even if the number of data points is too small to produce a meaningful histogram. How is it done? 1 Collect the raw data and convert it into an s ordered data set by arranging the values from s the lowest to the highest. 2 Calculate the appropriate numerical values s (see formulas below). 3 Draw and label the horizontal axis; provide s labels to identify each box plot. 4 Draw and label the vertical axis; label the axis s and its unit of measure: Tools: Box Plot

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● Begin labeling the axis until you reach a multiple s of 1, 2 or 5 that is the smallest value in any box plot ● Continue labeling the axis until you reach a s multiple of 1, 2 or 5 that is larger than the highest s value in any plot 5 Draw the box plots. Include a key to define the s various parts of the box plot. 6 Title the chart and show nominal values and s limits if applicable. Definition of symbols: d The depth; the number of observations to count s from the beginning of the ordered data set M The Median or central value n The number of observations in the set of data Q1 The first quartile Q3 The third quartile Formulae: Depth of Median d(M) = (n+1)/2 Depth of First Quartile d(Q1) = (n+2)/4 Depth of Third Quartile d(Q3) = (3n+2)/4 What is one looking for? In comparing patterns of variations, look for: ● Differences in the location of the median ● Differences in the amount of variation ● Presence or absence of outliner points ● Symmetry or asymmetry in the data Interpreting box plots is similar to interpreting histograms (see “Histogram”). Tools: Box Plot

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Stratification
Stratification is the separation of data into categories. It is used most often to identify which categories contribute to a problem being solved. Data observations in a given category share common characteristics, which define the category. Common examples of stratification are stacked bars (vertical stratification), grouped bars (horizontal stratification) and scatter diagrams. How is it done? 1 Select the stratification variables. If new data are needed, include all potential stratification variables. 2 Establish categories to be used for each stratification variable. The categories may be either discrete values or ranges of values. 3 Sort observations into the categories of one of the stratification variables. Each category will have a list of the observations that belong to it. 4 Calculate the phenomenon being measured for each category. These calculations are usually either a count of the number of observations in the category or a calculation of an average value for those observations. 5 Display the results graphically for effectiveness. Tools: Stratification 29

6 Prepare and display the results for other stratification variables. Repeat steps 2 through 5. Do second stage stratification as appropriate. 7 Plan for additional confirmation. Usually additional data, other techniques, and/or controlled experiments will be used to confirm the initial stratification results. How to look at the results? Stratification results in bar-graph form It is easy to look across the categories of a variable to see whether one or a few of the categories stand out. Does one supplier have a particularly large defect rate? What types of medication are most prone to errors? After stratification If the results give a clear indication of the likely source of the phenomenon being studied, then the team will want to validate their initial results or will want to gain further details on the precise cause. If initial stratification does not yield results There are two possible courses of action: ● The team could conduct a two-stage s stratification that is, stratifying by a second s variable within each category of a first variable ● The team could stratify by other variables

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Tools: Stratification

Example of Stratification Stratification of wire bonding defects attributed to raw substrates. Stratification is first done by supplier (five suppliers) and then by type of defect. If a Pareto Analysis has been done and there is a predominant defect, then it would be preferable to do a stratification first by defect and then by supplier.
Type of Defect (PPM by supplier)
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
Supplier A Supplier B Supplier C Supplier D Supplier E Defect 1 Defect 2 Defect 3 No defect

Note: Don’t conclude too much from the data or jump to the conclusion that the anomalous category is the cause of the problem.

Tools: Stratification

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Affinity Diagram
This tool is essentially a brainstorming method. It is based on group work in which every participant writes down his/her ideas. This tool gathers large amounts of language data (ideas, opinions, issues, etc), organizes it into groupings based on the natural relationship between each item, and defines groups of items. What is it? It is largely a creative rather than a logical process. It is an excellent way to get a group of people to react from the creative “gut level”. It efficiently organizes these creative new thought patterns for further elaboration. It also encourages true participation, because every person’s ideas find their way into the process. How does it work? The “cleanest” use of an Affinity is in situations in which: 1 s 2 s s s 3 s 32 Facts or thoughts are disorganized or when issues seem too large or complex to grasp. Breakthrough in traditional concepts is needed. When the only solutions are old solutions, the Affinity Diagram helps to expand the team’s thinking. Support for a solution is essential for successful implementation.

Tool: Affinity Diagram

In addition: Affinity Diagram helps you attack a problem in the right way: ● Discovering why careless mistakes keep n happening ● Discovering why improvement activity is not n going as planned Affinity Diagram helps organize ideas for decision making: ● Understanding the role personal initiative n should play ● Understanding the nature of the leadership n people should exercise How do I do it? Construction of an Affinity Diagram: 1 Assemble the right team. 2 s s s 3 s s s Phrase the issue to be considered. Once everyone agrees on the question, place it at the top of a flip chart page/blackboard so that it’s visible to the entire team. Generate and record ideas (using the traditional guidelines of brainstorming). Ideas can be recorded using small cards (Post-it) or a flip chart.

4 Display the completed cards. The team should s now mix the cards and spread them out s randomly. Tool: Affinity Diagram 33

5 Arrange the cards into related groupings. This s sorting should be done by the entire team. 6 s s s s s s Create the “Header Cards”. Look for a card in each grouping that captures the central idea that ties all the cards together. This card is placed at the top of each grouping. Many times no such cards exist. In these cases (which happen most of time), a header card must be created.

7 Draw the “finished” Affinity Diagram.
Affinity Diagram
Theme
Header Card A Secondary Card AA Cause AA1 Cause AA2 Cause AA3 Secondary Card AB Cause AB1 Cause AB2 Cause AB3 Cause AB4 Cause E2 Cause E3 Header Card B Header Card C Header Card D Header Card E Secondary Card E Cause E1

Note: This tool is not suggested for use when a problem is simple or requires a very quick solution.

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Tool: Affinity Diagram

Tree Diagram
The Tree Diagram systematically maps out in increasing detail the full range of paths and tasks that need to be accomplished in order to achieve a primary goal and every related sub-goal. The objective is to partition a big idea or problem into its smaller components, making the idea easier to understand or the problem easier to solve. What does it do? The Tree Diagram creates a systematic focal point for any teams that must make sure all bases are covered and that the “lines of logic” are sound. When to use it? Tree Diagram should be used when: ● A specific task has become the focus but is not s a simple “assignable job” ● It is known (or suspected) that implementation s will be complex ● There are strong consequences for missing s key tasks, safety or legal compliance issues How is it done? Set the objective or target Write down on a card the problem you want to solve. Place the card in the middle of the left-hand side of a large sheet of paper. Express it in simple language, such as “Do X to obtain Y”. The expression is simple, direct and understandable to everyone. Tool: Tree Diagram

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Deduce the means The means thought to be necessary to achieve the established goal are deduced and recorded on paper, one by one. In deciding on the means, use the following guidelines: start with the principal means and go to the secondary ones through association; when collecting ideas for means, make sure they come from as many different point of view as possible through techniques like brainstorming. A primary means is one that when implemented will directly achieve the objective. Write each primary means on a card. Place the cards creating the first level; the team has generated the major tree tasks that fall under that first level of detail. Fill the Tree Diagram under each major path Ask the question, “What needs to happen/be addressed to resolve/achieve the problem/goal statement?”. Apply this question to each first level tree item. The second level of detail should have a direct cause and effect relationship with the first level objectives. Repeat the question, “What needs….” for each level. Check the relationship between objectives and means The Tree Diagram is effective only if the implementation of each level of details really does accomplish the next higher level of tasks. Therefore, the last step in the process is to apply the question, “Will these actions actually lead to these results?” to each level of detail. This checks the specific-to-general (right to left) logic. 36 Tool: Tree Diagram

Likewise, ask the question, “If I want to accomplish these results, do I really need to do these tasks?” to each level of detail. This confirms the general-to-specific (left to right) logic. Complete the diagram Arrange the cards on the paper and paste them in place. To complete it, draw lines to show the root and branch relationship of the means and objectives. The Tree Diagram if properly done reflects the real world of implementing continuous improvement. If it’s done well, it allows you to focus on the smallest details of implementation which make the achievement of the next highest level inevitable.

Example of Tree Diagram
Goal/objective First level Second level Sub-means 1 Sub-means 2 Means 1 Sub-means 3 Sub-means 4 Sub-means 1 Problem Means 2 Sub-means 2 Sub-means 3 Sub-means 1 Means 3 Sub-means 2

Tool: Tree Diagram

37

FMEA
FMEA, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, is a preventive tool. Why use it? Prevention is better than cure. FMEA is one such tool. It helps to forecast and be ready for issues before they even crop up. What does it do? For any activity, more specifically for a project, a team doing FMEA looks at all the issues that can surface, however likely or unlikely it may be. It then gives quantitative figures for it and prioritizes it, so that more serious problems can be tackled before they occur. How do I do it? FMEA is best done by a team of personnel who are familiar with the process or product. The team meets and brainstorms to list all the things that can go wrong. It then establishes on a scale of 1 to 10 the probability of occurrence, the severity of the damage that would be caused if it would occur, and finally the ease of detection if it should occur. How does it work? After the product or the process has been identified, things that can go wrong in it are listed for each particular component. Then for Tool: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

38

each of these factors, the extent of the damage that would be caused is listed. The severity of this damage is then quantified on a scale of 1 to 10 (S), where 1 would be insignificant damage and 10 would be harm to life. For each of the factors the causes for it to happen are also established. For each cause, the probability of its occurrence is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (O), 1 being extremely unlikely to 10 being sure to happen. For each of the factors again, the ease with which it can be detected if it occurs is also rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (D). 1 would mean immediate detection and 10 would be extremely difficult to detect. These ratings - O, S & D are multiplied to get a product value in the range of 1 to 1000. This product is known as Risk Priority Number. The factors are then reviewed in descending order of RPN and top factors tackled generally by improving the O & D. S can normally be modified only by design. For facilities and equipment, the FMEA is modified by adding one more element called Recovery which is the time it would take to recover – 1 being easy recovery and 10 being delayed recovery. The RPN would then have a range of 1 to 10000. FMEA is not difficult to do and it is a living document. It should be updated regularly as more experience is gained. A FMEA is only as good as the knowledge of the team members. Tool: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis 39

DMAIC
DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) provides sequential steps to problem solving or improving processes. The process ensure that the necessary time is spent to defining the process and the problem, the identified root cause is checked, solutions are innovative, tested and provide real change and finally the solution impact is verified on facts and lasting. What is it? It is a flexible and powerful set of Five steps for making improvements happen and stick. The team works from a statement of the problem to implementation of a solution using numerous and differentiated tools. How does it work? DMAIC is a five steps process: Step 1 Define Why we are doing this project? Step 2 Measure Are we clear about past and current performance? Step 3 Analyze Are we clear about major causes of the problem? How can we accurately diagnose the root cause? Step 4 Improve Do we have solutions that meet our objectives for the problem statement? Step 5 Control Can we make them long-lasting? 40 Methods: DMAIC

Define In this phase the team will have to: ● Define the Critical to Quality issues ● Define the Core Business Process involved ● Define who are the customers, what their s requirements are for products and services, s and what their expectations are ● Define project boundaries ? the stop and start s of the process ● Define the process to be improved by mapping s the process flow To help in the process, one can use SIPOC (Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer). A table can be drawn up with these in five columns and for each process by looking to the 2 sides (Input and Output) of the process. Quality tools like Affinity diagrams, brainstorming, data collection and flow diagram can be used, followed by Process Mapping, Pareto, etc. Measure In this phase the team will have to: ● Measure the performance of the Core Business s Process involved ● Develop a data collection plan for the process ● Collect data from many sources to determine s types of defects and metrics ● Compare to customer survey results to determine s shortfall Recommended tools are Control chart, data collection, Pareto, flow diagram, MSA, detailed process mapping, and other SPC tools. Methods: DMAIC 41

Analyze In this phase the team will have to: ● Analyze the data collected and process map to s determine root causes of defects and s opportunities for improvement ● Identify gaps between current performance s and goal performance ● Prioritize opportunities to improve ● Identify sources of variation The team will use quality tools such as Control chart, Cause-effect, Multi-variation studies (ANOVA or DOE), FMEA, Pareto, Scatter Diagram. Improve In this phase the team will have to: ● Improve the target process by designing s creative solutions to fix and prevent problems ● Create innovative solutions using technology s ● Develop and deploy implementation plan The team will use quality tools brainstorming, DOE, Control charts, data collection, FMEA, Pareto, Tree Diagram. Control In this phase the team will have to: ● Control the improvements to keep the process s on the new course ● Prevent reverting back to the "old way" ● Require the development, documentation and s implementation of an ongoing monitoring plan ● Institutionalize the improvements through the 42 Methods: DMAIC

modification of systems and structures (staffing, training, incentives) The team will use quality tools such as Control Charts, Updates to Control Plan, Mistake Proofing.
Choosing Right Tools Tools to the Use N D Project Charter ● Relationship Map ● Detailed Process Mapping ● Brainstorming ● MSA ● Data Collection ● Pareto Analysis ● Affinity Diagram ● FMEA ● Control Chart ● Capability Studies (Cpk) ● Cause-effect Diagram ● Hypothesis Tests ● Multi-variation Studies (ANOVA) ● DOE ● Tree Diagram ● Control Plan ● Mistake Proofing ● M ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● A ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● I ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● C ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Please note that the table above is indicative and that other tools can be used. The tools in blue are key DMAIC tools. Methods: DMAIC 43

QIP
The Quality Improvement Process, known as QIP, is a problem solving approach derived from a methodology originated by Dr. Juran. Why use it? Problem solving methodologies are not bureaucratic procedures but, if followed as described, ensure permanent eradication of a problem. What does it do? Chronic problems are a part of life. They are opportunities for improvement. QIP helps in tackling chronic issues. How is it done? Although this methodology can be used by a single person, it is best done in a small team of 4–8 people. How does it work? QIP is a seven step process, as outlined below: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 44 Area selection Define the project Problem causes identification Corrective action plan Action plan implementation Holding the gain Cross fertilization

Methods: Quality Improvement Process

1 Area selection Chronic problems are everywhere. So, the first thing to tackle is to select an area where you would like to launch an improvement project. You would also select the team leader from this area. This obviously must also tie in with the business strategy. 2 Define the project You follow this by defining what you want to achieve (i.e. defining a SMART objective). You also select your team members at this stage. 3 Problem causes identification Then you identify all the problem causes. You would use as many of the QITs as you deem fit. You would come out with the various theories for the problem and test each one of them. You would select the theory that best explains the problems and establish the root cause. 4 Corrective action plan In this step, you will propose corrective actions to remedy this root cause. You will take into consideration ? costs, time, feasibility, policies, etc. 5 Action plan implementation In this step you would redefine the team and implement the proposed corrective action. The duration for this could be very varied depending on the complexity of the issue involved. 6 Holding the gain The team having defined the action plan schedule must also put in place steps, which will ensure that over a period of Methods: Quality Improvement Process 45

time the issue will not slip back to the old situation. This is called “Holding the gain”, represented by the wedge in the PDCA cycle. 7 Cross fertilization One should remember that problems are not unique. Findings should therefore be share with relevant areas throughout the rest of the company, so that everyone can benefit from the project.
Tools to Use
● ● ● ● ● Choosing the Right Tools ● N ● Flow Diagram ● Brainstorming ● Cause-effect Diagram ● Data Collection ● Graph and Charts ● Pareto Analysis ● Scatter Diagram ● Histogram ● Box Plot ● Stratification ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Problem Cause Identification

Action Plan Implementation

Corrective Action Plan

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Define the Project

Cross-fertilization

Holding the Gain

Area Selection

46

Methods: Quality Improvement Process

Team Problem Solving
Team Problem Solving, also known as 8D, is a problem solving technique for sporadic problems. Why use it? Often, when we have a steady state situation, we experience a spike in the form of an unacceptable situation, like a low yield lot, a customer failure, etc. It is at times like these that we need a technique to handle this sporadic situation. TPS fits this requirement very well. What does it do? TPS helps you to put in place a short term remedy, which prevents the problem from becoming bigger. It then goes on to help you find the root cause and fix it. How do I do it? TPS, as seen from its other name of 8D, uses 8 disciplines. It is initiated as soon as an unacceptable situation is seen. It is best done with a team of 4–8 persons. How does it work? The 8 disciplines are: D1 Use team approach D2 Describe the problem D3 Implement & verify interim containment action Methods: Team Problem Solving 47

D4 Define and verify root cause(s) D5 Choose and verify corrective actions D6 Implement permanent corrective action D7 Prevent recurrence D8 Congratulate your team In the fist instance, a team of people close to the problem is drawn up. Then, the problem is defined. Here care is taken to ensure that the problem is well defined and the parameters to guide you through this is, What, When, Where and How Big. You also should define what IS and what IS NOT. Almost immediately after, even before you get other data, the team must define an interim containment action. This is analogous to putting a plaster on a bleeding wound to temporarily stop the bleeding. In discipline 4, the team will brainstorm all possible causes, eliminate most of them and narrow down to the most probable cause. Efforts are taken to verify that this would be the root cause. Having established the root cause, corrective action plans are defined which takes into consideration, speed & cost of implementation and the totality of the solution. TPS then moves into a project mode where the emphasis is on implementing the defined solution. 48 Methods: Team Problem Solving

During the process of this problem solving exercise many other issues or possible problem causing areas would have been uncovered. In discipline 7, this data is made use of to stop other problems from coming up at a later date. Finally, this team formed as an emergency team to trouble shoot the sporadic problem must be congratulated in the form of some recognition. Team Problem Solving is not very much different from QIP, except that in the latter you don’t have a step similar to the interim containment action.
Tools to Use
TOOLS D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 Project Charter ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Brainstorming ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Cause and Effect Diagram ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Data Collection ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Pareto Analysis ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Flow Diagram ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Stratification ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Box Plot ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Histogram ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Scatter Diagram ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Mistake Proofing ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Project Management ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Risk Analysis ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● DOE ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● FMEA ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Methods: Team Problem Solving

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BPM
Business Process Management is a powerful methodology to tackle issues related to management of any cross functional process. Why use it? Over time, all processes add on non-value adding items, redundant and inefficient steps. BPM helps to establish which process is critical and streamline that process. What does it do? With BPM one first establishes the key process that is critical to the operation, and then analyzes that process in detail to identify and remove disconnects. In BPM, disconnect is defined as a step that is missing, redundant or not working properly. BPM helps to make a process efficient and effective. How do I do it? BPM is most effective and efficient for a largeto mid-size process that involves cross functional members. To get it started, the problem being tackled should be of significant magnitude. Before being initiated, the project should have the blessing of senior management, as the outcome can have far reaching implications.

50

Methods: Business Process Management

How does it work? BPM is a 6 step process. These are: Step 1 Step 2 s Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Define Critical Business Issue Draw the AS IS Relationship Map and identify disconnects Identify the process Draw the AS IS Process Map Identify PM disconnects Draw the Should Be Map

The first step is to identify the critical business issue. For an organization or unit this is defined as the one that affects the bottom line or is critical for its existence. It has 3 key parameters associated with it – performance measure, current performance and target performance. Performance measures should be quantifiable measures. You then go ahead and draw the relationship map. This is just a map that shows the relationship between the different functions by using the existing interfaces between them. You then look at each of the interfaces and establish which ones of them are disconnects (disconnects as defined before). In step 3 you look at the performance measures defined in step 1 and rate on a 3 point level the impact of each of the disconnects on the performance measure. You then select the process in which the highest impact disconnects appear, in order to continue with the BPM study. Methods: Business Process Management 51

In step 4 you draw the process map, which you identified in Step 3. Process maps are 2 dimensional flow diagrams where the X axis is time and the Y axis is the functions. You map the complete process from start to finish. Please note that in BPM we define 3 situations - AS IS, SHOULD BE, and COULD BE. AS IS is what it is today. SHOULD BE is what it should be without any additional resources. COULD BE is when we don’t have a limit on resources. BPM projects always aim to move from AS IS to SHOULD BE. In step 5, we can now identify disconnects of the process map in step 4 similar to what we did in step 2. In step 6 we eliminate disconnects and draw a SHOULD BE map. Care must be taken to ensure that we do not introduce new disconnects, and that the map drawn is realistic and achievable. We then define the action plan for implementation. BPM is not difficult to do but it does, however, take many man hours. It ensures optimization of resources between various functions and locations.

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Methods: Business Process Management

Project Management
Project management is the process by which a project is completed successfully. It is a key success factor for introduction of new products, which again can represent up to 80% of revenues in any given year. It ensures optimal use of resources to develop products on time, within budget and according to company quality standards. What does it do? Project management transforms a Customer Idea into a Company Product through planning, organizing, directing, and controlling activities.

Deliverables/ Quality

Project
Time/ Schedule Resources/ Cost
Methods: Project Management 53

How does it work? There are three main phases in Project Management. These are: The Initiation Phase These are the disciplines before project approval. They include: ● Project definition & feasibility (throughout Execution Phase) ● Estimations (throughout Execution Phase) ● Risk Management (throughout Execution Phase) ● Planning (throughout Execution Phase) The Execution Phase These are the disciplines related to product development. They include: ● Change Management ● Progress Monitoring ● Project Reporting ● Team Management (started in the Initiation Phase) The Closing Phase This is the last discipline, once the product has been delivered to the customer. It includes the closing steps.

54

Methods: Project Management

Product Side:

Who is doing what – and how?
Project Side:

The Customer
The HOW Project Owner
Allocating resources to the project

The Supplier

The WHAT

Product Owner

Paying for the project …and expecting return on the investment

Product Manager

Project Manager
Delivering the product right …driving the project team to fulfill the project objective in terms product specifications, timing and costs

Delivering the right product …ensuring product objectives in line with customers’ needs

Project Leader(s)
Driving developers in a specific discipline …towards the right product specifications and specific technical solutions

Methods: Project Management

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What is a Project Team? The Project Team is the group of people (Project Members) working on the project, being led by the Project Manager. Depending of the size of the project, a Project Team can consist of several groups of people. Each group will have their specialty, like marketing, product engineering, hardware development, software development, application, quality and reliability, etc, each one being led by a Project Leader. When a team has several groups, the Project Team can have a Core Team, consisting of the Project Leaders, and including the Product Manager, being led by the Project Manager.
How is it organized?
Product Owner i.e. Divisional Director Project Manager Customer Project Team Product Manager i.e. Marketing Product Project Owner Manager i.e. Design i.e. Marketing Manager

The Project
Customer

The Process

56

Methods: Project Management

How is a Feasibility Study done? A Feasibility Study includes the following steps: ● Define project objectives and refine initial s requirements. ● Evaluate the proposed project’s opportunities: s - Market opportunity s - Positioning within ST strategies and roadmaps s - Technical feasibility ● Estimate resource requirements, development s costs and schedule ● Assess the risks associated with the proposed s project The Estimation process The graph below shows why estimation should be done, when and by whom.
How is an Estimation process performed?
Why? To state the targeted global cost and time frame To help the scheduling process To take into account particular events that may occur To help reporting accurately the project progress When? During project initiation At project launch Who? Project Manager with experts

During the project: ● End of certain . major phases ● Significant change s in requirements ● Regularly at each s update of plan

Project Manager with team members (new estimation or remaining effort)

Methods: Project Management

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Managing Risks The graph below shows the different phases in conducting a Risk Management process.
How is a Risk Management process performed?
IDENTIFY Identify risk issues and concerns ANALYZE Evaluate (impact, probability, time frame), classify and prioritize risks PLAN Tactically and strategically deal with risks Action planning TRACK Monitor risk metrics and verify / validate / follow-up mitigation actions CONTROL Re-plan mitigations, close risks, invoke contingency plans or track risks Restart whenever the risk profile changes: ● Completion of s corrective actions ● New objectives ● New specifications ● New safety s requirements

Leading Project Planning The graph below shows the establishment of a Project Plan.
How is a Project Planning process performed?
PROJECT PLAN: What? Definition of project requirements Overall view of the ENTIRE project How? Who? When? Breakdown of a project into tasks Definition of task relationships Assignment of resources to task + Duration calculation Consolidation of project schedule

58

Methods: Project Management

How is a Change Management process driven?
Submission

Idea

Evaluation

Project Vision & Scope Project Plan Requirements baseline

Decision
Postponed Rejected Accepted

Project Plan Traceability matrix Requirements baseline

Incorporation
Updated Project Plan Updated matrix Updated requirements baseline

Accepted change implementation and verification

Methods: Project Management
Implementation

Closure

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What are the Progress Monitoring objectives? The Progress Monitoring objectives are: ● Keeping the team working towards the final goal ● Obtaining an objective view of the status of the s projects: - Providing a health-check for the project - Communicating with management and s related teams ● Anticipating corrective actions ● Reporting to the team and to the management Achieving Progress Monitoring Why? To identify any corrective actions What? Identify any gap between Baseline and s actual as soon as possible When? One formal check by progress period Who? The Project Leader together with all s contributors How? 4 steps:
How is a Progress Monitoring achieved?
CHECK
(the progress)

REPORT
(the status)

UPDATE
(the schedule)

IMPLEMENT (the progress)

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Methods: Project Management

How is Project Reporting carried out? ● By revaluating data and the plan for the future ● By correcting deviation from the schedule in s order to achieve the target ● By successfully handling impact if the target s cannot be achieved - Negotiation and recommitment ● By communicating with management ● By communicating with the team How is a Project Team managed? ● By interacting with people - Through structured team meetings - If remote, through appropriate media - If potential conflicts, through face-to-face s discussions ● By leading through influence - Providing adequate levels of direction and s support ● By providing the right environment and s ongoing recognition ● By being a role model - Demonstrating the behavior you expect from s project participants

Methods: Project Management

61

How is a Project Closing done? ● Acknowledge and reward what has been s achieved ● Review the techniques, processes and s procedures used and adapt or improve for s future projects ● Provide a factual, historical record of what s happened ● Document the key messages and communicate s them to other project teams

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Methods: Project Management

Use of Project Management tools
Information treated:

Tool:

To be used for:

MS Project PSNx PCS

Project schedule management

Project controlling and reporting

TLS

Control of development costs by project

Task duration and relationships, recourse load, project milestones Major project information about time, costs, resources (actual and forecast) Time spent on projects

PTS DDTS FMEA

Tracking specific project data

Risk analyzes data

PTS for sales (Customer business information) DDTS for R&D (Project Bugs, Changes…) Project risks and potential effects

PRIS

Central product database

ADCS

Controlled documentation database

Product genealogy, planning data, technical data Documents Project data Any type of information, discussion Minutes of meetings, team activity reporting Share the computer screen and application

STPartner

OLC

Project data sharing / communication also with customers Knowledge sharing

Teams@ST

Methods: Project Management

NetMeeting

Formalization of teamwork, reporting team activity Share / display data or information online

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Function of Project Management tools
FUNCTION
Planning Controlling / Tracking X X X X X X X X X X X X X Reporting

Teamwork

Knowledge sharing X

TOOL
MSProject PSNx PCS TLS PTS (Sales) DDTS (R&D) FMEA PRIS ADCS OLC NetMeeting Teams@ST STPartners X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

64

Methods: Project Management

Teamwork@ST
The Teamwork@ST initiative promotes a healthy dynamic, rising to meet the toughest challenges by improvement in performance and operations through teamwork. What is a team? A team is a small number of people with complimentary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Below we look closer at this definition and some key words. Small number of people It depends in part on the skills required but the optimum is in the range of 5-7 people. Complimentary Skills Problem solving skills are very critical, also technical or functional as well as interpersonal capacities are success factors All this will create the synergy that makes the relations of 1+1 >2 come true. Common Purpose Teams need an actual reason for being. Teams need a SMART target. We do not create teams for the sake of having teams. Performance Goals Performance is the sine qua non condition for teams to be in the business. The management will enable the team members to be energized and focused. Methods: Teamwork@ST

65

Common Approach Team members have to agree, at the very initial stages, how they are going to work together to achieve their objectives. Mutually Accountable Each team member is not just doing one’s part but participating to come up with a common result, for which he/she has contributed 100%. When do we need teams? Teams are formed to eliminate or avoid a sporadic situation in the future, or to improve a chronic situation. Also teams maintain a process or service.
Sporadic Defects

Chronic Time

Which methodology should be used?
S s s s s Scope: s s s s Duration: Methodology: Project s s s s Achieve a well defined, known and measurable end-result (i.e. a new product) <18 months Project Management Problem Solving Team s s s Solve sporadic problems that are affecting standard performance <2 months TPS (8Ds) Quality Improvement Team, Process Improvement Team Address specific, chronic problem or opportunity for improvement s <6 months QIP (QIT) BMP (PIT)

66

Methods: Teamwork@ST

Which are the success factors? According to studies, correct implementation of success factors can eliminate 80% of potential problems in a team. Success factors are: Shared Mission A mission supported by everybody, associated with measurable objectives or performance goals. Selected Participants Technical and interpersonal skills, accountable for the results and team spirit. Committed Management A sponsor or organization supporting the team approach and the team providing regular feedback is a must. Defined methodology and schedule The right methodology depending on the nature of the team’s challenge. Agreed Rules Needed for managing meetings, making decisions, managing conflicts and ensuring participation from all team members. On-Going Recognition Timely and specific recognition from everybody: the organization, the team leader and the team mates. On-Going Self-Assessment Evaluating the performance of the team on three components, People, Process, and Purpose as a continuous improvement initiative.

Methods: Teamwork@ST

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Who are involved in a team? The following members are normally found in a team: Team Leader Every team needs to have a leader who oversees the adherence of the team’s mission and objectives. This person need to have good interpersonal skills and should of course be familiar with the task at hand. Team Members People with technical and interpersonal skills who are experts in their job, which is related to the task at hand. Team Recorder Responsible for sending agenda before meetings, meeting minutes and for collecting data or information the team might need. Should be rotated amongst team members. The following people are key to a successful team activity: Team Sponsor The major stakeholder; he/she is not a member within the team. Team Consultant An expert on team dynamics and interpersonal skills. The team consultant can be approached at anytime by the Team Leader if needed. This person is not a permanent member the team. Technical Expert The expert on the task/issue at hand who can be called in by the team leader if needed. This person is not a permanent member of the team. 68 Methods: Teamwork@ST

How to have effective team meetings? The following is part of effective team meetings: 1 Set an Agenda (Before) The agenda have to be distributed in advanced (e-mail) so that everybody can come prepared and reminded when the meeting starts. 2 Conducting the Meeting (During) The leader needs to guide the members through the discussion. This means the meeting needs to be structured in four phases. Opening: Welcome participants, explain purpose of meeting, review the agenda Review of history: Clarify and detail, review data collection Develop solutions and ideas: Generate alternatives, choose among alternatives, ask for ideas and participation Action Planning: Reach agreement, decide who is going to do what and when 3 Closing (After) Summarize results. Confirm next steps and responsibilities. Distribute minutes. Fix next meeting date and thank participants. How does a team decide? A team will be making quite a number of decisions. In order to do so, the team usually follows typical processes. These are:

Methods: Teamwork@ST

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Authoritarian
Advantages Fast (#1) Allows to unlock situations Disadvantages Not democratic Difficult to get commitment Example Emergency situation When other methods failed Parameters Explain cleverly why one has to take this approach

By majority (vote) By majority (vote)
Advantages Fast (#2) Democratic notation of voting Easy to organize

Disadvantages Isolates losers from winners Will be partially supported only

Example When dealing with values or feelings When difficult to chose proposals

Parameters Can include ranking or weighting answers vs. criteria

By distributed responsibility
Advantages Fast (#3) Everybody can contribute with their expertise Disadvantages Not everybody is contributing to everything Can create clans Example Issues that can be cut into independent sub-topics Parameters Boundaries to be clearly defined Information has to be shared

By compromise (debate of opinions)
Advantages Everybody contributes Allows to reach a decision everybody can live with Disadvantages Example Decision will get Negotiation limited support People make concessions and are reluctant (half-hearted) Parameters During the process, look for win-win situations

By consensus (debate of opinions)
Advantages Everybody contributes and are convinced, will get maximum support Disadvantages Long process May lead to paralysis Example When strong support of everybody is needed Parameters During the process, look for win-win situations

70

Methods: Teamwork@ST

Remote Teams@ST
Often, teams are not operating in the same office or site; they are cross-functional or spread geographically. Expertise is scattered world wide, remote teams are no longer an option but a must. Therefore, we need to work remotely. Most of the remote teams created are concerned with projects. What is it? Remote teams are teams made of people who work closely together despite being separated by distance and/or time. The success factors for traditional colocated teams are applicable to Remote Teams. How does it work? Remote teams take advantage of the electronic infrastructure, enabling them to: ● Work in parallel rather than serially ● Have continuous access to the latest and best s knowledge and information ● Participate from home-sites, without losing contact n with their multiplexed work and home lives ● Bring new team members up to speed through s online record of ongoing work ● Capture learning electronically, making it easy s for other teams to access this learning, often in s real-time. With the right task, agenda and facilitation, remote teams can surpass traditional co-located teams. Methods: Remote Teams 71

How to start a remote team? As for co-located teams, there must be a need. Once the challenge has been identified and validated, potential team members have to be identified. But remote teams have a lack of contact and this presents various challenges to overcome. The first team meeting of a remote team has to be face to face, where the sponsor presents the challenge together with the Team Leader. The initial kick-off meeting should address three things: 1 Presentation of the challenge by the Sponsor s and Team Leader 2 Presentation of the team members (getting to s know each other) 3 Definition of roles and responsibility 4 Definition of ground rules, working methods s and tools Which are the initial challenges to overcome? In order to reach performance as soon as possible, it is crucial for a remote team to build trust fast and, more than elsewhere, targets have to be SMART. Another factor is time. Most members of remote teams are in different locations and may operate through different time zones. Communication Challenges In a remote environment this is amplified because remote team members lack verbal contact. 72 Methods: Remote Teams

Normally, when non-verbal communication is lacking one tends to assume that other involved are not motivated and starts to make negative assumptions. Nothing can be left to chance in a remote environment; one has to make sure that when information sent it is not lost in cyberspace. Cross Cultural Challenges Remote team members have to be proactive and try some of the following when coming across other cultures: ● Recognize and understand the differences ● Accept the differences ● Appreciate these differences ● Expand your horizon

Methods: Remote Teams

73

5-S
The 5-S practice is a well-recognized Japanese method, by which each individual employee can improve work efficiency. The name stands for five Japanese words: SEITON (Neatness) Systematizing: I practice 30-seconds document retrieval SEIRI (Organization) Sorting: I keep only important items SEISO (Cleanness) Sanitizing: I discard rubbish and extra copies SEIKETSU (Standardization) Standardizing: I practice storage transparency SHITSUKE (Discipline) Self-discipline: I perform 5-S daily What does it do? 5-S practice is synonymous with: ● ● ● ● Higher moral and motivation Greater efficiency Reduced costs Improved quality

5-S is “the art of managing your environment” —the starting point of organizational responsibility, involving each individual. 74 Methods: 5-S

Sorting—Organization This is the first imperative. Organizing is about sorting things that are necessary for the job from those that are not. It is important to know what to discard, what to save, and how to save things so that they can easily be accessed when needed. ● Sort everything into two categories: s Necessary or Unnecessary
y

● Dispose of all that is unnecessary
y

● Archive anything not used in the last 30 days
s

● As well as paper, etc. clean and organize e computer files and disk space Systematizing—Neatness Neatness is about efficiency, how fast you can get hold of the things you need and how fast you can put them away. When deciding how and where to archive things, think of how they are put away and retrieved, and why this takes time, if this is the case. Their categorization should be based on common logic, for example their use, so that everybody can find them. ● Label and arrange items by use to save time ● Orderliness promotes efficiency and increase e productivity ● Store items for easy retrieval—in 30 seconds s for documents ● A place for everything and everything in its place Methods: 5-S 75

Sanitizing—Cleanness In the spirit of the 5-S method it is believed that keeping ones work area neat helps bring order in ones mind, too. Also, an orderly progression in the tightening-up process may help identifying causes of various problems, for example as a bad or useless connection, material that have reached its expiration date, unused space, etc. ● Everyone participates, from manager and down ● Maintain equipment, tools and environment in s a more productive way ● A clean environment facilitates failure s detection Standardization Standardization is necessary to ensure that the entire organization is always 5-S compliant. This gives everyone the possibility to participate and contribute, and is a pert of continuous improvement. ● Standardize to retain the gains: ● Use visual aids to increase effectiveness ● Make storage transparent for easy retrieval ● Apply uniform and consistent methodology to s filing systems ● It is imperative to build systems and s procedures to ensure continuity 76 Methods: 5-S

Self-discipline—Discipline To encourage the needed discipline, rules and procedures should be defined. This helps break bad habits and establish and maintain good ones, and promote self-discipline. ● Rate the work area and post results on a s monthly basis ● Recognize that new habits take time to develop ● Manage your work area to manage your work; s this is a daily activity requiring diligence Implementation of 5-S Implementation Requirements As all TQM initiatives, 5-S implementation includes: ● Management commitment: 5-S champion s leads, everyone practice ● Promotion campaign: Detailed timetable with s deployment action plan ● Record keeping: Records, photos, and audit s sheets to drive improvement ● Training: Cascade expectations and standards, s insure everyone understands the goal ● Results evaluation: Monitoring progress and s identify problems ● Recognition: Acknowledge progress and s reward success Methods: 5-S 77

Training and Help
The different tools and methodologies presented here are supported by training. You may find the most suitable training for your needs at the ST Learning Campus:
http://learning.st.com/courses/index.cfm

- or contact your local training department. More detailed literature and others self-training guides are available at:
http://learning.st.com/resources/index.cfm

As a complement to this training and publications, a set of presentations are available at the TQCR web site:
http://toolbox/.rou.st.com

These tools are supported by "specialists" in one or several domains/topics, who can be contacted for help in their usage. The list of specialists is available at:
http://stway.st.com/toolspecialists/

The most suitable way to administrate a team is to use Teams@ST application at:
http://teams.sgp.st.com/teams/

In order to help you in your activity, you may ask for the help of a team consultant at:
http://stway.st.com/consultants/

78

Other: Training and Help

Why use this handbook?
Quality methods and tools are not new to ST. We have used them in a systematic way in connection with our business excellence model since 1991. During all that time, we have added and used more and more methods for implementing continuous improvement. They have been tried out by many leaders, who again have added their knowledge and experience. The “Quality Problem Solving Handbook” gives a brief overview of the key tools, skills and methods, that we use at ST today. You may know them already, or at least some of them. For the more experienced leader, the booklet will serve as a reminder and check-list. They give us a universal “quality language”, and a common approach to problem solving and improvement. Use these methods, skills and tools—they will make you more efficient in your everyday work.

? STMicroelectronics—Published in December 2005


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