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IB English B 2006 May High Level Paper 1 Textbooklet


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IB DIPLOMA PROGRAMME PROGRAMME DU DIPL?ME DU BI PROGRAMA DEL DIPLOMA DEL BI

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ENGLISH B – HIGHER LEVEL – PAPER 1 AN

GLAIS B – NIVEAU SUP?RIEUR – ?PREUVE 1 INGL?S B – NIVEL SUPERIOR – PRUEBA 1 Monday 8 May 2006 (morning) Lundi 8 mai 2006 (matin) Lunes 8 de mayo de 2006 (ma?ana) 1 h 30 m TEXT BOOKLET – INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES ? Do not open this booklet until instructed to do so. ? This booklet contains all of the texts required for Paper 1. ? Answer the questions in the Question and Answer Booklet provided. LIVRET DE TEXTES – INSTRUCTIONS DESTIN?ES AUX CANDIDATS ? N’ouvrez pas ce livret avant d’y être autorisé(e). ? Ce livret contient tous les textes nécessaires à l’épreuve 1. ? Répondez à toutes les questions dans le livret de questions et réponses fourni. CUADERNO DE TEXTOS – INSTRUCCIONES PARA LOS ALUMNOS ? No abra este cuaderno hasta que se lo autoricen. ? Este cuaderno contiene todos los textos para la Prueba 1. ? Conteste todas las preguntas en el cuaderno de preguntas y respuestas.

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7 pages/páginas

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? The pessimistic among us would be quick to write hip hop off as just another phase or trend. A quick look at its history will reveal why this would be a grievous mistake. Instead of dismissing it, we should examine it further and understand why the hip hop movement is conquering the world. ? Hip hop, consisting of the four elements of graffiti, rapping, DJing and break dancing, is a form of expression that finds its roots embedded deep within ancient African culture and oral tradition. Before the invention of pen and paper and indeed after it, people have used the spoken word to preserve and convey history. In Africa, history was recorded through singing songs and telling stories. Slaves who worked on plantations maintained this tradition and sang songs of varied content to create a record of their history. Their songs were about freedom and their spiritual beliefs, and their longings to go home. They often free styled and used anything they could get their hands on to drum up a beat and the first kind of rapping was born. ? Jumping further forward in history, the modern style of rapping was first introduced by a Jamaican DJ known as Kool Herc, who moved from Kingston to New York’s West Bronx. It was here that Kool Herc chanted over the instrumental and percussion parts of the era’s popular songs. ? The mid-eighties brought rap to a new era as hip hop culture moved forward to become an important part of mainstream American music. In 1986, groups like the Beastie Boys and Run DMC were seen regularly on MTV. Two years later, the first album of successful hard-hitting “gangsta rap” was released by the rap group NWA. Many attempts were made to block this album and censor it, but this only created more publicity for the album. ? The 90s took hip hop to new heights. Artists became celebrities in their own right and hip hop music began to dominate the music charts. Now many artists have their own clothing lines and production companies. ? Hip hop has transcended race. It has crossed borders which a lot of other art forms have yet to do. Before judging it, try to understand it.

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Perseverance Pays
There is determination, and then there’s the story of what African student Niason Nyamatutu did to go to America to get a college education. The 24-year old, born in Harare, Zimbabwe, is now happily ensconced at Carthage College in Kenosha, Wisconsin, majoring in business administration and marketing, courtesy of a four-year, $60,000 scholarship. 5 [ – Heading X – ] But to get to that small liberal arts college in the Midwest, he marketed potatoes, bought a plane ticket with money Niason’s father drew from his small pension and showed up at the college’s door without any notion that he would be admitted. He was. 10 [ – Heading 1 – ] For years, Nyamatutu had been visiting the US Information Service Centre in Zimbabwe, reading brochures and watching videos about colleges and universities. He said he wanted an American education because it “yields the best results. An American education prepares you more for the national and international market.” 15 [ – Heading 2 – ] Nyamatutu learned of Carthage from a 15-minute conversation with a business professor at the school who was vacationing in Africa, William Jankovich. Nyamatutu returned to the Information Centre in an effort to contact someone at Carthage but was told he should first get a visa. After weeks of failed attempts, his visa was approved. However, for Nyamatutu, there was one other obstacle – raising $1,500 for a round-trip ticket to the United States. He first tried to market potatoes by negotiating a deal with a farmer who would supply the potatoes and he would sell them. But he ended up owing the supplier $300. As a final resort, he said, he asked his mother to lend him enough money to pay off his debt and purchase a ticket. [ – Heading 3 – ] 25 Nyamatutu applied for admission to Carthage on the Internet. In March, with $150 in his pocket, a back pack and the names of two Carthage staff members, Nyamatutu boarded a plane to Chicago with only a hope and a prayer that his application had successfully navigated the Internet maze and reached Carthage.

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[ – Heading 4 – ] 30 By the time he paid for a shuttle bus to Carthage’s campus, 65 miles north of Chicago, he was broke. Brenda Poggendorf, Vice President for Enrollment, recalls how Nyamatutu announced “that he was there to go to school.” Admissions had nothing from him on file. “But when I looked behind him and saw his back pack, there were more than just a couple of days’ belongings. At that time I knew he had plans to stay.” And after listening to the extraordinary story of how he persevered to get to Carthage, Poggendorf said she felt compelled to help him stay. [ – Heading 5 – ] Nyamatutu completed the admission process and was offered a full scholarship from Carthage College, worth $60,000. The scholarship was based on his perseverance, command of the English language and academic ability. Nyamatutu, who lives on campus in a dormitory, began classes. When Nyamatutu finally met Jankovich on the Carthage campus, the professor was stunned. “I couldn’t believe it.” Jankovich said. “Here was this kid I’d met a year ago, in a 15-minute conversation, while waiting for a train that was late, and now he was in my class.”

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Elvis Died at the Florida Barber College
At ten years old I could not figure out what it was that this Elvis Presley guy had that the rest of us boys did not have. I mean, he had a head, two arms and two legs, just like the rest of us. Whatever it was he had hidden away must have been pretty darn good because he had every young girl at the orphanage wrapped around his little finger. About nine o’clock on Saturday morning, I decided to ask Eugene Correthers, one of the older boys, what it was that made this Elvis guy so special. He told me that it was Elvis’ wavy hair and the way he moved his body. About a half an hour later all the boys in the orphanage were called to the main dining room and told we were all going to downtown Jacksonville, Florida to get a new pair of Buster Brown shoes and a haircut. This is when I got this big idea, which hit me like a ton of bricks. If the Elvis haircut was the big secret, then that’s what I was going to get. On the way to town I told everybody that I was going to look like Elvis and that I would be rich and famous one day, just like him. I was smiling from ear to ear when I got my new shiny Buster Brown shoes and I was very proud as I walked around the store showing everyone. I liked looking at my feet through this special x-ray machine that they had in the shoe store that make the bones in my feet look green. I could hardly wait to get my Elvis haircut. 15 We finally arrived at the barbershop, where they cut our hair for free because we were orphans. I ran up to one of the chairs and climbed up onto the board that he put across the arms to make me sit up higher. I looked at the man and said “I want a haircut like Elvis.” “Let’s see what we can do, little man,” he said. Just as he started to cut my hair, the matron who had accompanied us from the orphanage motioned the barber over to where she was standing. She whispered something into his ear and then he shook his head like he was telling her “no”. She walked over to another man who was sitting in the office and spoke to him. The next thing I knew, the man who was cutting my hair told me that they were not allowed to give Elvis haircuts. I watched him put this comb thing on the end of the clippers and then I saw all my hair falling to the floor. When he finished shaving off all my hair, he handed me a nickel and told me to go outside to the machine and buy myself a candy bar. I gave him the nickel back and told him I was not hungry. “I’m so sorry, baby” he said, as I climbed out of his barber chair. “I am not a baby”, I said and I wiped the tears from my eyes and brushed the hair off my new Buster Brown shoes so they would stay shiny and new. I walked towards the door past the matron who was smiling at me sort of funny like. The man who had cut my hair walked over to her and said, “You are just a damn bitch, lady.” The man hit the wall with his hand and then walked outside to smoke a cigarette. I walked outside and stood beside him. He looked down and smiled at me, then he patted me on top of my bald head. I looked up at him with my wet red eyes and said, “Do you know if Elvis Presley has green bones?”.

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The Mobile Generation
The mobile phone is indispensable to teenagers and text messaging is an integral part of how they express and define themselves, a social study says. Threequarters of teenagers surveyed said they could not bear to be without their mobile phones. Helen Haste, a professor at the University of Bath and the leading author of the report, said “Texting is replacing speech for human communication among young people.” It is immediate, accessible, private and gives them unprecedented control over how they communicate with friends and family. Dr. Haste explained that it’s not just about communicating but displaying to those around you that you are popular, successful and have a large social network. This is further supported by Zoe Lazarus, a trend analyst at Crystal Consultancy, who says that one of the most important concerns for teenagers is to be constantly contactable and connected to the action. As far as education is concerned, teachers mostly feel that the presence of mobile phones in the classroom is disruptive. However, the study found that teachers are increasingly using mobiles phones to communicate with students. Teachers also recognize that mobile phones allow many young people to express themselves as individuals. Most teenagers reported that they personalise their handsets, with two-thirds changing the background display of their screen, 58% downloading their own ring tones and 36% adding their own snapon covers. Text messaging continues to increase in popularity, with Britain’s 52 million mobile phone users sending 2-3 billion text messages in October, up by 500 million on a year earlier. Texting plays a key role in the lives of young people. Some 89%, of 11-21-year old mobile users text at least once a day and 54% at least five times a day. Texting is also by far the most popular mode of communication for flirting, with 55% of mobile users preferring it to other means. Research into this area has found a number of surprising results. The most interesting of these results concerns gender. Surprisingly males are keener on making calls when it concerns matters of the heart like flirting and arranging dates, whereas females prefer to text. Twice as many boys and young men preferred to conduct any arguments by text compared with girls (27% and 14% respectively). Not so surprising was the fact that more males were happy with the idea of ending a relationship by text.

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