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National Register of Historic Places Registration Form


NPS Form 10-900

OMB No. 10024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
This form is for use in nominating or requesting determination for individual properties and districts. See instruction in How to Complete the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (National Register Bulletin 16A). Complete each item by marking ``x'' in the appropriate box or by entering the information requested. If an item does not apply to the property being documented, enter ``N/A'' for ``not applicable.'' For functions, architectural classification, materials and areas of significance, enter only categories and subcategories from the instructions. Place additional entries and narrative items on continuation sheets (NPS Form 10-900a). Use a typewriter, word processor, or computer, to complete all items.

1. Name of Property historic name East High School other names/site number 5DV.2091 2. Location street & number 1545 Detroit Street city or town Denver state Colorado code CO county Denver code 031
[N/A] not for publication [N/A] vicinity

zip code 80206-1515

3. State/Federal Agency Certification
As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, I hereby certify that this nomination request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property meets does not meet the National Register criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant nationally statewide locally. ( See continuation sheet for additional comments.)
Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer

Signature of certifying official/Title

Date

Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Colorado Historical Society
State or Federal agency and bureau

In my opinion, the property meets does not meet the National Register criteria. ( See continuation sheet for additional comments.) Signature of certifying official/Title State or Federal agency and bureau Date

4. National Park Service Certification
I hereby certify that the property is: entered in the National Register See continuation sheet. determined eligible for the National Register See continuation sheet. determined not eligible for the National Register. removed from the National Register See continuation sheet. other, explain See continuation sheet. Signature of the Keeper Date of Action

East High School
Name of Property

Denver County, Colorado
County/State

5. Classification Ownership of Property
(Check as many boxes as apply)

Category of Property
(Check only one box)

Number of Resources within Property
(Do not count previously listed resources.) Contributing Noncontributing

[ ] private [x] public-local [ ] public-State [ ] public-Federal

[x] building(s) [ ] district [ ] site [ ] structure [ ] object

3 0 0 1 4

4 0 0 0 4

buildings sites structures objects Total

Name of related multiple property listing.
(Enter "N/A" if property is not part of a multiple property listing.)

Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register. 0

N/A 6. Function or Use Historic Function
(Enter categories from instructions)

Current Functions
(Enter categories from instructions)

Education / School

Education / School

7. Description Architectural Classification
(Enter categories from instructions)

Materials
(Enter categories from instructions)

Late 19 and 20 Century Revivals Other: Jacobethan Revival

th

th

foundation walls roof other

concrete brick metal asphalt steel terra cotta

Narrative Description
(Describe the historic and current condition of the property on one or more continuation sheets.)

East High School
Name of Property

Denver County, Colorado
County/State

8. Statement of Significance Applicable National Register Criteria
(Mark ``x'' in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for National Register listing.)

Areas of Significance
(Enter categories from instructions)

[X] A Property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history. [ ] B Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past. [X] C Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction. [ ] D Property has yielded, or is likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history.

Education Architecture Community Planning and Development Politics/Government Art Periods of Significance 1924 - 1975

Criteria Considerations
(Mark ``x'' in all the boxes that apply.)

Significant Dates 1924 1925 1934 1949 Significant Person(s)
(Complete if Criterion B is marked above).

Property is:
[ ] A owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes. [ ] B removed from its original location. [ ] C a birthplace or grave. [ ] D a cemetery. [ ] E a reconstructed building, object, or structure. [ ] F a commemorative property. [X] G less than 50 years of age or achieved significance within the past 50 years.

N/A Cultural Affiliation N/A

Architect/Builder Williamson, George Hebard Arvid Olson Investment and Building Company Mountain, Karch & Associates

Narrative Statement of Significance
(Explain the significance of the property on one or more continuation sheets.)

9. Major Bibliographical References Bibliography
(Cite the books, articles and other sources used in preparing this form on one or more continuation sheets.)

Previous documentation on file (NPS):
preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested previously listed in the National Register previously determined eligible by the National Register designated a National Historic Landmark recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey # recorded by Historic American Engineering Record #

Primary location of additional data:
State Historic Preservation Office Other State Agency Federal Agency Local Government University Other

Name of repository:

Colorado Historical Society

East High School
Name of Property

Denver County, Colorado
County/State

10. Geographical Data Acreage of Property UTM References
(Place additional UTM references on a continuation sheet.)

11.48

1. 2. 3. 4.

13
Zone

503760
Easting

4399113
Northing

(NAD27)

13
Zone

503904
Easting

4399113
Northing

13
Zone

503904
Easting

4398735
Northing

13
Zone

503760
Easting

4398735
Northing

[ ] See continuation sheet

Verbal Boundary Description
(Describe the boundaries of the property on a continuation sheet.)

Boundary Justification
(Explain why the boundaries were selected on a continuation sheet.)

11. Form Prepared By name/title Ira C. Selkowitz / Director of Preservation Services (prepared for property owner) organization Historic Denver, Inc. street & number 1536 Wynkoop Street, Suite 400 A city or town Denver Additional Documentation Submit the following items with the completed form: Continuation Sheets Maps
A USGS map (7.5 or 15 minute series) indicating the property's location. A Sketch map for historic districts and properties having large acreage or numerous resources.

date November 22, 2005 telephone (303) 534-5288 zip code 80202 state CO

Photographs
Representative black and white photographs of the property.

Additional Items
(Check with the SHPO or FPO for any additional items)

Property Owner
(Complete this item at the request of SHPO or FPO.)

name Denver School District #1 street & number 900 Grant Street city or town Denver state CO telephone zip code 80203

Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq. Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 18.1 hours per response including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Chief, Administrative Services Division, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127; and the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reductions Projects (1024-0018), Washington, DC 20503.

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
DESCRIPTION

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 1

Denver County, Colorado

East High School, built in 1924 and opened in 1925, is a striking building, designed primarily in the Jacobethan Revival style. The red brick, H-shaped plan building is distinguished by its terra cotta banding and ornamentation, as well as by its large central clock tower. East High School’s location was chosen for its prominence. The school is situated on the east side of the City Park Esplanade and is highly visible from the major East Colfax Avenue thoroughfare at the south end of the Esplanade and while looking east down 16th Avenue. When the school was built, the Esplanade was a magnificent tree-lined gateway into City Park. It still runs from East Colfax Avenue on the south through the Dennis Sullivan Memorial Gateway and Dolphin Fountain (both erected in 1917), to the Joseph Addison Thatcher Memorial Fountain (erected in 1918). The fountain forms the northern terminus of the Esplanade, just inside City Park on 17th Avenue. Today, the Sullivan Gateway serves as the entrance to the East High School campus. The Esplanade and its monuments were listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The East High School building was not included in that listing. The September/October 1925 issue of Municipal Facts, published by the City of Denver, provided this description of East High School: Both for practical and sentimental reasons…East High [School] was designed in the English Jacobean style of the early seventeenth century…. Reminiscent of many of the older educational institutions such as Oxford and Christchurch College, the style of architecture permits…effective and expansive window spacing…. Throughout… East High the windows go all the way to the top of the room…. Built of brick and light gray architectural terra cotta, color is introduced in parapet panels. The entire exterior has a dull mat glaze finish, the brickwork varying from light red to blue black, with cement mortar in wide flush joints…. The plan of… East High is known as the “H” type; permitting… light and eliminating interior closed-in courts. In the center of this H is the auditorium, reached up one flight of stairs from the entrance lobby…. The lobby or main foyer is finished in gray… marble [from the Ozark Mountains], with walls and ceilings in three-tone grey effects. Its wide terrazzo stair, with bronze railings, leads to the second floor…. The central portion… has a clock tower, 162 feet high, from grade to the top of the finial, located to make an effective termination for the vista at the end of East Sixteenth Avenue. This central portion of the building, under the clock contains the main lobby, or foyer, the library [on the third floor and] the auditorium…. This 1925 description remains accurate today. East High School is a four-story, load bearing masonry and steel frame building. The exterior of the school is distinguished by primarily red richly hued brick, extensive light grey terra cotta detailing, and large double-hung and casement style windows. The predominant style of architecture of the building has been described as Jacobethan Revival, but it includes numerous twentieth-century details and compositional elements. It is truly a building reflective of its time, rather than a pure revivalist example. The primary entrance to East High School is located on the west elevation at the base of a four-story, richly detailed, brick and terra cotta entry element. While the entry is classically detailed and proportioned, it includes an eclectic variety of additional terra cotta detailing, particularly on the clock tower. At the first floor, three pairs of deeply recessed main entry doors are flanked by imposing Doric pilasters. Reflecting a classical hierarchy of orders, the second floor is marked by Composite columns

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 2

Denver County, Colorado

and pilasters, the third floor by Ionic columns and pilasters, and the fourth floor by Corinthian columns and pilasters. Above, the majestic clock tower reflects even finer detailing, including both classically inspired and more modern, eclectically styled terra cotta ornamentation, including friezes, architraves, balustrades, and cornice detailing. The clock weighs over a ton and is visible from throughout the area. Each of the four clock faces is approximately nine feet wide. Other distinguishing features of the primary facade include two secondary stair towers to the north and south of the primary entrance expressed with castle-like detailing in plan and elevation. Large doublehung and casement classroom windows repeat at each of the four floors. All of the west elevation is in good to excellent condition and has been reasonably well maintained. The north elevation is currently distinguished by the contemporarily styled 1982 gymnasium addition. Although similar building materials were used, the absence of windows and minimal but sympathetic detailing clearly mark this as an addition. Other distinguishing characteristics of the north elevation include a rather stark motor court flanked by a beautiful, intricately detailed, light red and blue black brick multi-story wall as well as numerous classroom windows. Unfortunately, glazing has been removed from the doors and windows facing a third-floor, north facing, exterior balcony. The east elevation primarily accommodates service functions at the ground floor and classrooms above. This elevation, like the north elevation, is also distinguished by a contemporarily styled 1974 addition. The detached accessory buildings obstruct the view of the building from Detroit Street and Colfax Avenue, but do not otherwise affect the building, which is in otherwise good repair. The south elevation, facing Colfax Avenue, presents a rich tableaux to pedestrians and motorists alike. A large landscaped courtyard, similar in proportion to that on the north side of the building, provides a quiet contrast to the busy street it faces. The courtyard also displays the bell from the former Arapahoe School, constructed in the late nineteenth century at 18th and Arapahoe Streets in downtown Denver, but since demolished. A semi-circular plan, single-story sunroom graces the southwest corner of the first floor, providing pedestrian scale to a grand elevation otherwise dominated by classroom windows. Extensive terra cotta detailing carries through the south elevation, as it does on all original elevations, repeating patterns and themes first expressed at the building entry. Finally, as discussed elsewhere in this nomination, the park-like campus further enhances the school’s grand scale, providing an almost theatrical setting for the building. Both the Sullivan Gates and the South Lawn provide pedestrian scale and buffer the building from busy Colfax Avenue. City Park Esplanade, already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, allows the primary west elevation to be viewed in its entirety from both near and afar. The entry sequence from the Esplanade, across a courtyard, and up the stairs to the three pairs of entry doors, as earlier described, is truly a memorable experience. Interior Description The H-plan devotes the center of the school building to general activity spaces while the classrooms and offices occupy the projecting wings for optimal natural lighting. The auditorium occupies the first two floors of the building’s center. The library is above on the third floor and the sciences classrooms (formally the lunchroom) and vocal music rooms are on the fourth. It was said that music and the cafeteria were placed there in order that "sound and smell" not detract from academic pursuits. Along the Detroit Street side (east) or the “back hall” as it is known, there were originally a number of

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 3

Denver County, Colorado

Figure 1. This circa 1925 photograph shows the main lobby and stair. Photographer: Louis Charles McClure. Source: Western History/ Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Figure 2. Circa 1925 view of the main stair rising from the first-floor lobby. Source: Western History/ Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 4

Denver County, Colorado

Figure 3. Circa 1925 view of the main stair and the thirdfloor hallway. Source: Western History/ Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Figure 4. Circa 1925 view of the auditorium stage. Source: Western History/ Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 5

Denver County, Colorado

Figure 5. Circa 1925 view of library. Source: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Figure 6. Circa 1925 view of the library. Source: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Figure 7. Circa 1934 view of the library showing the Public Works Art Project mural, “The Travels of Marco Polo.” Source: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 6

Denver County, Colorado

vocational departments as well as locker rooms, a gymnasium, boiler room, coal bunkers, fan room, and the ROTC classrooms and rifle range. Both the first-floor boys’ gym and the second-floor girls’ gym are lined with glazed and pressed brick in buff tones. The main foyer is finished in gray marble from the Ozarks. The main stairway is of terrazzo. Alterations The original building’s H-shaped in plan is largely intact. In the 1950s, the amber glass panels in the auditorium were boarded up to comply with fire regulations. No other major additions or changes to the building were accomplished until 1972, when the school board authorized a long term "Master Plan" for the remodeling of the aging school. "Phase One" of the plan included a two-story addition at the rear of the building on Detroit Street, providing a new lunchroom and home economics unit, the remodeling of the old lunchroom into science classrooms, and other upgrades to student facilities. These facilities were completed in 1974, and were generally unobtrusive to the external visual effect of the original building design. When the Career Education Center was established, Denver high schools dropped auto mechanics and metal shop from their curricula. East kept its large woodworking facility in the back hall and it still maintains a drafting program (now updated to include computer design). Some of the special education programs have been housed in the renovated space left vacant by the departure of metal and auto mechanics programs.

Figure 8. This 1936 view of East High School shows the north side of the building prior to the construction of the gymnasium addition. Source: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 7

Denver County, Colorado

The most noteworthy and visible alteration to East High has been the gymnasium addition, the final plans for which were approved by the school board in 1979 as "Phase Two" of the Master Plan. Architects Mountain, Karch & Associates designed the two-story addition known as the Pat Panek Gymnasium. The addition was dedicated on May 18, 1982. The red brick gymnasium projects onto the playing field from the northeast wing at the rear of the original building. The design of the facility was intended to blend in with the old, and it neither replicates nor severely clashes with the original exterior design. Over time, there have been various interior enhancements and alterations affecting the placement of classrooms, study halls, and educational departments, and the addition of a computer center, counseling center and health clinic. These additions and alterations have not adversely affected the integrity of the school. In 1989, an unfinished storage area inside the tower was remodeled to accommodate the "Tower History Room," a center for the preservation, display, and research of historic East High documents, photographs, and artifacts.

Figure 9. This circa 1925 view shows the original lunchroom that was converted to science classrooms in the 1972-74 school remodeling and expansion. Source: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Grants from the State Historical Fund of the Colorado Historical Society were received to partially fund the following work which was completed in accordance with the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards in the year following the grant award (the 2005 grant is ongoing): Year of grant 1995 1996 Description of work on the East High School building Repointing of the terra cotta joints on the clock tower Replacement of front entryway metal security doors (installed in 1970) with new eightlight paired wood doors in keeping with the original historic design Weatherproof portico/balcony Repair/replace masonry, concrete, and other hardscape materials

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 7 Page 8

Denver County, Colorado

Restore historic landscaping, furnishings and other visual elements which were removed or altered over time Repair/restore badly worn interior terrazzo flooring throughout the first-floor foyer, halls and stairway Repair/restore marble finishes in front interior lobby 2001 Restoration, rehabilitation or replacement of 935 of the 1013 first-floor theater seats in the auditorium (78 seats had been rehabilitated prior to the grant; the 935 remaining seats were restored or rehabilitated, except that 36 seats and 100 seat backs were replaced) Repair building masonry and repoint mortar joints Repair and upgrade boiler, tubes and controls; install digital controls and central energy management Replace roof decks Library–abate asbestos; install new tile flooring to match original; demolish non-historic fixtures and finishes; rebuild custom woodwork (circulation desk and shelving) to match original; reinstall windows and doors at study rooms; restore plaster/lath ceiling and repaint; reinstall electrical fixtures to conform to original desks, tables and shelving layout; reinstall lighting to match original. Vocational Lab Buildings (2) – 1967; contributing buildings Two detached, steel utility buildings were constructed on the southeast corner of the campus in 1967 to serve as vocational labs. The prefabricated buildings have steel ribbed siding, a gently pitched gable roof, and steel frame doors and windows. The buildings are now used for storage. Arapahoe School Bell - 1874; contributing object The bell now located on a concrete base on the south lawn of the campus came from Denver’s first high school building, the Arapahoe School formerly at 18th and Arapahoe Streets. Baseball Dugouts (4) - noncontributing buildings Four shed-roofed, concrete masonry unit baseball dugouts stand in the athletic field north of the high school building. Their recent construction causes them to be classified as noncontributing resources.

2005

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
SIGNIFICANCE

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 9

Denver County, Colorado

East High School, completed in 1924 and opened in 1925, is eligible for the National Register under Criterion A in the area of community planning and development as an important part of a city-wide campaign to modernize, beautify, and promote aesthetic planning and design in schools and other public buildings in keeping with the so-called City Beautiful movement. There was no single architectural style that came to be associated with this early twentieth-century movement, but architects and civic leaders favored the revival of classical styles and the integration of structures with the surrounding landscape. The period from 1900 to 1940 is characterized in Denver by the construction or rebuilding of five high schools, ten junior high schools, and two dozen elementary schools. In its revivalist design and careful siting, East High School epitomizes the City Beautiful ethic. The period of significance related to this criterion and area of significance is 1924. East High School is eligible for the National Register under Criterion C in the area of architecture as a finely executed example of English Jacobean Revival or Jacobethan Revival style architecture. The style, of limited popularity in America from about 1895 to 1920, is defined by a number of design characteristics. East High School exhibits many of these characteristics, including: front facing multicurved gables rising above the roofline; elaborate brick work; quoins at the building corners; occasional turrets and towers; and rectangular window frames containing small, leaded panes of glass set in hinged casement sashes. The period of significance related to this criterion and area of significance is 1924. The school is also eligible under Criterion C for being an important work of a master, Denver architect George Williamson. He chose the accessible and open Jacobean style for the East High building in part due to its ability to accommodate large scale window treatments considered essential to state-of-the-art educational buildings. Williamson was a local master whose many achievements in the field led his fellow architects in 1934 to elect him to the College of Fellows in the American Institute of Architects, becoming only the third Colorado architect selected. East High School was one of Williamson’s most highly regarded achievements. The period of significance related to this criterion and area of significance is 1924. Additionally, the school is eligible under Criterion C in the area of art for the mural painted in the library in 1934 as part of the Depression-era Public Works Art Project program. Hugh Weller painted the mural titled “The Travels of Marco Polo.” The period of significance related to this criterion and area of significance is 1934. Most importantly, the school is eligible under Criterion A in the area of education for its important role in the education of Denver’s youth during the period of 1925 to 1975. During this fifty-year period, East High School evolved from a school serving primarily well-to-do Anglo students to a school at the vanguard of race relations and school integration prior to the landmark school desegregation case involving the Denver Public Schools decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Keyes v. School District No. 1, 413 U. S. 189 (1973). The property meets the requirements of Criteria Consideration G for exceptional significance during the less than fifty-year portion of its period of significance for the role the school played as a leader among Denver schools in establishing formal and informal avenues for exploring and furthering the understanding of issues related to racial and ethnic diversity. Many of these initiatives came from the students themselves as they established a variety of activities and groups dealing with race relations and school integration. These efforts came before the 1975 start of court-mandated integration through student busing that forced other schools to face the many social and educational issues related to segregation in the school system and the community at large. Other Denver schools looked to the example set by East High prior to 1975 as a model for new educational

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 10

Denver County, Colorado

programs and community understanding. The period of significance related to this criterion and area of significance is 1925 to 1975. Finally, East High School is eligible for the National Register under Criterion A in the area of politics/government in association with a brief but important episode in October 1949. The school and its students played an important role in advancing the course of local political and governmental history. As a test of equipment and procedures, East High students used the city’s new automatic voting machines to elect their class leaders. Denver’s election commission chose East High to test the new voting procedure because, according to the election commission clerk, “the number of students voting, the number of candidates, and the number to be selected at East is in direct proportion to the numbers of voters, candidates, and officers for Denver city and school elections.” The successful test lead to the city-wide implementation of the automated equipment and procedures to speed municipal, state, and national elections. The period of significance related to this criterion and area of significance is 1949. Community Planning and Development East High School was planned and built as part of a city-wide campaign to modernize, beautify, and promote aesthetic planning and design in schools and other public buildings. There was no single architectural style associated with this era, but rather eclectism, innovation grounded in revival of classical styles, and integration of structures with the surrounding landscape characterized the period. The City Beautiful movement was an American phenomenon during the Progressive Era of the early twentieth century. City Beautiful proponents used principles of city planning for the location of new school buildings in Denver. These principles were described in the September-October 1930 issue of Municipal Facts as “proper and previously determined distances; natural boundaries created by through streets, thoroughfares and rivers, and parks; selected vistas, sites with natural foregrounds; and consideration for surroundings and silhouettes.” Using these planning principles, East High School was situated in accordance with the direction of growth of the city and its location was chosen in part so that the distance between home and school for students was seldom greater than a mile and half. Speer Boulevard functioned as the boundary between the East High and South High School districts. The author of the Municipal Facts article explained how East High School satisfied the third planning principle and the City Beautiful movement and how East High School could satisfy Denver’s longstanding desire to be taken seriously on par with older cities in the eastern United States: The parks of Denver have been used to accentuate the beauty of the city’s newer schools; and in turn, the beauty of the parks has been enhanced by the magnificence of the schools. . . . [with] East High School guarding the entrance of City Park…. Some of these buildings, so carefully planned to contribute to the lasting beauty of Denver, have been situated on or near our state and ocean-to-ocean highways. The traveler [sic] coming by automobile from eastern states may pass down Colfax Avenue where East High School and Aaron Gove Junior High School tell of the beauty of Denver and the beauty of her schools. Denver’s schools invite the traveler [sic] to stay. They speak not only of the city’s faith in her own permanence, but also of the faith in education as a builder of that permanence – a faith so these buildings assure us – as secure as the rock-ribbed foundations of

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 11

Denver County, Colorado

Colorado’s hills. And they tell much of Denver’s faith in the power of beauty in the building of great cities.
Figure 10. Mid-1930s aerial view of East High School looking to the east. The Sullivan Gateway is at

the right, providing the monumental entry from E. Colfax Ave. to the City Park Esplanade running across the front of the school. The Esplanade served as the formal entry to City Park, a portion of which is just visible in the upper left of the photograph. Source: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Denver's implementation of the City Beautiful concept was successful, distinguishing the city as an attractive pacesetter for the Rocky Mountain West. The design of the East High building and its surrounding City Park landscape is one of the best preserved examples of the City Beautiful era in Denver's architectural heritage. East High School was originally designed and remains an important focal point for several of Denver's oldest and most diverse neighborhoods and has endured as a popular community gathering place, with its expansive grounds, playing fields, and auditorium. Situated at the boundary of several important neighborhoods, the building has played an important role in tying diverse urban populations together

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 12

Denver County, Colorado

over the decades. Historian Phil Goodstein, a 1970 graduate of East High, affirmed in his book, Denver's Capitol Hill, that "the history of Capitol Hill and East High School are closely intertwined. More than any other institution in the neighborhood, East has stood out as the center of Capitol Hill life.” As such, East High School has been an important anchor to the East Capitol Hill neighborhood that has often suffered from economic fluctuations, high crime rate, high business vacancy rates, and transitory residential patterns. Architectural Significance of East High School Believing "rivalry" to be the greatest impetus for creativity, school officials invited Denver's finest architects to compete for the commission to design East High School. Chosen for the project was Denver architect George Hebard Williamson, an 1893 graduate of “Old East” who promised to design a school that would reflect the era and perpetuate the legacy of East High School. George Williamson, born in Brighton, Colorado, on August 15, 1872, moved to Denver with his family where he attended public schools. In 1888, at the age of 16 and while still in school, Williamson became an apprentice to Denver architect Fred A. Hale. In 1890, he continued his apprenticeship with the prestigious architectural firm of Ernest Varian and Frederick Sterner, receiving a promotion to draftsman in 1896. Three years later Williamson started his own family when he married Allene B. McCallin. Varian and Sterner terminated their partnership in 1901. Williamson continued in the employment of Frederick Sterner, becoming his chief draftsman in 1904 and a full partner the following year. Together the partners designed the Daniels and Fisher Department Store building in Denver and the Antlers Hotel in Colorado Springs. In later years, Sterner spent much of his time in New York, increasingly leaving management and design responsibilities to Williamson. Sterner retired about 1924 and moved to London. Williamson completed many of his most important commissions after Sterner’s departure. These major works included several Denver Public Schools buildings: Teller Elementary in 1920; East High School in 1924; and Smiley Junior High in 1928. He also designed the three-story rooftop addition to the firm’s previously constructed Metropolitan Building. Williamson served as treasurer of the Allied Architects, the consortium of architects formed in 1924 to design Denver’s City and County Building. When the Public Works Art Administration was established as one of President Franklin Roosevelt’s many New Deal Depression-era programs, George Williamson was appointed regional director for a five-state region including Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota. With the creation of the Federal Housing Administration in 1934 under the National Housing Act, Williamson assumed the position of Chief Architectural Supervisor for Colorado. He was also vice-president of the Denver City and County Zoning Board and a member of the State Board of Architectural Examiners. Williamson served two terms as president of the Colorado chapter of the American Institute of Architects, in 1914 and again in 1932-36. In 1934, his fellow architects elected him to fellowship status in the A.I.A., only the third Colorado architect so honored. Following a long illness, Williamson died on October 10, 1936, in his Denver home at 1600 E. Colfax. The East High building is a representative example of the revival of the English Jacobean designs of the early seventeenth century, an era that coincided with the American colonial period and lasted through the War of Independence. The revival style is sometimes known as Jacobean style or

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 13

Denver County, Colorado

Jacobethan Revival. The original style is associated with several British halls of learning. Williamson chose the accessible and open Jacobean style for the East High Building due to its ability to accommodate large-scale window treatments considered essential to state-of-the-art educational building. In this way, the design represents a break with the dark, heavy Victorian designs associated with school and public buildings of the late 1800s. There are few extant specimens representing the Jacobean style in Denver, and none as true to form and pleasing as the East High building. According to Williamson, the Jacobean style of early seventeenth-century England was ideal for the contemporary school: because both practical and sentimental reasons are in its favor. Not only is it reminiscent of many of the older educational institutions of learning, as Oxford, and Christ Church Colleges, but it permits, without violation of its prototype, of that effective and expansive fenestration necessary for the lighting of the rooms…. The plan is what is known as the H type, permitting of perfect orientation for light in the various rooms and eliminating all interior closed-in courts. The H-shaped plan’s emphasis on windows and light met a specific design criterion. School officials stressed the need to provide maximum light to students inside, specifying at least a 20 percent window to floor space ratio to flood the building with light. The auditorium is the connecting bar of the H-plan with the cafeteria (now a lunchroom) above it. Construction began on East High School in 1922 and the building was completed in 1924. The school board awarded the $1,058,314 general construction contract to Arvid Olson Investment and Building Company to execute Williamson’s ambitious design. The state-of-the-art "split-system" heating and ventilation system incorporating both radiators and fans was installed by McCarty & Johnson Heating and Engineering Company. The electrical contract was awarded to J. Fischer Electrical Company. Estimates of the final cost of the completed building range from $1,500,000 to $1,800,000–a considerable sum for the time. As originally constructed, the building's composition epitomized the "monumental spirit" sought by school planners. The massive four-story (not including the tower floors), 417-foot span of its western face exudes the quality of permanence. The 162-foot high clock tower was located so that it served as the terminus of the view down East 16th Avenue. The mottled red brick construction accentuated with massive window treatments and light whitish grey terra cotta trim are equally noteworthy. Refinement of detail can be observed in the exterior with color introduced in parapet panels. The entire exterior has a dull matte finish, the brickwork varying from light red to blue black, with cement mortar in wide flush joints. The interior design of the building successfully integrated several key features: simplicity with soothing detail, new efficiency and functionality with the classic aesthetic decor reminiscent of the "Old East," and overall, internal and external lighting. Despite certain important later changes made to the interior, this integration can still be seen in the front entryway, the auditorium, the library, and the generous corridors. Subtle interior coloring, for example, creates the feeling of "simplicity [which] has been the keynote for the decorating of the main lobby," according to Williamson. Finished in gray marble from the Ozark Mountains, "with walls and ceilings in three-tone grey effects," the foyer was unpretentiously enhanced by a wide terrazzo stair with bronze railings. Plenty of space was provided for important statuary moved from the old school, without danger of clutter. The architect's "three-tone" theme continued into

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 14

Denver County, Colorado

the third-floor library, which was adorned with "fumed gray oak with an illuminated Elizabethan ceiling,… marbleized [sic] rubber tile floor," with all decorations in "quiet, three-tone grey and buff colors." The most striking and obvious feature of the East High building has always been the clock tower. The clock was manufactured by the E. Howard Clock Company of Boston, Massachusetts, who also built the clock atop the 1898 Ferry Building in San Francisco (perhaps San Francisco’s best known landmark). According to a 1950 history of East High School: The dials are of pressed terra cotta with bronze-colored raised fingers to match the copper-covered hands. The clock winds automatically with the aid of an electric motor, and it has a timekeeping ability within thirty seconds a month. Each face, which is nine feet wide, carries a load of 250 pounds, the complete mechanism weighing over a ton. A 1930 article in Municipal Facts published by the City of Denver, described the clock tower as follows: As a terminal of Sixteenth Avenue at the City Park Esplanade, the East High School tower is seen for more than a mile down Sixteenth Avenue. At night a searchlight increases the beauty of the picture. The exquisite architecture of the [clock] tower, carrying out the Jacobean theme of the building, makes still another picture as a terminal of Elizabeth Street from both north and south, and again in its reflection in the pool at the entrance of the Esplanade. Photographers and artists have long exalted the photogenic qualities of the building against its surroundings from a distance as well as close up. Numerous art photographs have been published in the major Denver newspapers and other local publications over the decades, seeking new angles on what local architectural historians Barbara Norgren and Thomas J. Noel called "splendid compositions" of the tower framed by the Sullivan Gateway on the City Park Esplanade. An important art project enhanced the school library in 1934. Local artist Hugh Weller painted a large mural,”The Travels of Marco Polo,” as part of Civil Works Administration (CWA) project. The CWA was one of the first federal unemployment relief programs established by President Franklin Roosevelt when he took office in 1933 during the depths of the Great Depression. The painting was most likely commissioned by the Public Works Art Project, which operated from 1933 through 1934. The agency hired such Colorado artists as Gladys Caldwell, who did friezes for Denver’s City and County Building, and Frank E. Mechau, who painted the mural “Horses at Night” (no longer existing) in the main Denver Public Library. East High School’s architect, George Williamson, served as the art project’s first regional director. The Works Progress Administration’s Federal Art Project replaced the earlier program in 1935. The mural remains in excellent condition and is one of a very few surviving Denver products of the Public Works Art Project. Educational History East High School is inextricably tied to the development of the public school system in Denver, which was inaugurated in the fall of 1861. As Denver’s population expanded, demand for formal educational facilities grew as well, resulting in the 1874 completion of the Arapahoe School. Located between 17th and 18th Streets on Arapahoe Street, the Arapahoe School was the Denver school district’s first high school and the first home of the high school library. The building also housed a grade school. The school’s large bell today rests on the grounds of East High School.

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 15

Denver County, Colorado

Denver’s population boom necessitated a building for just the high school and the Arapahoe School was solely used as a grade school after a new high school building opened in January 1882. This new building, the Denver East Side High School, stood on Stout Street, between 19th and 20th Streets. Once the current East High School opened in 1925, Denver East Side High School became known as “Old East.” The school district demolished Old East in 1929. The construction of East High School and its dedication on September 25, 1925, were major events in Denver’s three-year-old campaign to rehabilitate its school system. Luctus F. Hallett, president of the Denver school board, spoke at the dedication. The September 26, 1925, edition of the Rocky Mountain News quoted him as follows: We are met tonight for one thing, to rebuke the malign agency which for thirty years has sought to discredit all of the higher aspirations of the people of Denver. It has taught consistently that human nature is incapable of improvement, presented in a daily dish of filth to readers, young and old, and pandered to the basest human emotions. Its daily crime is far more grave than any blazoned in its lurid page on[e] headlines. It is a blot on the community. (Applause here drowned his voice.) The time has come – and we can’t better signalize it than by an opening of building such as this – for the people of Denver to stand up, assert their manhood and womanhood and, on October 6, go to the polls [for an election for the issuance of school bonds] and do their bit to carry on the fight for the decency of Denver. In 1938, East High School revamped its “core” course for 230 of its tenth grade students. The core course, described as a “small high school within a large one” placed less emphasis on traditionally required subjects and more emphasis on social, personal and economic development. Knowledge of current events was stressed as well as the “mechanics of independent thought, and the segregation of the true from the false, and fact from assumption.” Students studied propaganda and controlled communications in other nations to analyze the place of free speech in a democracy. Other aspects of the core course covered home and community recreation, relationships between boys and girls and a study of the modern family, including the sources and distribution of the family’s income and the social significance of the home as a family unit. This new educational approach received national attention and not all of it favorable. In its April 22, 1946, issue, Life magazine featured East High School on the cover and included an article on the “educational storm” brewing at the time: Among U. S. high schools, East High in Denver stands well above the average. Denver, with a large white-collar population and a relatively high standard of living, has built itself an enviable school system. Like most of the city’s schools, East High is modern, wellequipped and well run. Its teachers are comparatively young, progressive and well paid. Its 2,500 students have great and active interest in their school. But good as it is, East High does not satisfy thoughtful U. S. educators. Along with all U. S. high schools it is the object of scrutiny and controversy. Ever since John Dewey, in 1889, blasted the U. S. public-school system for glutting students with academic subjects and neglecting more practical courses, U. S. educators have been fighting the war of practical v. cultural education. Recently the issue was sharply joined by the two most influential educational institutions in the U. S. The National Education Association, through its report Education for All American Youth, plumped for a more practical

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 16

Denver County, Colorado

program for high schools. Harvard University, in its report, General Education in a Free Society, dissented. It called for more emphasis on the cultural and academic subjects. The author of the Life article determined that East High School more closely followed the National Education Association model. East High did not have to rely on outside journalistic efforts to record its activities and accomplishments. Students wrote and published a school newspaper, The Spotlight. In 1959, the Columbia University School of Journalism selected The Spotlight as the best student newspaper in the country. East Colfax Avenue formed the traditional dividing point between Anglo and African-American neighborhoods, especially from the 1950s to the 1970s. Discriminatory housing practices such as “redlining” steered African-Americans to Denver’s Five Points Neighborhood for most of the first half of the twentieth century. Beginning in the 1950s, African-Americans gradually moved east of Five Points toward Colorado Boulevard, generally to the Park Hill neighborhood east and north of East High School. Many claim that the Denver Public Schools encouraged “white flight” from Park Hill through the creation of attendance zones. For instance, in 1953, attendance zones resulted in Manual High School having an almost entirely African-American student body while East High School was nearly all Anglo. Despite the near total segregation of East High in 1953, continuing migration patterns eventually brought more African-Americans within the school’s attendance zone. Neighborhood demographics changed in the 1960s as United and Continental Airlines moved major portions of their corporate operations away from Denver. Relocated airline employees, many of whom lived near Stapleton Airport in the Park Hill neighborhood, put their homes on the market. Numerous African-American families purchased these newly available houses, thus changing the ethnic makeup of East High’s enrollment. Unlike other Denver high schools, East was integrated well before mandatory busing for school integration began in Denver in 1975. By October 1967, East High School was 58 percent “Anglo,” 37 percent “Negro” and 5 percent “Spanish-American,” according to Denver Public Schools attendance records. The East student body came nearest of any Denver high school in reflecting the overall diversity in the school district–75 percent Anglo, 11 percent African American, and 14 percent Hispanic. By comparison, the other Denver high schools at the time experienced much more segregated enrollments: African American 932 36% 2 <1% 1 <1% 3 <1% 1,109 70% 5 <1% 5 <1% 92 3% 80 4% 2,229 11% Other Minorities 71 2% 6 <1% 0 NA 9 <1% 50 3% 35 1% 5 <1% 5 <1% 21 2% 202 <1%

East Jefferson Kennedy Lincoln Manual North South Washington West Total

Hispanic 127 5% 7 <1% 5 <1% 335 12% 326 20% 855 32% 260 10% 11 <1% 733 36% 2,659 13%

Anglo 1,437 56% 1,542 99% 1,065 99% 2,532 88% 107 7% 1,794 67% 2,405 90% 2,733 96% 1,182 58% 14,797 75%

Total 2,567 1,557 1,071 2,879 1,592 2,689 2,675 2,841 2,016 19,887

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 17

Denver County, Colorado

The above statistics are from an October 13, 1967, report of the Division of Personnel Services of the Denver Public Schools found in the archives of school board member Carolyn Etter at the Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Department. The figures used incorporate handwritten revisions to the totals in the report. The revisions do not change the fact that, other than East High School, the high schools in the Denver Public School system were extremely segregated between Anglos and African-Americans. Beginning in the late 1960s, East High School became a leader among Denver schools in establishing formal and informal avenues for exploring and furthering understanding of issues related to racial and ethnic diversity. East students distinguished themselves from students at other area high schools by initiating a variety of student activities and groups dealing with race relations and school integration. For instance, East High School was noteworthy for its “Speak Out” program begun in 1968. The weekly “Speak Out” sessions provided an opportunity for Anglo and African-American students to discuss racial and social issues of the day in a racially integrated setting. Topics included debate over the Denver School Board’s proposal for school integration in Denver, discrimination against girls in the East High Dress Code, how to racially integrate school clubs, and dissatisfaction with school policies allowing Denver police to patrol East hallways. Students For One Community was a student organization formed in April 1968 after the upheaval caused by the April 4, 1968, assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. The group worked in conjunction with Citizens for One Community, a community organization based in the Park Hill neighborhood, to promote racial integration throughout Denver and peaceful race relations at East High School. The group promoted regular student attendance at Denver School Board meetings in order to communicate young people’s views and concerns on the importance of racial integration as part of a well-rounded education. The organization distributed lapel buttons with the slogan “Let Me Meet My Brother” to promote integration and better educational facilities in all Denver schools. East High student Keith Stevens organized the Black Student Alliance (BSA) in the fall of 1968 with an initial membership of more than 200. The student group sought to bring together the extremes represented by the more conservative integrationist approach of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the more militant and separatist stands of Malcolm X and the Black Panther Party. “There is nothing joining our peoples in strong unity. We hope to bring both extremes together for the sake of unity,” stated founder Stevens. The BSA acted as a liaison between black students and the administration of the school on issues of discriminatory treatment and the promotion of educational programs relevant to black students. The BSA instituted “Project Pride,” a week-long series of events promoting black history, literature, and art. The Alliance also sponsored regular speakers ranging from Denver black elected officials, to community activists, and scholars from Africa. The group spurred healthy debate in the school over the issue of “black pride” and the right of black students to learn and promote black history and culture. The BSA demanded and won the implementation of the city’s first African American history course at East High School in January 1969 under the direction of faculty member Linda Matarrese. East recruited black teachers Regis Groff (Colorado’s first black state senator), Dick Yates, and Jerome Biffle (East High graduate and 1952 Helsinki gold medalist in the broad jump) to teach the course as demand increased. The course complied with Denver School Board member Rachel Noel’s “Resolution #1490,” mandating the racial integration of the schools, as well as new educational initiatives promoting greater interaction between black and white students. The course covered early African civilizations, the slave trade, the abolition movement, and the Civil War. The course also covered the civil rights movement beginning with the fight against Jim Crow segregation in the 1890s through the modern era. This and other courses brought white and black students into the same

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 18

Denver County, Colorado

classroom to learn and discuss the history of race relations in the United States. In a March 1969 interview, Regis Groff commented upon the significance of the black history courses at East High: “I believe East understands education. Few schools would be liberal enough to allow controversial [black speakers] … to speak before students. Students at East are being educated, not trained.” United Students for Action (USA) was a student organization founded in the fall of 1968 to promote free speech and student rights, as well as to fight racism at East High. The group sponsored an uncensored weekly student-published newsletter open to all students. The newsletter promoted a less restrictive dress code, supported student organizations such as the Black Student Alliance, and critiqued school programs, such as its view of the Junior Reserve Officers Training Corp as an overly militaristic program. The USA also published and distributed a “Student Bill of Rights” card which outlined the constitutional rights of free speech, free press, peaceful assembly, due process, the prohibition of racial and gender discrimination, and freedom from illegal searches of lockers. East High School continued its groundbreaking efforts in race relations through inter-race communications in 1969. The East High Angelus yearbook vividly reflected the racial and political turbulence of the year 1968-69. Pages featured controversial subjects such as the black pride movement, the Denver School Board’s racial integration policies, student protests against the Vietnam War, and police presence to enforce order in the school. In addition, articles and photos of student educational programs such as black history, a senior seminar program, and school speak outs, the book published provocative quotations from world leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Joan Baez, Malcolm X, and Robert F. Kennedy. East High administrators and faculty encouraged the publication of the controversial yearbook as an expression of student engagement in the problems and controversies of the wider world. The yearbook was so unique that it attracted extensive attention in the Denver print media. “The book is going to shock some of the old folks, because it is about real things,” reported Rocky Mountain News writer Alan Cunningham. “This book contains some of the most sensitive writing by teenagers I’ve seen in a long time,” commented East High principal Robert Colwell. The yearbook represented another example of East High students, faculty, and administration providing a forum for healthy interaction and debate among students with a variety of racial, economic, and political backgrounds. Student speakers at the 1969 graduation spoke frankly about the Denver School Board’s lack of progress in achieving quality education for students of all races and meaningful racial integration throughout the city. Some students wore black armbands, and refused to shake hands with antiintegration school board members who handed out diplomas. The Denver Post featured an editorial that commented upon this controversial, but: …graceful and humane form of protest. … East High’s mixture of significant numbers of Negro, Hispanic, and Anglo pupils produces both the tensions of incomplete integration and what biologists might call ‘hybrid vigor.’ … Most of the youngsters there – of whatever color – believe in real integration with the whole-souled intensity of the young. … But where East High leads in this city, other high schools generally tend to follow. [emphasis added]. East High principal Robert Colwell was quoted in the student newspaper as saying, “Despite the forces of separation and alienation in the larger Community, East and the East community emerge from this year [1968-1969] with a stronger sense of unity than ever before. We have listened to spokesmen for all shades of social and political points of view.”

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 19

Denver County, Colorado

In 1969, East High became the first Denver high school to adopt a student formulated dress code which reversed decades of outmoded, gender-based, adult-imposed restrictions on clothing and hair styles. In 1970, the school administration instituted the acclaimed Senior Seminar, “designed to move education out of the classroom and into the real world.” This seminar was designed for small, heterogeneous (academic ability, race and gender) groups of students to learn about the issues first-hand and through reading and teaching in a variety of settings outside the classroom, such as Dinosaur National Monument, a Navajo Reservation in Arizona, mountainous areas in Mexico, and the basement of the Colorado State Capitol. The bonding that occurred during the seminar continued into more traditional classes and across what might have otherwise been insurmountable academic, racial and gender differences. The Senior Seminar received attention in both major Denver newspapers with a five-page story appearing in the Sunday, May 17, 1970, issue of Empire magazine in The Denver Post. The nonprofit group Outward Bound contributed $20,000 of the $26,000 cost for the initial year of the program. The seminar not only was ahead of its time in integrating a variety of students, but it stood at the forefront of a national movement to make learning more relevant to current day events for high school students. In December 1974, East High School was one of only twenty high schools and school systems in the country selected by the National Humanities Faculty to participate in a two-year bicentennial study entitled “The American Covenant: The Moral Uses of Power.” According to an article in The Denver Post, “East High was chosen because of its integrated and urban character, and because it has the potential for broad community support.” East High School’s percentage of ethnic minority students dropped with the advent of mandatory busing for integration in 1975. The district bused Anglo students to East High School and one-third of the minority students to Thomas Jefferson High School. Whatever the underlying social and educational currents, East High School successfully met its educational mission as a Denver Public Schools high school. During the fifty-year period from 1925 to 1975, more than 33,000 students graduated from East High School. Among those who graduated or attended East High during this period were:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

William McNichols, Jr. (1930)................... Denver mayor (1968-1983) Hannah Marie Worthington (circa 1930) .. First female professor of archaeology in U.S. Stephen McNichols (1932) ...................... Colorado governor (1957-1963) Sidney (Schechtel) Sheldon (1934) ......... Action-adventure writer Thomas Currigan (1937) .......................... Denver mayor (1963-1968) Jerome Biffle (1946)................................. Track gold medalist in 1952 Olympics Marilyn Van Derbur Atler (1956) .............. Miss America (1958) Judy Collins (1957) .................................. Folk singer Pam Grier (1967) ..................................... Movie actress Carl Caldwell (1967)................................. Member of the musical group Earth, Wind & Fire Phillip Bailey (1969) ................................. Member of the musical group Earth, Wind & Fire Larry Dunn (1971) .................................... Member of the musical group Earth, Wind & Fire Joe Barry Carroll (1971)........................... National Basketball Association player

The real story of East High is not in the few who achieved a degree of popular recognition. Rather, the history springs from the thousands of unheralded graduates who established distinguished careers and shaped meaningful lives in Denver, the state of Colorado, and across the nation.

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
Politics/Government

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 8 Page 20

Denver County, Colorado

East High School students were pioneers in October 1949 when they used automatic voting machines to elect class leaders. Denver’s election commission chose East High School students to test the new voting procedure. Denver police officers conducted previous tests when they voted for a pension fund and by students for an election in the University of Denver's School of Commerce. Testing at East High School was ideal, because, according to the election commission clerk, “the number of students voting, the number of candidates, and the number to be selected at East is in direct proportion to the numbers of voters, candidates, and officers for Denver city and school elections.” The significance of the voting machines was the speed with which election results could be known, the ability to gauge how many people could vote within a certain time frame, and the equipment’s ability to make allowances for human errors.

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
BIBLIOGRAPHY

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 9 Page 21

Denver County, Colorado

Anderson, A. Helen. “The Relation of Schools to the Denver City Plan.” Municipal Facts (May-June 1930), 2. “Angel Backs East High Drive.” The Denver Post, 14 April, 1963, 26A. “Angels With Bitter Tongues,” The Denver Post. 5 June, 1969, ?. “Art in Denver.” The Lookout. (Denver: Denver Public Library, 1928.) Bradley, Robert L. “Papini’s Statue of King David is Given to East High School.” Rocky Mountain News, 18 April, 1926, 7. Carter, Charles, “Group to Study Outside of School.” The Denver Post. 9 January, 1970, 13. Cunningham, Allan. “East’s Angelus Mirrors ‘Now’ Student.” Rocky Mountain News, 4, June, 1969. ?. Denver Public Schools, Division of Personnel Services. “Estimated Ethnic Distribution of Pupils: Secondary Schools – October 13, 1967.” Denver Public Schools, School District No. 1. Planning…Quality Education: A Proposal for Integrating the Denver Public Schools. October, 1968. “Denver’s New Schools as Architectural Achievements.” Municipal Facts (September-October, 1925), 21. East High Angelus year book, volume 51, 1969, 48-49; 96-97; 102-103. “East High Picked for NHF Role.” The Denver Post. 3 December, 1974, 24. East High School Archives. Attendance records, 1925-75. Compiled by Richard Nelson, November 2005. “East High School Has a New Angel.” The Denver Post, 22 September, 1963, 14A. East High Spotlight, October 25, 1968, 2. East High Spotlight, November 27, 1968, 1, 2. East High Spotlight. January 31, 1969, 1. East High Spotlight. March 27, 1969, 3. East High Spotlight. May 28, 1969, 2. “East High to Pioneer Voting.” The Denver Post, 5 October 1949, 3. East Past and Present 1875-1950. Denver: East High School, 1950. Goldstein, Marcia T. “East High School: Denver’s Monument to Architectural and Social Integration,” Landmark application submitted to Denver Landmark Commission. Denver: Alumni and Friends of East High, January, 1990. Goodstein, Phil. Denver’s Capitol Hill. Denver: Life Publications, 1988.

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 9 Page 22

Denver County, Colorado

Jain, Bob. “They Give; They Take,” Denver Post, 1 May, 1969, 39. Krieger, Ron. “East Pupils Strive to Restore Angel.” The Denver Post, 6 April, 1963, 3. League of Women Voters of Denver. Court-Ordered Desegregation of the Denver Public Schools. Denver: League of Women Voters of Denver, 1994. Moran, Martin, “East High Unveils Study Innovation.” The Denver Post. 9 January, 1970, 8. Nelson, Richard. Flights of Angels: A History of Denver East High School. Denver: Gallup House Publishing, 2005. Noel, Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Noel, Thomas J. Denver Landmarks and Landmark Districts. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1996. Noel, Thomas J. and Barbara S. Norgren Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects, 1893-1941. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987. Leonard, Stephen J. Trials and Triumphs: A Colorado Portrait of the Great Depression, With FSA Photographs. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1993. O’Reilly, Richard. “East High Demands: Black Student Alliance Rejects Proposals.” The Denver Post, 4 May 1969, 39. Marranzino, Pasquale. “An Answer to East Yearbook.” Rocky Mountain News, 10 June, 1969, ? Saile, Bob, “Speak Out Opens Way for Frank Interrace Exchange,” Denver Post, 21 April, 1969, 27. “School Board Lets Contract for New East Side High School.” Rocky Mountain News, 18 April,1924, 3. Stiff, Gary. “Education at East High – Seeing Life Like it Is.” Empire Magazine. The Denver Post. 17 May, 1970, 8-12. “Thousands Voice Approval of School Bonds” Rocky Mountain News, 26 September, 1925, 5. “U. S. High School.” Life, 22 April, 1946, 87. United States Supreme Court, Keyes v. School District No. 1, 413 U. S. 189 (1973) United Students for Action. “Student Bill of Rights” (card), 1968. Located in East High School Tower History Museum Collection. Williamson, E. W. “New Education Plan Placed in Operation at East High School.” The Denver Post, 13 February, 1938, 11.

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
GEOGRAPHICAL DATA VERBAL BOUNDARY DESCRIPTION

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number 10 Page 23

Denver County, Colorado

Parcel 02363000030000, City and County of Denver, Colorado. BOUNDARY JUSTIFICATION The nomination includes all the land historically associated with East High School during its periods of significance. SITE PLAN Based on Denver Public Schools Drawing, April 9, 1973

–––––

Approximate nomination boundaries

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
USGS TOPOGRAPHIC MAP Englewood Quadrangle, Colorado 7.5 Minute Series, 1997

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number Page 24

Denver County, Colorado

Elevation: 5,300 feet Site Number: 5DV.2091 PLSS: 6th PM, T3S, R68W, Sec. 36 E? SW? SW? UTMs: Zone 13 / 503760E / 4399113N (NAD27) Zone 13 / 503904E / 4399113N Zone 13 / 503904E / 4398735N Zone 13 / 503760E / 4398735N

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School
PHOTOGRAPH LOG

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number Page 25

Denver County, Colorado

The following information pertains to photograph numbers 1-19: Photographer: Ira Selkowitz Date of Photographs: August 2005 Negatives: Historic Denver, Inc., 1536 Wynkoop St., Denver, CO 80202 Photo No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Photographic Information Facade (west side); view to the northeast. Sullivan Gateway to City Park Esplanade, view to the north. South and east side of southwest wing; shown is bell from Arapahoe School on campus; view to the northwest. East side of school and vocational educational building; view to the west. East side showing 1974 addition vocational educational building; view to the northwest. East side; view to the west. Northeast corner of gymnasium addition; view to the southwest. North side of gymnasium addition and historic building; view to the south. First floor hallway of East High School; view to the north. Replica of Michelangelo’s “David” by Papini at top of stairwell leading from first-floor lobby; view to the east. Third-floor hallway Auditorium; view to the east Library, third-floor; view to the south. Library; view to the north. Library with “The Travels of Marco Polo” mural; view to the east. Windows in clock tower; view to the southwest. Spiral metal staircase and windows in clock tower; view to the south. Tower History Room Tower History Room

NPS Form 10-900a

(Rev. 8/86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet
East High School

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Section number Page 26

Denver County, Colorado

PHOTOGRAPH LOCATIONS AND VIEWS


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Augustine, at the former Ponce de Leon Hotel, a Spanish-style former luxury resort now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. 资料来源:教育...
美国留学指南:塔斯库勒姆学院
Its 142-acre campus, including eight buildings on the National Register of Historic Places, is located in Tusculum, 80 miles east of Knoxville. 资料来源...
美国留学指南:乔治亚学院及州立大学
Its 285-acre campus, including buildings listed with the National Register of Historic Places, is located within 40 miles of Jamestown, Yorktown, and ...
美国留学指南:马里安学院
Allison Hall, located in the center of campus, is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. 资料来源:教育优选 http://www.jybest.cn/ ...
Central Park
National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark 40°46′55″N 73°57′58″W40.78194°N 73.96611°W 1857 Built/Founded: ...
NM Route 66 Cities
It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. Jones Motor Company, 1939 Nob Hill Shopping Center Albuquerque, New Mexico The Nob ...
历史类之2
历史类之 2--Preservation of Historic Buildings What's the usefulness of ...Listing in the National Register of Historic Places, for example, does ...
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