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语言学导论术语解释英文版


Antonymy:the oppositeness of meaning between lexemes Constituent: any linguistic form or group of linguistic forms that Affix: Affixes are of two types: inflectional and derivational. appears at the bottom of one of the lines in the tree diagram of Inflectional affixes manifest various grammatical relations or the syntactic analysis grammatical categories, while derivational affixes are added to an Complementary distribution:the phenomena that allophones existing form to create a word. occur in different phonetic environments Arbitrariness :a design feature of language which refers to the fact Creole:a language formed when a pidgin has become the primary that there is no logical connection between the signifier and the language of a speech community signified of a sign. Cultural transmission :the fact that the details of the linguistic Applied linguistics: the application of linguistic principles and system must be learned anew by each speaker theories to language teaching and learning, especially the teaching Connotation :the additional meanings that a word or phrase has of foreign and second languages. In a broad sense, it refers to the beyond its central meaning application of linguistic findings to the solution of practical Conversational implicature: a kind of extra meaning that is not problems such as the recovery of speech ability. literally contained in the utterance but is derived from observing Allophone: The different phones which can represent a phoneme in or flouting the maxims of CP different phonetic environments are called the allophones of that Derivation :the morphological process in which affixes are added phoneme. to the stem A proposition :what is expressed by a declarative sentence when Diachroniclinguistics :the study of the language development or that sentence is uttered to make a statement change over time A speech community :a community the members of which have or Distinctive features : the features that a phoneme has and that believe theyhave at least one common variety of language distinguish it from other phonemes An utterance:a piece of language actually used in a particular Design features: the framework proposed by Hockett, which context discusses the defining properties of human language as against An analytic proposition :one whose grammatical form and lexical animal communication meaning make it necessarily true, withoutreference to external Derivational morphemes :the bound morphemes which are criteria conjoined to other morphemes (or words) to derive or form a new Auditory phonetics: It studies the speech sounds from the hearer's word point of view. It studies how the sounds are perceived by the hearer. Deixis: a particular way in which the interpretation of certain Acoustic phonetics: It studies the speech sounds by looking at the linguistic expressions is dependent on the context they are produced sound waves. It studies the physical means by which speech sounds or interpreted are transmitted through the air from one person to another. Diglossia:a sociolinguistic situation where two varieties of a Anaphora: the process where a word or phrase refers back to language exist side by side throughout the community, with another word or phrase which was used earlier in a text or each having a definite role to play conversation Displacement: the phenomenon that human language can cope with Binarycutting : the practice to cut a grammatical construction into any subject whatever, and it does not matter how far away the two parts and then cut each of the two parts into two and topic of conversation is in time and space continue with this segmentation until we reach the smallest Duality of structure :language is a system, which consists of two grammatical unit, the morpheme sets of structure, or two levels, one of sounds and the other of Blending:word formed by combining parts of other words meanings. Bilingualism:the situation where at least two languages are used Endocentric construction :one whosedistribution is functionally side by side by an individual or by a group of speakers, with equivalent, or approaching equivalence, to one of its each having a different role to play constituents Bound morpheme: Bound morphemes are the morphemes which Free morphemes:the morphemes which can constitute words by cannot be used independently but have to be combined with themselves other morphemes, either free or bound, to form a word. Homonymy :the case that two, or moremeaningsmay be associated Cognitive style: an individual’s preferred way of mentally with the same linguistic form processing (perceiving, conceptualizing, organizing, and International Phonetic Alphabet :astandardizedandinternationally recalling, etc.) information. It often affect learners’ individual accepted system of phonetic transcription. preferences or needs for different learning conditions, which are Language interference :the use of elementsfrom one language called learning styles. while speakinganother. Constatives: sentences which describe or state something; they are Lexicology:the study of the vocabulary items of a either true or false language,including their meanings and relations, their Compounds:the words that are produced by stringing together classification and collocation, and changes in their form and words meaning through time

Logical semantics :the study of the meaning of a sentence in terms of its truth conditions Morphology: Morphology is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed. Morpheme: It is the smallest meaningful unit of language. Performatives :sentences that do not describe things and cannot be said to be true or false Presupposition :the kind of meaning which the speaker doesn't assert but assumes the hearer can identify from the sentence Psycholinguistics :the study of the relationship between language and mind. Registers:the type of language which is selected as appropriate to a type of situation Regional dialect :linguistic varieties used by people living in different regions. Registers :varieties of language that are related to use Reference :the concrete entities that have the properties denoted by words or phrases Semantic feature : the basic unit of meaning in a word Sociolect : the linguistic variety used bypeople belonging to a particular social class Sequential rules :the rules which govern the combination of sounds in a particular language. Selectional restrictions: the restrictions on the type of noun that can be selected with each verb Semantic anomaly :the case that one of the arguments or the predicate of the main predication is self-contradictory Standard dialect :a particular variety of a language, not related to any particular group of language users Syntax: The study of how morphemes and words are combined to form sentences is called syntax. The chain relation :the relation holding between one item and others in a linear sequence, or between elements which are all present Thechoice relation:a relation holding between elements replaceable with each other at a particular place in a structure The syntagmatic relation:the one between one item and others in a linear sequence, or between elements which are all present The Whorf-Sapir hypothesis: the suggestion that different languages carve the world up in different ways, and that as a result their speakers think about it differently Ultimate constituent :the smallest grammatical unit obtained through binary segmentation Utterance meaning :something conveyed by a sentence in a context other than its literal meaning


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