当前位置:首页 >> 文学 >>

目的论与口译中的文化差异


上海师范大学 硕士学位论文 目的论与口译中的文化差异 姓名:杨敏 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:外国语言学及应用语言学 指导教师:谭卫国 20080401

摘要

口译作为国际交流与合作的重要途径,在当今世界起着越来越重要的作用。 口译是一种特殊的口头交际手段,其任务是在不同语言、不同文化的交谈者之间 发挥桥梁和纽带的作用,使交谈双方感觉不到语言障碍而自由地进行交流。 口译研究方兴未艾,跨学科研究的趋势越来越突出。文化与语言的关系密不 可分。语言是文化的一部分。文化反映在语言中并极大地影响着语言。文化差异 给口译造成极大的困难。在口译中,经常出现的含有文化因素的信息,如谚语、 诗词、典故等,在实践中往往是译员感到颇为棘手的问题。因此本论文选择口译 中的文化差异问题作为研究课题。 本文试图从目的论的角度探讨口译中的文化差异问题。首先介绍目的论的理 论基础,简述它的发展、基本概念及其意义和评论。然后将口译置于目的论的框 架中加以分析。进而全面论述口译、文化及其相互关系。接着,探讨口译中文化 差异引起的困难。文章在分析和探讨的基础上用大量翔实的实例证明目的论可以 用来指导口译中文化因素的处理。最后,作者提出口译中常用的关于文化因素的 翻译策略,包括借用目的语中的习语,直译和意译等。 本文论证了口译是一种具有目的性、人际性的跨文化交际活动。目的论可应 用于口译。口译策略主要是由口译的目的决定的。本文总结了口译中文化因素的


翻译策略,并强调口译议员应灵活运用口译策略。 通过研究,本文发现:1.文化因素在口译中引起多种问题,其中的每一个 问题都可能成为一个研究课题。2.目的论对口译中文化信息的处理有很强的指 导意义。3.由于汉英语言文化上的差异,译者在很多情况下必须灵活的运用各 种翻译策略,对原文进行调整,以利于有效实现译文的预期目的。4.本文总结 出的口译中文化因素翻译的策略对于口译译员的口译实践有一定的指导作用。

关键词:口译,

目的论,文化差异,策略

Abstract

Inte印re协tio玛aS觚important means
cooperation iIl diVerse fields,is Special oral

in present

intemational

eXchajlges a工ld is


c0删cation

of掣‘eat面1port锄ce nowadays.Inte印retation

tool,its taSk being

to嘶dge

up

me

parties Who speak

di彘rem l锄guages

aIld haVe

di髓rent

cultural backgrouIlds,and to mal(e me panies

0f conunuIlication eXchallge tlleir ideaS

smootllly诹也out

any 1anguage barriers,

Illte叩retation research is becoming more and more interdiscipliIlary-oriented.
Cultu|.e and language

are证sep撕ble.Lallguage

is part of cultu】汜,Which not 0nly diff.erences pose great

renects itself in lang咙喀e but also innuences

l觚gW培e.Cultural di瓶cult

dimculties words锄d

for inte印reters,who always find it expressioIls.

tO cope

wim culture-loaded

This mesis is iIltended t0 explore cultural diff-erences h

i11te印删ion f-rom
its



mw perspectiVe—Skopos Theo珥First,tlle

tllesis晰eny

innDduces
aS

SkoposⅡleo秒一

itS meoretical baSis,developmen_t,basic concepts,勰well

si嘶ficallce

and

翻ticism.Next,tlle

tllesis investigates inte印retation within me fhmework of Skopos

Theo巧before probing

i11t0咖retation,Culture

and their relationsmp in

d“1.Then,

it discIlsses how to oVercome obstacles caused by

cul劬同di位rences in ime叩re诅tion.
feasibil匆of印plyiIlg

0IIl me baSis of what is stated above,the tllesis testifies tlle Skopos 111eo巧to

dealing谢th

cultL砌elements

iIl inte印reting by employing a11d thesis

discussing plenty of

releV锄t examples.Finally,廿1e
aimed
at

presents锄d

i11uS仃ates me

iIllponant

s们tegies

solVir玛cultural f砬tors iIl

i11te印retation,Sllch嬲

borrowing,l“eral 111e

tmslation and flree仃{mslation.
tllat

t1:Iesis鹕ues

me印retation

is锄缸entio砌,inte印ersollal

锄d

intercult眦a1 commuIlicative actiVity,where Skopos Theo巧c觚be印plied,andⅡlat i11te印reting st硪tcgies
stresses
are

mairdy

detemined

by the Skopos of inte印retation.Also,it

mat肌i11terpreter Should deal、析th

cultural

di艉rences

by nexibly employing

硼}lrough tlle study,t11e author finds the f01lo、ving:FirStly,cultural difrerences in

inte叩retation

cause a

Variet)r of dimculties,each of wmch may be



subject for劬1鹏

research.Secondly,Skopos Theo巧is of铲eat Value for guiding t11e operation of mte印reting、vhen the inte印reter linguistic aJld cultuIm
to

meetS埘m

cultur面difrerences.111irdly,due

t0

tlle

di疏rences

of CMnese and

English,the硫e印reter

is supposed

ma:ke necessary adjusnnents to如lfiU the Skopos of me ta唱et speech.Founhly,the

Sn.ategies for

coping嘶tll

cultuI-a1

di疵rences

discuSsed i11 thjs tllesis may

serve

inte印reters

as a

guide to auction.

Key words:inte叩retation,Skopos

TheoⅨculturm di脆rences,strategies

论文独创性声明

本论文是我个人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的研究成果。论文中除 了特别加以标注和致谢的地方外,不包含其他人或机构已经发表或撰写过的研究 成果。其他同志对本研究的启发和所做的贡献均已在论文中做了明确的声明并表 示了谢意。

作者签名:桶饧义日期:2J吲.-57

论文使用授权声明

本人完全了解上海师范大学有关保留、使用学位论文的规定,即:学校有权 保留送交论文的复印件,允许论文被查阅和借阅;学校可以公布论文的全部或部 分内容,可以采用影印、缩印或其它手段保存论文。保密的论文在解密后遵守此
规定。

作者签名:楠匆赔师签名

嗍彬7

AcknowledgementS



aIIl

heaVily indebted

t0 quite a

n啪ber

of people who contributed iIl

v撕ous

、Ⅳays t0

t11e、槲ting up of“s tllesis.
to express Iny deepeSt

First锄d f.oremost,1 would like Without 11is help mis tllesis、Ⅳould
he proVided

gratitude to my supervisor.

110t

be弱it is.hl the process of、)l,一tingⅡle mesis,

me研tll e11li曲teIling

adVice,f.ralll【criticism,and wann e11com.agement
e玎ors

邪well;moreoVer,he care如1ly improVed my tllesis by con.ecting伊ammatical

锄d

logical 111is仞d(es iIl

it,砌ch helped研ng about me 900d q砌i够of my tllesis.
nellectum
growtll


I also、析sh to express my sincere tllarll(s to all me professorS a11d teachers who

haVe greatly promotcd my

throu曲Ⅱleir证spiring

lectures,也us

rerldering my three years at tllis uIliVersit)r
t0

extend

my呲s
are

rewarding experience.1 would aJso like

t0

Ms.Lu

Y的地、Ⅳho
to

always o行.ered me many useful materials.

11l;蛆ks

als0 extended

my classmates f-or meir help锄d encouragement.

Last but not le嬲t,my伊ate血lness goes t0 my

f-锄ily

memberS for meir selness

suppon锄d prof.ound concem.

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Intl.oduction

1.Introduction
1.1 Research background

Wim如rther

deVelopment of

our

co哪r),’s policy

of

refom

a11d opemng up t0 me

outside world,Chjna haS acmeved more arld more intemational involvemem,wllich has been proVed by such great eVents
aS

Cllina’s accession to

W1’o,Beijing’s

selection硒t}le host city for 2008 Olympics,a11d
20 1 O

SIm曲ai’s

success如l bid for the
contactS,

W0rld

Exposition.

m me

context t0

of

eVer-increaS啦intemational

iIlte印retation has become essential
the cultural

intematio砌commullication
co咖埘es.

and for bridging

g印bet、Ⅳeen CmIla


and westem

IIlte叩retation plays
of

Vital role i11 cross—cultural communication bet、Ⅳeen peoples

di舵rem

couIltries.n haS笋adually deVeloped mto a、) ̄,idely aCcepted profession

、析tll gr0、杭ng of

neraction

b帆en V撕ous


pans of me、vorld.TI伧no嘶shing practice

inte平retation

haS made it

the First

Wbrld War

that咖retation

rich field of research.However,it、Ⅳ鹤not u1]Itil

mer gtudy

w觞established蠲a

subject

of practical

弱wen aus趾academic discipline of t11eoretic甜researCh.Compared谢tll me abund觚t
studies of 1item巧协mslatioIl,irIte叩retation researches recemly t11at
are

f打丘om

i11te印retation

h硒蛐d

enou曲.n

is 011ly

t0

be

studied丘om觚iIlterdiscipliIla巧

perspectiVe,w11ich proVes to be Inte]叩retation is not

Ve巧e鼠ctiVe.
linguistic

oI坶a

transfomation

process,but also



t)rpe of

nercmturaJ
aS

comm疵cation
medium

because

l觚昏lage is

closely related to cultllre.LaIlguage

tlle

p血cipal

for缸e印retation

is bound

up谢m culture.Lan昏nge觚d
a11

culn鹏are interdependent a11d
cultllre is renected iIl and diVerSe and

ins印撕ble.LaIlguage is
into

iIltrinsic paIt of cultu】fe锄d

nerwoVen

m锄y

aSpects of laIl目lage.o山ture is

V撕es

f而m coun臼叮to count阱Therefore cultural

di脑rellces

pose great
are

di伍culties for

mterpretation.For exaI】】ple,culture—loaded、Ⅳords aIld expressionS
are

great challenges for inte叩reters,because mey

usually of lli曲info珊ation deIlsit)r

and it is Ve巧dimcult

t0

find meir equiValent expressions i11 tlle ta唱et lan母lage.

Many

schola瑙are

a、vare

mat some rigid principles and

tecmques

do not

necess耐ly

In仃oduction

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

work well when

applied

to

inte巾retation.Theref.ore,tlley have devoted great

e肋rts

to

inte印retation咖dy

and haVe published papers i11 periodicals.As f缸as I know,moSt
are

i11te印retation studies still
no

concemed谢m

meo巧of inte巾retation.Up

to

noW there is

satisf.acto巧model aVailable.

1.1 oVerView of releVance of Skopos theory to interpretation
Skopos 111eo巧waS proposed by Halls

J.Vemeer(MuIlday

200 1:78-79).Its

f血damental idea
Skopos

is that translation is



pu印ose如l commuIlicative aCtion锄d that t11e
on

detemilles

the whole缸anslation procedure.The仃anslator should decide

Ⅱle translation s仃ategies according to t11e intended fhnction of the ta唱et laIlguage text

(TLT)instead of“锄ofrer of

of

the劬ction

of t11e

source

12ulguage

text(SLT).The

SLT plays



role

info肿ation”.Later,Nord(1991:28—30)completed the

Skopos Theory

by proposing me“Fullction pluS Loyalty’’mle.Tms theory emightens the translator in t11e following雒pects:the仃anslator should如lly realize Ms it is necessary for
or

her role in

t啪slation;

me缸锄slator

to eleVate

llis

or

her cross—cultural sensitivit),;it is aIld expectationS of t}1e TLl7
rlot

essemial for me仃aIlslator

to consider t11e

acc印tance

readerS锄d

to show respect t0 the sender’s

expectation,but tlle仃觚slator should
the fonn


allow 11imself orherself t0 be consnIained

by

and缸1ction of the SLl:
general tlleo巧of translation,it

Vb珊eer
印plies to

claims tllat since Skopos TheoDr is

both translating and inte啦reting.He also puts florvvard llis own defiIlition of

inte印retation,wmch he defines嬲:
The

lransIntion嘭n
in

Sollrce-lnngMnge text。presented


o面多0nce,

HSunlly

0rnl,form.imo
chec妇d n耽a
in Nord

tcIr:≯t—tnngt‘nge text which is ve呵 be correc钯d

d蝣cult
lQck

to be

c绷蛔硇ly
200l:104).

bec8淞e巧the

04=ttme(quoted

The baSic non-correctabiljt),is due to certain specific corlditioIlS of te殁reception

锄d production.Firstly,me SU’is
it
as a

presented omy once.The inte叩reter

can

not伊aSp
are

whole but omy in successive panS.Secondly,botll t11e
aIl

SU’and the TIJ
only aRer

饷11sitoⅨIf

i11te印retation

is

recorded,it

caIl

be

replayed

tlle



上海师范大学硕士学位论文

IntI.oduction

trajlslational situation is fillished.111irdly,the commullications take place urlder tlle witll the i11te叩reta_tion situation.

source

lallguage

aJld伽苫et l锄guage

s锄e

situational conditions,which coincide

Analyzed f如m t11e perspectiVe of Skopos Theory,inte叩reting possesses tlle follo、)nng characteristics:firstly'inte印reting seeks
t0

achieVe
can



commullicatiVe
be defined弱a

pu印ose(Skopos mle).Secondly,Ⅱ1e

results of inte甲reting


target?cult眦。彘r
tlle TLT must

of inf0皿ation about

source-culn鹏。仃er

of

infom撕on.Tl】irdly,

coI血加to

the standard of intratextlJal

coherence(coherence Rule). SLl’(fidelit),Rule).

Founhly,t11e TIT should be faitIlml to its corresponding

Ho、VeVer'apart f如m tllese ramer general considerations,Skopos tlleo口h硒not

dealt诵th

aIly Specific嬲pects of tlle ime印reting pmcess.


Franz Pochhacker is

conference inte叩reter、vho teaChes at tlle UIliVersit)r of

Ⅵe11lla.He h嬲endeavored

t0血e伊ate simult卸eous
on

coIlf.erence iIl钯印reting into tlle

丘锄ework

of Skopos Theory,focusing

t11e specific aspects in wMch Skopos,

in位IteXtual coherence a11d culture have
His point of

to be deaJt、Ⅳitll in

dep撇is廿le


simulta】舱ouS硫erpr耐ion.
commuIlicative

concept

of衄lslation嬲a pu印oseml

interaction tal【ing place i11

si删ion—iIl-culture(Nord 200 1).

1.2 Data and methodoIogy

M砒odologically

Speal(ing,tllis ttlesis is
sorne



q砌i谢Ve

study b邪ed

on

data

collection.The al“hor collected conference

recently

t印e—recorded

materials about press

inte叩retation锄d

dictal|ed some cultural—loaded、Vords aIld expressions

botll in Chillese锄d English.Besides,she obtained materials部data for
丘Dm irIte叩reting scdpts,published books a11d Based
on

tl_lis咖dy
research.

jo啪als

on

ne印reting

Skopos

11leoⅨshe

made detajled tlleoretical and pmcticm趾aJysis of me

collected data.The

comp删iVe a11d con昀stiVe印proach is觚quently印plied t0 tlle
pe雨册ed
maimy from me
perspectiVes of 1inguiStics,

analyses.111e study is

pragmatics,cul删comm嘶cation锄d t阳nsla幻logy.



1.3 PossibIe contribution of the thesis

1k

study of inte叩retation aIld culture is

import锄.The authorhere甜empts

to

discuSs inte印retation行om me锄gle of Skopos Theory in hope of
cultural elements iIl guidance


dealing谢m


more practicable way.This thesis is aimed to proVide
coping s仃ategies for dealing、啊m

general

and some

culnH试di仃erences iIl
success

iIlte印retation,Wmch州U

emighten interpreters auld

co嘶bute t0 their

i11 tlleir

practical work.By nexibly employing t11e coping strategies uIlder t11e guidallce of

Skopos Theory,inte甲reters

caIl

adj uSt

t11eir working metIlods and acllieVe



better and

iIlte印retiVe efrect.n is hoped tllat t11e tllesis will be of t11eoretical
practical Value,aIld mat

it、析ll撇t

si鲥6c锄ce

more researchers to

p哪ue the snJdy如nher.

1.4 The arrangement and main content of the thesis
11坨thesis consists of fiVe chapterS. Chapter
one

irItroduces the research back伊ound and oVerview of ReleVance of

Skopos Theory t0 Inte印retatioll,states the possible contributiolls of tlle

t11esis,锄d

poims

out tlle

stnJcture,data锄d

methodolo阱
munework
of the tllesis a11d discusses

Chapter T、Ⅳo presents t11e main theoretical tlle essential aspects of Skopos Theory in detail.

Chapter

1h陀e

discusses

me

definition

of

i11te叩retation

and

oVerviews

inte叩retation studies.The claSsificatioIl,charaucteristics觚d criteria of iIlte】巾retation
are

also analyzed in tllis

chapter.

Chapter Four maillly discuSses tlle relationship

be似een

language,culture and
are

inte印re诅tion.CultI鹏is defined锄d a11aJyzed

hl thjs

ch印ter.Cultural di毹rences


demt、vi廿l i11 this cllapter,wKch is t11e prerequisite for
In

discussion of the next chapter.

Ch印ter five,inte印retation
are

is analyzed m line、扼t11 Skopos how Skopos

tlleoⅨAbund眦
be印plied
t0

ex锄ples

supplied

t0

illuS仃ate

T11eo巧caIl

Chapter Six

slmml撕zes

some commonly employed ime印retiIlg Sn.ategies of
iIl inte印retation.

dealing、^,itll

cultuI锄di髓rences



上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Inn’oduction

Chapter SeVen is the conclusion,stressing the main idea of the tllesis and points
out that Skopos 7rheo巧call be applied t0 inte印retation when dealing with cultuI.al di行erences.



2.Skopos theory
2.1 Introd uction to Sl【opos theoI了
Skopos

T11eo巧is锄印pmaCh

t0咖lslation、砌ch、糯deVeloped in Ge肌aIly iIl
is


t11e late 1 970s.According t0 t11is

tlleory,眦slation
the

pu印oseml

comm疵catiVe
iIl Zhang

activi劬t11e

Skopos

detemines

whole蚀吼slation process(quoted

Meif.肌g 2005:83)and

tIle仃anslator

sh伽ld

decide the

tI锄slation

strategies恤tlle

li出of t11e intended劬ction of tlle T嘴et
me Source Language Text.Tlle SLT plays

Lallguage Text iIlstead of


t11e胁ction of

role of“an

o舵r

of

i血衄ation”(ibid.:
Theory(Nord

85).Later,Nord
1991:28-30).
This

added t11e‘‘Function PluS

Loyal妒’rule

t0 Skopos

theo拶greatly谢dens

t11e research field of仃a11slation,for it puts位mslation

research in tlle

the仔锄ework
of

of cross—culnlral commumcation,instead of placing it iIl
source

rlauH.ow疔锄e、vork

a11d target texts,or
on

the托如smission bet、№en t、)旧

laIlguages.Above

all,tlle tlleory focuses

the purpose of仃anslalion,which
are

detemines
produce

the仃aIlslation

metllods锄d

s仃Iategies tllat

to

be used iIl order t0

a缸lctionally
are

adequate ta唱et teXt.The most important rules proVided

by恤

Skopos Theory It renects

tlle“Skopos rule”,nle“coherence mle”aIld the“fidelit)r gerleral
t0


mle”.



s11iR五rom

predominamly linguistic锄d rather fomlal

饥mslation theories

more劬ctional锄d

sociocul咖lly

oriemed concept of

nanslation(Li Min

2006:l 25).1Ks meo巧enlighteIls t11e traIlslator in廿1e

follo讹g

、Ⅳays:Firstly,“mlly
cross—cultural

realizes衄lslator’s

role iIl仃anslation.Secondly,it eleVates

sensitivi够Thirdly’it

considers me

acceptaIlce锄d

expectation of ttle

target text readers.Founllly,it Shows respects t0 tlle sender’s expectation but is rlot collstrained by tlle

foms,contents觚d mnction
on

of tlle original

text.

Skopos Theo巧actually drew

commullication

tlleo吼action t11eoⅨteXt

linguistics aIld

text t:heory'together

wim tlle movemem洫litera巧studies towards
core

reception theories.It is regarded嬲Ⅱle

of如nctionaJism.



上海师范大学硕士学位论文

SkOpos theoD,

2.2 DeVelopment of Skopos theory
Kamarina Reiss took equiValence
on as

her baSis a11d deVeloped relationship



model of
and target

仃anslation criticism baused

the胁ctional
aS

be铆een

source

texts.I渤ss

refers t0 me ideal translation

inte伊al

commⅢcatiVe pe墒册aIlce洫

which tlle aim iIl tlle T【T is equiVaJence

aS

regaurds the conceptu甜contem,linguistic

fom

a11d commullicative^mction of



SI.T.She knew f.rom her rich仃{mslation

exp甜ence
some

tllat real life presents situations、Vhere equiValence is not possible a11d,in

cases,not eVen desired.It is

common that me target

text is intended t0 acllieve a
are

p呷ose by me iIlitiator other t11aIl that of tlle original.There
伽苫et
text addresses a11 audience

other cases,、^,hen tlle

di施rent

f如m the intended readership ofthe origmal.

In such caLses,according t0 I沁iss,the如nctional t11e

perspe“Ve
critics

tal(es precedence

oVer

nomal

StaIldards of equiValence.The
source

tmslation
but haS t0

c龇110

longer rely

on

featllres deriVed f.rom

text趾alysis

judge、Ⅳhetller

tlle target teXt is

mnctioIlal in

te蕊s

of tlle tr2mslation

comext(Nord

200 1:9).Her

objective印pr02uch

to仃aIlslation criticism thlIs accountS for certain exceptiolls fbm tlle equiValence requirement.For Reiss,甜l types of tmllslation
can

may be juStified in particular
iIl

circumstallces.An

iIlterlinear

Version

be

extremely useml

comp删tive

linguistic research.Grammar仃anslation is



good aid t0 foreign 1anguage

le删ng.

Reiss presents her idea of correlating text够pe and仃aIlslation metllod器a‘specific

t11eo巧’t0 be fitted into mis context,me eqⅢValence is
Ilo

the丘锄ework

of

Vbmeer’s

general tlleory

of缸锄slation.111

s啪of her‘如nctiorlal
longer regarded
as

categoDr’is chaIlged.Since如nctional

tlle

nomal aim of tralllslation,t11e锄alysis of tex|t

t),pes c觚no longer proVide me decisiVe criteria for memodological choices.The
claSsification of the omy m special
source

text嬲belonging

t0 a particular text—type is tlluS releVant text is to

cases

Where tlle intended如nction ofⅡle ta唱et
sourCe

r印resent



tex砌equiValent of tlle
As broke
one

teXt.

of t11e students of Reiss,Halls restrictions of

J.V-e咖eer

drew

on

action tlleory arld

t11rough me

me

equiValenceⅡleories,and deVeloped the
states

劬d锄e删meor)r“Skopos

111eory”iIl 1 978.He

11is

gene词position勰



follows: LinguisticS nlone won’t me地ly nnd not
even

help

1ls.First.becnHse仃anslnnng iS not


prim甜ily

l撕酗istic

proceSS.secondly’

bec酬Se ltn蹦istics hQS加t yet,ormul口ted
tnc融e
otlr

the right qMeStiom to

p’.oblems.so let's look somewhere

else(陇rmeer

l 987:

29)
According t0
soIu.ce

Ve册eer,tr锄slation

is



fonIl of translatioIlaJ action b2used

on a

text,which may consist of Verbal砒ld/or non?Verbal

elemems(illustrations,


pl砒1s,tables,etc.).Other

fo咖s

of仃anslational action may irⅣolVe actions like

consultam giVing information.
T}aIlslation is t11us also


tyl)e
aS

ofh啪aIl

action.m 2uccordaIlce、Ⅳitll action theoⅨ


Ve珊eer defines

humaIl action

mtentional,pu印oseml behaVior mat tal(es place in

given situation;it is part of the situation at t11e FuIther,since sitl】ations
are

s锄e

time

aS

it modifies the sitllation.


embedded访cultures,any eValuation of
on

particular

situation,of“s verbalized and non—verbalized elements,depends iIl


the slatus it has

partic“ar culture system.The decisiVe f.actor to d酏emlineⅡle Skopos of aIly addressee
0r

缸anslation is the target expectations
or

intended

audience、) ̄r:hose world knowledge,
are

commullicatiVe needs or irnerpretation of tlle situations
source

all deeply

rooted in their own culture.The statlls of tlle

is cleaLrly much 10wer in Skopos it

Tlleo叮t11an iIl equivalence-baSed

meories.Vb咖eer reg砌s

aS强‘o疏r

of

iI怕mation’that
audience. Justa

is panly

or

Wholly

t啪ed缸。锄‘o脏r of iI血mlation’for the target
Vemeer’sⅡleo巧and
forw2叫t11e

HoIz.Mantcari胁her


developed

put

Theo巧of Tlmlslation Action hl l 98 1.She defines tllat乜mslation is“a complex
action designed to achjeVe panicul2ur is t0

pu印ose”(quoted

in Nord 200 1:l 3),aIld nlat

the西m

of衄1slation硝action

n锄sfer messages(includiIlg pictllres,sounds锄d
t0

body movements)across cultural and laJl目工age ba玎ierS.Her meo巧is designed
cover出l fomls of intercultlⅡ.al仃aJlsfer,i11cluding吐lose wmch do not
Source or

mVolVe觚y

ta唱et texts.She prefers

to speak

of‘‘message乜anSmitters”,删ch consists

of textual material


combined埘tll

otller media such嬲pictures,sounds and body

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

SkopOs t11eo叫

laulguage moVements.She places

special

emphasis

on

tlle

actioml

aSpects of the

岫slation
message

process,aIld analyzes the roles of t11e situational

particip觚ts(initiator,咖slator,user,
tlle

receiVer)and

conditiolls(place,time,medium)in which

actiVities ta:ke place. Then ChristiaIle Nord

adV锄ced

t11e Loyalty Principle in 1 99 1.Loyalt)r is quite it

di旋rent肋m faithmlness

or

fidel咄because

is锄inte叩ersonal

social

rel“ons邯
be“№en

b抓veen people.LoyaLlt),Pdnciple

also takes aCcount of the diH’erence

culture-specific concepts of位mslation preVajling i11

the铆o

cultures iIⅣ01Ved in the

栅lslation

process.

2.3 Basic concepts of Skopos theory
2.3.1 Aim,purpose,intention,and function Skopos is

a陆ek、Vord
are

for‘‘pl印ose”.As

we haVe mentioned aboVe,the prime

p血ciple

detennining

aIly衄1slation process

is tlle

purpoSe(Skopos)of

tlle oVerall

仃aflslation action.There

three possible l(inds of pu印ose洫the field

of衄lslation:

tlle general pu印ose aimed at by tlle仃anslator i11 tlle translation

process(perh印s‘t0

e锄a

liVing’),the commullicatiVe
instn】Jct me

pulpose aimed at by tlle target text iIl me target the pu印ose aimed at by


situation(perhaps‘t0
缸a11slation s仃ategy the structural
or

reader’)趾d

particular

procedlu.e(for
of t11e

ex锄ple,‘to缸aIlslate

literally iIl order t0 show iIl

panicul撕ties

source

l锄guage’)(quoted

Zh锄g 2005:83).

NeVertheless,the tenIl Skopos uSually refers t0 t11e pu叩ose of t11e ta略et teXt.Four teleological

concepts‘‘aim,pu印ose,intention锄d mnction’’are used蛐der

t11e

generic conCept of Skopos.Vemeer ‘Aim’iS

distin鲥shed“aim’’锄d“p岬ose”aS

follows:

d啦ned

QS

the扣nnl咒slllt矾ngem

inlendS to(Ichieve

by mennS可吼nction.For ex册tple.a person
order to rend LI T’ai.po in the


ma))learn Chinese in

origi舱1.


‘P“rpose

is

d毋ned

as

provisi0船l
are

slclge

in the

procesS可。

nttnining佣口im.Aim

Qnd p讲.pose
otlt t0

t}ms retQtive concepts.F0r

exnmpte.somebo匆90es
in order to

b妙n Bnsq雠grnmm口r 0tlrpoSe 1)
to be nble to

k甜n the l口ngudge 0urpoSe 2)讯order



tr口nSlate Bnsqtle short stories

0Hrpose 3)in

order to mQke BnsqMe

,打P朋,“恐b2Dw刀
200l:28).

,D

Df办P,.

肠唧q弦

∞聊m“,2f,f船

向f,砂m,d

Nord diStinguished be铆een mnction锄d intemion硒follows:
1Imemion’ts

d币他d痧om

the

viewpo溯《the

sendet

wh0

w矾tS

to Qchieve n certnin

pwpose


with the teXt.Yet the

beSl嘭
caseS

inlemio凇do加t蹦ar肌tee
1?,,jP,‘口 砌P

pe啦ct restltt.p甜tictllnrly

in

Jff“a,幻,z,Q厂f办P sP,zId叠,.口,2d

砌P,℃cPfVP,.砚岁吝,

co凇{dernbly.

‘F谢lcnon’is蛔ined痧om
receiver uses the text

the receiver,S

poInt可view.The
their own

with口certnin如nction.depe积ir喀on
砌Dw正已ci窜口
口挖d

巴丐pPc五口,幻,薯s

甩口Pd写.p旭1,fD“5

sf,“口ffD,2口,

co耐itions.(Nord l 997:28)
IIl
aIl

ideal situation tlle sender’s intention will find its aim,in、vmch
or eVen

caSe

intention a11d丘mction、Ⅳ0uld be anaJogous

identical.T11e distinction bet、Ⅳeen

如nction and intention is particularly useml m缸aIlslation,where t11e sender aIld tlle
receiver by definition belong to difFerent cultural and situational settings.

2.3.2 Intentional interactioⅡand related concepts

According
chaIlge of


t0

Nord(200 1)H啪an

i11teraction

caIl

be

desc舶ed
or

as a11

intentional

scate of aff.airs af】Fecting t、】 ̄ro or
aS

more people
is

agents.An interaction is

ref.e11red t0

commuJlicatiVe
one

when

it

ca仃ied

out

mrou曲signs

produced

intemi011ally by

agent,usumly refe玎ed to硒tlle“sender'’,and directed toward

锄tller

agent,ref.e玎ed to弱tlle“addressee’’or the‘‘receiver'’.CommullicatiVe take place in situations tllat
are

i11te耐ions

limited i11 time a11d space.Tllis meaIls
that condition tlle agents’Verbal

eVery situation haS

mstorical趾d cultur谢dimensioIlS

and non-verbaJ behaVior,Ⅱ1eir l(110wledge a11d expec诅tioIlS of each o血er'tlleir

印prajsal
t11e

ofthe

si似io玛and tlle蜘dpo缸舶m wllich t11ey look


at each other aIld at

world.Witllin

particular culture commuIlit),t11e situations of sender锄d receiVer
for communication

generaJly

overl印enougtl

to“(e place.When

senderS and

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

SkopOs the0叮

receiVers belong t0
aIl

di腩rent

cultllres,the situatioIlS

can

be

so

di彘rent

that they need

intenllediaryⅥ,ho enables t11em to

co删mmicate

across

time and space.Trallslators members of din’erent
an

and ime印reters enable commullication to take place culture

be觚een

commuIlities.Translators觚d inte印reters

play the role of
uses

ime肌ediary.The

sender of the text is tlle persoIl,伊oup,or institution t11at conVey


the text i11 order t0

ce渤in
or

message.The

text producer is t11e one actually responsible for aIly

1inguistic

s够listic

choices

present

访

t11e

text
are

expressing

the

sender’s
one

commumcatiVe intentions.Ill most caSes,both roles

oRen ca玎ied om by

person.The imended ta唱et-text receiVer is tlle addressee of tlle


traIlslation觚d is

thus

decisiVe fIactor iIl the production of t11e ta唱et text.The defimtion of the ta玛et tcxt

receiVer should be part of tlle位mslation

brie£髂will

be explained shortl y.In moSt
text reader or

c嬲es,the

source

teXt writer or speal(er is t11e sender

While tlle target

audience is tlle receiver.

2.3.3 Initiator and transIation brief

The“tiator
process a11d

is tlle perso玛group its
courSe

or

iIlstitution t11at Stans o丘t11e仃:mslation

detemines

by defimng tlle pu印ose for wKch tlle ta唱et text is is

needed(Nord 200 1:30).Trallslation

nomally

done

by邪si印ment or
or

commission.

V.enneer defines commission aS‘‘the mst九Jction,giVen by oneself
to

by someone else,

carry out



giVen

action:t0仃{mslate”(Vrermeer 2000:229).Nord employs

‘‘tmslation

brief'’t0 refer

to‘慨lslation
text t0

commission”.1’ranslatorS follow me

仃aJlSlation b—ef of the initiator'who specifies what kind of

tmslation is

needed,肌d
iIlitiator

o虢rs砌Fo衄ation
would giVe
an

of the

source

tlle伽苫et reader.111锄idem c硒e,the
brief referS
is

explicit translation

brie£1hlslation

to tlle definition of tlle

communicatiVe

pur】砷se for

wllich

t11e仃趾slation
0r

needed.

Specifically,

t11e

衄lslation brief should contain explicit
100):
a.The仃{mslation puIpoSe
or

implicit

iIlfo衄ation about(“et

a1.2005:

the intended

text f.unctioIls.

b.The ta唱et teXt缸【dressees.
c.The prospectiVe

time锄d place of text reception.
11

d.

The medium

over

wmch the text will be仃{msmitted

The translation brief thus specifies what 1(ind of translation is

needed(Vbmleer

2000:230),tIlerefore tllou曲t11e
brief
aS

the i11itiator actually decides

on

the缸aIlslation Skopos,eVen

such may not be explicit about t11e condition.EIut t11e仃a11slation go dbout meir

brief does not tell

the吮lslator how to

t啪slating job,What把anSlation
on

蚰rategy to use,or、) ̄r:hat translation type t0 choose.These decisions depend entirely tlle translator’s

responsibilit),

and

competence.

111

many

cases,

of

course,

aIl

experienced translator is able to infIer the Skopos f.rom t11e仃anslational situation itsel£

2.3.4 Adequacy aⅡd equivalence

Withjn me

f}锄ework

of Skopos

neoⅨ“adequaCy’’refers

t0 tlle

q砌ities

of



target text、vith regard to t11e缸allslation brief.tlle

t瑚slation
conc印t

should be‘adequate t0’

me陀quirements of t11e brie£It is



dyn锄ic

related t0 tIle process of
are

心mslational

action a11d ref-erring t0 the

goal?oriented selection of signs that

considered印pmpriate

for t11e communicatiVe purpose defined in t11e

tmslation

舔signmem(Nord 2001:35).
‘‘EquiValence”,on tlle other hand,is relationship of equal


static,result-oriented concept describing



comm嘶catiVe

Value

be“Ⅳeen帆o

texts or’on lower
so

r砌(s,

be“忙en words,phraSes,semences,syntactic s仃IlCtures aIld “value’’refers to meaIling,styliStic coIlIlotatiorls
or

on.IIl t11is conte)(t

commlulicatiVe efrect.
the 仃aditiorlal concept of

1k

view

of“adequacy’’

directly

challenges

equiValence弱a constitutiVe feanIre of仃缸lslation.But it doesn’t rlegate equiValence

enthly(ibid.).The

Skopos of me仃anslation

detemmes

me

fo衄of

equiValence

reqund for锄adequale仃aIlslation.For
equiValence.Equivalence may be
to be a
one

Reiss,tlle generic concept is adequacy,not

possible ailIl arld for a11.

when仃肌slatingbut

it is not held

t砌slation principle
producing
an

Valid of

once

When

o虢r

iIlfomation,me

source-text aut}lor always bearS i11 not

milld the source-culture addressee regardless of me饥mslation pllIpose.He/she is
陀sponsible for the uIlderstaJlding of tlle reader丘’om a1]Iother culture

o埘ng

t0 tlle lack

of knowledge about me ta玛et-culture.In mis sense,t11e translator is tlle real receiVer

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Skopos theo巧

of the

source

text

under the target culture situation.The

tmslator

proVidesⅡle target

audience州th



new taI苫et teXt,wrhose composition is guided by me仃a11sl a.tor’s

aSs啪ptionS

about tlleir

needs,expe僦ions,preVious
source

knowledge and

so

on.Due t0

dif王-erences bet、veen the f.or t11e

cultllre and me target cultuI.e,ho、vever,it is iInpossible of inf.0nnation l【ind of
as

tI.觚slator

to ofI.er tlle

s锄e锄oum and ldnd
is to

tlle

source

text

producer.What me廿锄slator c锄do
f.onn.

o肫r aIlother

info衄ation in趾other

2.3.5 Three There

key邝les
are

of Skopos theory rules in Skopos

衄ee 硫port锄t
fidel时11lle.

T11eoⅨ

n锄ely,

Skopos

mle,

coherence mle,and

2.3.5.1 Skopos Rule The

top-r础ng

rule for

any仃锄slation

is t11e Skopos mle w11ich means t11at



缸anslational action is dete加1ined by itS t11e

Skopos.Ve肌eer explaills

me Skopos Rule iIl

follo谢ng way:
EoIch texl is

prodllced}’0r



given

p埘.pose锄d

shoMld serve this pt盯pose.The


sl【0pos mle th韬renaS m加llows:tr口淞late 7 imem陀t/spe口k,Write in
thd|enQbles yot|r

w时

text/trnmlmi佣to,讷cn锄讥the
1|se

si撖mion in which n ts

磷ed∞tdwith the peopte whowan“o


it矾d precisely in tk

w掣th叫w硎

t0加眦tion.(q啪ted

in Nord

200l:29)。

111js mle is intended to solve tlle etemal dilemmaS of f.ree dynaⅡlic

vs.faitI血1衄lslatio玛
So

Vs.fo册a1

equiValence,good inte印reters Vs.slaVish t船nslatorS,孤1d


on.n

meallS tllat tlle Skopos of

particular仃anslation task may require



f.ree

or a

f甑t11fm

咖1slatioll,or
confo册or

anytlling bet、I岭en

tllese觚o extremes,d印ending me趾that
or a

on

me pu印ose for

w址ch me仃{mslation is Ileeded.n doesn’t

good translation should always concept is


adapt to target-culture beklvior

expectations,altllou曲me
11lle giVes

oRen misuIlderStood iIl thjs、v习ly.The

Skopos

the心叽slator

Ilew

perspectiVe to decide、^,Ilich snlltegy、析ll be employed inⅡle、VIlole The text seⅣiI培硒Ⅱle
source

process(ibid.:2).
source-teXt

for a仃觚slationaJ action by me

pmducer 011ly

sen,es

me intended fhction wKch is pmctical in his
use

or

her liVing
on

c沁啪s切nces.But receiverS
oⅥl
the task of tlle tr髓slator is receiver
use

the teXt、忻tll



certain劬ction

depending

their

experiences,needs,preViouS knowledge and situational conditions.Theref.ore,
t0 bear in

mind谢tll
plays


what f.unction both tlle sender and t11e

the text.The

tmslator

f.airly important role ill

the胁slation甜
or

action.He

or

she haS t0 aSsist tlle reader to grasp me mnction wllich may be Vague
source

iIIlperceptible in t11e

text.That is t0 sa弘it is usually more impoIrcant for 11im to of


make or血dicate t11e
‘‘con.ectly”.

sense

passage tllall t0 fhJll【tlle issue by rendering it

2.3.5.2 Coherence rule The meaning signS;it
caIl or

mnction of



text is not

sometmng inherent in me linguistic

not
even

simply be extracted by a11yone who l【IlowS me tlle

code.Di脏rent

receivers(or

s锄e

receiVer at din'erent

times)find

difI’erent meanings in t11e concept of text meaning

s锄e

linguistic materiaJ

o虢red

by t}le teXt.T11is

dyn锄ic

趾ld mnction is com瑚on

enou曲in

modem t11eories of literaDr

reception.Vbmeer just趾。艉r
of

sums it up by saying(quoted iIl Baker 2004:237)mat any

text is

iIlfonnation丹om whjch each receiVer selects the items t11ey find

interesting锄d

iIIlportant.Guided by me仃aJlslation brie£tlle仃aIlslator seIects certain items fbm t11e
source-laJlguage

oah of infonTlation(originally meam
in order to
caIl

for source?culture m

addressees)
t11e

肌d processes tllem

f.om



new

o能r ofi幽珊ation

TLT舶m、砌ch

伽驾et-cultu】呤addressees
meir own sinlation.
The TT must

in tum select what tlley consider to be meaIlingml iIl

be锄slated in suCh



way tllat it is coherent for the’rr receiverS, 200 1:79)..111e target text should receiver should be

giVen t11eir circuIns切nces and conf.onn to me s切niIard

l(Ilowledge(Munday

of访tratex删coherence.Tllis me剐[1s tlle
comm砌cative
aS

able

t0 understand it:“should

mm∞sense m t11e commullicative sitllation aJld culnlre
iIlteraction
can

iIl wKch“is received.A

011ly be

regarded嬲 their

suCcessmlif t11e receiVers irne印ret it

being

sumciemly coherem诵t11

sit删ion.

Accordin91y’anomer impona呲rule of Skopos
14

TheoⅨthe

coherence mle,specifies

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Skopos theo拶

t11at



traJlslation should be acceptable in

a sense

that it is coherent witll the receiVers’

situation.Being coherent is synonymous witll being part of the receiVer’s situation.

The眦lslator
and

should co删Foml to t11e reproduce tIle

carlonS孤d

etllIlic mles血the target
an

l锄舒lage

cultu】re,锄d
t0

immation
tlleir

in the SLl’i11 background

accep乜出le aIld accessible and situational

way

t11e

target

reader,切king

knowledge

circumslances into

acco咖.

2.3.5-3

Fidel时11lle
a仃趾Slation
is
a11

HoweVer,since of

o疏r

of

inf.omation

about



preceding

o腩r

iIlf.o肌atio玛it

is expected to bear

sorne

l(iIld of relationsllip witll t11e corresponding
or

source

teXt.V,emleer calls this

relationsmp imertextual coherence

fideli何
the

111e fidelit)r rule states that t11ere must be coherence

be觚een

t砌slation锄d
reCeived by

也e

source

text or

more specificaJly,bet、veen tlle
as

S0uI.ce

teXt

i州Fonl僦ion

廿le位msla幻r as、Ⅳen
tlle

the

inte印re洲on the衄lslator makes of this i11】Fonrlation arld
receiVers(Li
Heqing et a1.2005:

i11:fomation

t11at is e11coded for tlle target te)(t

95).

Fidel时mle concems缸eneXn髓l
of t11e of the
source

coherence a11d the degree of faithmlimitation


teXt.Sometimes fideli够mle may require
text.

ma)【imally faithfulirnjtation

source

Among nle tllree rules of

Skopos

nleo巧presented a_boVe,fidel埘mle
botll
are

is

considered subordinate to coherence

rule,锄d

subordinate t0Ⅱle Skopos


mle(quoted洫Munday

200 1:80)..If me Skopos requires

cImge

of fhnctioIl,the

s协dard will

no

longer be interte)mIal coherence、析tIl tlle

source

text but adequ刁lcy or

appropriateness wim regard to tlle Skopos.And if me Skopos demaIlds

in僦extu甜

incoherence,tlle蛐mdard of imratextual coherence is

no

longer Valid.

2.4 The significance of Skopos theory
Skopos

TheoD,印pe2urs
s乜ategies

to be a

general衄lslation tlleory for difl’erent text types
situatioIlS. n conciliates tlle

witll

difI’erent

i11

di航rent缸a11slation

15

contradictions and connicts be“veen totally di疗’erent仃anslation strategies mat

are

maimy used

to deaJ with

me cultur酊factors in t11e仃{mslation

process(Ve珊eer

2000:

231).
An

iIIlport趾t

adValltage of Skopos Theo巧is mat it alloWs t11e possibilit),of me

s锄e f犯or

text being translated in di疗’erent、vays aCcording to tlle

pu叩ose of the ta】曙et

text

锄d the

brief mat is giVen t0 t11e translator.The

sourCe

text is no longer the

f.0remost

tllat

detemlines tlle result

of t11e

tmslation.Skopos

Theo巧suggests that

仃amslatorS should take into consideration maJly otller such
aS

f.actorS(Zh2ulg Nanfeng,2004),

the social a11d culture-bound

commⅢcative

cbaracteristics of

tmslation,t11e

i11diviiIuals involved in tlle trallslation process,Ⅱle iIltentions and

mnctions锄d me

l锄guage

habits and conVentions of the

source锄d taI苫et

cul帆s.
or

n helps process丘’om disputes
on

to谢den

the

tmslator’s mind

and m a:ke llim

her

see

the仃a11slation

V面ouS

perspectiVes,by drawing tlleir attemion f而m tlle res仃ained


t11e texts to

broader view of me whole process of

comm删cation.It

adapts mally meories嬲its b嬲is,such aS,the commu|1icatiVe theory,the action t11eoD,

觚d otller血nctionalist
a11alyze the

theories.Skopos Theory tllus stallds at




lleight tllat allows it to TheoDr proVides

tmslation process in

general

sense.MoreoVer'Skopos

“es觚d basic concepts
irlte印reting and

mat are甜so general.Since it considers translation(including
action,tlle agents a11d

non—Verbal胁slation)鹊a co舢mullicatiVe
to

t11eir缸lctions are印plicable

all虹nds of

text帅es
are

in仃allslation.Tlle Skopos mle,

nle coherenCe mle aIld the fidelity rule 由rau∞latorS to mal(e t11e

also

proVided雒general mles for

most印propriate choices in

tIle mmslation process.

2.5 Criticism of Skopos theory Criticism of Skopos Theo巧h雒been leVeled at}tsⅡleoretical fourldations锄d

印pIicabilit)r(Nord 1997:109-122)

2.5.1 Criticism at the level Of its theoreticaI f;Dundations Some critics i11sist tIlat not all actions h孙,e
an

i11tentio玛t11uS questionjng t11e

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Skopos theo叫

Ver),essence of claim mere
are

action-baused劬1slation

theories(Zhallg Meif抽g 2005:86).They
or

actions that do not haVe any imemion

puIpose,ref.e玎ing mainly t0

t11e production of、VofkS of an,ofben

pres啪ed

to be literau呵texts in general or at leaSt
caIl

some litera巧teXt.They also maintain tllat not eVery trallslation

be inte叩reted嬲

pll印oseml.A specific translation purpose、Vould limit

or

at leaSt restrict

tlle砌ge

of

possible仃{mslation procedures锄d t11us the range of possible ta唱et
text in

int唧retatiolls

of t11e

comp撕son

t0 tllose of the source text.EVen

thou曲a仃{mslation

may
as

indeed几lfill its intended Skopos perfectly well,it may neVertheless be assessed
irladequate decisions
on on

0ther coums,particularly嬲f打嬲lexical,syntactic,or st)rlistic
are

me micr0-leVel

concenled(Cheste肋an

1 994:l 53).

2.5.2 Criticism at the leVel of its appHcabinty Skopos 111eory is

ofben嘶ticized

for challging claim

or

eVen

betraying tlle original.

Thjs criticism is probably due t0

Ve肌eer’s

t0 haVe dethroned the source teXt

(Newmark

1 99 1:1 06).But dethroning does not
source

hply

murder

or

d啪ping;it

simply
n0

means that the

text,or
one

more precisely,its linguistic and st),1istic fea:tures,is


longer regarded嬲the

aIld omy yardstick for

tr觚slation.


Skopos Theo巧is sometirIles seen嬲rlo more ttlaJl
source

tIleoD,of

ad印诅tion.If me
otller

teXt

is

no

longer

regarded嬲the omy yardStick,tlle

p01e—the

p枷cipants
focused

and conditionS of tlle ta培et situation_—must mlnlrally come more imo

focuS.hl order t0 emphasize this challge of perspectiVes,Skopos TheoD,mainly
on caSes

where adaptiVe procedures

ensure

tlle如nctioIlality of the originaJ.

nlcly

may Il乏I、,e produced t11e

iInpression帆Skopos

1kor)r

is

ma“y



model of

Literary仃{mslators

or

litem叮scholars interested iIl tranSlation oRen
not

see

Skopos

Theo巧嬲sornethjng t11at is siIllply

me趾t for tllem.They

110衄mly

accept mat

Skopos TheoD,、Ⅳ0fI(S for operating iIlstnlctions,news texts,adVertisements and me like,texts whose language is clearly

inStn】mental(Baker 2004).

General survey of interpretation studies

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

3.General surVey of interpretation stucIies
3.1 The delFinition of interpretation
How to define

inte掣etation?Di髓rent

scholars haVe

di虢rent

aIlswers

from

di艉rent perspectiVes.D锄jca

SeleskoVitch,the French distinguished practitioner aIld

t11eorist of inte印retation,proposes tllat originaJ

mte巾retation,throu曲the
an

comprehension of
t0

utte啪ces,is to
t0

conVey meanings iIl

acce衄ble
in

way

others,witllout
t11em
on

being conf.med

me original、Vords aIld


sentence

SU’and仃锄slating

literally(“Kuiliu
mealling rather thall
According to

994).It
words.

is tlighlighted that the focus of inte叩retation is

on

Pochhachker(2004:l O一1 1),interpreting


is not only“a

fom
on

of t11e

舰1slation证、Ⅳhich

first锄d

fmal rendition in anotller language is produced

baLsis of one—time presentation of an utterance”,but

also锄aCtiVi够“perfomed
across

for tlle

benefit of people who want to engage iIl corrumullication aIld culture’’.111 her

ba仃iers of lallguage

book砌胞印旭f西曙傩砌把,_口cffD甩,Wadensjo

considers ime印retillg

嬲an interactiVe commullication bet、№en people witll lillguistic,social a11d

cul删

g印s

aided by the t11ird person-—tlle

inte印reter(WadenSjo 1998:12).

Interpretation scholars and theorists in Cmna haVe also put fom倒rd definitions of interpretation. Hu Gengshen

(2000)

considers

interpretation
t0





process

of

仃ansfomling Verbal messages fbm
mutuaJ

one

l锄gu增e

anomer’wim the pu印ose of

understanding of people inVoIVed in t11e conunumcation.Zhong Shukong

explores tlle definition of inte叩retation in ms book

emitled彳P阳c疗c耐月a行仍lDD七0厂

砌砌p您砌,fD甩aLs

follows:
an

…湘erpret口lion.eSse嘶nlly’me勰s tang纰ge.巧wh口t
vieWed


extempore orQl

reprod粥ti佣.诵0ne
cannotbe

iS s口id

in硼0mer lang搬ge.Interpretntion

merely ling艇istic姗dennking.btll shoula

be regalded

as矾

口Spect可l口rger domnin complex出scowse
0r

n册ely,thal耐co硼n磁ic口tion.抽the
i删olves
not

c口Se《

speecheS.interpretalion

0nly

lin91lisnc

p玎啦cien嘞b埘仅zso e舵yclDpedic Icn0Wledge(Zhong shu勋ng
18

1 999:

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

General survey 0f interpretation studies

According

to

this

definition,

me

Vital
aLs

characteriStic


of

inte叩re协tion

is

eXtempo啪eousness.n

regards inte叩retation

complex communicatiVe actiVit),

tllat requires tlle inte叩reter t0 have broad backgromld knowledge in diVerse fields.

Mei Deming defines ime叩retation

as

follows:

…ve珀翻comm硼量cQtive pe,如rmance
lQngu口ge

trd母rring

Whm is heQl哂锄伪犍
immediate

throt瞎h矾olySis

imo

another讯∞‘Icct盯me甜lcl

wa甲S.thtls挣矾啦rr讷g meSSnges

c吼ong comm磁icmion(2000:6).


He stresses tllat inte叩retation is not only psychologic2Ll and social

linguistic

aCtiVi吼but

also



cultu】融,

co眦nullicatiVe

undertaldng.

The modem血nctional ime印retation theo巧haS defined of cross-cultural

inte叩retation骶觚act
is
t0

comm证cation,

the

ma洫

aim

of

wmch

establish
an

coInmuIlication between established


members of di疗’erent cultllres iIl acco“lance、访tll

co珊muIlicatiVe ta】曙et pu印ose(Nord l 994:35).Inte印retation tr姐sf-er锄d
cross-cultural

is primarily supposed

cross—cllltural

eVent.Qualified协te印reters盯e

to be botIl

bilin母谢and

pl嘶cultl珊1.


舢l
sort

me aboVe-mentioned defillitions indicate tllat iIlte印retation,in essence,is

me删ion
into

of commullication.The is


a岫0r

of t11is paper attempts

to

a唱l圯here that
one

co删[Ilullication

action,w11ich仃amsfers speeches iIl

language

speeches

i11 anotller

lang眦唱e

mrou曲

oral

meanS

iIl order t0 exchallge

衄f.0mation

smoomly by oVercoming lallguage and cultural

b删ers.TlluS

it is



useml Vellicle廿1at

h啪an beings rely on洫te肌s of cross—laIlguage趴d cross-cultu】m
mech砌cally趾d
paLssiVely仃aIlsfer
a source

beklvior.Inte印reters don’t

lall母lage

speech硫o



ta:唱et langu2喀e speech,but aCt actiVely and creatiVely州tll tlle ultimate

aim of co舢mullicating t11e

iIlfo衄ation

quic“y a11d accurately.

3.2 New perspectiVes of obserVing interpretation
3.2.1 Interpretation
as

intentional interaction
all

When

it comes t0 intentionalit)r iIl

iIlteractio玛it

is嬲s啪ed tllat

tllere is



19

General survey ofinterpretation studies

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

choice t0 act
act at

one

way

or

anotller,to

re仔ain舶m

aucting in



panicular way,or to not

all(Nord 200l:19).
we say interpretation is
an

When

imentional interaction、ve mean it is first锄d
state of

foremost intended to

change趾existing

af]阻irs(minimally,tlle i11abilit)r

of


certain people t0 commumcate wim eaCh

other).There may

be mrctler intentiolls of

more strictly c01nlmuIlicatiVe sometlling tlle sender has

nan鹏,such鹤t0 inf.o衄the

tal苫et addressees about
t0

t0 say.Here

iIltention refers to、Vhat the speaker intends

say in me process of inte印reting(ibid.).

3.2.2 Interpretation

as

interpersonal interaction

“The people iIlVolved roles
are

in肌interaction


lla_Ve cenain fhnctions

or

roles.Theses

intercormected mrough

complex nc帅吣rk of mutual

relatiollS’’(Nord

2001:20)
In the professional pmctice of interculturaI communication,inte叩rel[ers don’t client.
caSes,

st抓wofIdng
IIl tms

on

tlleir ow,Il accord.They refer to tlle

are

usually called upon to do

so

by



context、w may

cliem船觚imtiator(Nord 2001).IIl
t0 addrcss people speaking

most

t11e imtiator is me speal(er

Who咖lts

di旋rent

laIlguages

五的m him.The speaker廿leref.ore needs ttle help of趾inte印reter.111e role of tlle inte叩reter is crucial i11 tlle interpretation process.The commullication would be
iIllpossible
or a

complete

failure谢tllom

tlle interpreter.The inte印reter is ostensibly is supposed to conVey tlle

廿le expert in t11e hlte印retation

process锄d

meanjng锄d

intention of tlle speaker t0 me addressee

quicldy,acc啪tely

and smoothJy.In thjs t11at tlle addressees

sense,tlle inte印reter should be loyal to tlle speaker a11d llIlderstand me speal(er
as

ensure

if t11e speal(er

dnctly

spoke to them m tl:Ie

s锄e

laJlguage.

But t11e inte印reter h硒a right t0 choose dia’erent ways to conVey the meaning a11d iIltention of tlle spe a:ker.The addressee is

also锄irllportant f砬tor

in t11e process of

i11te印retation.T11e ta玛et of ttle i11te印retation is
Tlle

t0 mal(eⅡle addressee

uIlderstalld. 邪

inte叩reter

must

coIlSider tlle

i血珊ation

of

me

addressee

such



socialcultlⅡ.al iIlte叩reter

background,

expectatior塔,

sensitiVi劬

or、Ⅳorld

krlowledge.Thc

sen,es aS a bridge connecting tlle

speal【er肌d the

addressee.

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

General suⅣey of interpre诅tion studies

3.2.3 Interpretation

as an

intercultural communication refers to tlle communication bet、Ⅳeen people、vhose

Intercul删communication
cultural perceptions

and

symbol

systems

are

distinct

enou曲

t0

alert

ttle

commumcation

evem(S锄ovar et a1.2000:48).

We llllderstaum commumcation嬲being
Verbal
or

c枷ed out by mealls of signs,which


are

nonVerbal behaVior aSsoci atI甜with
use

concept

or

meaJling produced by t11e


speaker.The

of signs is teleological in me

sense

that it aims at

panicular goal.In

orderto obtain tlle intended goall,the speaker and tlle addressee spea虹ng tlle same 1anguage must haVe some Hnd of a伊eement a_bout the conventional and mlls culture-specific.111e meaIling be the

me枷ng

of the sign.Signs

are

aSsociated埘tll the si印need

not

s锄e for botll the speaker and the addressee if t11ey belong t0 di旋rent
behaVior(perhaps speaker觚d


cultures.
one

Any fonll of

smile

or

brief silence)may be intended to haVe haVing aIlother

me枷ng

by me

uIlderstood

aS

rne砌ng

by

tlle addressee.

EVen锄∞cidental
sigIl intended t0 be

state of a行砸rs

c趾be硫e印reted嬲a meamngM sigll,just舔a
addressee.W11ile the speaker

mealling彻may go u皿oticed by tlle

is spea虹ng,he、析n haVe some rlon—Verbal behaVior lme f.acial expressions,gestures which could be

mi吼mderstood by也e addressee flrom did’erent culture because

di腩rem

non-Verbal behaViours may haVe

di虢rent me疵ngs

in

di腩rent

cultures.

The inte】巾reter
aCross

muSt衄1sfer

t11e correct meanjr喀of tllese rlon—verbal behaViours for tlle inte印re【er t0 deVelop cross-culture

cultures.It is Very

irnport锄t

3.2.4 Interp№tation

as a

dynamic mental process
that me main components of t11e i11te印reting process
are

Gile(1 989)argues

non?automatic,requiring processing

c印aci哆(quoted

iIl Liu Heping

2005:44).He

desc曲es

tlle process weU m

llis鼢七Cro刀c印结册d^如沈厶扣,.砌纪伊坨纪,.口删
already—fo肌ed me枷ng
uIlits in

1睁QnslcIlor 1rcIining(ibid.:l 7). In consecutiVe inte印reting,tlle

short—te衄
needed the
2l

memoD,、啊U go into

long-te肌memo巧or be

taken down m notes.The

e肋rt

is associaced witll me tiIIle between也e moment me

i11f.0mation

is

hea柏a11d

Geneml sunrey 0f interpretation studies

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

moment it is written do、Ⅳn
tllen devoted
to

or

goes into t11e long-term

memory.E肋rt

on

memo叫is

recalling the successiVe parts of tlle original

speech行om tlle

long-te皿memo巧of

the

ne印reter,or丘om

notes诅ken

t0

help t11e irlte叩reter

process tlle speech and get its meaIling. T11e paCe of the first

phase

is dependent
at

on

the speal(er'but thenⅡle inte叩reter is of

舭e

t0

recall and reconstmct

ms

own pace.Ho、ⅣeVer,in the actllal practice

i11te印re.眦ion,these psycholinguistic overl印and

steps do not

occur one

by

one

in succession,but

take place almost simultaneously;如rthennore,tlley lKⅣe to meet the

demands of tIle situation i11 tenns of time. As f打aS consecutiVe imerpreting is concemed,me process is diVided imo


listelling phaSe,during whjch tlle mte巾reter listens to the speal(er and ta:kes notes,and


refo衄ulation

phaSe,during which the

nerpreter

refonTlulates me meaJljng of iIl

ta唱et language.Of course,me prerequisite is t11at the inte叩reter’s l洫guistic and
、Ⅳorld krlowledge should be highly aVaildble.

3.3 The development of interpretation studies Westem interpretation scholars k【ve studied inte叩retation嬲a profession for almost 60 years and harvre

fo咖ed

some mature and systematic iIlte印retation theories.

Some、vestem iIlte印reters锄d psychologists pioneered inte甲retation research in me
l 950s and 1 960s.Systematic research leadersllip of Selesk0Vitch.IIl me
on

inte印retation started iIl t11e 1 970s under tlle

1 980s,iIlte巾retation

mIdies

deVeloped towards

morc serious,more scientific aIld more Variable professional fields.In the 1 990s,the Trieste School

e妇blished

itself硒a new

center of

inte叩retation study.Some otller

foms of inte叩retation ne91ected
lallguage i11te叩retation

by people such硒commumt)r i11te甲retation and sign Han

bec锄e new research obj ects(quoted iIl Zhang Wen砒ld

Chan曲ui 2006:23).
)(ia0

Xiaoy锄(2002)、Ⅳrote



p印er

presenting
are



pictl鹏of

t11e

hlte印re枷on

research i11 tlle west.According to her'tllere

four phaSes iIl t11e deVelopment of

inte印re僦ion

research i11 me west,i.e.me Pre—Research

Period(1 950s-1 960s),龇

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

General survey of interpretation studies

Experimental

Psychology

Period

(1960s-1970s),the
1980s until

Practitioner’s

Period

(1970s一1980s),and the

Renewal

Period(矗om

now).

Interpreting study in China started rather late and deVeloped slo、vly due to some

11istorical re2Lsons.According
can

to Liu

Heping(2005),inte印retation
first

studies in Cllina
0n

be divided into tlⅡ.ee

phaSes.The
phaSe

phaSe mainly

focuses

initial

mIdies
and

before 1 996.111e second

is舶m

1 996 t0 2002 concenling witll

dyn锄ic

descriptive
fmdings in

studieS.ne
foreign

third phaSe
are

is舶m

2002 till now.111 this phase,research

co眦仃ies

irItroduced

imo

China.hnerdisciplinary

and

empirical studies bccome t11e n.end. One of tlle most representative schools i11 tlle currem ‘‘Paris scllool”,for wllich the profile proponents
are

interpretation、№rld

is

Dallica

SeleskoVitch柚d

M撕a11】∞Lederer(Xu jull


200 1).They deVelop tlle“T11eorie du Sens”洫the late

960s觚d

early 1 970s wmch‘‘views i11te印reting勰a
on

co鲥tiVe

process baSed

essentiaJly

comprehension’’(quoted

iIl Dollerup 1 992:2 1 2).Gerver and

Moser

a1]脚yze inte印retation丘.om me perSpectiVe of psycholinguistics(quoted in Zhan舒ven

锄d

Hall

Changhui 2006).Daniel
and is t11e

Gile,a French scholar made great contributions t0

ime印retation

most prolific

inte印retation researcher.His renowned
ListeIling
on

actlievement is the
and t11e

E肺rt Model(彻mely'血e

E肺rt,t11e

Production E丘-ort,

Short-te咖Memo巧E仃。哟he

h鹤built

tlle basis of

co印itiVe

le锄ing

(Gile 1 995).Gile llimself印plied吐lis model t0锄alyzing
aIld sinlultaIleous

consecutiVe inte印retation

inte印retation(Gile

1 995:1 79).Gile’s other

co嘶bution

is me
aIld

Tightrope Hypothesis.n means tllat ttle iIlte印reters should

rerm血calm,logical

re嬲onable in tlleir inte印reting m order
t11ey are、vofI【ing under high

t0 present at the

a掣ace如l

perf.0ⅡIlance,althou曲

pressure觚d

s锄1e time

coordinating in tlleir mirld

v耐ollS info肌ation(Gile 1 999).

Xi锄en UIlivers时led
UIlivers时of Westminster
53-55).According
to thjs

by

Lm

Yuru

a11d Professor

Jack

Lone唱aIl舶m
Xia 2004:

comes

up晰tll

Xia Da

Model(quoted ill Ma

model:afberhaving comprehended
source

a11d锄lyzed恤:sourCe
tlle、)l,!hole process of
23

laIlguage speech interpreters reconsn-uct tlle

lall昏lage speech iIl the ta唱et

laIlguage by using interpreting sl(i11s,so that they

c觚血lfill

General surVey ofinterpre诅tion studies

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

mte印reting success向lly.Zhong W色ihe(200 1)has proVided lmowledge requiremems
for i11te印reters、VMch include:knowledge for languages,encyclopedic l【Ilowledge,

professional inte甲reting skills aIld artistic presentations.Liu Miqing(2005)haS
discussed interpretation f.rom t、Ⅳo aspects,commullication and cognition.It is t11e Ve巧 taSk of i11terpreta_tion wMch giVes
aCcess

t0 each party to

concemed in



conVersation.IIl


“s

sense,inte印retation is closely related

commullication and it is

certain l【ind of

conmullication.

3.4 The classification,characteristics and criteria of Interpretation
3.4.1 The classincation of interpretation According to

Mei Deming(2000),inte印retation c锄be

classified into difI’erent

t),pes in accordance witll difl’erent

par锄eters.

3.4.1.1 By inte印reting

fo肌s

Altemating inte印retation.Tms meaIls the inte印reter uses“旧languages in tum
t0

inte印ret for bom sides iIⅣolVed in tlle commullication.It is the most埘dely used

iIlte印retation method wMch is adopted in

no肌al

business conVersations

o伍cial

imer_govemmental meetings砒ld press coⅢ.erences.It is印propriate for short and
丘.equent dialogues. Consecutive inte印retation.Sometimes t11e lecturer needs t0 giVe


long speech

consecutiVely锄d f-requem dismption
i11te印reted

can

be

amloying,so tlleir speech、析U be

para鲫h

by

para聊h

duriIlg me natⅢ面stop of the speech.Long

Speeches such鹤lectLlres,to嬲tmg address,teaclling sessions,sul】[uIlit and open ceremonies
are

comrences

very suitable t0 t11is iIlte叩retation style.

SimultaneouS ime印retation.111is is the most

di伍cult

f.0m

of tl:Ie bnd.n means the speech tlle

mat

me

inte印reter

does

not

disrupt

tlle
is

lecturer its

and

iIlte印rets

s油ultarleously.The

biggeSt

adV锄tage
speech

efficiency.

It昏la】-锄tees

consecutiveness of botll me

and what tlle audiences

hear锄d

produces

而nimum dismption

t0 botll sides.It is 110w、Ⅳidely uSed in

intemational conferences

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

General survey Of inte叩retatiOn studies

觚d academic

reports. It

W11ispering inte叩retation.

h嬲tlle

s锄e

substallce

州tll

simul伽eous
t0

inte印rctation except for tlle inte叩reter’s Volume.The inte叩reter Whjspers

me

audience(most time

it is



sin91e

person).Semor o衔cerS conVersation州th


and principals welcoIne mis

kind of inte叩re协tion when they make

counte印art.
laIlguage by reading


Sight inte叩retation.The inte印reter acquires me iIlstead of listelling;tIle situation is usually、vhen


source

prepared speech is giVen by

perSon们m tlle comem

coⅢ-o册s

exactly t0 the script.Usually the inte印reter、析ll be longer before tlle speech

giVen the script seVer甜minutes

or eVen

is西Ven.

3.4.1.2 By inte印reting content and task CoIl|’erence inte印retation.Conference

Inte叩删ion

refers t0 tlle iIlte印retation

for intemational meetings,press conferences,business meetings龇ld 1eanling etc.

exch锄ges

of

Guide inte印retation.Guide inte叩retation hlcludes such actiVities硒me receiVing of

foreign目lestS锄d accompallying them

to go shopping or Visit some body or衄aVel t0

to some places etc.It is

generally印plicable

forei凹erS

in



co眦珥
to

Ceremony interpretation.Cerernony iIlte叩retation refers
such occaSions
aS

tl圮inte巾retation iIl

opeIling and closing cerernollies,baIlquet opemng

Speec也corltract

si91ling and so

on.

IIlf.omation m_te:甲retation.111fomation
aCtiVities for

inte印retation

coVers

a埘de
or

mge

of

ex锄ple

adVenising,marketing,in仃oducir培of
or

comp砌es

cultures,

products exllibiting,lecturing

cultllral exchanges etc.

Negotiation/DiaJogue 111te印retation
coVers

Negotiation/Dialo目Je

Inte印retation and

t11e

iIlte印retation for political dialogues,bilateral

talkS,diplomatic

business negotiation etc.

3.4.1.3 By ime叩reting directiolls According to inte印reting directions,iIlte叩reta_tion One—way direction refers to inte叩reting

c趾be categor娩ed aS follows:

f.rom SLl’t0

TU’0r

Vice

VerSa.

General surVey of interpre诅tion studies

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

T、删ay

directions referto inte印reting

SU’to

TLT and Vice

Versa.

3.4.2 The characteristics of interpretation IIl order to uIlderstand better t11e nature of

inte叩retation锄d

tlle possible ways t0 of ime甲retation.
aS

improveⅡle quali够of inte甲retation,、ve need

to

study characteristics

Mei Deming(2000)summarizes

t11e Characteristics of inte甲retation

follows:

3.4.2.1

Unpredicta【bili吼 to岫derStaIld that during血e
procedure of inte印reting there could

It is quite eaSy

be many tllings unpredicta【ble.Interpreter muSt enter into tlle bi-language shi衔ng

St锄塔with limit

preparation.An inte叩reter may know tlle topic of the conVersation
can neVer

tllat l地、析U inte叩ret,but Ile

guess Where tlle conVersation will go a11d what

exaCtly me speakers will talk about.In some situationS such船press

co疵rence

aJld

busilless negotiation the topic could ch锄ge coIlstantly锄d often comes f.rom觚

岫expected
T11is

direction thus m a:kes it uIll.eliable

or eVen

d锄gerous

to predict t11e topics.

requires

inte印reters

t0

be

nexible

趴d

quick-minded

besides

being

language?competent and

cul删ly-aware.

3.4.2.2

Extempomeousness and pressure.
as

An inte印reter at work haLs to respond wIlich
are

quicl【ly嬲possible

to

V撕ous

situa.tions
to

constantly changing.At ttle

s锄e time,the

mte印reter haS t0 tIy llis best

produce t11e best

ime印retation谢mm

tlle shonest time

lmtS.An

inte印reter should be

缸1il泌嘶tll
Usually

di腩rent accents,diaJectS锄d v面eties
the atmoSphere of
at

of English. poses great pressure onⅡle
or

tlle

circ啪Stallces

inte印recer.Especially

some solemn coⅢ.erences such雒intemational f.omms

diplomatic negotiations, t11e

a恤osphere

can

e嬲ily

iIlnuellce

an

恤experienced

iIlte印reter and the serious emotion、vill make hill】I/11er become less conndent and lead
t0 constant oraJ t0

mistakes.Sometimes tlle
nervouS

Stress 0r presslll.e

may

caIlse eVen a

Vetem

iIIte印reter

be

and result iIl 11is uIlsuccessml i11te印reting.But if ttle
great s缸-ess caused by the

iIlte叩reter takes tlle pressure positiVely'the

f9mlal

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

General survey of interpretatiOn studies

commullication situation can、vork嬲a pusmng f.0rce for t11e interpreter

t0

do

u11expectedly、Vell.MaIly

experienced inte印reters haVe t11e experience of producing

be低r
good

inte印retation beyond meir expectation,under some quite
language competence, a、析de

s吮ss如l

si似ion.A

眦ge

of

background
can

knowledge,and most

imponalltly,a

11i曲1eVel

of cross?cultural awareness
eVen

defillitely contribute t0 t11e

unexpectedly good perf.o加1ance

under a伊eat str.ess如l commullication situation.

3.4.2.3 Heavy responSibilit),

Most

ne叩retations are

imended

t0 sen,e aS substinltes for tlle origillal,maldng

tllem available

t0 people、vho caIl
on

not understand the source

laJlguage texts.Tms

油poses



he删y respoIlsibilit)r

t11e inte印reter.h me process of inte叩reting,he is how he inte印rets.He has 011ly
one

respoIlSible for W11at he

ime印rets锄d

ch觚ce

t0

make



decision for t11e ime印retation.Usually the interpreter does not mIve time
or

or

opportLIni够t0 improve

ch锄ge

tlle inte印retation

eVen

tllou曲it

is not perfect.The

血e印reter haS to
operates

keep balaIlce bet、)I,een quickness and accuracy.An any help,m璐t be able t0
are

mte掣retIer,Ⅵ,ho

solely谢tllout

solVe锄y
linguistic

poteIltial question related t0 the

sin91e-h趾dedly.Among

nlese questions some
are

ones

inte印reter’s language kno、订edge;others
scientific
ones

cul删or

ethJlic ones;still others盯e

aIld more

are

likely to be social questions,wmch necessitates tlle
current

inte印舳’s
interpretIer

knowledge
110t

of socie饥 culture, econoIny趾d
aIly
one

a仃airs.’The

caIl

run啪und

of t11ese aIld h弱no plauce t0 re仃eat,he must

co时bnt、)IriⅡl tIlem calmly and eliminateⅡlem immediately谢t}lout loo“ng for help 丘Dm dictionaries
or

concemed ref.erences

or

dismpt tlle lecturer begging for pardon

and explainjr培tlle blun.ed points.

3.4.2.4 Multiple sl【ills

Inte印retation inVolVes almost all嬲pects of langW唱e.n is 觚tiVity of



comprehensiVe

watcKng,listemng,Ⅱlimdng,、撕ting,reading

and spea虹ng.An inte印reter f如m me expression

is watcmng ttle speaker i11 order to gam some

usemliⅢIo肌ation

觚d

gestures of t11e speaker.At tlle

s锄e the,he

is listenjng t0 tlle speech and

“nl【ing,wmle
佗w seconds or
target language. There is

writing do、Ⅳn some notes When possible aIld
eVen

necess哪l

Then within



simultaJleously,he h硒to speak out the inte印reted Version in the

no

boullda叫for me


content

being inte甲reted嬲Cllina’s ref.0nIl

conti伽es
iIl most

m such

aStomshing 11igh Speed.Intemational cooperation is now向lfilled

areaS

of social life;people五rom
are

di腩rent claSses,Vacations,晰tll di髓rem
more aIld more inVolVed in imemational
at leaSt

educational and cultlJral back铲ounds dialogues.TMs requires
an

iIlte印reterto be

a蹦f

eXpert in me field of


concemed topics.k mally caSes,problems originate
lack of special

Ilot f-rom

tlle language but自om

knowledge锄d misunders切nding

of specific

tems.

3.4.3 The criteria of iⅡterpretatioⅡ Thc criteria of inte印retation 龇ld practitioners
are

cormonly

recogmzed and aCcepted by researchers quickness,which

accuIacy,smoomness,锄d

fo肌an

o唱anic

u11i够(Qiu Y抽g 2004:50-52).Accuracy uIlders伽1d
tlle

implies tllat tIle inte印reter should accurately

me耐ng

tllat the original Speal(er wants t0 convey and accurately
to

inte印ret tlle origiIlal mealling in tlle fonll of ta唱et laIl目mge.“Inte印reting is
underStand and to be

understood”(“Kuiliu



994:22).Another baSic requiremem
t0

of

iIlte印retation is smootluless.The inte印reter鼬ans
of ta玛et language
aS soon as

o玛枷ze the mealling in

t11e foml

he铲aLsps me idea of tlle original speech.The extempore
call

reproduction should be硒smootllly鹤possible.Smootluless

oIlly be built

on

the

b商s

of accuracy in me u11derstallding of the original

me越ng
on

m Y,觚an 1 998:25).
me砌ng
is and idea of

In order to the

reach“s

criterion,tlle inte印reter should focus whole instead of

me

origi删speech嬲a

i11diVid叫words.Quickness

me砌que

requhment
illte印reter is

of inte印ret“on.In me real situation of inte印retatioIl,t11e time for tlle

ve巧l油ited.m

the extremely limited tiIIle

at 11is propos甜,he is actually

do访g many things at me

s锄e

tinle锄d

he

is舳血g、析tll劬e.He h嬲to
co删[1luIlicatiVe

acllieVe

quickness i11 underStanding,processillg,and producing

and cultural

inf.onnation.
111 the autllor’s opimoIl,The criteria of inte印retation
are

detenllined by the

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

General survey of interpretatiOn stlldies

natlJre,

characteristics and puIpose of inte叩retation.Inte印retation is by natllre interpersonal, intercultural aJld

intentional,

communicative.

The

pIllpose

of

inte印retation is

t0 help carry out

smoom commu|1icatiVe actiVities and

to mal(e the

audience u11derstand tlle speaker.Therefore,expressiVeness should

come first in

inte印retation.ExpressiVeness here meaIls tlle satisf.acto巧ime叩retation shall be,firSt
of all,nuent a11d

cle牡The inte印reter language)州m

shall be able to speak nuently botll languages

(esp.the

taI謦et

clear a11d

s伽1捌pronullciation

aIld

can

skjllmlly

control 11is

Vol啪e aIld speed during me

inte印reting pmcess.Secondl y,tlle mte叩reter mat the audience

c龃。唱aIlize llis mte印reted
call

sentences iIl a logic and coherent、Vay so

eaLsily catch me

main poims of t11e inte叩retation.111irdly,tIle satisf.acto巧

interpret“on
such私

shall also

c邺‘iIl印propriate
on

places tlle sub—linguistic infonllatio玛

inte印reting

tones,emphases

majn

poiIlts

etc.

Finally

fbm

t11e

inte叩retatio玛me audience c粕acquire feedbacl(s of tlle co舢nullication

e毹ct

iIl due

time.Accuracy is锄L0ther criterion of inte印retation.Accuracy doesn’t me锄t0
aCcurately mte印ret all of t11e

words狮d

phrases including ttle empt)r莎ammatical


words iIl tlle originm speech.It refers t0 the accuI。acy i11 inte甲reting ‘‘key

small锄。吼t of
s眦蚰撕ze
me

words/infomation”WIlich洫cludes

t11e key points t11at

caIl

general

me弛g

of tlle original Speech,me emotionaJ messages in tlle original speech, aJld Immbers etc.The most

tlle important

tems,special no吼s

signific锄t
one

difI’erence

between仃{mslation and inte印retation
features

is劬e limit,wmch is also
t0 say

of t11e distinctiVe criterion of if he is not

of缸e叩retation.7nlerefore“quickness’’is趾other油port柚t
ime印reter而11
sometimes have something
even

inte印retation.An
ready
or

haS

Ilo

idea ofWhat to inte叩ret.

Culture and interpretation

上海师范大学硕十学位论文

4.Culture and interpretation
We
express
use

language to express tlloughts,but more oRen t110ughts.Tms is eitller because the words

t11l髓not

it f撕ls to mlly

our

and伊猢ar
tlle same

limit

our

expression

or

the speal(er does not W乏mt to state explicitly what he actually thjIll(s. llappens
eVen

Mis岫ders切nding
Considering tlle

锄ong
people

people

spe撕ng

language.

di脏rences be帆een

spe描ng di毹rent

1allguages,it is omy

natl瑚I mat
people

misuIlders切nding happeIls f如m time to time in communication bet、veen

speaking f.aCtors,

di脏rent
like

languages.111e expression of tlle situation, and

moug№is
aboVe

innuenced by
one’s

v撕ous

perSonali吼

all,

cul觚谢
but

back伊ound.The inte印reter should
鲥so

not omy haVe a good commaIld of
eVer

l明guage

t巧to岫der此md
even

tlleir cultures.Nida

said that being

fI锄iliar witll似o kinds

of cultures is

more iIllportarlt tllan伊aLsping tv旧bnds of lallgW唱es because tlle
sense

choice of language has only

in

cer面n culture(Nida

200 1).

4.1 The definition of cultu re
The firSt step iIl u11derStaIlding a11d inte叩reting better is to coIlsider the definition of culture.The、Ⅳord“culture”is now used in
our

eVeDrday

life嘶tll伊eat仔equency.
haVe

Witll

tlle deVelopmem of antllropology,S0ciology and

cultI鹏mldies,scholars

been worl(ing hard to def-me culture,so maIly defiflitions haVe been proposed.There
are

more tIlaIl 500 definitions of cultllre all

over

the world.Ho、Vever,it seems

110 one

h弱come

up谢m



defimtion of t11is、vord that is u11iVersally accepted.An AnlericaIl
958:1 8)listed some t)rpical defillition of culture西Ven by

scholar,Felix

M.Keesing(1

difl’erent scholarS嬲follo、Ⅳs:


111at complex

whole、砌ch

i11cludes l【nowledge,belie‘art,morals,custom,

觚d

a11y otller

c印abilities锄d

habits acquired by

m卸aLs



member of socie够(Tylor

1871).
.The

s啪total

of tlle knowledge,attitudes aIld behaVior pattenls shared砒ld


咖1smitted by

tlle members of

particular

societ)r(Linton 1 940).

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Culture and inte巾retation



[all t11e】KStorically

created designs for liVing,explicit and implicit,rational,

i删Cional,w11ich
(Ⅺucl(IlollIl

eXist at any giVen time嬲potential guides for t11e behaVior of men

aJld Kelly 1 954).

.The m硒s of 1eamed and a11d

tmsmined motor reactions,habits,tecⅢques,ideaS
induce(Kroeber 1 984). enVirorullent(HerskoVits l 955). senses(quoted
in

Values…aIld
.11le

t11e behavior they part of t11e

m锄一made

According t0 Edward Sapir,“culture”is used m three majn BaSsnett 1 980:69): CultuI-e is techllically used by me

e岫ologist锄d

culture-historiall t0 embody

龇1y socially inherited material and spiritum element in tlle life of man. Culture refers t0
a a

rather conVemional ideal of indiVi(1ual refinement,built up

on

certain

modic啪of硒similated

knowledge and experience but made up c11ieny of



set

of咖ical

reactionS that haveⅡle

s锄ction

of



claSs aIld of



tmdition of long

stallding Culture referS to those general anitudes,Views of of ciVilization t11at giVe


Iife锄d

Specific mallifestation

panicular people its distirlctive plauce in the、Ⅳorld.
are

The follo、析ng tv旧definitionS IIese锄.ch. Culture is
rlot a panicular

tlle most

pertinent

ones

for

ne印retation

whteVer

one

haS to know,m硒ter

or

feelin order to judge、vhether

or

fom ofbehaViour showll by members of a commu血够in
t0 general expectations,and in order to bekIve

t11eir VariouS

roles

coIlf0肌s

in“s comm删锣in

aCcordaIlce谢tll

generaJ expectationS unless

one

is prepared t0 bear me consequences

ofunaccepted behaVior(quoted in Nord 2001:33).
According t0 BaSsnett,t11e

moSt谢dely

accepted definition of culture is:Culture

isⅡle total accIunulation of beliefs,customs,values,behaviorS,institlltions,arld commuIlication patterns t11at
generations in
a11 are

shared,leanled and p嬲sed

down

throu曲the

identifiable group ofpeople(Bassne位1992:13?14).

More specifically concemed witll l锄guage锄d inte印retation,Newmark defines cultllre弱‘、he way of life aIld its
uses a

m越f-eStations
its mealls

that

are

peculiar to



commⅢ锣t11at
success砌

panicular 1aJlguage



of expression’’

‘‘For tnJly

i11te印reting,biculturalism is

eVen

more iIllporcant t11an bilingualism”(Newmark 1 988:
o、Ⅳ11

79),t11uS acknowle吨ing
f.eatI】res. Tb

tIlat eaCh laIlguage group haLs its

culturally specific

s哪up,丘Dm tlle

defimtion of culture,、Ⅳe know that culture is tlle totalit)r of

material wealth and spirituaJ、walth creatl甜in tlle、Vhole 11isto巧of
ml socially conditioned aspects of InlIIlan

m枷nd.It

coVers

life.Culn鹏means

t11e total way of life of



people,including their panems of cuStoms,traditions,social habits,Values,beliefS,an

锄d l锄guage

of
so



socie劬弱、VeU雒political

orgallization,economic actiVities,

techlliques,锄d
man’s behavior.

on.n

pe肌eates eVe巧aSpect

of

h啪锄life觚d

it detemlines all of

4.2 Cultu

re

and language


Since culture is defined succinctly嬲t11e totalit),of beliefs and practices of

society,notlling is of铲eater蛐rategic impoIrcance than tlle language through which its beliefS
are

expressed

and吮lsmitted觚d

by Which most iIlteraction of its members

takes place.111 omer、Ⅳords,language is廿le LaIlguage linguiStic is


c捌er
by

of t11e culture it belongs t0. indiViduals

syStematic

l(110wledge

aCquired

throu曲speciaJ


competence.Lang吼ge

collStitutes me most diStinctiVe

f.ean鹏of

cultI鹏.

The lexic甜characteristics of each lang眦唱e tend to renect tlle culnlrally-i111ponant

fean鹏s

of

obj ects,iIlstitutions aIld actiVities
is 011ly


in society in wmch the language operates.


Althou曲language
bom

relatiVely small part of

culture,it is indispens a_ble for

tlle缸lctioning锄d
each omer and be renected

tlle pe印etuation of the culture.Cultu】陀a11d language

neract

晰th

are

ner-dependent.Tlle diVerS埘of di舵rent

cultUures will

de觚tely

in languages.Culture

defiI:Litely consn面ns,iIlfluences a11d

shapes lan目lage. ‘‘Lallguage is tlle principal meaIls、Vhereby we conduct
our

SociaJ

liVes.When

it

is used洫contexts of commuIlicatioll,it is boulld up、ⅣitIl culture m multiple and

complex、vays’’(Clair 2000:3).]【11is

is the opelling para伊aph洫Clair

K姗sch’s
on

£口唧(IgP
32

口甩d C甜打“,℃,wKch

is,

I belieVe,also

the beSt elalboration

me

上海师范大学硕士学位论文

Culture and interpretation

rel“onsllip be觚een
Viewed into

language aIld culture.In Clair’s statement,1anguage is linguistic phenomenon but rather aIld daily


no

longer

aS如isolated
social

liVillg pheIlomenon woVell

our

liVes

co舢mullication.

Lallguage,





media

of

conunullication,can renect social and culturaJ deVelopment of a specific

cor啪uni够
me枷ngs.

Cul删me枷ngs
Very

are

inl:ricately、ⅣoVen imo t11e texture of nle language.It is
are

import咖tllat illte叩reters
are

able to

c印t眦。e

and

project t11e

cultllral

Inte印reterS

responsible to imtiate me ta唱et—language reader int0 the sensibilities

of the source-laIl母lage culture.Therefore

inte印reters need

t0

be

a、vare

of t、^,o

di艉rent

cultures,to

c印tureⅡle

local

color锄d

to be llllderst00d

by觚audience

outside t11e cultIlre.

4.3

Di硒culties caused
n is widely a星乒.eed

by cuIturaI differences in interpretation
that

cult嗽l

difrerences

po∞

great

di衢culties

in

inte印r喇ion.Because
messages about
or

l觚guage

a11d culture are协separ{lble,the speal【er’s、Ⅳords,

st),les contajll cultu】脚connotation.Inte印reters should be Ve巧clear
cultural di丑’erences iIl

me

interpr删on
are

iIl
t0


相关文章:
更多相关标签: