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艾米莉迪金森Emily Dickinson


Emily

(1830-1886)
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Dickinson

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Born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Study in a woman school for one year. Stay in the house made by his grandfather and move to another place where lives there for 15years. Two people affect her writing:1 a headmaster of Amherst school. 2 a young lawyer told some religious ideals that made her deeply attracted by thoughts about world is grim and characters are mercy. These thoughts reflect in her poems and lives.

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Two unsuccessful marriages . 1. go steady with the local newspaper editor who was already married. 2. go steady with a judge who was 18years older than her. These experiences affected her poems deeply

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She is an American legendary poet- 1800 poems. 阿默斯特的女尼-She writes poems indoors after 25 years old. The themes in Dickinson’s poems 1. religion 2. death and immortality 3. love 4. nature

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Dickson’s poetry is unique and unconventional in its own way. 1) no titles. 2) dashes are used as a musical device 3) capital letters as a means of emphasis. 4) The form of her poetry is familiar, communal (公共的), and sometimes, irregular. 5) short; a singly image or symbol ; one subject matter. 6) personal and meditative. 7) She often used persona and personification

Dickinson’s artistic characteristics

representative work
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I taste a liquor never brewed 我品尝未酿之酒 I felt a funeral, in my brain 在我头脑中,我感受到葬礼 A bird came down the walk 一只鸟儿沿着小径走过来 I died for beauty- but was scarce 我为美而死 I heard a fly buzz- when I died 我听到苍蝇的嗡嗡声—当我死时

Poems Apprehension
I heard a Fly buzz—when I died—

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I heard a Fly buzz—when I died— I heard a Fly buzz—when I died— The Stillness in the Room Was like the Stillness in the Air— Between the Heaves of Storm—
The Eyes around—had wrung them dry— And Breaths were gathering firm For that last Onset—when the King Be witnessed—in the Room— (2) I willed my Keepsakes—Signed away What portion of me be Assignable—and then it was There interposed a Fly— With Blue—uncertain stumbling Buzz— Between the light—and me— And then the Windows failed—and then (3) I could not see to see—

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In this first stanza, the scene of a deathbed is set. The second stanza discusses the state of mind of those waiting by the deathbed of the speaker. They have obviously been crying by the suggestion that their eyes had "wrung them dry.” What does the “king” refer to? The king may be God, Christ, or death; The King is probably God in this context and they are all awaiting his entering the room to take the soul of the speaker. What’s the meaning of “last onset" ? "Last onset" is an oxymoron; "onset" means a beginning and "last" means an end. For Christians, death is the beginning of eternal life.

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The third stanza How to understand “I willed my Keepsakes”? These keepsakes could be material goods that the speaker collected during life. There will be no use for these goods in heaven so this line discusses the tradition of willing away property and material belonging. The fly "interposed“ which means to come between or intervene The vision of death it presents is horrifying, even gruesome. the central image is the fly What do does the fly suggest ? The uncertainty of the fly could be symbolic of the speaker's own unsure feelings about death.

Poetic Form
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trimeter and tetrameter iambic lines (four stresses in the first and third lines of each stanza, three in the second and fourth, a pattern Dickinson follows at her most formal); rhythmic insertion of the long dash to interrupt the meter; rhyme scheme: abcb. Interestingly, all the rhymes before the final stanza are half-rhymes (Room/Storm, firm/Room) while only the rhyme in the final stanza is a full rhyme (me/see). Dickinson uses this technique to build tension; a sense of true completion comes only with the speaker's death.

I Died For Beauty But Was Scarce
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I died for beauty but was scarce Adjusted in the tomb, When one who died for truth was lain In an adjoining room. He questioned softly why I failed? "For beauty," I replied. "And I for truth, the two are one; We brethren are," he said. And so, as kinsmen met a night, We talked between the rooms, Until the moss had reached our lips, And covered up our names.

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The speaker : died for Beauty ? a man laid in a tomb next to her : died for Truth. ? When the two softly told each other why they died, the man declared that Truth and Beauty are the same ? so he and the speaker were "Brethren." ? "and talked as Kinsmen" between their tombs until the moss reached their lips and covered up the names on their tombstones.
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bizarre, allegorical death fantasy

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its manner of presentation belongs uniquely to Dickinson.
"Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty"

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the macabre physicality of death , the high idealism of martyrdom ("I died for Beauty. . . One who died for Truth") a certain kind of romantic yearning combined with longing for Platonic companionship ("And so, as Kinsmen, met a Night--"), and an optimism about the afterlife (it would be nice to have a friend) with terror about the fact of death (it would be horrible to lie in the cemetery having a conversation through the walls of a tomb).

-----Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

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As the poem progresses, the high idealism and yearning for companionship gradually give way to mute, cold death, as the moss creeps up the speaker's corpse and her headstone, obliterating both her capacity to speak (covering her lips) and her identity (covering her name).
The ultimate effect of this poem is to show that every aspect of human life--ideals, human feelings, identity itself--is erased by death. But by making the erasure gradual--something to be "adjusted" to in the tomb--and by portraying a speaker who is untroubled by her own grim state, Dickinson creates a scene that is, by turns, grotesque and compelling, frightening and comforting.

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Poetic forms
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This poem follows many of Dickinson's typical formal patterns: --the ABCB rhyme scheme, the rhythmic use of the dash to interrupt the flow--but has a more regular meter the first and third lines in each stanza are iambic tetrameter, while the second and fourth lines are iambic trimeter, creating a four-three-four-three stress pattern in each stanza.

《我为美而死》
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我为美死去,却还不曾 在墓中安息, 又来一位为真理而死的人 栖身我的隔壁。 他悄言问我何以逝去 “为了美。”我回答。 “而我为真理。真与美是一体; 我们是兄弟。” 就这样,像亲人在夜里相遇 我们隔墙倾谈 直到苍苔爬至我们的唇际 掩没掉,我们的名字

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