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新翻译理论与实践练习版2


翻译理论与实践 Chapter One Introduction 教学结构: 1.西方翻译时期的划分 2、各个时期的翻译流派及代表人物 3、翻译理论解析 (理论及例证) 4、实践活动 ( 段落翻译) What is translational theory? The research about translational history, school, methods, outlook, principle, the main representatives of each trend and even the relation among the above. What we‘ll learn from the course? No matter you‘ll make translational practice or you‘ll make research on translational theory, or you learn the course just for teaching, if only you touch upon English translation, you should have a rough understanding of (1) the division of translational history, (2) the main classes, (3) the main representatives of each period and (4) the core of the important theories about translation. Our course aims at providing you with the simplest knowledge of them. The nature of our course is introducing some translation theory to you, some of you may be interested in this theory, some may be the other. After one year and half, you‘ll make preparation work for your final paper, then you can choose a certain theory for further study which will be the base of your paper. How to check? Term examination is in English. Our lecture, most of which is taught in Chinese, but the key words or interpretation are given in English. The contents are concerning the following: filling blankets which are very general and belong to the common knowledge, and the English learners need to know, so probably you need to remember them, they occupy about 30% of the total; the second is interpreting some terms based on your understanding, they are about 15%; the third and fourth are practical translation, occupy about 55%. The historical division of translation theory: Peter Newmark: divide the periods according to the important translation activities occurred in history Nida: according to the development of translation ideology in history 1. philology(语文学-----language and literature) 2. linguistics 3. communication(交际学) 4. semiotics(符号学) ----according to ideology of history Miqing Liu: agree with Nida Ours: combine Peter Newmark and Nida 1. ancient period: 300B.C----the end of 18 century A.C 2. modern age: the end of 18 century A.C-----the beginning of 20th century A.C 3. temporary period: the beginning of 20th century A.C----now Chapter Two Ancient Period of Translation ( 3 cent. B.C~ the end of 18 cent. AC ) 第一阶段: 300B.C.-----18th century 古典时期 代表作: (前三部为西方翻译史四大杰作之三) 1.《七十子希腊文本圣经》 (The Old Testament)

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最早有文字记录的作品, 72 名犹太学者在埃及亚历山大城, 由 对照希伯来语翻译成希 腊语版读本。文字翻译总是从宗教翻译开始,中国最早的文字翻译始于唐朝佛经的翻译。 2.《通俗拉丁文本圣经》 (The Vulgate) 公元 405 年哲罗姆(Jerome, born in Yugoslavia)对照希伯来语翻译成拉丁语,使拉丁 语读者有了标准的《圣经》读本,这是罗马天主教认可的唯一文本。 3.《奥德赛》 (Odysseus)希腊戏剧作品,罗马文学家安德罗尼柯(Andronicus.L)用拉 丁文翻译 4.《荷马史诗》 (The Homer ---- Greek epics)由盲人吟唱诗人荷马口头流传,包括 Iliad, Odyssey,泰伦斯(Terence)等多人先后用拉丁文翻译。 西方翻译史四大杰作:1+2+3+ Authorized Version Bible 代表人物: Cicero: (西塞罗 公元前 106-43) most famous Roman rhetor 修辞学家) and rhetorician (雄 the ( 辩家), thinker and gifted transmitter of Greek thought. He was born in a wealthy but not noble family. He had to fight his way into the ruling class with this tongue rather than with connections. His oratorical talents for the powerful men, won him a succession of increasingly important posts. He threw himself into the turbulent Roman politics of the day. In his lifetime, he experienced rocky life, exile, and finally execution at the hands of Octavian(罗马帝国首任皇帝奥古斯都). Cicero is often considered the founder of western translation theory. He is the first to comment on the processes of translation and offer advice on how best to undertake them. 西方翻译理论之父(Cicero),主要有三条理论: 1、 翻译不能句当字对 他曾说“我不是以解释来翻译的, 而是以演说家进行翻 译的。。 I translate in the way of oratory, not by explaining. 。” 2、 必须照顾译语读者的语言习惯 他认为翻译要传达原文的意义和精神,并非 原文的语言形式。Take readers in mind , sense for sense translation, not word for word 3、文学作品的翻译就是在创作 他认为译者必须具备文学天赋。Translation is creation; translator must be a literary man. Example 白眼看鸡虫(翻译+注释):You glare at a snobbish today without distain. Note: The snobbish today refers to Ho chi—Chung Fun Ai—nung‘s collegue. ―Chick and insects‖ was used as a metaphor in Tu Fuse poem ―Binding a chicken‖ 《缚鸡行》 hinting as those who were preying ( ) upon. 气功 Qigong, a system of deep and rhythmical breathing exercise. 巧妇难为无米之炊 You can‘t make bricks without straw. 班门弄斧 teach one‘s grandmother to suck eggs.或 show off one‘s proficiency with the axe before Lu Ban, the master carpenter. To carry the coal to New castle(a place produce coal, 采煤的地方) 多此一举 一人不及两人智/三个臭皮匠顶个诸葛亮 Two heads are better than on head. 说曹操,曹操到。Speak of the devil, the devil comes. 一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。 One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy. Horace(贺拉斯 公元前 65-8), born of a freed slave in central Italy, became one of the greatest of Roman lyric poets and satirists. Upon Octavian‘s victory, Horace fled back to Rome and was introduced

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into Octavian‘s circle of writers. For the remaining two decades of his life, Horace was a virtual poet laureate, given a house and farm and other lavish gifts in return for poetic odes to Augustus and Augustan Rome. Horace has played a role in the history of translation theory and frequently cited in the same breath as Cicero. In his work ― Art of Poetry ‖, he disagree word-to-word translation, preferring sense for sense in translation. All the more, he advocates creation of new words or introduction of alien words so that enrich national language and expression. 主要点: 1、 赞成西塞罗的翻译观,主张“意义对意义” ,反对逐句硬译 His famous work ―Imitating in Your Own Words‖ (from ―Art of Poetry‖) says, ―Faithful translator will not translate word for word‖, which now is often quoted. He preferred ―sense for sense‖ translation 2、 必要时可以创造新词或引进外来词以丰富民族语言。 Advocated the creation of new words or introduction of alien words so that enrich national language and expression Jerome (哲罗姆,347-420 AC)was born to a wealthy Christian family in Yugoslavia. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Rome to continue his education. His twenties and thirties were spent in travel and further learning, in the course of which he became associated with an a‘scetic 苦行, ( 修得, 禁欲) circle of writers and scholars. Once he was a hermit in desert, but his ere-‘mitical(隐居的) sojourn (逗 留,旅居)only lasted two years, during which time he also learned Hebrew from a Jewish convert(皈 依者,转化) and maintained a lively correspondence with other scholars around the world. In 382 he returned to Rome as secretary to Pope Damasus, here he took his first steps as a Bible translator. His most famous work from this period, however, is the Vulgate translation of the Bible(391-406). This included his revisions of earlier New Testament translation, which he extended to cover the entire Testament, and a new translation of the Old Testament He was revered throughout the Middle Ages and well into the modern era as the official translator of the Bible. 主要点: 1、 翻译应避免逐字对译,应忠实原文内容 favor ―sense for sense‖ translation, not word for word; 2、 翻译方法应因文本而异 如圣经翻译应取直译方法, 句法结构不得有半点改 动; 但文学翻译则主要采取意译, 应“采取易于理解的风格传达原文的意思” , Text decides the translation method. Literary translation is better than free translation, while religious translation must be word translation, even the structure could not be changed. 3、 认为翻译是一种创造,译者完全可以有自己的风格。 Translation is a creative activity. Martin Luther (马丁 路得,1483-1546) 主要点: 1、 德国宗教改革领袖及翻译家, 用德语翻译了圣经 《新约》 《旧约》 《伊索寓言》 ( the leader of the German Reformation and a translator, he translated The Aesops, New Testament, Old Testament.) 2、 主张用通俗、明了的语言进行翻译 Translation with simple words 3、 主张意译,认为意译才能最好地再现原文的意义和精神 meaning translation 4、 译者应尊重原文,但可以增补原文字面上没有但字里行间蕴涵的意思

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translators are allowed to add words or reveal the implied meaning. 5、 翻译应依靠集体的智慧 Translation is based on a collective work. 古典译论时期的三个基本特点: 1、 基本上是宗教翻译 The translated works are mainly religious ones. 2、 翻译理论家、实践家、哲学家、文学家、艺术家常集于一身,所以有学科交叉的鲜明特点(跟 现在提倡的交叉学科研究思想一致)multi-subjected feature 3、 属于改写性翻译,宗教翻译属逐字翻译,没有系统理论 Re-writing translation without systematical theory 课堂练习:

直译与意译和忠实原文 直译:表层结构 一一对应 深层结构 Both the surface structure and deep structure are correspondent Eg: 批发 茶 价 已 几乎 翻了一番。 Wholesale tea price have almost doubled. 我 读到 他的信(时)既惊又喜。 I read his letter with both surprise and excitement. 意译:Either the surface or the deep structure is correspondent, or neither is correspondent; or for a best readability.(最佳可读性) Eg. He bent solely upon for profit. 他 曲身 只于 利润之前。 (他惟利是图。(最佳可读性)) 3 readability levels: the best readability, the so-so readability, no readability. John is tall as I am the Queen of Sheba. 约翰高得像我是西巴皇后。 (要说约翰高,不可能。(最佳可读性)) She was born with a silver spoon in her month. (表层结构空缺) 她生在富贵家。 (正式)/ 她生在有钱人家。 (口语) The teenagers don‘t invite Bob to their parties because he is a wet blanket. 年轻人没有邀请波布,他是一个令人生厌的人。 (表层结构空缺) You‘ve got an iron butt, and that‘s the secret of becoming a lawyer. 你生来有一副铁打的身板,正是做律师的诀窍。 (表层结构空缺) 你有做律师的条件。 (未能翻译出 Iron butt 和 secret 的含义。 ) 表层结构、深层结构缺失: Clock watcher 不断看钟等着下班的人。 Foot wears 脚上的一系列的东西,如鞋、脚链….. Summer settings 夏天旅行者旅行时所带的东西 气功 旗袍 李清照《声声慢》 寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。乍暖还寒时,最难将息。 直译:seek, seek; search, search; cold, cold; bare, bare; Grief, grief; cruel, cruel, grief; Now warm, then like the autumn cold again, How hard to calm heart! 诗歌翻译:音、形、意。

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有韵诗可译为无韵诗,如果保持了其形美和意美的话。也可改韵;而无韵诗可以译为有韵诗。 (音 美、形美、意美) 意译: I look for what I miss, I know not what it is, I feel so sad, so drear, so lonely, without cheer? How hard is it To keep me fit In this lingering cold! (aabbccc)-----许渊冲 忠实原文: I am ashamed of myself because of your affection, But since I am ugly, I cannot show my gratitude to your great kindness. Nor can I be unfaithful to Mr. Cheng. Therefore I am unable to gratify your sexual desire.(斜体字翻译很不妥) Chapter Three the Modern Period of Translation 近代译论时期 ( 17 cent./18 cent.~ the beginning of 20 cent. ) 背景:史学家一般从 17 世纪起视为近代史时期。文艺复兴高潮之后,在法国和俄国出现了翻译高 潮。以法国为例,翻译原则和方法之争十分激烈。德 阿伯兰库 ( Parrot d‘ Ablancourt ) 成为“自 由翻译派”的总代表,德 梅西里阿克( Bachet de Meziriac ) 则认为, “偏离原作的翻译不是翻译, 而是对翻译的背叛” ,于埃 ( Daniel Huet ) 主张折中主义翻译,这场争论一直持续到十八世纪中 叶。 英国近代译论史上的几件大事: 1. Authorized Version Bible( 《圣经钦定本》由 47 位大学者于 17 世纪 ) (1611 年) 集体完成, Lancelot Andrew 主教领导主持,是最完备的英文圣经,文字优美,对后来的问题影响很大。到 20 世纪 80 年代,又出版了 ― The New King James Version ‖ Holy Bible (简称 Holy Bible ). 其中,除了将 中世纪用语,改为 (如 thee →you), 现代英语,其余完全保持原文,是迄今最新的版本。 《圣经钦定本》的翻译与出版是西方翻译史上的一件大事,与古希腊 The Old Testament( 《七十子 希腊文本圣经》 )古罗马安德罗尼柯的 Odyssey (《奥德赛》) 和哲罗姆的 The Vulgate (《通俗拉丁 文本圣经》) 被誉为翻译历史上的四大杰作 2. 德莱顿翻译理论的诞生 John Dryden (德莱顿) 1631-1700 AC: 集诗人、 翻译家和理论家于一身, 是西方第一位翻译理论家, (Cicero, transmitter) 翻译观:1、Translation is art, translator is an artist 翻译是一门艺术,译者必须具有艺术家的气质 2. translator should keep readers in mind, and the borrowing of words has a limit 译者必须考虑读者和 对象,但对借词要适可而止 3、Translator is subjected to the author 译者是原作者的奴隶 他将翻译分为三类: 1.逐字翻译( metaphrase_____ word for word ) 2.意译 ( paraphrase______ sense for sense ) 3.拟译( imitation _____ free translation ) 拟译的提出,既避免随心所欲,又不至于过分呆板,这对古典时期的二分法(直译,意译)是一 突破,是一大发展。

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参见: 《The Three Types of Translation》from ― Preface‖ to Ovid‘s Epistles ( Dryden 1680 西方翻译理论 仲伟合,55-56 ) All translations, I suppose , may be reduced to these three heads. First, that of metaphrase, or word for word, and line by line , from one language to another. The second way is that of paraphrase, or translation with latitude, where the author is kept in view by the translator, so as never be lost, but his words are not so strictly followed as his sense. The third way is that of imitation, where the translator assumes the liberty, not only to vary from the words and sense, taking only some general hints from the original to run division on the groundwork, as he please. 3.泰特勒翻译三原则的发表:( Alexader Fraser Tytler 1747-1814 ) 1、译者应精通原作语言和题材,再现 (transcript )原作思想 2、译作的风格和表现手法应与原作相同 3、译作应与原作同样通顺 泰特勒提出的忠实、风格一致和通顺的三原则,对后来的翻译理产生 了积极影响。 参见:<The Proper Task of a Translation> from Essay on the Principles of Translation ( Tytler 1791 西方翻译理论 仲伟合,77 ) Three principles: 1. That the translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work 2. That the style and manner of writing should be of the same character with that of the original. 3. That the translation should have all the ease of original composition. (与 Dryden 更强调原文) 4 阿诺德与纽曼的翻译原则之争: (Mtthew Arnold, 1822-1888; Francis W. Newman 1805-1897 ) 阿诺德与纽曼围绕荷马史诗翻译的争论并无正误优劣之分,在于各自的翻译原则、手法和观察的 角度差异,他们的论争对活跃学术气氛,推动翻译理论的研究发挥了积极的作用。阿诺德主张译 诗者必须具有诗人的气质,译文必须象诗,必须保留荷马史诗的特征。检验译文忠实与否是学者, 而不是读者。 纽曼则针锋相对,认为译作无法与原作相比,要重视读 者而不是学者,要反映古希腊历史文化 5.德国的翻译讨论 歌德 (Goethe 1749-1832 ) 1. 把翻译分为:信息翻译(paraphrase) 、近似创作的改译(imitation) 和逐行对照翻译 (metaphrase 其实,歌德的翻译分类与德莱顿的分类法一样 ) 2. 诗歌是不可译的,只能用散文体翻译 施莱尔马赫 (Schleiermacher, 1768-1834) 1. 主张从语言学角度和文学角度探讨翻译,因为语言决定思维 2. 译者需积极地、创造性地理解文本 洪堡 ( Humboldt, 1767-1835 ) 认为翻译理论建立在语言学基础上, 语言是民族精神的外在表现。 没有 什么是语言不能表达的,因此对翻译的可译和不可译持辨证思维。施莱尔马赫和洪堡的翻译观已 经很接近当代译论的翻译观。

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代表人物: John Dryden(德莱顿,1631-1700)was the predominant English literary figure of his day: poet, dramatist, translator and critic. He died in 1700, and was buried in the Poet‘s corner of Westminster Abbey, between Jeoffrey Chaucera and Abraham Cowley. He was born to a reasonably wealthy country gentleman who sided with Parliament against the king in 1642, when the first civil war broke out. In 1668 he was a pointed poet laureate, the premier poet in that table, and over most of the remaining three decades of his life this was the role he played best: a kind of poetic publicity secretary to the king. Dryden‘s reputation today as the ―first translation theorist‖, and as the first systematic theory of translation in the West. His three ―new‖ terms for translation: metaphrase(直译), paraphrase(意译), and imitation(拟译) Alexander Fraser Tytler(泰特勒:1747-1813): was a Scottish historian best known for his accessible syntheses (可达到的综合性)of other people‘s work. He displayed an interest-but not much talent in literature; in 1780, he was appointed joint professor ( with John Prigle ) of universal history at Edinburgh, and in 1786 received the full appointment. In addition to the 1791 <<Essay on Principles of Translation>>, he published in the eighties and nineties several volumes of local, legal, and universal history. In 1802 moved on to a judgeship: that year he was appointed to the bench of the court of session, and in 1811, two years before his death at 67, he was constituted a lord of justiciary(高等法院法官) His Essay on the Principles of Translation is, like all of his work, bland(淡 漠), inoffensive( 不讨厌、无害), unoriginal (非原创), but extremely accessible(易得到的), and is often cited as last expression of the Enlightenment spirit in the theory of translation. 近代译论时期特点: 1、 出现了西方翻译史上的第一个翻译理论家( Dryden)和第一部 翻译理论著作 ( Tytler: Essay on the Principles of Translation ) 2、 翻译方法的两分法(文学翻译:改写;宗教翻译:逐字翻译) 进步为三分法(直译、意译、拟译) 3、 提出了翻译可译和不可译问题 (诗歌翻译) 4、 提出了从语言学角度和文学角度进行翻译研究,这比古典译 论时期提出的从语文学角度和文学角度研究又有新的发展。 5、 翻译的多层次、多视角研究使翻译研究开始了崭新的、逐渐科学化的 途径。 (阿诺德与纽曼) 课堂练习 ( 新建文件 1) 1. metaphrase 源语与目的语的表层结构和深层结构对应。 2. paraphrase 深层结构对应、表层结构空缺 1) 套用 Jack of all trades and master of none 门门懂,样样瘟 If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.脚踏两只船。 It‘s no use crying over spilt milk.后悔无益。 Two heads are better than one.三个臭皮匠顶个诸葛亮。 You cannot make bricks without straw.巧妇难为无米之炊。 2) 加注:

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Bean curd Xishi------the name of a famous beauty, the late Spring and Autumn period 豆腐西施 3)英语不是成语,但译为成语 The vast expense of the sky 广阔无垠 The chute looked very small 沧海一粟 She has grown increasingly restless 她越来越六神无主。 3. imitation (相近)源语与目的语的深层结构与表层结构形成对应。 to laugh off one‘s head 笑掉大牙 to shed crocodile tears 猫哭老鼠 a drop in the ocean 沧海一粟 春晓 春眠不觉晓,处处闻啼鸟。夜来风雨声,花落知多少? Model 1. Slumbering I know not the spring dawn is peeping But everyone the singing birds are cheeping Last night I heard the rain dripping and wind weeping How many petals are row on the ground sleeping ------ Wu Juntao 这个翻译不太可取。 It‘s dawn when I wake up in the morning of spring Here and there the singing of birds rings Last night the wind and rain whistled and rustled Alas, how many blossoms had shed their petals? -------- Huang Xingqu 诗歌翻译(用 Arnold 和 Newman 之争分析) Life is a broken-winged bird(abac) 生命就是断翅膀的雀鸟(abcb 韵) That cannot fly 再也不能飞翔 Life is a barren field 生命就变成冰封雪冻的(改变语序) Frozen with snow 一片荒凉的土地 (上师,Arnold 风格.直译,译得像诗,因此可译) You do not do, you do not do.(aabb) 你再也不要,再也不要这么做(不规则的重复) Anymore, black shoe 黑色的鞋子 In which I have lived like a foot 我像只脚,关在里面 For thirty years, poor and white. 苍白,可怜,受三十年苦

Chapter Four

the Contemporary Period of Translation

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Segment One the General Introduction “当代”的时间范畴: 20th century(1901)~

This is the era of translation

西方翻译理论的三条基本主线: 1. 语文学和文艺学译论: 建立在符号学和诠释学基础上, 主要代表人物有西塞罗贺拉斯、哲罗 姆、多雷、德莱顿、泰特勒、利维等。主要指将翻译方法论建立在符号学和诠释学原理的基础上, 认为原作的文学性和风格可以用另一种符号系统来替代,从而产生出和原文艺术性、文学性基本 一致的译文。其翻译观点主要反映在古典译论时期. 2、诠释学和语言学译论:建立在诠释学和语言学基础上, 主要代表人物 有歌德、施莱尔马赫、洪堡等,包括语法释义和心理释义,可以说属 于直译和意译范畴。近代译论时期的主要翻译观. 主要代表人物: 歌德 ( Goethe ):认为只有逐行对照翻译才识最终和最高级翻译 施莱尔马赫 ( Schleiermacher ):提出“顺从原作”和“顺从译作”的 两种翻译方法, “顺从原作”是直译, “顺从译作”是意译。 洪堡 ( Humboldt ):提出了民族语言间的差异,翻译者处于两难境地,太贴近原作会失去本族语 的魅力;而太拘泥于本族语回牺牲原文的风采,但又认为“没有任何事物是语言无法表达的” ,因 而也是赞成直译和意译并用的,他首次提出了翻译的辨证思维。 施莱尔马赫和洪堡在翻译的可能性与局限性的研究上为二十世纪的翻译理论研究开辟了 广阔的道路,给后来的翻译理论家很大的启发。特别是施莱尔马赫的诠释主义翻译观(意译)对 后来的影响很大。 3、跨文化交际译论:建立在交际学和功能学理论的基础上, 如: 翻译培 训派以文学研究为基础, 翻译科学派以语言功能为基础. 主要代表人 物有奈达、霍姆斯、巴斯奈特、斯内尔等,其理论着眼于原文的意义 和精神,而不拘泥于形式的对应。 Exercises on three stream of translation theory (新建文件 2) 《红楼梦》 :如今我们家赫赫扬扬,已将百载,一日倘乐极生悲,若应了那句树倒猢狲散的俗语, 岂不虚枉了一世诗书旧族了。 Our house has now enjoyed nearly a century of dazzling success. Suppose one day ―joy at its height engenders sorrows‖. And suppose that in the words of another proverb, ―when the tree falls, the monkeys scatter‖. Will not our reputation as one of the great cultured households (观念改写) of the age (意译) then turn into a hollow mockery (意译)? 诠释学&语言学译论的一个典范,建立在语言学基础上,包括了心理释义,前为直译,后为意译。 屈原: 《橘颂》 后皇嘉树——皇上有上佳的祭坛/皇宫后院有高洁的橘树 Fair tree on earth without a peer. (改写,应视为误译) 横而不流——横浊世之流而不随波漂流 Unyielding to the vulgar tide. (改写+直译) 秉德无私——正直有道 So selfless, you have virtues high. (直译) So selfless, you are perfectly honest. (按原文解释 改写) “当代译论”的第一阶段: 第二次世界大战结束前(1900~1945)仍然停留在古典翻译的角度和传 统的翻译方法上,确有突破的见解不多, 翻译理论界没有实质性的进 步。这个时期主要的翻译理论主要有意大利的克罗齐、本杰明、波斯盖特、楚科夫斯基。

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克罗齐: (美学家,文学评论家,受但丁的影响,认为文学作品是不可译的,译者的目的应使译文 本身成为独立的艺术品。 ) 德国的本杰明: (花瓶理论 )翻译理论家,持唯心主义语言观,认为原文,译文同碎片的花瓶, 翻译不是再现原文,而是移植原文的“意图模式”其翻译观为后来的解构主义奠定了发展的基础。 英国的波斯盖特:提出新的翻译分类,即前瞻式翻译(prospective)和后顾式翻译( ) ,前者的 着眼点是译文和译文的读者,后者的着眼点是原作者。前者译者可以创新,后者只需按原文亦步 亦趋,因此二者的评判标准也不一样,前者有读者评判,后者由原文评判。 俄国的楚科夫斯基: 翻译者应与待译材料的原作者具有相同的气质才能产生满意的译作。 译者应 尽可能排除自己的时代和风格对译文的影响。 英译汉中有时很难找到恰如其分的对应词。是色彩是无形原因:语言。语言习惯、文化、模糊语, 译者自己的理解、修饰语造成的 翻译的局限性:1.语言 2.语言习惯 3.文化差异 4.模糊语 5.译者自己的理解 6.修饰语 态度: 辩证的观点,正确理解原作意图,反复阅读。 “当代译论”的第二阶段: 第二次世界大战结束后 (1945~ ) 这个阶段的翻译理论研究有了质 的飞跃,7 个特点主要是指这个阶段,翻译流派的划分亦从这个阶段开 始。 新建文件 3 “只有原作者才明白”“译者必须具备原作者得气质” , (Goethe, Chukovsky) It was a splendid population- for all the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brined sloths stayed at home. (五个首韵 词 Alliteration) — It‘s everybody‘s right, right? 这是每个人的权利,对吧? — You think all your right is right? 你以为你有权就有理? 你以为你有理你就有理? “原文呈碎片,译文呈花瓶,再现原文意图模式”“译文再现原文精神” , (Benjamin, Chukovsky) What humiliation when any one standing beside me could hear a distant flute that I could not hear, or a shepherd singing, and I could not distinguish a sound! (Beethoven) 站在我身旁的人可以听到远处, (原句重心在句首,译句重心在句尾,这是句子结构的差异)——Croce The TV set brinks on with the day‘s first newscast 中的 brink on 含轻快、自动、麻利等语义色彩 The train slipped to a stop 中的 slipped 也含有类似的语义色彩 English 寓情于词的本身,Chinese 寄情于搭配 “悠然自得地走”表示一种徐缓的速度和漫无目的性,而“悠然自得”却不一定是“徐缓的速度” 和“漫无目的” Saunter 漫步地走 amble 从容不迫的走 stride 大步地走 trudge 步履艰难地走 prance 昂首 阔步地走 tiptoe 踮着脚尖走 Newmark 指出(1981:3 )当代翻译界的特点是: 1、 提出了翻译需要忠实读者和交际环境,强调理解的自然与流畅——从读者出发,要

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考虑地域变化与时代的变化, 如翻译给上海读者还是四川读者,或是福建读者; 是翻译成白话 文还是古文。 在表达上是采用异化还是归化,是保留翻译腔还是通顺畅达 2、 topics of translation 翻译从宗教、文学和科学著作扩大到技术、贸易、时事、广告 等所有题材 3、 types of text 文本形式打大增加——从书籍翻译(包括剧本、诗歌)到论文、合同、 法令广告、处方、食谱、信函、报告、文件等 4、 terms of translation 使用的术语逐渐标准化 5、 organization of translation 翻译组织纷纷成立 6、 theory guiding 语言学科和翻译理论对翻译活动产生积极指导作用 7、 tools of communication 翻译成为传授知识和传播文化,加强不同民族间交流的工具

Chapter Four Segment Two 当代翻译流派——翻译培训派 The American Translation Workshop 本教案从根茨勒(Gentzler.E )在其专著《当代翻译理论》 Contemporary Translation Theories, ( 1993 )中的分类为依据(因为归纳角度较新)逐一介绍。奈达则按照语文学、语言学、交际学到 社会符号学的发展轨迹分类。这也是本课程没有特定教材的原因。 翻译培训派产生的背景: 美国翻译培训派( The American Translation Workshop )产生于 20 世纪 60 年代中叶(1960) 。 1. 学术界历来都把翻译看成是机械的, 无创造科研的第二性活动, 既不能引起译论界的 重视,也得不到广大读者的关注 2. 到 1963 年为止,全美国还没有一个专门的翻译论作或者翻译中心,也没有文学翻译 者协会,更没有专门的翻译出版物。 3. 耶鲁大学的第德内斯( )最初对文学翻译教学持怀疑态度,认为翻译是创造性的 过程,而创造是一种天赋,是与生俱来的素质,根本无法教学。 4. 而后,他的观点发生改变,指出翻译是一种主观思维活动,只在阐述文学,翻译研究 能加深我们对翻译性质的理解,而翻译作为一门艺术,不仅可以进行教学,而且可以使学生对诗 歌、语言学及诠释有更深的认识。 翻译培训派侧重翻译实践,强调通过对原文的认识和理解,通过对翻译经验的交流提高翻译的水 平。 主要代表人物:里查兹(L.A.Richarts) 、庞德(Ezra Pound ) 、威尔(Frederic Will ) 里查兹(L.A.Richarts,1893-1979)翻译理论与实践的代表人物,20 世纪 20 年代在哈佛大学创办 了阅读培训班,以其创办的阅读培训班为理论基础,后来又创办了翻译培训班。 其理论基础是: 文学作品中存在“ 统一的意义”和 “ 统一的评价系统( unified evaluative system)” ,通过“充分 的理解”文本,求得“正确而统一的反应( unified response )” 。翻译能力源于语言,是可以训练的。 他创立的是跟信息论(communication theory )比较相似的解码——编码模式。 里查兹 的实验为 20 世纪 60 年代大规模出现的翻译培训班探索了翻译培训的途径。 庞德 (Ezra Pound 1885-1972) :诗人兼翻译家,是众多翻译家和评论家中人们了解最少的。一方 面是因为他早期的作品中充满了浪漫主义色彩和玄学之嫌;另一方面他对翻译的论述很多都未能 整理成集,且多发在现已停刊的杂志上。 庞德的主要贡献是:阐明了译者必须高度重视原文本的语言能量、意象、细节。他提倡细节翻译 理论(specific detail translation ) ,其理论建立在语言能量( energy in language )这一概念基础 上,他强调“行动中的词语”( words in action ) 和“具体细节” specific details ) ( 。庞德对翻译 的定义是:要精确地复制形象、词语、片断和细节,他对抽象的概念和句法联系没有兴趣。 氛围
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忠实 atmosphere 是重视使意义得以产生的那一氛围。 威尔(Frederic Will )主要贡献:从文学创作、翻译和认知形式上实践了翻译培训派的理论,并 提出了翻译的矛盾, 翻译的矛盾,即:译者怎样才能知道自己并不知道的东西。 化解矛盾的方法:因为“自我”的观点是与“他人”的观点不一致的,因此他提倡不翻译作品意 义,而翻译作品中的能量(energy)和冲量(thought)的方法,通过翻译,译者使原文获得新的 生命并勃发新的生机,只要译者忽略原文中某些特殊含义的翻译而对原文的真正含义( true meaning)绝对忠实,翻译的矛盾就迎刃而解了。 美国翻译培训派的主要翻译理论以及对翻译研究的贡献: 尽管它的翻译理论 局限于美学经验和某些指令性规则的讨论,但在如下三个方面的贡献是显而 易见的: 1、研究人类头脑在翻译活动中的作用。如:里查兹提出的编码、解码过程与信息论。 2、提出了翻译性质及翻译定义的问题。如:庞德的“语言的生命力在于语言的能量” “行动 中的词语” ;提倡“细节翻译(specific details) 和“氛围忠实(atmosphere);里查兹的编码、 ” ” 解码理论 ( coding, decoding );威尔的“翻译矛盾”及化解矛盾的办法。 3、推翻了许多传统的翻译派别及表现形式,使得新的派别及表现形式才出现成为可能。 课堂讨论:新建文档4 1、诗歌翻译的创造性: (比较下面两首诗歌翻译) 鲁迅诗: 无题 万家默面没蒿莱, 敢有歌吟动地哀。 心事浩渺连广宇, 于无声处听惊雷。 An untitled poem A host of gloomy faces are buried amid the brambles, Who has the guts to sing out the earth-skating sorrow? Ah my heart is closely linked with the vast world, And I can hear the roar of thunder in this dead silence. Notes: 1. Referring to those who undernourished people suffering from hunger and cold as well as those perished amid the brambles 2. The roar of thunder: suggests the militant cries of the people and the approaching storm of the Chinese revolution. 自 嘲 运交华盖何所求, 未敢翻身已碰头。 破帽遮颜过闹市, 漏船载酒泛中流。 横眉冷对千夫指,

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俯首甘为孺子牛。 躲进小楼成一统, 管他冬夏与春秋。 In Mockery of Myself What can I ask for, since I have a spell of bad luck? I‘ve had my head knocked before I dare to turn over. With a worn hat shading my face I pass downtown, And in midstream I sail with some wine in a leaky boat. With knitted brows, I coolly defy a thousand pointing fingers, Head bowed, like a willing ox I serve the youngster. Well, hiding myself in this world of small attic, Why should I bother about the cycling of seasons? 古典的改写翻译,近代的直、意译分别建立在诠释学、语言学和符号学基础上,忽略了“自我” &“他人” ,coding & decoding 间可能缺失的文化信息&时代氛围,为后来的文化翻译派的出现提 供了依据。 “翻译可以教学”的认定为翻译走向并提供了依据。 思考:根据古典译论和近代译论介绍简况推测翻译理论界想努力倡导什么?

Chapter Four Segment Three 翻译科学派 The Science Translation 翻译科学派产生背景: 20世纪60年代末,建立在奈达的翻译研究工作的基础上,亦称翻译语言学派(the Science of Translation) 。翻译培训派侧重实践,强调译作的品位与文学价值,其译论限于美学经验 和指令性翻译规则,缺乏系统化规则。当翻译步入教学后,需要更加系统化的理论来指导。随着 语言学的发展,翻译语言学派——即翻译科学派开辟了新的研究途径。 乔姆斯基的转换生成语法: 深层结构(deep structure): 表层结构 (surface structure): e.g. The young girl thumbed her way to the passing cars. ―to thumb to the cars‖ is the essence of the sentence above initial element (首要要素 maybe key word ) →base component (基础成分,书写为: phrase structure 或 words group ) →deep structure(深层结构 essence of language but in simplest structure 通过短语结构 规则, 到深层结构) → surface structure(表层结构 perfect and correct sentence with essential meaning 通过转换规则,从深层结构到表层结构) 有两种运动存在于其中:通过短语结构规则,从基础成分到深层结构;然后通过转换规则 (transformational rules )从深层结构到表层结构。即:1、短语结构规则构成基础成分;2、基础 成分生成深层结构;3、通过转换规则变换成表层结构 奈达的翻译理论:借用了乔的模式,但与乔相逆,只取 2、3 两个部分。甚至采用了一些相同的术 语,如转换、生成、表层结构、深层结构等,但他认为在翻译中句子生成的过程是与乔相逆的, 即: surface structure →deep structure (原文)

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deep structure of the original →deep structure of the target language →surface structure (目的语) e.g. The young girl thumbed her way to the passing cars →to thumb to the cars 对着车,表示要搭车→那个年轻姑娘站在路边,向过往的汽车竖起拇指表示要搭车。 奈达借用乔姆斯基理论,是因为他认为人脑固有的结构概念、转换生成的规则、对核心句和转换 形式等的认识是大体相同的,所以,在翻译中,从原文的表层结构入手,逆向进入到深层结构研 究,再将深层结构转换成另一种语言的深层结构,然后生成那种语言的表层结构,这就是翻译。 其实这也是的解码和编码模式,只不过 奈达为语言科学翻译的可译性找到了理论依据。 尽管对乔姆斯基的理论存在许多批评意见,甚至对人脑的结构极其如何“获得”语言的看法从根 本上不赞成,翻译界也认为乔姆斯基关于语言结构过于理想化,语言表达中的错误、意外以及口 误都不在他的模式之内,但翻译科学派仍用他的理论来支持自己的主张。 奈达: eg: 孔乙己是站着喝酒而穿长衫的唯一的人??穿的虽然是长衫,可是又脏又破,似乎没有补, 也没有洗?? 译 1:Kung was the only customer who stood to drink in long-gown. Although he wore a long-gown, it was dirty and tattered, and looked as if it had not been washed or mended for over 10 years.(龚译,乔观 点,符号转换) 译 2: Kung was the only-gowned customer to drink his own standing. Although ??(杨宪益、 戴乃迭) 译 3:在 2 后+脚注:long gowns were usually worn only by the gentry in old China. (by John Day) 按乔氏理论,译 1、2 均可,译 3 有冗余,不符合原文符号。 按奈氏理论,译 1 没能在深层文化上传达,译 2 有一些惶惑,为什么要 to drink his own standing, 似乎有些理解又不能确定,只有译 3 最清楚明白。 奈达的主要翻译理论: ① Functional Equivalence—Nida stressed functional equivalence, not the formal correspondence(形 式相对应). He strongly fights against word-by-word translation and sentence-by-sentence translation. 附:―…Translating means communicating, and this process depends on what is received by persons hearing or reading a translation.‖ ―Accordingly, it is essential that functional equivalence be stated primarily in terms of a comparison of the way in which the original receptors understood and appreciated the text and the way in which receptors of the translated text understand and appreciate the translated text.‖ _____Nida ② Dynamic(动态) Equivalence(指译者的创造性)—Nida stresses as dynamic equivalence, not the literal meaning, that is, the response of the reader should be essentially like the reader of the original, therefore, he thinks the translator has the right to change the words, the sentence and the metaphor only if he can convey ―function of the message‖. 附:―For example, because of the lack of close correspondence in figurative expressions , it may be necessary to translate some figurative expressions in the source language by non-figurative phrases in the target language. If, however, too many such figurative expressions become non-figurative, much of the impact of a passage may be lost, something which is particularly critical in the case of poetry. In order to compensate for such loss, it may be important to translate some non-figurative expressions by means of figures in the target language. In this way some balance with the original text can be obtained. ‖ _____ Nida Language, Culture, And Translating Nida: For example, because of the lack of close correspondence in figurative expressions, it may be necessary to translate some figurative expressions in the source language by non-figurative phrases in the

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翻译的东西是否和译者的意图对等的问题,应将原文的文化情绪语气带入翻译中 In order to compensate for such loss, it may be important to translate some non-figurative expressions by means of figures in the target language. 新建文件 5 eg: Three generations ago our gentlemen in congress got the bright idea that there weren‘t enough sharpshooters around. So it established the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice. It still exists, pumping out 365,000 dollars a year to encourage people to shoot at all sorts of targets including human hearts and heads. In all this the Board couldn‘t be more active in its claimed goal as no part of our bureaucracy is eager to cease operation. Meanwhile responsive outcry against organized crimes found no responsible listeners. I just wonder why we have to keep on the monkey business like this. 三代人以前,我们的国会议员采纳了一个很好的意见,就是我国缺乏足够?? 三代人以前,国会诸君有一个高见,他们环顾四周,总觉得狙击人而又百发百中者为数有限,于 是就成立了一个“全国步枪??” 德国学派与功能翻译法: (German School and Functionalist Approaches) In Modern Period of Translation: Schleiermatcher, Goethe, Humboldt In Contemporary Period of Translation: Wilss, Kade, Reiss, Vermeer,Mantarri, Nord etc. 背景: 20 世纪 60 年代末,德国比英国和美国更早开始了对奈达翻译理论的研究.以德国学者 Katharina Reiss(赖斯)和她的学生 Hans J.Vermeer(弗米尔),Christiane Nord 以及另一个学者 Justa Holz-Manttari 为代表,在奈达 Functional equivalence 翻译理论的基础上进行了各自的翻译理论研 究,并做出了显著的贡献 Nida 的翻译思想经历了三个发展阶段: 语言学阶段,交际学阶段和社会符号学阶段. 1. 语言学翻译理论阶段:对句法、词法和语言翻译进行了探讨和研究 2. 交际学翻译理论阶段:是奈达翻译思想体系的最大亮点,在整 个翻译界都产生了很大影响:1)翻译是科学 2)将交际理论和信 息论研究成果运用于翻译研究,提出了翻译的交际学理论 3)提出 对等翻译观 4)提出四步翻译过程:分析、转换、重组、检验 3. 社会符号学翻译理论: 提出了对等理论:―用最近似的自然对 等值‖再现原语的信息,―信息‖包括语义上的、文体上的、文学 形象上的、情景和心理效果上的对等。1986 年,在他的最新著作《从 一种语言到另一种语言》 中,他强调了形式的重要性,在交际学 和对等理论中强调了符号,―社会符号学‖的提出使翻译忠实于原 文更加严谨。在这本树种,他用―功能对等‖取代了―动态对等‖ 的提法(动态对等强调译文接受者对译文的反应要基本等同于原文 接受者对原文的反应)在翻译圣经《翻译科学探索》中提出 Functional Equivalence 这个术语,赖斯在其代表作 《Possibilities and Limits of Translation Criticism》 (翻译 评论的标准)中指出 the scholars before the appearance of ―German school‖based their studies of translation on linguistics, stressing the importance of maintaining the original text type in the target text. However, Functionalist scholars hold the so-called equivalence in translation cannot be fully realized.他们围绕奈达―功能翻 译法‖这个核心观点,都做出了各自的研究,提出了各自的翻译理 论,最终形成了功能主义翻译方法。所以,是德国学派建立了

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Functionalist Approaches Functional Approaches(功能翻译法) :是建立在奈达的功能对等 基础上,主要包括语义上的、文体上的、文学形象上的、情景和心理效果上的对等 Functionalist Approaches(功能主义/实用主义翻译法): 在功能翻译 法的基础上进一步发展为功能主义学派倡导的翻译方发,涵盖了从实用主 义出发的更多文化因素,功能主义学派经历了四个发展阶段,使奈达的功 能翻译法更为明确,更加细化。 代表人物: 威尔斯(Wilss.W)德国翻译科学派的主要代表人物之一。德国较英国、美国对奈达的理论进行了 更广泛、深入地运用。威尔斯的翻译科学论分为三部分: 1、总论阐述——强调译者是绝对的权威,因此,译者必须有分析文本的能力 2、翻译包括语内翻译(explain the meaning of the original, that is, within a single language)和语际翻译(transfer the explained meaning into the target text, that is, between two languages 3、提出了为评估译本质量建立相关参考框架(frame of criticism),在认识洪保“翻译矛盾”的过程中,坚信翻译通过“功能对 等”是可能翻译的。他对奈达“功能对等”的肯定为后来“德国学派”的 功能主义翻译法研究打下了理论基础。 赖斯(Katharina Reiss )(赖斯 P46) 提出 Text Typology:an experienced translator as well as a translation teacher. Both Vermeer and Christiane Nord are her students. Introduction of Text Typology: Text types are classified according to the dominant communicative function. Once the dominant is decided the other two are subordinate: ① Informative texts(信息类文本) the main function is to inform the reader about objects and phenomenon in the real world, the translator should give a correct presentation of the source text‘s. and both the source and target texts are of the informative type. ② Expressive texts (语言风格类文本):the translator should produce an aesthetic effect on the reader as that had been done by the author in the source text. ③ Operative texts (施以影响类文本):the overall aim of the translator should bring about the same reaction on the audience as that did by the author of the source texts. Justa Holz-Manttari:① a Finland-based German professional translator and translation trainer. She is also a productive theorist, but few of her books are translated into English, so, not many people know well about her translation theories. ②She distinguishes the two terms of ―translation‖ (a comprehensive idea relation to author, the source text, translator, the target text, times, region and so on) ―translation action‖ (decided by the purpose of translation, relating largely to approaches of translation) ③Her ―Translational Action‖ published in 1984, she defines translation as ―a complex action designed to achieve a particular purpose‖, that is, to transfer message across culture and language barriers by means of message transmitters. 她强调翻译的各个方面,包括作者、译者、读者,甚至时 间、空间、媒体等翻译行为发生的情景。Actually her theory is based on the principles of action Action (行为主义基础上) 弗米尔(Hans J. Vermeer) :①has ever been trained as an interpreter

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by Ketharina Reiss and he took general linguistics and then translation studies. ②Vermeer Put forward the core theory—skopostheorie for Functionalist Approaches. He explains his skopos rule in the following way: ―Each text is produced for a giving purpose and should serve this purpose that enables your text to function in the way people (指译者,而 不是原作者) want it to function ‖ ( 文字有改动) Skopos 的含义:equivalent to the terms such as purpose, intention and aim, ―skopos rule‖ means that translation action is determined by its skopos, the result justifies the means. Another important concept of skopostheorie is translation belief. A client needs a text for a particular purpose, explaining the addressees, time, place occasion and medium of the intended communication and the function the text is intended to have. ① 翻译行为是由翻译的目的决定的(而不是原文本) ,因此,结果决定手段。 ② 翻译行为是按翻译指令进行的。雇主根据他特定的需要,提出许多细节要求,包括给谁看, 交际发生的时间、地点以及文本计划的功能等。 Christiane Nord: is a prominent figure as well as a fruitful scholar in the translation circle in Germany at modern times. She introduced the translation principle of loyalty into the Functionalist Approaches. ―Loyalty‖ refers to the responsibility bilaterally of the translator to the source and the target texts, and the target –text purpose should be compatible with the original author‘s intentions. (在功能翻译法中引进了翻译的忠 实原则,强调译者对原作和译作负有同等责任,译作的目的须与原作目的一致) The common features of German Scholars: 1、 stress intention, purpose, aim (eg: 威尔斯的语际翻译,赖斯的文本象征主义,弗米尔的 skopos,Nord 的 skopos+loyalty) 2、 stress text typology 3、 aim at putting forward a frame of criticism (从威尔斯,赖斯,弗米尔到 Christiane Nord), they actually put forward a translation method—Functionalist Approaches. 课堂练习: 以严复的《天演论》翻译为例:(略)

Chapter Four Segment Four 早期翻译研究派 The Early Translation Studies 产生的背景: 1970s 以来,在比利时、荷兰等国家兴起了翻译的另一个学派,他们以探讨译文产生和译文的作 用为主,强调翻译过程研究。早期受俄国形式主义影响, (俄国的形式主义是一种文学评论形式) , 以文学作品为对象,以文学性的转移为中心来研究翻译。 翻译研究派极大地挑战和冲击了以文学(翻译培训派)和以语言学(翻译科学派)研究为中心的 两种主导翻译模式。从 1970s-1980s 年,经过 20 多年的发展,该学派已传遍欧洲,并在美洲大陆 站稳了脚跟。 主要观点: 1) 挑战语言学的翻译理论:反对传统翻译中强调深层结构,转而强调作品的表层结构,认为重要 的是通过表层结构的表现方法保存原文的文学性,从而忠实于原文。即:重视语言形式,认为语 言形式才能保持文学性。 乔:短语规则----深层结构----表层结构

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奈:源语表层结构----源语深层结构----目的语深层结构-----目的语表层结构 2) 挑战文学的翻译理论:主张从共时性和历时性来研究作品,强调原文文化对译文文化的历史影 响, 强调“文学性”的转移,反对“对等论” A.不是泛泛地研究文学的性质和意义,是研究使作品具有“文学性”的关键特征 B.不是研究主体本身,他们认为主题是抽象的,在任何历史时期都大同小异,而是研究“主题” 是如何得以表现的。 这较之过去以文学研究和以语言学研究为中心的翻译学派,即只分析原文和译文各自的内部因素 来说,是一大进步。 共时性/历时性 共时性 (synchronism ):指同一作品中同一词的前后的共时联系; 历时性 (diachronism):指同一词按照同一文学标准在不同时期的不同作品中的历时联系。如: descriptive 这个词,主要意思是“描述” ,descriptive translateon 这个术语是由早期翻译研究派提出 来的,霍姆斯对描述性翻译理论有专门的论述,他认为“描述”属于翻译研究范畴。在霍姆斯的 所有翻译研究中 eg: Pippa‘s Song The year‘s at the spring, And day‘s at the morn, Morning‘s at seven; The hillside‘s dew-pearled; The lark‘s on the wing; The snail‘s on the thorn; God‘s in His heaven All‘s right with the world! 同学: 《纺织女工之歌》 宗白: 一年之际在于春, 一年中早春 一日之际在于晨。 一天中清晨 天明晓光盛, 早晨七点多清新 山阴露珠痕。 山坡露珠闪光 笑话穿流云, 云雀飞翔高空 虫草鸟树奔。 蜗牛欢喜蠕动 天公且得意, 上帝安居天堂 幸福满乾坤。 世上一切顺当 早期翻译研究派主张: 1) “翻译要协调共时性和历时性转移间的关系” 比如 descriptive 这个词,了解了它在共时性和历 时性中的不同意义。就能正确翻译,所以,从共时和历时性转移内的关系来研究作品,才能正确 传达原文的意思,正如:对“教师”这个词在中文的定义,既要从共时性,又要从历时性考虑。 (孔子时期---天地君亲师、文革“臭老九”时期和现代其翻译是不同的。 ) 2)在翻译方法上采取“陌生化”手法 (defamiliarization/asuumption ) 。这也是受俄国形式主义影 响,他们认为人们对文学作品所描述的很多东西原本是不了解的,是艺术使得人们了解的,这是 艺术上的陌生化手法。在翻译中,原文作者针对特定的读者,体现的是原文与原文化标准的关系: 当读者遍了,文化比偶啊准遍了,就需要译者采用不同的语言,时间地点和传统的相应变化来代 替原文(variants---变异手法)使不熟悉原文的读者也能把握原文的主题。 新建文件 6 Eg. Man who wanders from the way of understanding will rest with the dead.(from Bible)

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离开明智之途的人,终必与死人为伍。 Prodigal son (挥霍的,慷慨的) 圣经故事 “浪子回头金不换”来比喻罪人悔过比金钱更可贵。 Take up your cross (背起十字架) 比喻为实现某项事业而背负重任,并随时准备献出生命,因此,这句话不仅是忍辱负重,更是为 了光荣的使命。 后期翻译研究派主张:把翻译建立在多元科学的发展观上随着该学派 的主要代表兰伯特转向译学描述和个案研究,英国的巴斯奈特和比利时 学者列费维尔转向文化研究,翻译研究派逐渐与多元体系学派融合。 代表人物: 利维 Jiri Levy 捷克学者,翻译研究派的重要代表,他的翻译方法论侧重在对作者风格和作 品文学特征的研究,他的主要观点是: 1) works is an assemble of sign system (作品是一系列符号的集合),通过对词的共 时性和历时性研究,就能找到作品的文学性。这个观点是受俄国形式主义“诗的功能”这一概念 的影响,即:诗是自成一体的结构,却可以被分成许多独立的部分(segments)来研究,比如一句一 句来研究,文学性也就可以按照语言的符号系统被分解开来进行研究。 2)Translating is a decision process.翻译过程(translation action)的行为 definitional instruction/the choice of precedence 定义性指令 Selective instruction/the subsequent decisions 选择性指令 (翻译过程就是译者进行抉择的过程)这个过程是通过译者的 definitional instruction/the choice of precedence (定义性指令:指最初的决定即翻译文本的选择)和 Selective instruction/the subsequent decisions (选择性指令,指围绕最初的决定而做出的一系列决定)完成的,一旦译者 做了最初的决定(the subsequent decisions are contingent) 翻译没有对错之分,只有 better/best readability.可读性 e.g. Choosing what to translate decides your attitude towards the content/heroes , 涉及译者对文本的理 解和情感, 《呼啸山庄》 ― It is hard to forgive, and to look at those eyes, and feel those wasted hands,‖ he answered, ― kiss me again, and don‘t let me see your eyes! I forgive what you have done t me, I love my murder-but your! How can I ? ‖ Version 1 “瞧着那一双眼睛,摸着这一双消瘦的手,要饶恕你,真难啊, ”他回答道。 “再吻我吧, 别让我瞧见你那眼睛。你对我的所作所为我就宽恕了。我爱我的谋杀者-可是害你的那个人!怎么 能叫我爱他呢?” Version 2 “宽恕是很难的,就是看看你那一双眼睛,摸摸你那双消瘦的手,也是很难的, ”希斯 克利夫回答道。 “再亲亲我吧,别让我看见你的眼睛!我宽恕你对我的所作所为。我爱害了我的人 ——但是害了你的人!我怎么能爱她呢?” 比较这两段译文 (恩萧家族和林顿家族之间的故事),第 2 段比第 1 段口语化,更重要的是第 1 段 最后的他是男性,指的是,女主人公 Catherine 的丈夫,而第 2 段最后的她是女性,是女主人公 自己。第 1 段表明译者对希斯克利夫嫉妒本性的批判,而第 2 段则表明希斯克利夫对女主人公深 深的爱,Catherine 不仅抛弃了自己的爱人,还伤害了她自己,希斯克利夫对此更为痛心。这里, 译者对这部小说的个人情感就很清楚了。任何语言都有模糊语,或者是译者对原作者的意图理解 不清楚,或者就是译者的有意改写。 霍姆斯 James S.Holmes (1924-1986) 翻译研究派的创始人。出生于爱尔兰的一个农夫家庭,19 时

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因为热爱和平拒绝参军而被关押 6 个月, 1964 年以前一直是自由撰稿人, 1964 年受聘于荷兰阿姆 斯特丹大学讲授翻译。主张性爱自由(sexual love free)《The Name and Nature of Translation 。 Studies》这本书被认为是翻译研究派的成立宣言。他的主要翻译观: 1.把翻译研究分为三个范畴: 1) 描述 (descriptive translation/practical translating) 研究现实生活中的翻译, 包 : 括以译作为出发点的实际翻译; 以功能为出发点的文化翻译和以过程为出发点的译者主体翻译 (描 述性翻译意指改写性的翻译) 2) 理论(theory of translation) :研究解释翻译中的原则,如对翻译质量的评价、 原则的规定等。 3) 运用(application of translation) :用于培养译者和教授翻译实践 2、建立多元文学评论形式。 meta:用一抽象概念说明另一种抽象概念,如用语法来说明语言。这里指对文学作品的研究,特别 是对诗歌的研究,从抽象语言研究扩展到多元文学形式的研究。 借助“元语言” (meta-language)这个术语,扩展到元文学(meta-literary forms) 形式,。从诗 学观来说,诗歌这种特殊的文学形式既反映作品精神,又有自我创造(核心+创造) ,具有元文学 和多元文学的双重性。以此为基础的翻译研究注重的不再是对等,而是译文与原文的关系、译文 与译文文化的关系。 列费维尔 lefevere, Andre 比利时学者,反对对等论。强调翻译研究的目的是要建立指导译作产 生的综合性理论,因此: 1. 在霍姆斯翻译研究领域划分的基础上, 进而研究了指导翻译产生过程的四 个层次:意识(ideology ) 、诗学(poetics) 、论域(phase of translation theory)和语言(language) ideology 涉及到译者的最初抉择及后来的一系列抉择,如,译与不译是基于意识层面(伦理上、 政治上是否危险) poetics 基于诗学层面(如,能否被大众接受) ,文本本身所承载的思想、观念、文化、美学情趣; phase of translation 基于时代、地域层面(如,共性和历时性作用) ; ―己所不欲,勿施于人。‖ Immigration Restriction Act language 基于语言层面(如,语言的理解与表达) 。严复喜欢文言文,为了语言的美,他常常牺牲 了信。上面那首诗,从审美角度说,可能就各有所好。 ―己所不欲,勿施于人。‖ Immigration Restriction Act 澳大利亚的移民政策,1788 年郑和下西 洋,四次入澳。1788-1790 年这段时间,移民不断进入澳大利亚,1901 年政府出台 Immigration Restriction Act 译与不译,在什么时间、什么场合用等,译者或者雇主会有不同。 连接文件\新建 8 Microsoft Word 文档.doc 请看林肯 1865 年的连任就职演讲,其中,With malice toward none, with charity for all 不怀恶意,对一切人心存宽厚。 (意识层面无法接受) 被镌刻在林肯纪念堂的大厅里:

对任何人

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation‘s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations. ---------By Abraham

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Lincoln 这一段演讲文字优美, 风格整洁, 雄壮有力, 极富感染力。但是译不译,在什么时间、什么场合用 等,译者或者雇主会有不同考虑。用四个层次来看,我们每个同学会翻译得很不一样。 参考译文: 对任何人不怀恶意,对一切人心存宽厚,坚持正义,因为上帝使我们看到了正义,让我们继续努 力完成正在从事的事业,包扎好国家的创伤,关心那些肩负重任的人,照顾他们的遗孀孤儿,去 做能在我们自己中间和一切国家缔造并保持公正持久和平的一切事情 用列费维尔的“翻译过程四层次”来看,林肯的这段名言在中国是不可能登大雅之堂的,因为从 政治的观点来看,它不可能被统治阶级所接受。 2. 翻译的作用是协调关系, 这条理论为多元体系派 (图里提出了‖第三文本‖) 和解构主义派( 翻 译在源语和目的语的协调中应该“居中”)提供了理论思考,协调不同文化间共时性转移关系,还 要协调不同文化间历时性转移关系。 代表作: 《Mother Courage‘s Cucumbers Text, System And Refraction In A Theory Of Literature》 巴斯奈特 Susan Bassnett 主张译者主导 Culture turn: the translation studies in the network of both source and target cultural signs use the Linguistic approach and more beyond it。This shift is called the ―culture turn‖ in translation studies, which suggests a study of translation process, including how a text is selected, who role the translator plays in the section, and what role an editor, publish or patron plays, what criteria determine the strategies. 连接文件\新建 9 Microsoft Word 文档.doc 代表作: 《The Translation Turn In Cultural Studies 》 巴斯奈特在这篇文章中提到 , “文化转向”的概念最先由 Richard Johnson 在 1970s 提出,他主张翻译要从文学研究向社会研究 移动。1990 年,巴斯奈特与列费维尔一道编写了《Translation, History and Culture》 论文集,正 式提出了‖culture turn ‖. 提出的背景: 1) 翻译研究对应用语言学研究很少 ( linguistic approach ) 2) 翻译研究对文化研究完全没有考虑 ( cultural shift ) 3) 强调译者的主导地位,否认译文和译者的从属地位。打了一个比方,原 文与译文的关系不是男人和女人的关系,但过去人们就是这样认为的。 Culture turn: the translation studies in the network of both source and target cultural signs use the Linguistic approach and more one beyond it, which suggests a study of translation process, including how a text is selected, who role the translator plays in the section, and what role an editor, publish or patron plays, what criteria determine the strategies. Linguistics shift one beyond the Linguistics the process of translation 早期翻译研究派的贡献:提出了许多新的观点 1. 翻译是跨学科研究 (霍姆斯:本土文学+多元文学;巴斯奈特,文化转向;列费维尔,翻译 四层面 ) 2. 翻译是译者抉择的过程 (利维,翻译的过程是抉择的过程;巴斯奈特,译者主导。 ) 3.翻译没有正确与错误之分(霍姆斯,元文学+多元文化/核心+创造) 4.译文是动态的再创作(巴斯奈特:shift, more in the network of both the source and the target text) 不足: 立论依据不足,带有现实主义的某些偏见,如上述第 3、4 观点;过分追求文学性。

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Exercise:连接文件\新建 10 Microsoft Word 文档.doc eg: ① She is always an idealist(理想主义者/唯物主义者). So you can understand why she turned down a good job offer to work among refugee immigrants and low-income groups after she got her degree in social studies. 她是一个理想主义者。 (协调译语&原语—Lefevere) ② Many took to gambling and got in over their heeds, borrowing from Shylocks to pay their debts. Shylock 高利贷者(Bassenet 文化转向) ③ 南北朝 the Northern & Southern Dynasties(南为上,北为下,大词更靠近中心词) ④ 西天 Western Paradise ⑤ 东山再起 stage a comeback ⑥ 小楼昨夜又东风 Last night spring breezes through an upper room(协调地域文化) ⑦ afternoon tea, high tea, meat tea 午后茶,正式茶,正式茶(文化转向) What is America? Statue of Liberty, Queen Barbie, The United States Gothic, Buffalo Nickel,Uncle Sam, all roll into one term_____ America. ⑧ Queen Barbie: 芭比娃娃 a doll made by a couple, beautiful, lovely by all & now popular in the whole America, means the creation of the new nation, that is U.S. ⑨ Buffalo nickel: buffalo printed on the piece of nickel, memorizing the US victim, the buffalo & Indians in western region. ⑩ Uncle Sam: the spirit of Americans, honest, hard working & responsible. ? the United States Gothic: a sort of building, very dignified, thick & solemn, standing for the solemn pride of farmers in Pioneer Days. (Basssenett:译者主导; Lefevere:译者要协调原语&译语的关系) Compare two versions of a poem translation: 花间一壶酒,独酌无相亲。 举杯邀明月,对影成三人。 月既不解影,影徒随我身。 暂伴月将影,行乐须及春。 ( 我歌月徘徊,我舞影零乱。 醒时同交欢,醉后各分散。 永结无情游,相期邈云汉。)( 李白 ) 李白通过饮酒抒发自己的情感。诗人运用丰富的想象,表现出一种由独而不独,由不独而独,再 有独而不独的复杂情感。表面看来,诗人能自得其乐,可实际是无限凄凉。 An arbor of flowers From a pot of wine among the flowers And a kettle of wine: I drank alone. There was no one with me Alas! In the bowers Till, raising my cup, I asked the bright moon No companion is mine. To bring me my shadow and make us three Then the moon sheds her rays Alas, the moon was unable to drink On my goblet and me, And my shadow tagged me vacantly; And my shadow betrays But still for a while I had these friends We‘re a party of three! To cheer me through the end of spring… Though the moon cannot swallow I sang. The moon encouraged me. Her share of the grog, I danced. My shadow tumbled after.

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And my shadow must follow Wherever I jog, Yet their friendship I‘ll borrow And gaily carouse, And laugh away sorrow While spring-time allows…

As long as knew, we were boon companions. And then I was drunk, and we lost one another. …Shall goodwill ever be secure? I watch the long road of the River of Stars.

________________________________________________ Chapter Four Segment Five 多元体系派 Polysystem Theory 佐哈尔 Itamar Even—Zohar : Polysystem theory was established by Even-Zohar in 1970s, this new perspective of translation studies involves new focuses and methodology, which has broadened the view on translation studies. Polysystem Theory: The central idea of polysystem theory is relational.关系 All the elements of literature are viewed in relation to other elements. There are three important binary oppositions. They are the opposition between canonized and non-canonized products; the opposition between primary and secondary activities; the opposition between the system‘s centre and its periphery. 产生的背景: 发源于早期翻译研究派。 1). 20世纪80年代后,早期翻译研究派已对翻译的过程研究取得一定的成果 2) 把翻译过程和翻译的多元准则 3) 引入“多元体系”这一概念,实现了对传统语言学和文学界限的突破。 由于多元体系派是早期翻译研究派的逻辑延伸,因此,应该说是由佐哈尔、图里等以色列学者扩 展了列费维尔、霍姆斯等学者的观点所形成的。佐哈尔于1972年就提出了多元体系的假设, 但直到1978年英文版才首次出现. 多元体系派: 意指各种文学体系的总称,涵盖了从高雅的诗歌到通俗的儿童文学和通俗小说。佐哈 尔创造的 polysystem: 指社会内部相互联系的文学与超文学这个整体结构。 超文学结构: 与文学相关联, 但非文学本身, 如资助行为, 社会条件, 经济条件以及组织操作等. A guest professor 客座教授 porter chair 常任主席 多元体系派的主要观点: 1.翻译的过程不再是文本转移的过程, 而是翻译形成的过程、 文学与超文学系统内变化的过程 (他 们吸收了系统变化的思想,抛弃了语法结构和功能对等等静态概念。 ) 翻译要考虑文学和超文学系统内的变化过程。 Eg.中国有中国的特点,人口多, 议论多, 热情高,干劲大。 20 世纪 70 年代的翻译。 “高”和“议论” 的翻译有明显的感情色彩。 China has its own trait, having a large population with sorts of suggestions, warm atmosphere and high enthusiasm. 21 世纪的翻译: China has its own trait, having too big population with cloud of ideas, heat of atmosphere and formidable drive. 那个地方的乞丐很多。 There could be sorts of translation(从共时性、历时性,文学和超文学系统内变化等考虑) 20 世纪 90 年代的翻译: There are a lot of beggars there.(同一词按同一标准的共时性,不突破传 统语言学对等的界限)

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21 世纪近几年的翻译: There are a lot of professional beggars there. 同一词按照历时性的不同标准, ( 考虑文学和超文学系统内变化,即与文学相关联,但非文学本身,如资助行为,社会条件,经济 条件以及组织操作等) 译给美国读者看:There are a lot of hoodlums. (同一词按照历时性的不同标准,译给不同的读者 看,如译给美国读者看,这也是文学与超文学系统内的变化。 ) 2.从历史诗学领域的角度,对整体文化系统的分级进行了描述: (这不只是对翻译研究的贡献, 也是对文化研究的贡献,因此人们也说与其说左哈尔是翻译理论家不如说他是文化理论家。 ) 三组对立: (opposition) the opposition between canonized and non - canonized products or models;(典范与非典范之对应,左哈尔认为各种文学题材是社会的需要,多元文化是 社会各层次人民的需要。 ) the opposition between ' primary ' and ' secondary ' activities;(一级和二级对立,如创新文学介绍、 引进业已存在的文学,多认为:翻译作品不能简单地分为主和次,反对把翻译作品一律划为二级 系统。翻译的作用给低地国家注入新思想、新的文学形式,这些事低地国家暂时还没有的,这些 新思想、新文化形式给低地国家的作者提供了模仿的样本,发展的动力,成为低地国家的主流文 化,翻译作品会趋于创新,包括改写、原创和模仿。 ) the opposition between the system's centre and its periphery.(中心和外围之对立,如翻译作品处于中 心还是外围,多元体系是不同的,历史文化悠久的英法国家趋向于把翻译作品降低到边缘位置, 在文化比较弱的低地国家本土作品匮乏,特别是希伯来文学除圣经文学外,对翻译作品的依赖作 用很大,就移向中心。 )

代表人物: 佐哈尔:( 见附页“个人介绍” ),主要贡献: 1、建立了“多元体系理论” ,为翻译研究提供了包括 文学与超文学在内的整体结构观,为译者打 开了新的研究视觉。 2、提出了翻译过程的动态性(dynamics)和文化庞杂性( heterogeneity ) 3、借用通加诺夫的“系统论” ,对翻译作品处于主要地位的社会条件进行了描述 1)当一种文学还处于“幼稚期”的时候,如以色列的文学,翻译作品给年幼的文学提供了丰富的 作品 2)当一种文学还处于“外围”和“弱小”的时候,如低地国家,翻译作品给他们输入了新思想和 模仿的样本 2) 当一种文学正处于某种危机或转折点的时候,如 60 年代的美国文学和中国的 文革,已有的文学模式已不能刺激创作热情,需要从翻译作品中获取新的灵感。 翻译作品被输入上述这些国家的时候,翻译作品就会趋向于创新,包括改写,原创与模仿的界限 就会消解,不断演变,渗入高一级层面,这就是翻译作品的动态性,而不是静态对等。佐哈尔的 这一贡献极大地促进了世界文化的交流,同时,给予了翻译作品超越时间、超越空间的主要地位。 佐哈尔多元体系理论的不足之处: 对俄国通加诺夫形式主义框架全盘接受,如“系统论”和“普遍特质”的论点缺 乏证据支撑,最后导致这些观点限制了他自己的研究领域。 代表作: 《The Position of Translated Literature within the Literary Polysystem 》为纪念霍姆斯而写。 下面的例子位置不确定? culture-load words: the words, or phrases, or idioms which exist in a particular culture & symbolize the particular characteristics of the culture. These words reflect the unique social phenomenon of a certain

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group which has been formed in the process of history. 我们的教育方针是培养有社会主义觉悟的有文化的劳动者。 Our educational policy is to train cultured workers with socialist consciousness. 如果翻译给英语国家人看,就不能译为 laborers,因为 laborer 指劳工、苦力,worker(功能对等) 包括脑力劳动&体力劳动。 The United States is a nation full of the characteristics of aggression & exploitation. 美国是一个富有开拓进取特征的民族。 Bourgeois liberalization 资产阶级自由精神 in English 指积极、进步的政治思想 ITAMAR EVEN-ZOHAR 佐哈尔个人介绍 Born in Tel Aviv (1939), Professor Even-Zohar has earned his degrees from the universities of Tel Aviv (B.A., and Ph.D) and Jerusalem (M.A). He has also studied in Oslo, Copenhagen, and Stockholm. He worked as a guest professor and a scholar in European and American universities and research centers, such as Amsterdam, Paris, Philadelphia, Quebec City and other many cities. He has a working knowledge of the following languages: Hebrew (mother tongue), Arabic, English, French, Swedish, Spanish, Norwegian, Danish, Italian, Russian, German, Icelandic, and a few other languages. He is Professor of Culture Research and Porter Chair Professor of Semiotics and Literary Theory, Tel Aviv University. He has been coordinator of the Culture Research Group (1993-1995), and Chairperson of Unit of Culture Research, Tel Aviv University (1995-2007). His main work has been developing polysystem theory, designed to deal with dynamics and heterogeneity (不协调性、庞杂)in culture. His field work has concentrated on interactions between various cultures. Polysytem theory was established by Even – Zohar in 1970s. This new perspective of translation studies involves new focuses and methodology, which has broadened the view on translation studies. The central idea of polysystem theory is relational. All the elements are viewed in relation to other elements, and these elements derive their value from their position in a network. There are three important binary (双重的)oppositions in polysystem theory. They are: the opposition between canonized and non - canonized products or models; the opposition between ' primary ' and ' secondary ' activities; the opposition between the system's centre and its periphery. ( In the first opposition, ' canonized' means "those literary norms and works (i. e. both models and texts) . ' Noncanonized' means "those norms often forgotten in the long run by the community". There are two different uses of the term "canonicity", one referring to the level of texts, the other referring to the level of models. (省略 In the first case, which may be called static canonicity, it introduces a text into the literary canon, and this certain text is accepted as a finial product and may be preserved in the target literature culture. In the second case, which may be called dynamic canonicity, it introduces a text through its model intosome repertoire, and this literary model manages to es-tablish itself as a productive principle in the system. So the second kind of canonicity is the most important for the system' s dynamics. ) The opposition between primary and secondary refers to (innovativeness and conservatism in the reper-toire.)that Individual translations or certain modes of transla-tion may play a primary or a secondary role in a polysys-tern. "Primary type" refers to the restructure by the introduction of new elements, so the result of each product is less predictable. "Secondary type" refers to a state of products

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produce from a conservative reper-toire([?repertwa] 指令). In this type, "all of the derivative models are can-structed in full accordance with what the repertoire allows. Every product of it will be highly predictable, and any deviation will be considered outrageous 过度的、不合理的".) 图里 Toury, Gideon: 当他看到许多进入希伯来系统的译文往往只是部分地与原文本语言或功能等 值,但仍然被目标文化所接受,这种缺乏“忠实”并非译者无视原作,而是他们为了使译文被目 标文所接受而采用的策略。图里认为与原文本完全一致是一个极端,被目标文化完全接受是另外 一个极端,翻译应该始终居于两极之间。图里对翻译研究的主要观点是: 1. 反对原文本决定论 (source text determined theory) 提出了目的文本理论 , (target text theory),其实是颠覆、突破了“忠实原文”的翻译理论框架,使翻译成为一个相对的概念, 在某种程度上可以说是“第三种文本”(the third text)。 2. 构建了三条“翻译准则” (translation norms ) :这是图里理论对于翻译研究 的贡献。在佐哈尔多元体系的理论基础上,将影响翻译过程的因素分离出来,加以界定,然后把 这些因素归纳于一个更大的、 更全面地的翻译理论体系, 他的 “翻译准则” 引入了文化-历史因素, 又约束着目标文化,直接影响翻译过程 初级准则: preliminary norms, 指决定译文选择的因素和多元体系中的翻译策略。 起始准则: initial norms, 指译者个人的倾向,是重原文本还是重译文文本,或者是选择居中的态 度 运作准则: operational norms,指实际翻译过程中影响翻译模式的准则,比如语言和审美方面的 限制因素等。 代表作: 《The Nature and Role of Norms in Translation 》 Chapter Four Segment Six 解构主义派 Deconstruction: is the name given by French philosopher Jacques Derrida to an approach of translation which rigorously pursues the meaning of a text to the point of undoing(解开) the oppositions on which it is apparently founded, and to the point of showing that those foundations are irreducibly(无法减缩地)complex, unstable or, indeed, impossible. 产生的背景: 20 世纪 60 年代(与翻译培训派几乎同时产生) ,随着文学解构主 义批评的兴起,翻译解构主义派在法国也应运而生。翻译解构主义派又称为翻译创新派,他们批 评了结构主义的理论基础,即逻各斯的中心主义(logocentrism)的理论,是对结构主义的一种颠 覆。 结构主义的翻译观认为,原文是本源,原文作者是原文的主体,译者 必须仰视原文及其作者,把再现原文当作自己的中心任务,以求得译文与原文之间的等值。 解构主义翻译观:主张用动态、发展的哲学观点来看待翻译。他们认 为由于能指(源文 the source )和所指(目标文 the target )之间存在差异,原文的意义只是在上 下文条件下暂时被确定下来,译者应发掘源文在不同时期、不同条件下存活的意义,发挥主观能 动性,利用语言转换,使原文得以发展并得以正确表达。 连接文件\新建 11 Microsoft Word 文档.doc eg: 《坎特伯雷故事集》 ① 《英语成语典故》 collective of dull & absurd stories by Chaucer, an English writer—早期翻译员 a 就派的“历史性”“地域性” 、 ② 《牛津大辞典》the Canterbury Tales, is a cycle of linked tales told by a group of pilgrims. Chaucer‘s skills of characterization, humor, & versatility (多才多艺,应用自如) established him as the

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1st great English poet.—解构主义 ③ The tales written by Chaucer are about going on pilgrimage to Canterbury—按照语言、文化等值 观

解构主义派的主要观点: 1、 原文没有实质意义, 原文依赖译文而具有生命力 (流传至今的文学遗产宝库是依靠各个朝 代很多人的理解,因此,A 本杰明认为有多种理解是必然的,我们其实并不知道那朝那代人们是 怎样认识的;颠覆了结构主义语言学的意义确定论,也对翻译研究产生了重大的影响。既然符号 的意义是不确定的,文本的意义也是不确定的。文本没有所谓的“先在” (最先存在的意义)的、 终极不变的意义, 只有暂时的意义。 语言哲学派认为, 由于能指 (the source) 和所指( the target ) 之 间存在着时代、地域、诗学观和读者理解等之间的差异,原文意义不可能固定不变。 2、 翻译的过程和目的不是寻求等值,而是转换观点、转换语言, (颠覆了传统的翻译标准和 概念)原文和译文是互补的“共生”关系,翻译是为了确保原文在目标文化的“存活” ,这就大大 拓展了翻译研究者的视野,解放了翻译研究者的思维。比如,许多的中国古典,三国演义、儒林 外史、聊斋志异、唐诗、宋词等,如果只是语言等值,外国人是无法理解其中的精髓的。 3、 翻译是一种复杂的思维活动, 包括解构和创构两个步骤 即用另一种语言 来解释我们自 己对能指事物持有的观点。又如,严复的《天演论》 ,他就是用汉语来解释赫胥黎的进化观,号召 新民德, 鼓民力, 开民智, 这个观点是严复的创造。 严复既要把握原文, 又要完成自己翻译的 skopos, 既要“居中” ,又要“协调” ,实在是一种复杂的思维活动。 代表人物: 福科: Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984) 主要观点: 1、 打破了本原观念,强调译者的作用 (即解构了原文的概念)认为作者和其作品 同属历史,作者的存在和作用并不那么重要,倒是译者应该充分理解原文,然后译者的大量工作 是研究怎样去转换原文的观点,怎样转换语言,使得原文“存活” 2、文本存在历史性,原文的地位不应高于译文 对前人的作品受到所处历史时期的限制,因此,前人的作品在流传的过程中总是受到不断的改写 和重建,如, 《红楼梦》 ,曹雪芹最后是“树倒猢狲散” ,认为这个家就如这个社会是不可救药了, 但高鄂却让这个家在贾宝玉手中,通过考进士又振兴起来,这就违背了原文作者的意图。高鄂比 曹晚了 40 多年,他的故意误读有他的 skopos,这个例子旨在说明前人的作品在历史进程中受到 不断的改写。 3.语言存在着种种矛盾,并不是统一、完整、明白无误的。 福科称之为语言的“另一面” ,作品中的种种注解和歧义说明了“另一面”的存在,语言的另一 面带来了文本的另一面。 海德格尔:Martin Heidegger (26 September 1889 – 26 May 1976) 主要观点: 语言有清晰、完整、有声的一面,还有晦暗、残缺、无声的一面。 因此,我们对语言的定义/命 名存在着很大的不足和局限性,需要解构语言概念。本杰明的“花瓶与碎片”理论,指不同的意 指犹如花瓶的碎片,粘结起来的花瓶就是纯语言。 连接文件\新建 12 Microsoft Word 文档.doc Beggar e.g. What a fine little beggar! 多可爱的小家伙! The poor beggar looked silly trying to portray the role of Hamlet. 那可怜虫因为拼命想把哈姆雷特演好而显得滑稽。 She is a beggar to argue. 她是一个能言善辩的人。

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She is a beggar for work 她是一个工作积极地人。 The successive wars beggar a nation. 连年的战祸使这个国家沦为贫困 The wealth there Beggars the combined treasures of all Europe. 那里的财富超过整个欧洲所有的金银财宝。 1. 翻译是一种思维活动,是解释我们自己 英国的 Harypotter 哈利波特 被翻译成 70 多种语言,印刷 3 亿多册,直至搬上银幕。描写的是一 个魔法学校一群孩子的冒险经历,原作者罗琳和原文都已经不重要了,70 多种语言是 70 多个不 同的版本。有的认为这是罗琳的基督教思想,宣传的是圣经故事,有的认为是罗琳为了拯救自己 的孩子,有的认为是宣扬亲情、友情,有的认为是罗琳在她的人生低谷灵感的闪现等等,对原文 的不同的解构在翻译中就会带来不同的建构。 德里达:Jacques Derrida (15 July 1930 – 8 October 2004) 主要观点: 1. 分延 (diffé rance)认为符号的意义不过是文本中暂时确定的,随着空间上的区 分和时间上的延搁,意义不断变化,会出现许多新的可能性,任何词都没有终极意义,词的意义 不能确定,整个文本就不能最终确定 2. 大语言(language with multi-meanings) (与福科、海德格尔的观点一样, )指 语言具有两面:有清晰、完整、有声的一面,还有晦暗、残缺、无声的一面,也即本杰明的“纯 语言”观。 德里达为解构主义派的: ―转换观点、转换语言‖ 找到了具体的策略,这就是:让语言回到最初的 状态,让语言的另一面得以露出水面,在译文中揭示那些被丢失或遭压抑的东西,揭示文本的多 重意义,实现在纯语言中一种语言向另一种语言、一个文本向另一个文本的转换。 附:德里达 与解构主义 Jacques Derrida (French pronunciation: [? ak d? ? ida][1]) (15 July 1930 – 8 October 2004) was a French philosopher born in Algeria, who is known as the founder of deconstruction. His voluminous work had a profound impact upon literary theory and continental philosophy. Derrida's best known work is Of Grammatology. The difficulty of definition When asked "What is deconstruction?" Derrida replied, "I have no simple and formalisable response to this question. All my essays are attempts to have it out with this formidable(难以应付的) question" (Derrida, 1985, p. 4). Derrida believes that the term deconstruction is necessarily complicated and difficult to explain since it actively criticises the very language needed to explain it. Crucial to Derrida's work is the concept of diffé rance, a complex term which refers to the process of the production of difference and deferral. According to Derrida, all difference and all presence arise from the operation of diffé rance. He states that: Derrida criticized Faucoult‘s History of Maddness , which Foucault strongly opposed. This stinging rebuke (责难) by Foucault caused a rift (裂缝) between the two thinkers and they did not speak to each other for ten years. In this passage, Foucault refers to certain claims that Derrida makes in Of Grammatology, though without quotation or citation to indicate that he is doing so. Foucault's mention of "crossings-outs (划掉)" refers to the return to problematic (有问题的,不确定 的) terms under erasure . Foucault also alludes (暗喻) critically to the problematisation of presence in deconstruction as a reading of what isn't there in the text. This aspect of Foucault's argument may have encouraged Derrida to strongly emphasise the importance of fidelity to the text being deconstructed. Foucault's reference to Derrida's assertion (断言) that "there is nothing outside the text" is undoubtedly the basis of much criticism of deconstruction as being nihilistic (虚无主义, 无政府主义) ,

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relativistic (相对主义) non-political 不关心政治) or confined to the ivory tower of academia. The , ( , model for Derrida's controversial(受到争议的)assertion that there is nothing outside the text is the assertion that all meaning presupposes a sign that is always deferred in its relation to other signs. Chapter Five Several Questions in Practical Translation 翻译实践中的几个具体问题:意象极其翻译、文化负载词的翻译策略、文化负载词的翻译、翻译 中的信息论、翻译中的冗余平衡 意象的翻译: 用语言来表现的感官和超感官的经验,它能使语言生动、形象、简练 大致可以分为三种意象: 1. literal image(字面意象): expository description----用说明性的语言进行描述 e.g. 我歌月徘徊,我舞影零乱。 李白:月下独酌) ( I sing, the wild moon wanders the sky, I dance, my shadow goes tumbling about. ( S.Obata 斜体字为意象) cf. I sang. The moon encouraged me. I danced. My shadow tumbled after. cf. …I dance, and my shadow shatters and becomes confused. ( Amy Lowell 白话描述, 无意象) 2. perceptual image(感性意象)analogy building----用类比性的语言进行塑造 e.g. The mad mass has the bounds (反弹) of a panther(美洲豹), the weight of an elephant, the agility (灵活) of a mouse, the obstinacy of an ox, the unexpectedness(难以意料) of a surge(汹涌), the rapidity of lightning, the deafness of a tomb. ( 雨果《九三年》中对一门大炮的描写) 这个疯狂的庞然大物像美洲豹跳起来一般凶猛,有大象一样的体重,却有着老鼠般的灵 活,公牛一样的顽固,波涛一样的难以预料,闪电一般快速,却又像坟墓一般死寂。 cf. The mad mass is vicious, huge weight, agile, obstinate, unexpected, rapid and deaf. 白话描述,无 意像。 3 . conceptual image(概念意象) can hardly visualize it, but may have an idea of it----没有确定的意 象,无法说明,但却能理解 e.g. the castle of God 上帝的城堡 as cool as a cucumber 凉得像一根黄瓜 意象的翻译: 1. 意义陈腐, 并不给人新鲜感或生动感-----宁可丢弃意象, 以传达意义为主 e.g. put one‘s foot down 果断, 坚决 She put her feet down, forcing her family accept her engagement. Cf. She firmly and decisively forced her family to accept her engagement. e.g. He turned as quick as a flash and hit his attacker as hard as he could Cf. He turned quickly and hit his attacker ruthlessly. (句子简短、有力) 他飞速地转过身去,给来犯者以狠很的打击

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2. 常规或标准意象, 是语言意象中的主体部分, 主要采用四种翻译方法: a. 用汉语中对应意象替换 e.g. One cannot make bricks without straw 巧妇难为无米之炊 Walls have ears. 隔墙有 Kill two birds with one stone 一箭双雕(一石二鸟) To add oil on the fire 添油加醋 A drop in the ocean 沧海一粟 b. 保留部分意象+阐释 e.g. You behaved like a bull in a china shop ______有力气,但是粗野(having strength, but untutored (粗野的)strength ) Carrying coal to New castle______ 钮加索是产煤中心,完全没有必要(unnecessary at all . 两者都有意象,但须解释一下。 c. 归化 e.g. 用心去爱 Love with the heart ( 英美国家) Love with throat (马绍尔群岛语) Love with the stomach (玛雅语言) Love with the liver (西非语言) e.g. When Mary came down dressed for the dance her father remarked, ― Fine feathers make fine birds‖. “佛要金装,人要衣裳‖. ( 人是桩桩,全靠衣裳 ) d. 解释 e.g. Love lives in cottages as well as in courts 爱情不分贵贱 I can read him like a book. 我能明白他的心思 牺牲意象是不得已的做法,象“爱情不分贵贱” “我能明白他的心思”却不一定要牺牲意象, 关键取决于文体需要。 3 .独创的意象------ 不论是否普遍接受, 都应直译,因为这些意象要么彰显作者个性,要么是作 者要表现的核心,要么是作者想借此丰富语言表达。 e.g. Life is a barren field frozen with snow. 生命是冰封雪冻的一片荒凉土壤. Echoes traveling off from the center like horses 回声传得很远, 像骏马, 从中心驰开. (赵毅衡译) e.g. A poem should be palpable and mute As a globed fruit. 一首诗应该触摸得到但默不作声 像一只浑圆的果实(汤永宽译) 文化负载词:culture-loaded words 标志某种文化中特有事物的词、词组或习语。这些词汇反映特定民族在历史进程 中逐渐积累的、有别于其他民族的独特的活动方式 culture-loaded words: the words, or phrases, or idioms which exist in a particular culture and symbolize the particular characteristics of the culture. These words reflect the unique social phenomenon of a certain group which has been formed in the process of history e.g. 红尘:human society, Trojan horse: 特洛伊木马 Achilles‘ heel:阿克琉斯的脚踵 Hamburger: 汉堡 文化负载词汇翻译的原则:跨文化的翻译只能在使译文最大限度地接近原文的基础上进行。1)原 语词汇意义的再现优于形式的再现;2)选词必须考虑原语词汇所处的语境,即与其相关的文化现 象;3)原语词汇关键的隐含意义,在译文中应转换为非隐含意义。但一些文化负载词汇已经为大 家喜闻乐见,则不需转换。

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文化负载词汇的翻译策略: 1.直译+注释 。。便从不入三教九流的小说家所谓“闲话修提言归正传”这句套话里,取出 。 “正传” 两个字来。。 。(鲁迅讲《阿正传》的取名) e.g. So from the stock phrase(套话)of the novelists, who are not reckoned among the Three Cults and Nine Schools. ― Enough of this digression(闲话) and back to the true story!‖ I will take the last two words as my title… * The Three Cults were Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The nine Schools included the Confucian(儒家的), Taoist(道家的), Legalist (法家的)and Moist(墨子的) schools , as well as others. Novelists, who did not belong to any of these, were considered not quite respectable. e.g.“司马昭之心路人皆知”Everybody knows Si Maozhao‘s ambition. * Si Maozhao, the premier of Weiguo, who tried everymeans to usurp the crown, the emperor Cao Mao ( the son of Cao Pi ) gathered some of his loyalists and wanted to kill him. The emperor said to his loyalists that everybody knows Si Maozhao‘s ambition. 2、直译+意译 e.g. 他写了一封“黄伞格”的信,托假洋鬼子带上城,而且托他给自己介绍介绍,去进自 由党。 “黄伞格”是一种以前官吏使用的书信格式,表示对对方的恭敬。现已不使用,翻译时采 用直译+意译。 e.g. He had written a letter, extremely formal pattern used by officials to show respect in the past,… 3、音译+注释 e.g. 气功 Qigong, a sort of physical exercise which drives qi and blood to circle within the whole body and make one healthy 文化负载词的翻译: 语言文化: 词语的社会文化意义:词是语言的表意单位,反映特定社会文化,不同的政治制度、文 化背景和历史发展都会给语言打上深深地烙印,有些句子可以从语义、也可以从文化角度进行翻 译,但有些却只能从文化角度(福科:语言存在着种种矛盾,海得格尔:语言有清晰、完整、有 声的一面,还有晦暗、残缺、无声的一面 ) 如下面的几例翻译: 我们的教育方针是培养有社会主义觉悟的有文化的劳动者 The United States is a nation full of the characteristics of aggression and exploitation 开拓 进取民族 Bourgeois liberalization 资产阶级自由思想 颜色词的文化涵义:英、汉两个民族对颜色词的联想有异有同,翻译时不能凭经验,要 多查阅词典.以红色和白色为例: 红茶 black tea 红糖 brown sugar 红尘 human society red-handed 正在犯罪的 red battle 血战 make sb. to see red 使某人生气 He was the first European head of state to visit their country, and they rolled out the red carpet for him. 隆重欢迎他 Mark one‘s name white again 洗清污名

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He is a white man 他是一个高尚的人。 White moment of life 人生交运时 White lie 善意的谎言 White-livered 怯懦胆小 连接文件\新建文件 13.doc 典故文化: 据《辞海》解释,典故是“诗文中引用的古代故事和有历史出处的词语” ,因此, 典故主要源于文学作品、历史故事、传说、宗教。 英语典故的翻译:1)大家熟知的,可以直译 e.g. Mr. Vargas has asked the government ―not to be the Trojian horse that allows the idealism into Peru.‖ 凡格斯请求政府“不要充当吧理想主义引入秘鲁的特洛伊木马” 2)意译 e.g. Many took to gambling and got in over their heels, borrowing from Shylocks to pay their debts. 许多人沉湎于赌博,他们债台高筑,不得不向高利贷者借钱。 Smith often Uncle Tommed his boss. 60 年代,Uncle Tom 转化为动词,意思是逆来顺受、阿谀奉迎。 汉语典故的翻译: 1) 照字面直译 e.g. 杞人忧天 The man of Chi worried lest the sky fall. 画饼充饥 Drawing a cake to satisfy your hunger 亡羊补牢 To mend the fold after a sheep is lost 这个人就是狗咬耗子多管闲事! He is like a dog worrying a mouse, can‘t mind his own business! 2) 直译+注 e.g. 塞翁失马,焉知祸福? When the old man at the frontier lost his horse, he thought it might be a good thing. Note: An allusion to a story popular for more than 2000 years in China. When an old man lost his horse, neighbors comfort him with ― This may be a good thing,‖ one said. The second, the horse came back with another horse. 3) 意译,道出内涵 e.g. 香菱笑道: “一则是天缘,二来是‘情人眼里出西施‘ Xianglin smiled, ―It‘s partly the fate, and partly a case of ?Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.‘‖ 4) 借用英语成语 ( 因为人类的思维模式大体相同) e.g. 竭泽而渔 kill the goose that lay the golden eggs. 过河拆桥 kick down the ladder 宁为鸡口,勿为牛后 Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion. 5) 根据上下文,灵活处理 e.g. 一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃 译法一: Don‘t you ever hear the saying? A lone monk brings his own bucket of water to drink, two monks carry their bucket of water jointly, but when three monks together, there is no water at all. 译法二: Everybody‘s business is nobodys business. 译法三:

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Two is company, three is misery. 译法四: Too many cooks spoil the broth. … 地域文化: 东、西、南、北: 中国人南为尊,北为卑,英语文化则北为先,南为后,如: 从南到北 from north to south 南北朝 the Northern and Southern Dynasties 南征北战 fight north and south on many front 动物的文化意义: 龙:在西方文化中,dragon 是一只巨大蜥蜴,翻译时最好加注 e.g. 龙马精神——the spirit of a dragon horse, usu.said in praise of vigorous old age 狮:是西方文化中勇敢威严的象征; 翻译时,汉语中虎常用狮替代 e.g. twist the lion‘s tail 比喻触犯英国 lion-hunter 巴结社会名流的人 虎穴 the lion‘s mouth 拦路虎 a lion in the way 虎头蛇尾 in like a lion, out like a lamb 狗:中、西文化中有异有同,根据情况,但多数时候主张意译 e.g. Advertising is a dog-eat-dog business 广告业是一个竞争非常激烈的行业 He who has a mind to bet his dog will easily find his sticik. 欲加之罪,何患无辞 A filthy mouth can‘t utter decent language. 狗嘴里吐不出象牙 狼: 在西方文化中,狼如同中国的龙,是动物图腾,象征非凡的力量、 母爱的温情。但其凶恶、残忍的本性在英汉两种语言中的表达是 一致的,因此常直译。 e.g. 狼子野心 a wolf cub with a savage heart-have a wolfish nature. 豺狼当道,安问狐狸? When the wolf is rampant, why pick in the fox? 公鸡:在西方文化中有极其丰富的内涵。它与太阳神阿波罗、道路神墨丘利、基督教 教堂等都有紧密联系。公鸡具有自信、好斗的天性,英语中常用公鸡的形象描绘人的行为。 e.g. He‘s been cock of the walk since his father died. 他父亲死后,他一直称王称霸。 Cock and Pie 翘首以待,喜迎客人 I‘ve never heard such cock in my life. 我从未听过这样的胡说八道 宗教文化: 是人类文化的重要组成部分,不同宗教反映不同的文化特色。因此,宗教文化翻 译尽量采用直译,以便保留原作的宗教特色。 e.g. 谋事在人,成事在天 Man proposes, God disposes ( 英国翻译家霍克斯)

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Man proposes, Heaven disposes (中国杨宪益) 习俗文化: 日常社会生活和人际交往中由民族的风俗习惯形成的文化。以意译为主 e.g. 你吃了吗? How do you do?/Hello 英 语 亲 属 称 谓 为 类 分 式 ( classificatory) , 即 按 辈 分 分 类 ; 汉 语 为 叙 述 式 ( descriptive ),即按九族五服,父系、母系分类。翻译时可按归化法或直译法译。 人名、地名文化: 人名翻译:应按音译,虽然很多人起名时有不同依据,如按照长辈寄托、动植物、财富名等。中 国人则姓前名后,英语国家则名前姓后 e.g. Albert Einstein 阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦, Ernest Hemingway 欧内斯特·海明威, 地名翻译: 汉语地名英译不可望文生义,应按照约定俗成。翻译方法: 音意结合: 北京市 Beijing Municipality 青海湖 Qinghai Lake 音译重复意译: 长江 Changjiang River 黄山 Huangshan Mountain 意译: 香港 Hong Kong 黄河 Yellow River 英语地名汉译普遍认为音译为主,意译为辅,兼顾习惯: 音译: Goodnight 古德奈特 Branch 布兰奇 意译:1)地名中含有头衔 Prince of Wales Island 威尔斯王子岛 King George County 乔治王县 2) 地名中含有数字 Sixtymile River 六十英里河 Ten Thousand Smokes Valley 万烟谷 饮食文化: 中式菜系: 翻译特别难,有八大菜系,翻译时重在弄清楚菜是怎样命名的,方能变难为易,如: 以菜肴创制者命名——直译人名+意译: 麻婆豆腐 Ma Po‘s beancurd, stir-fried beancurd in hot sauce, invented by a pockmarked old woman in Qing Dynasty. 太白鸭 Taibai‘s duck, steamed duck, named after Li Bai who was a poet inTang Dynasty. 以地名命名——直译地名+意译: 德州扒鸡 Dezhou grilled chicken 扬州炒饭 fried rice, Yangzhou style 北京酱牛肉 Beef cooked in soy sauce, Beijing style 以菜肴的形、色、味命名——意译菜的形,或色,或味 灯影牛肉 Translucent beef slices 炸鸡卷 Fried chicken rolls 白烧鱼翅 Fricassee sharkskin with chicken ( 指佐料颜色) 西湖醋鱼 West Lake winegar fish 五香牛肉 Spiced beef 以吉祥语命名——意译其吉祥意 芙蓉鱼片 Fish slice with egg white ( 芙蓉指蛋清) 什锦蛋炒饭 Fried rice with mixed meat and egg (什锦指混合)

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以数字命名——直译菜肴所含原料数量 八宝冬瓜汤 Eight-treasures winter melon 炒三丝 Fried three slices 以烹饪方法命名——意译,主要选用四个词 炒 fry e.g. fried chicken breast 烧 roast, grill, braise e.g. braised tripe 炖 stew e.g. stewed soft-shelled turtle 蒸 steam e.g. steamed crabs 西方菜肴:品种较少,主要按地名、原料命名,翻译方法大都采用 英译+英译,如: Spanish beef steak 西班牙牛排 Ham sandwich 火腿三明治 Rabbit pie 兔肉派 茶、酒文化:更具有丰富文化内涵,以茶为例,翻译时应仔细考证。 “隔年涓的雨水哪有这么轻浮?”妙玉道。 水轻指水中杂质和溶性物质较少。水的轻、重之说源于清乾隆皇帝曾命人量得北京京西玉泉山之 水为泉水中最轻者,遂定玉泉山之水为天下第一水。后又量得雪水较玉泉水轻三厘,因此,雪水 的水质是最好的。弄清楚背景后,就可以正确翻译为: How could last year‘s rain-water be as light and pure as this? 翻译中的信息论概念: 主要包括传输负载、信道容量、冗余和噪音等概念 传输负载:指文本所含信息量 (communication load) e.g. He fell into love with her. 他爱上了她。 (不指过程) He walked into love with her. 他渐渐爱上了她。 (暗指了过程) A stitch in time saves nine. 一寸不补补一尺(不明说意义) A word in time saves nine. 及时一语省力气(道明意义) 信道容量:指信息传输的媒体所能容纳的限度(channel capacity) 如文字对文本信息的传输,信息量过大会出现传输过载(communication overload ),超越读者的解 码能力。因此,如果信息量过载,而译文受语言量的束缚就会形成尖锐的矛盾 e.g. People considered that what he had played on tht occasion was no more thatn a Judas kiss. (信息量 大,传输过载,一般读者不懂) 孔乙己是站着喝酒而穿长衫的唯一的人 (信息量大,传输过载,英语读者不懂) Kung was the only long-gowned customer to drink his own standing. 冗余: 翻译中的冗余与写作中的冗余是不一样的概念。翻译中的冗余是平衡信息失衡、 增加传输效率的重要手段 (redundancy ),即,增加一定的冗余因素以求得译文与原文基本平衡, 译文读者获得与原文读者相同的效果。译文采用“喀麦隆巨蟒吃山羊”的方法,适当过译(over translation ),保留原文的“肉与骨‖,仅改变其形状。增加译文的冗余度并不是说译者可以随心所 欲增加原文没有的信息,而是 “将信息从隐含的层面提升到显豁的层面” e.g. 松下问童子,言师采药去; 只在此山中,云深不知处。 Question the child, answer teacher‘s going for herbs, In the mountain, no awareness of his going through all clouds. 第一、二句的逻辑关系不清楚,整个理解就造成了困难。 试看在翻译中采用“喀麦隆巨蟒吃山羊”的方法,适当过译(over translation ),保留原文的“肉与 骨‖,仅改变其形状,增加冗余: When I questioned your pupil, under a pine tree,

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―My teacher,‖ he answered, ―went for herbs,‖ But toward which corner of the mountain, How can I tell, through all these clouds?‖ 噪音: 指干扰信息传输的一切因素 ( noise/interference),如有意无意的误译,这是不可 避免的,是翻译中要努力解决的问题。 翻译中的冗余平衡:在特殊语境下,译者要从语义和形式两个方面忠实于原文,译文必然出现冗 余,怎样掌握冗余呢? 再现原语文化:e.g. It was Friday and soon they‘d go out and get drunk. 星期五发薪的日子到了,他们马上就会出去喝得酩酊大醉 And since that time it is eleven years; For then she could stand high-lone; nay, by th‘rood, She could have run and waddled all about; Romeo and Juliet by Shakespear 译文一: 算来也有十一年啦; 后来好就慢慢地会一个人站得直挺挺的, 还会摇呀摇的到处乱跑 (朱生豪译) 译文二: 是啊,自从那天起,就糊里糊涂过了十一年。对啦,断奶那天她就会站着,不,都跑了,东歪西 倒的一会儿都不消停。 (曹禺译) 译文三: 从那天到现在已十一年了; 那是她已经会站着了;是啊,凭着十字架起誓, 她已经会跑了,到处蹒跚着走; (曹未风译) 增补类词或描述性成分:halloween 万圣节 Noah‘s ark 诺亚方舟 Khaki 卡其布 Pizza 比萨饼 Jeep 吉普车 清明节:the day mourning for the dead 转换法: 把原语中带有文化色彩的词语转换成译语中带有同等文化色彩的词语,这种方法 多用于习语和比喻性词语的翻译。如: 力大如牛 as strong as a horse ( 英国古代以马耕为主) 饿狼 a hungry bear ( 狼是西方图腾) 亚洲四小龙 four Asian tigers ( 西方人认为龙是一只大蜥蜴) 过着牛马不如的生活 lead a dog‘s life ( 西方人与狗的情感深) 译注法:对特殊文化背景,在目标文本中增词,予以加注说明。如: e.g. The staff member folded like an accordion. 这个工作人员就像合拢起来的手风琴——不吭声了。 At home and abroad there is a strong dissenting view that sees the treaty as a new Munich. 国内外一致提出强烈异议,认为该条约是一项新的慕尼黑阴谋协定。 三个臭皮匠,顶一个诸葛亮。 Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Chukeh Liang, the master mind. 班门弄斧 Show off proficiency with axe before Lu Ban, the master carpenter. 意译法:译语中没有完全相对应的词语来表达原语中带有文化色彩的词语,且译注法和转 换法也不能传达其文化意义, 只有牺牲原语的语言形式和字面含义, 寻求文化意义上的对等。 如:

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It is a Greek gift to you. 这是图谋害你的礼物。 这不是打落水狗吗? Why, that is Kiching a man when he‘s down! 除了上坟烧纸,若有本家爷们到他们那里去,不许接待。 They are not to receive young gentlemen from our house except when they go to sacrifice at one of the grave there. 音译法 (略)

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