名称 动词不定式 现在分词 过去分词 一般式 To do doing done 完成式 To have done having done 进行式 to be doing 一般被动式 to be done being done 完成被动式 to have been
done having been done
二 作定语的区别 1) I need a box to hold all these chessmen in 2) Do you have anything else to say? 3) Everyone needs a shoulder to cry on. 4) All the books to be read next term are all piled up on the desk. 5) You should not leave such a little child alone at home. She needs someone to play with. 动词不定式作定语， 和它前面的被修饰词形成被动关系，这时若句中没有 出现动词不定式动作的发出者，可以用动词不定式的一般被动式。一般说来， 动词不定式动词所指的时间和谓语动词发生时间，说话人说话时间相比较， 暗含将来。 6) The people living here are mostly immigrants from France. 7) People wishing to visit the cave must be guided by an experienced guide. 8) Do you notice the girl dancing with your brother? 9) The new airport being built now is reported to be put into use next September. 现在分词作定语， 现在分词中的这个动词， 若静态动词指一般现在或当时； 若动态动词指说话时，正在进行。这里要说明的是现在分词(一般式)短 语做定语和其前的被修饰名词构成主动关系. 也就是说, 定语包含的这 个动作是由其被修饰名词发出的. 10) This is a letter sent from my aunt, who is working in Shanghai. 11) Is here living a man called Brad Pitt? 12) This is a painting by the Spanish artist, Pablo Picasso, considered to be the greatest western artist of the twentieth century. 13) The book fare, held in ChangSha, capital city of HuNan province, from 4 to 14 , in May, 2007, is estimated to have sold more than 12 million books. 过去分词作定语和其前的被修饰词形成被动关系。在时间上有时指已发生 或完成的动作。 三 作补足语的区别 英语中有种简单句句型：主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语。它对应的 被动结构形成另一句型：主语 被动形式谓语(be done) 主语补足语, 如: The doctor advised him to take more exercise/ He is advised to take more exercise. 14) Jim finds his job a challenge.
15) I found the movie interesting. 16) We find her in tears 17) My mother told me not to worry about her health. 18) They encourage her to try again. 19) We heard someone knocking on the door. 20) I am going to have my computer fixed in a day or two. 21) When she came out of the teacher` s office, she felt a heavy burden taken off from her mind. 22) Books and magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading room. 23) If a chef is found smoking in the kitchen, he will be fired immediately. 24) Bell is considered to have invented the first telephone. 25) He is often seen whipped with a leather-thonged whip by his step father. 26) Through my bedroom window, almost every evening, whether it was fine or windy, I always saw the old couple walk hand in hand, along the stone paved road, heading for the garden park. 27) Did you notice someone take away the bag I put here a few minutes ago? 28) Don` t you hear your cell phone ringing? 区别: order, tell, ask, allow, permit, forbid, advise, teach, wish, want, would like, promise, 常可接不定式作补足语, make, let, have 有时还接动动词原 形作宾语补足语. 而,see, notice, find, hear, feel, smell, 这样的感官动词可 接动词原形, 现在分词, 过去分词作宾语, 这时有必要区别.如 29) I heard her go up stair and go into her bedroom just now. 30) I smell something burning in the kitchen. Can I ring you back a moment later? 31) When I heard the word “cancer” spoken by my doctor, my whole life is upside down. 从容描述听到或观察到的整个过程, 其后的宾补动词用原形; 说明听或看 的当时 .某个动作正在进行 .用现在分词作宾补 ; 而过去分词作宾补和宾 语间形成被动关系. 四. 练习 1) I had my right arm badly ____ yesterday while playing basketball. A. damaged B. to damage C. having damaged D. to be damaged 2) Our chemistry teacher was very humorous. She had us_______ all the time at his first class by his amusing introduction of herself. A. to laugh B. laughing C. having laughed D. laugh 3) Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English ____ in a short period A. improved B. improving C. to improve D. improve 4) When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there___ for a space flight. A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained 5) He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them____ in his lectures A. interested B. interesting C. interest D. to interest
6) My parents have always made me____ about myself, even when I was twelve. A. feeling well B. feeling good C. feel well D. feel good 7) The Town Hall, ____ in the 1800` s, was the most distinguished building at that time. A. to be completed B. having been completed C. completed D. being completed 8) --- The last one ____ pays the meal. --- Agreed! A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving 9) The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of LiuXiang, who was reported________ the world record in the 110-metre hurdle race. A. breaking B. having broken C. to have broken D. to break 参考答案：1）A C 9）C 2）B 3）A 4）D 5 ）A 6）D 7）C 8）
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