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及物动词 vt. 1. (使)改变;更改;使变化[(+from...to...)][(+into)] On second thoughts he changed his mind. 进一步考虑后,他改变了主意. 2. 换;交换,互换[(+for)] We changed seats in the interval. 中间休息时,我们交换了一下座位. 3. 换(衣服);替(婴孩)换尿布或衣服;给(床)换床单 She changed the baby often. 她不时地给婴孩换尿布. 4. 兑换(钱)[(+for/into)] Let me change the dollar bill for coins. 让我把这张美元的纸钞换成硬币. 5. 换乘(车等) You'll have to change planes at Seattle. 你得在西雅图换乘另一架飞机.

不及物动词 vi. 1. 改变;更改;变化[(+from...to...)] In fall the leaves change from green to brown. 秋天,树叶由绿变成褐色. 2. 更衣[(+out of/into)] He changed into a new suit. 他换上一套新的西装. 3. 换车 In New York, you'll change for Boston. 你在纽约换车去波士顿. 4. 换档[(+up/down/into/to)]

名词 n. 1. 变化;变更;变迁[C][U][(+of/in)] Many changes have taken place since then. 自那以来,发生了许多变化. 2. 改变一下[S1] I think a change might do you good. 我想换换环境也许对你有好处. 3. 更换;替换[C][(+in/of)] 4. 零钱;找零[U] "Here's your change," said the saleswoman. "这是你的找零,"女店员说道. 5. 【口】绝经(期);更年期[the S] be pleased with sth.: 对某事某物喜欢,满意于… be pleased to (do): 乐意,蒙承,肯… 要看你具体语境选择用. be used to sth 习惯了某物 be used to doing sth 习惯了做某事 used to do sth 过去常常做某事 be used to do sth 被用来做某事 used to ['ju:s t] 过去常常 Examples: I weigh less than I used to. 我的体重比以前轻了. He is used to eating out all the time. 他已经习惯在外面吃饭了. You'll get used to it. 你会习惯的.

I really need to get in shape again. 首先我们练习 used to 的用法.

-- 中级美国口语 - 第二课 (1) A commander's salary was modest, and Rhoda was used to this better life. 一个中校的薪水不多,而罗达是过惯比较好的生活的. -- 英汉 - 辞典例句 A computer program used to assemble. 用于进行汇编的计算机程序. -- 英汉 - 辞典例句 and the next morning, with a headache, he would rail at the world for its neglect 【例句 1】When Smith was drunk, he used to beat his wife and daughter; -- PETS 培训专用教材 第 4 级 - 第四章 阅读理解应试捷径 二 解题思路与高分突破 3. 翻译的技巧 (2) Note the pronunciation of used to. 注意 used to 的发音. -- 超越目标英语 第 3 册 - Unit 2 LIFE STORIES An iteration procedure can be used to determine the eigenvalue. 迭代方法可用来确定特征值. -- 英汉 - 辞典例句 Americans used to like big cars, and gasoline used to be very inexpensive. 过去美国人喜欢大型轿车,那时汽油很便宜. -- 英汉 - 辞典例句 A code used to describe other codes. 一种用于描述其它代码的代码. -- 英汉 - 辞典例句 A code used to represent data on punched tape. 一种用来表示穿孔带上数据的代码.同 perforated tape code. -- 英汉 - 辞典例句 A double-subscript scheme will be used to identify the stresses. 为了区别各种应力还将采用双下标格式.

used to 过去常常 respond to(反应),appeal to(吸引),catch on to(理解),listen to(收听),used to(过 去常常),give birth to,attend to(照料),see to(负责),be entitled ... 过去经常 另有一个 used to(过去经常) 虽然不能作主动词用, 但其否定形式 既可以是 used not to , 也可以是 did not use to 等.因此,有的语法学家把上述三 ...Slide 8: Grammar www.slideshare.net 的用法 Used to 的用法 One,which one 710 分是怎样分配的?听力 怎样提高英语听力. 学 工要闻. 3 月份外国语学院学生工作总结 2008-4-21 南洋外国语学院 08 春学期教学工作 ... www.xnanyang.com www.cycnet.com

常常 惯常的, 习惯于…的; 用过的, 旧的 used to 常常 be used to 习惯于 useful adj. 有用 的, 有益的,有效的 usual adj. 平常的,通常的,惯常的 as usual 像平常一样 ... www.examda.com 惯常 24. used to 惯常;惯于 25. beefsteak 牛排 26. sherry 雪利酒,类似雪利酒的白 葡萄酒 27. go well with 与......相配 28. decorate 装饰;装修 used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在. Mother used not to be so forgetful. Scarf used to take a walk. (过去常常散步) be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯, 或"习惯于", 是介词, to 后需加名词或动名词. He is used to a vegetarian diet. Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步) used to 的用法 否定式简写为 usedn't) 过去经常,以前常常 We used to go there every year. He is not what he used to be. 他已不是旧日的他了. 我们公司过去和他们的公司常有业务往来. This used to be a shabby house. (此房年久失修) used to,would 这两个词语都可以表示过去常做某事,有时可以换用. used to do 强调整过去习惯性的行为或状态,但是现在没有这种行为或状态了.因此,这 个短语的内涵是今昔对比. 1. used to 是过去常常做什么事情的意思,used to do something. 比如 I used to live there 我过去住在那里 2. be used to 是习惯于做什么事情的意思,后面跟名词或者动词 ING 形式. 比如 I'm used to the life here/ i'm used to living here.我习惯这里的生活 有问题可以再问我哦:) 1. "sb/sth be used to do sth",构成上即是动词 use 的被动语态,相当于"sb/sth be used for doing sth",意思就是"某人/物被用来做某事",即指某人/物被用作工具做某事. 【自编】例句:The financial crisis is used by some big companies as an opportunity to transcend or take over their rivals. 一些大公司利用/抓住此次金融危机的契机以超越或取 代对手. (被动语态英译中时经常按主动语态翻, 因为我们的现代汉语语言更习惯主动态. ) 2. sb/sth be used to sth/doing sth: 某人/某物习惯了某物/做某事 (我每年都去那儿.)

例句 a:The old tree is (already) used to that feeling of being lettered. 那棵老树(已经) 习惯了被(人)刻字在身的感觉.(--当然这句虽然是树物做主语,不过还是有拟人化在里 面) 例句 b:My brother is used to enjoying loneliness/ taking everything easy. 他习惯于享受 寂寞/从容对事. 3. sb used to do sth: 过去习惯性的动作或状态,"并且"现在已经终止不再.used to 在这里 是助动词,辅助表达出动作的历史性,更确切地说,是种"历史上的惯性(频繁或持续)". would 用法之一于其类似,即表"过去常常(做某事)".不过二者有区别:一是 would 没有 确切的"现在已不再"之意而是可能还存在 (因此若某些语境已经或要表明动作的"昔日不再", 那么 would 便不可用);二是 would 更倾向于表达历史上某个动作的频繁而不能是历史上 某一状态的持续. 例句 a:I used to go to KTV with brothers and sisters when drunk. 以前的我经常/习惯在喝 醉后和兄弟姐妹们去 KTV(现在已无此习惯). 例句 b:I would play "King of Fighters 98" after dinner . 以前的我经常/习惯在喝醉后和兄弟姐妹们去 KTV.(习惯现在可能/可以仍在继续) 可以看出,以上的例句 a,b 是否意思一致取决于要表达的意思,即过去的习惯现在还持续否 (原因一). 例句 c:In the middle ages for religious doctrines, human-beings used to regard the Earth as the center of the whole universe. (这里因为原因二 used to 与 would 不通用)

关于 used to 与 would 用法的区别,更多更细还可参考

throw away 隐藏摘要 扔掉
24)shout at 对……大喊(嚷) 25)throw away 扔掉 26)work hard at 努力做……

http://114.vsedu.com/browse/browse_detail.php?qid=16729 基于 467 个 网页 扔掉,抛弃

throw away 扔掉,抛弃

http://www.soenglish.com.cn/focus/method/200612/20061214182652_35 978.html 基于 269 个网页 扔弃;抛弃;白费;浪费
think over/out 掂量;斟酌/琢磨透;想出;深思熟虑 throw away 扔弃;抛弃;白费;浪费 throw/shed light on 说明;解释;提供线索;使清楚起来

http://www.njyyjy.com/blog/?165/viewspace-2843 基于 58 个网页 丢弃
丢弃 throw away

基本结构:主语+have/has+过去分词(done) ①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他 ②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他 ③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他 ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他) [编辑本段 编辑本段] 编辑本段


1 ,规则动词 规则动词:规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则 规则动词 相同.四点变化规则: (1),一般动词,在词尾直接加" ed . " work---worked---worked ,visit---visited---visited (2),以" e "结尾的动词,只在词尾加" d " . live---lived---lived , (3),以"辅音字母 + y "结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加" ed " . study---studied---studied ,cry---cried---cried , play---played---played ,stay---stayed---stayed (4),重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加" ed . "

stop---stopped---stopped , drop---dropped--dropped 2 ,不规则动词 不规则动词: 不规则动词 AAA 型 原型 过去式 过去分词 burst burst burst cast cast cast cost cost cost cut cut cut hit hit hit hurt hurt hurt put put put set set set shut shut shut spread spread spread let let let AAB 型 beat beat beaten ABA 型 become became become run ran run come came come 特殊情况 read read read read 原形发音为/ri:d/,过去式和过去分词发音为/red/ ABB 型 bring brought brought

buy bought bought build built built burn burnt burnt catch caught caught dig dug dug feel felt felt fight fought fought find found found hear heard heard hold held held keep kept kept lay laid laid lead led led lose lost lost make made made meet met met sell sold sold shoot shot shot sit sat sat stand stood stood sweep swept swept teach taught taught tell told told think thought thought win won won ABC 型 begin began begun blow blew blown break broke broken choose chose chosen draw drew drawn drive drove driven drink drank drunk fly flew flown forgive forgave forgiven forget forgot forgotten freeze froze frozen give gave given

grow grew grown know knew known ride rode ridden rise rose risen ring rang rung shake shook shaken sing sang sung sink sank sunk swim swam swum throw threw thrown write wrote written [编辑本段 编辑本段] 编辑本段

(1)定义:现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生过或完成的动作或状态,但其结 果却和现在有联系,也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在. I have spent all of my money.(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.) Jane has laid the table.(含义是:现在桌子已经摆好了.) Michael has been ill.(含义是:现在仍然很虚弱) He has returned from abroad. (含义是:现在已在此地) (2)定义: 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现在的情 况,常与 for,since 连用. Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 1998. 注意: 1.现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用,(如表示过去的时间状语) 如 yesterday(morning,afternoon),last(morning,afternoon)等,除非与 for,sinc e 连用. 2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用 ,如 already, yet, just, before, recently,still, lately 等: He has already obtained a scholarship. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ? 3. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用, 如 often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several occasion 等: Have you ever been to Beijing I have never heard Bunny say anything against her. I have used this pen only three times. It is still good. George has met that gentleman on several occasions.

4. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用, 如 now, up to these few days/weeks/months/years, this morning/week/mon th/year, just, today, up to present, so far 等: Peter has written six papers so far. Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom. There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year. The friendly relations and cooperation between our two countries have b een enhanced in the past few years. Up to the present everything has been successful. 5. 现在完成时表示现在之前业已完成的动作,虽然其效果或影响仍然存在但已不 再继续,但是有一些现在完成时的句子,在后面加上 for+一段时间,则现在完成时的动 作就表示延续性. Thomas has studied Russian. (现在不再学俄语) Thomas has studied Russian for three years. (=Thomas began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.(同第 2 点用法第一个例句) 6. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动 作. We have had four texts this semester. 现在完成时的"完成用法 和 未完成用法 未完成用法" 现在完成时的 完成用法"和 "未完成用法 完成用法 1.现在完成时的"完成用法" 现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对 现在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系. 例如:He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了.(动作结束于过去,但说明 的是现在的情况--灯现在不亮了.) 现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过 去时间状语(如:already,yet,before,recently 等),频度时间状语(如:never,ev er,once 等),包括现在时刻在内的时间状语(如:this morning / month /year..., today 等)连用. 例如: Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗? 2.现在完成时的"未完成用法" 现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在, 或可能还要继续下去. 例如: He has lived here since 1978.自从 1978 年以来, 他一直住在这儿. (动 作起始于 1978 年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去.) I have been in the army for more than 5 years.我在部队已经呆了五年多 了.(动作开始于 5 年前,一直延续至今,有可能还要继续下去.) 此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间的状语(由 since 或 for 引导), 或表示与现

在时刻相连的时间状语(如:up to now,so far)等. 例如: have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止我没有他的任何 I 消息. 注意:(1)现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词, 即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词.如:come,go,arrive,leave,join,become, die 等. (2)现在完成时常见两种句型: ①for 短语 ②It is+一段时间+ since 从句 3.一段时间+has passed+since 从句 4.主语+have / has been+since 短语 例如:He has been in the League for three years. 或 It is three years since he joined the League. 他入团已三年了 一.have/has been doing sth. [编辑本段 编辑本段] 编辑本段

1. 动作发生在过去,目前仍在继续或刚刚结束, 常和 "for" 加上 "一段时间", 或 "since" 加上"一个确切的过去的时间" 连用. a) "for" 用于过去的一段时间. (动词必须是可以延续的) He has been there for six months. 她去那儿有 6 个月了. (直到现在) He went there 6 months ago. He has never been there. 他从来都没去过那里.(直到现在) b) "since" 用于过去的一个确切的时间, 意思是"从那时一直到现在", 总是和完 成 时一齐用, 而且不能省略. (主句动词必须是可以延续的) Tim has been in Nantong since January. 自从 1 月份以来他一直都在南通. (现在仍在南通) 注意: "since" 后面的确切的过去的时间也可以是一个含有过去时的从句. He has been interested in collecting coins since he was a child. 他打小时候起就对收集硬币感兴趣. (现在还是如此) c) 现在完成时常和短语 "up to now /till now", "so far" (意思是从过去某一 确定的时间一直延续到现在.) Up to/till now he's read many story books. 至今他已读过好多故事书. I've been to New York three times so far. 至今我已到纽约去过三次. 2 刚刚完成的动作. I've just got a letter from my brother. 3 "already" 用于现在完成时的肯定句中, "yet" 用于现在完成时的否定句和疑

问句中 He has (already) visited many places in China. (already) He has come back now. Have you ever been to Australia? 注意 "already" 在句中的两种位置. The train hasn't arrived yet.火车(到现在)还没有到. Has she arrived yet? 她已经到了吗?Hasn't he come yet? 她还没来吗? I haven't been very successful so far.我一直都没有成功. 1.现在完成进行时 当 后面接 有一 段时 间的词 时,或是 加表示 时 间的词 时,可以 用现在 完 成时 .如果 这 件事现在还在持续或还在做,则可用 现在完成进行时. 如:I have been skating for 4 hours. I have finished my homework. 2.现在完成时的被动语态. 后接动词的过去分词. 如:The building has been built for 5 years. 二.一般现在时:用动词原形 一般过去时:用动词的过去式 一般将来时:will/shall+do is/am/are going to do 过去将来时:could/would do 现在完成时:have/has done 过去完成时:had done 将来完成时:shall have done 过去将来完成时:would/could have done 现在进行时:is/am/are doing 过去进行时:was/were doing 将来进行时:will/shall be doing 过去将来进行时:would/could be doing 现在完成进行时:have/has been doing 过去完成进行时:had been doing 将来完成进行时:shall have been doing 过去将来完成进行时:would have been doing 此时态一般在中学学习 [编辑本段 编辑本段] 编辑本段

( 1 ) ,一般过去时的谓语动词用过去式,而现在完成时的谓语基本构成是"助 动词 have/ has + 过去分词" .

(2) ,一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用.如: yesterday, last week , two years ago ,just now ,in 2002 等;而现在完成时则常与 just ,already ,ev er ,never 等副词和 these days ,this week ,since ......, for ...... 等表示一段时 间的状语连用. 试比较以下几组句子,有什么区别: ① A:Have you seen the film ? B:Did you see the film ? 分析:你看过这部电影吗?( A )句强调的是被问者对剧情是否了解; B ) ( 句强调的是看这部电影的动作是否发生过,并不强调是否知道其内容. ② A:How has he done it ? B:How did he do it ? 分析:他是怎么做的这件事?( A )句强调的是他做着件事的方式对现在产生 了某种影响; B )句单纯的询问做这件事的方式. ( ③ A:He has lived in Beijing for 8 years . B:He lived in Beijing for 8 years . 分析:他在北京住了 8 年. A )句讲的是到目前为止他在北京住了 8 年, ( 可能还会继续在北京住下去. B )句讲的是他在北京住过 8 年,现在已经不在北 ( 京了. (2)现在完成时强调过去发生的动作对现在的影响和结果,而一般过去时与现 在没有联系,只是说明某个动作发生的时间是在过去. 比:I have washed the car. 我洗过了车. (看上去很漂亮) I washed the car a moment ago. She has watered the flowers. She watered the flowers yesterday. 没有寄出. I wrote the letter last week and I posted it three days ago. 那封信,3 天前寄出的. (3)现在完成时表示的动作或状态延续到现在并可能延续下去,而一般过去时 则单纯表示过去某段时间内的经历. 比:It has rained for five hours. 雨已经下了 5 个小时了. It rained for live hours yesterday. 昨天下了 5 个小时的雨. 他等她等了两个小时, He has waited for her for two hours. 他等她已经两个小时了. He waited for her two hours and then went home. 然后就回家了. I have reviewed two lessons this morning. (说话时还在上午) I reviewed two lessons this morning. 今天上午我复习了两课. (说话时已是 今天上午我已经复 习了两课. 我上周写的 我刚才洗过车了. 她昨天浇的花. 她已经浇了花. (不需要再浇了)

I have written the letter but I haven't posted it yet. 信我已经写好了, 但还

下午或晚上) 完成态终止性动词变延续性动词规则表 基本变化规则 a)用延续性动词代替终止性动词 1,用 have 代替 buy My brother has had(不能用 has bought) this bike for almost four years. 2,用 keep 或 have 代替 borrow I have kept(不能用 have borrowed) the book for quite a few days. 3,用 be 替代 become How long has your sister been a teacher? 4,用 have a cold 代替 catch a cold Tom has had a cold since the day before yesterday. 5,用 wear 代替 put on b)用"be+形容词"代终止性动词 1,be+married 代 marry 2,be+ill 代 fall (get) ill 3,be+dead 代 die 4,be+asleep 代 fall (get) asleep 5,be+awake 代 wake/wake up 6,be+gone 代 lose,die,sell,leave 7,be+open 代 open 8,be closed 代 close/shut 9,be+missing(gone,lost)代 lose c)用"be+副词"代终止性动词 1"be+on"代 start,begin 2"be+up"代 get up 3"be+back(to)"代 return to,come back to,go back to 4"be here (there)"代 come(arrive,reach,get) here 或 go (arrive,reach,get) th ere 等等 d)用"be+介词短语"代终止性动词 1."be in/at +地点"代替 go to /come to 2.用 be in the army 代替 join the army 3."be in/at +地点"代替 move to 常用瞬间动词变延续性动词表: 1. have arrived at/in sw. got to/reached sw. come/gone/moved to sw. →have been in sw./at…相应的介词 2. have come/gone back/returned → have been back 3. have come/gone out →have been out 4. have become → have been 5. have closed / opened→ have been close/open 6. have got up → have been up; 7. have died → have been dead;

8. have left sw. → have been away from sw. 9. have fallen asleep/got to sleep → have been asleep; 10. have finished/ended/completed → have been over; 11. havemarried → have been married; 12. have started/begun to do sth. → have done sth. ; 13. have begun → have been on 14. have borrowed/bought →have kept/had 15. have lost → haven't had 16. have put on →have worn 17. have caught /get a cold → have had a cold; 18. have got to know → have known 19. have/has gone to → have been in 20. have joined/have taken part in the league/the Party/the army →have been a member of/ have been in/have been the Party's member/the league member/the soldier…

"need"双重角色的用法及其区别 "need"既可以作情态动词,也可以作实义动词,但是它们的用法不同. 作为情态动词的"need"的用法与其他情态动词"can","may","must"的用法基本相同:在限 定动词词组中总是位居第一,没有非限定形式,即没有不定式,-ing 分词或-ed 分词等形式; 第三人称单数现在时没有词形变化; 情态动词之间是相互排斥的, 即在一个限定动词词组中 只能有一个情态动词.下面是"need"作为情态动词的用法: 一,need 表示"需要"或"必须",通常用于否定句和疑问句.例如: 1.You needn't do it again.你不需要再做了. 2.He needn't worry about it.这件事他无需担心. 3.Need he do this homework first?他需要先做这些作业吗? 4.Need they fill in the form?他们需要填表吗? 二,在否定句中,可以用 need 的否定形式+不定式完成体.例如: 1.We needn't have worried.其实我们不必要慌. 2.You needn't have mentioned it.你本来不必提起这件事. 3.You needn't have said that when he asked.当他问的时候,你其实不必要说. 三,needn't 后的不定式间或也能用进行式或被动语态.例如: 1.He needn't be standing in the rain.他不必要站在雨中. 2.We needn't be waiting in this place.我们不必要在这儿等. 3.The hedges needn't be trimmed thisweek.本周树蓠不必要整修. "need"作为实义动词时,通常用法是: 人+need +to do 物+need +doing 物+need +to be done

另外,"need"后还可以直接跟名词.请看下面的例子: 1.We need to collect the parcel before we leave for England.去英国之前,我们需要收 拾好行李. 2.We need to tell him the truth.我们需要告诉他真相. 3.My car needs repairing.我的汽车需要修理. 4.The flowers need watering.这些花需要浇水. 5.His leather shoes needs to be mended.他的皮鞋需要修补. 6.Her room needs cleaning.她的房间需要打扫.

7.It is aquestion that needs very careful consideraton.这是一个 需要慎重考虑的问题.
既可以做情态动词又可以作为实义动词. 1)情态动词: need + do sth need not do sth/needn't do sth (否定) 例子:I need go to my father's factory now. I needn't go to my father's factory now. 用法如 can, must, may, might 等一样. 如果实在想不出就把 need 想成 can,慢慢就会了. 2)实义动词: need + to do sth don't/doesn't need to do sth (否定) 例子:I need to go to my father's factory now. I don't need to go to my father's factory now. 情态和实义间基本没有太大区别.关键看他怎么问你.这种题目多数在选择题中比较多.看 问题时候找找句子中有没有" to " " don't/doesn't" 这类比较明显的暗示来作出回答. PS: 口语中 need 作为情态动词多一些.

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