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第十八届国际生物学奥林匹克竞赛实验试题二(2)


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18 INTERNATIONAL BIOLOGY OLYMPIAD JULY 15 - 22, 2007

PRACTICAL EXAMINATION 2 PLANT ANATOMY, MORPHOLOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOG

Y 植物解剖、形态、生理 EXAM BOOKLET 2 试卷二 Task B. Identification of flowering plants 23 marks 开花植物鉴定(23分) Task C. Dissection of a seed and a flower 23 marks 种子及花的解剖(23分) Task D. Plant evolution 5 points 植物演化(5分) Task E. Graphing and interpretation of data 8 marks 绘图及解释数据(8分) Time allowed: 70 minutes 操作时间:70分钟 (Total time allowed for Practical Examination 2 = 90 minutes) 实作2(试卷一&二) 总共90分钟 WRITE YOUR 4-DIGIT STUDENT CODE IN THE BOX BELOW AND ON THE TOP OF EACH PAGE OF THIS EXAM BOOKLET 务必将4码学生代码填入下栏及试卷每页上方字段 STUDENT CODE 学生代码

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STUDENT CODE __________________ 学生代码

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GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IMPORTANT 考前会先进行色盲检查。 Read the exam paper carefully before commencing the exam. 在操作开始前,请仔细阅读试卷内文 It is recommended that you allocate your time according to the mark value of the Task. 建议请按照各试题配分的比重来规划作答时间 Write your answers in the exam booklet. 将答案写在本试卷上 Do not forget to hand in your graph prepared in Task E with your exam booklet. 别忘了将Task E作图的方格纸与试卷一同交回

BE SURE THAT YOU HAVE WRITTEN YOUR 4-DIGIT STUDENT CODE ON THE FIRST PAGE OF EACH EXAM BOOKLET and ON THE TOP OF EACH PAGE OF THIS BOOKLET 务必将 4 位数学生代码写于封面及每页答案卷的页首的字段上。 ? IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR TASKS B AND C Handle the plant samples with care. Some samples will be used in more than one TASK. 小心操作!有些材料可能会在不同的操作部分再用到! When you have completed Part 7 of Task B, please indicate so by placing your plastic bag cover back on top of the microscope and a lab assistant will grade the quality of your section. 当完成TASK B的第7题时, 将显微镜的塑料外罩盖上, 以知会监考人员, 【继 续你其它部分的操作】监考人员将会评定切片技术的分数。 Make sure that you have completed Parts 5, 6 and 7 of TASK B before commencing TASK C. 确定已完成Task B的第5, 6 and 7题,再继续Task C It is important that you cover your dissection with a paper towel after you have completed Task C1 (Seed Dissection) and Task C3 (Flower Dissection), by doing so a lab assistant will come to collect the result. (You don’t need to notify a lab assistant in person !) In each case, a lab assistant will ask you to sign your specimen board, photograph your dissection and then remove the dissection for marking. Task C1(种子解剖)及Task C3(花的解剖)完成后,用纸巾将解剖结果盖
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住,【继续你其它部分的操作】,监考人员会前来收你操作的结果。他会要 求你在板上签名并照相存证,然后把它拿去评分。

PLANT ANATOMY and MORPHOLOGY 植物解剖及形态 Materials 材料 ? 10 petri dishes containing plant samples 1 to 10 ? 10个培养皿中各含有一种植物材料(编号1-10) 1 foam core specimen board labeled SEED DISSECTION with four coloured pins (1 black, 1white, 1 yellow, 1 blue) 1个标示「种子解剖」的保利龙标本板,板上有4根不同颜色的针(黑色、白 色、黄色、蓝色) 1 foam core specimen board labeled FLOWER DISSECTION with seven coloured pins (1 orange, 1 white, 1 yellow, 1 blue, 1 pink, 1 green, 1 black) 1个标示「花的解剖」的保利龙标本板,板上有7根不同颜色的针(橘色、白 色、黄色、蓝色、粉红色、绿色、黑色) 1 single-edge razor blade 1个单面刀片 1 dissecting kit 1组解剖用具 6 glass microscope slides 6片载玻片 1 box of cover slips 1盒盖玻片 1 drop bottle containing toluedine blue stainng solution 1个含有蓝色染剂(toluedine blue)的滴瓶 1 drop bottle containing distilled water 1 个含有蒸馏水的滴瓶 3 tissues 3 种组织 1 light microscope 1台光学显微镜 1 pair disposable gloves 1副丢弃式手套 Paper towel 纸巾
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NOTE: Before beginning this task, be sure that you have all the materials listed above. If you do not, notify a lab assistant immediately by raising your hand. 注意:在考试之前,请确定你有上列所有材料,若有缺者,请立即举手找监考人 员! TASK B. Identification and classification of flowering plant samples based on their anatomy and morphology. (23 marks) 根据解剖及形态特征,鉴定并分类这些开花植物材料。(23分) Procedure: 步骤 1. Using the razor blade, cut a thin cross section of each of the samples 1 to 4. 使用单片刀片,将材料1 – 4 作徒手切片(横切) 2. Transfer each section to a microscope slide and place 1 drop of toluedine blue staining solution and 1 drop of water on the section. 将切下的薄片放在载玻片上,滴一滴蓝色染料及一滴蒸馏水在切片上 3. Put a cover slip on the section (try to avoid air bubbles when placing the cover slip) and remove excess stain by placing the corner of a piece of tissue paper against one edge of the cover slip. 盖上盖玻片(避免有气泡),并用纸巾的一角吸去多余的染料 4. Starting first with the 4X objective and then using either the 10X or the 40X objective, examine each slide under the microscope and observe the structure of the tissue. 将切片放在显微镜下,由低倍(4X)至高倍(10X or 40X)观察材料 1 – 4 的组 织 5. Based on your observation of each slide prepared for samples 1 to 4, identify the tissue/organ sectioned. For each sample, enter the appropriate letter from the column labeled KEY in the table below. (8 marks) 根据你观察材料 1 – 4 的结果,鉴定其组织或器官。从下表右(KEY)的构造名 称中,选出适当的字母填入材料 1 – 4 旁的空格中。(8 分) KEY Sample Tissue/Organ A = leaf 叶 1 B = stem 茎 2 C = root 根 3 D = petiole叶柄 4 6. Examine the sections you prepared for Samples 1 to 4, and the plant parts of Samples 5 to 10. Identify whether each sample is from a monocot plant or from a dicot plant and indicate your answer by writing an “X” in the appropriate column of the following table. (10 marks)
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检视材料1 – 4的切片,以及材料5 – 10 (植物的某部分构造),鉴定出每种材料 其属于单子叶或双子叶植物。在适当空格中画下「X」。(10分) Monocot Dicot Plant Sample 单子叶 双子叶 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

7. Once you have completed Part 6, place the slide with your best section on the microscope, focus the microscope and please indicate so by placing your plastic bag cover back on top of the microscope and a lab assistant will grade the quality of your section. (5 marks). 当完成第六题后,把你切得最好的切片放在显微镜上,对好焦距,把显微镜盖上 塑料外罩,以知会监考人员,【继续你其它部分的操作】监考人员将会评定切片 技术的分数(5分)。 After grading, this slide will be labeled with your student code and your signature, and be taken for storage. 在评分后,此切片会被标记上你的编号并经由你签名,作为存证。

TASK C. SEED AND FLOWER ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY (25 marks) 种子及花的解剖及形态(25分)
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IMPORTANT. Make sure that you have completed TASK B before starting TASK C. 注意: 你必须先完成B部分,再进入C部分。 TASK C1. SEED ANATOMY (8 marks) 种子解剖(8分) Procedure步骤 1. Write your student number on the specimen board labeled SEED DISSECTION. 在标示有「种子的解剖」的标本板上写上你的学生代码 2. Using Sample 5, cut the seed longitudinally with the razor blade and dissect the seed into its component parts. 用材料5,以单面刀片将种子纵切,并将种子的各部分组成小心解剖开来。 3. Use the pins provided to pin the correct seed part on the specimen board 用所提供不同颜色的针,把种子各部组成分别插在「种子的解剖」标本板上 ? black pin for the testa (seed coat) 黑色针:种皮 ? white pin for the cotyledon 白色针:子叶 ? yellow pin for the plumule (foliage leaves) 黄色针:胚芽 ? blue pin for the radic 蓝色针:胚根 4. After finishing this task, cover the board with a paper towel and notify a lab assistant that you have completed the dissection . The lab assistant and yourself will sign the label on the specimen board, and the lab assistant will photograph your dissection. Your dissection will then be removed for grading. 完成后,用纸巾盖住标本板,以知会监考人员你已完成。监考人员及你将在板上 签名,监考人员会把你的解剖结果照相存证,然后把它拿去评分。

TASK C2. FLOWER MORPHOLOGY (2 marks) 花的形态(2分) IMPORTANT. You must have completed TASK B before commencing this task. 注意:你必须完成B部分后,再继续回答以下问题 Procedure步骤
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1. Examine the flower in Sample 6. Write an “X” against the correct answer for the following questions: 检视材料6,在以下问题的正确答案上画「X」。 (a) The sepals alone make up the 以下何者仅由萼片组成? i) corolla _________ 花冠 ii) calyx _________ 花萼 iii) perianth ____ ___ 花被 iv) hypanthium _______ 花萼筒 (b) The petals alone make up the whorl known as 以下何者仅由花瓣组成? i) corolla _______ 花冠 ii) calyx _______ 花萼 iii) perianth _______ 花被 iv) hypanthium _______ 花萼筒

TASK C3. FLOWER ANATOMY (15 marks) 花的解剖(15分) IMPORTANT. You must have completed TASK B before commencing this task. 注意:你必须完成B部分后,再继续回答以下问题 Procedure步骤 1. Write your student number on the specimen board labeled FLOWER DISSECTION. 在标示有「花的解剖」的标本板上写上你的学生代码 2. Dissect the flower (Sample 6) into its component parts. 将花(材料6)小心解剖出各组成部分

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3. Use the pins provided to pin the correct flower part on the specimen board 用所提供不同颜色的针,把花各部组成分别插在「花的解剖」标本板上 ? orange pin for a sepal (2 mark) 橘色:一片萼片(2分) ? white pin for a petal (2 mark) 白色:一片花瓣(2分) ? yellow pin for an anther (2 mark) 黄色:花药(2分) ? pink pin for the filament (2 mark) 粉红色:花丝(2分) ? green pin for the style (2 mark) 绿色:花柱(2分) ? blue pin the stigma (2 mark) 蓝色:柱头(2分) ? black pin for the ovary (1 mark) 黑色:子房(1分) 4. Use an “X” to indicate the correct classification of the placentation within the ovule of this flower. 这朵花子房中的胎座属于哪一种?在正确答案上标示「X」。 i) marginal _______ 边缘胎座 ii) axile _______ 中轴胎座 iii) parietal _______ 侧膜胎座 iv) free-central _______ 分离中央胎座 5. After finishing this task, cover the board with a paper towel indicating that you have finish dissecting. A lab assistant will photograph your dissection. Both the lab assistant and yourself will sign the label on the board. Your dissection will then be taken by the lab assistant for grading. 完成后,用纸巾盖住标本板,以知会监考人员你已完成。监考人员及你将在板上 签名,监考人员会把你的解剖结果照相存证,然后把它拿去评分。

PLANT EVOLUTION TASK D. Identification of the Time of Evolution of Higher Plants (5 marks) 植物演化时间的鉴定(5分) Materials材料
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? ?Plant samples in dishes labeled H to M. DO NOT OPEN THE PETRI DISHES. 培养皿H – M 为植物材料【勿打开培养皿】 ? ?Photograph of the evolutionary time scale (Figure 1) 地质年代表(图1) NOTE: Before beginning this task, be sure that you have all the materials listed above. If you do not, notify a lab assistant immediately by raising your hand. 注意:在考试之前,请确定你有上列所有材料,若有缺者,请立即举手找监考人 员! Procedure步骤 These plant samples possess characteristics representative of their ancestral lineages. Read the descriptions in Box A and identify the description that is most correct for each plant sample. 这些植物材料具有代表其祖先谱系的特征。根据A表中的描述,找到与每种植物 的适当对应之描述。 1. Using the codes (1 to 6) representing the different time periods in the evolutionary time scale shown in Figure 1), indicate the geologic time period that best corresponds to each description. 用地质年代表(表1)中的不同年代的编号1-6,来代表每个描述所出现的地质年 代。 2. Enter the two codes (one related to the description and one related to the evolutionary time period) for each sample in Box B. 把上述两个对应的代号(一个为特征描述、一个为地质年代)填入表B NOTE: Not all descriptions in Box A will be used and no letter should be used more than once. The answer for Sample M is provided. 注意:表A中的描述并不一定全会用到,而表中的英文字母最多只能用一次! (M材料的答案已提供)

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BOX A 表A Plant Sample Lineage Characteristics 植物材料谱系的特征描述
a. Th b. is spore-bearing plant group has persisted relatively unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. In this time period, it was likely an important dietary element of herbivore dinosaurs. 此具孢子的植物类群已存在数亿年。在此期间,这些植物可能是草食性恐龙的主要食物来源。 b. The first macrofossil evidence of the evolution of grasses appears in the fossil record at the time of the diversification of mammals. 最早出现的大型植物化石证据,显示禾草植物的演化与哺乳类的分歧大约发生在同时期。 c. In this time period, the indehiscent integumented megasporangium (ovules/seeds) originated. It is represented in the sample by modern plants producing naked seeds on a scale. 胚珠或种子起始于此期间,开始出现在鳞片状叶上产生裸露种子的现代植物。 d. This group of spore-bearing plants included members with tree-like stature (Sample M) and were common in coal-producing swamp floras (answers provided). 这群具孢子的植物有树干状构造(材料M),是产生石炭的沼泽植被的主要组成。(已有答案, 不必作答) e. Coniferous seed plants, as represented by the sample, were driven to extinction by the diversification of the superior characteristics of the angiosperms in this time period. 松柏类种子植物的代表,在此时期,因被子植物的更多分歧特征而逐渐灭绝。 f. The dichotomous branching and sporangia of this plant were characteristics of the first terrestrial tracheophytes, which left some of the earliest land plant macrofossils at this time in history. 此植物具二叉分枝及孢子囊, 被认为是最早出现的陆生维管束植物, 此也是目前巨大植物化石出 现的时期。 g. The evolution of flowering, as represented by this angiosperm, first appears in the fossil in this time BOX B period. 表B 此被子植物代表花的演化,也是出现花的化石之最早时期。 Enter the correct codes for each sample 在每种材料旁填入正确代码 Sample Description Time Period 特征描述 地质年代 H ………

I ……… J ………

K ………
L ………

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PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 植物生理 TASK E. Interpretation of photosynthetic data from plants grown at different light levels (8 marks) 植物生长于不同光强度下的光合作用结果之数据解释。(8分) Materials材料 ? 2 sheets of graph paper, each with the axes labeled differently 2 张方格纸,且其两轴的标示不同 NOTE: Before beginning this task, be sure that you have all the materials listed above. If you do not, notify a lab assistant immediately by raising your hand. 注意:在考试之前,请确定你有上列所有材料,若有缺者,请立即举手找监考人 员! Introduction说明 Single leaves from two different plants, one grown in full sun, the other in shade, were removed and placed in separate, clear boxes. The leaves were exposed to increasing light levels and the rate of O release was measured.
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两棵植物,一棵给予全光照、另一棵置于阴暗处,而后各取一片叶子,分别置于 透明的箱子中。接着给予渐增的光强度,并记录其产生氧气的速率。 The data obtained from this experiment are presented in the following table: 实验所得数据列于下表中 Rate of O production产氧率 Light Level 光强度 (μmol photons m s )
-2 -1 2 -2 -1

(μmol O m s )
2

0 15 25 50 100 250 500 600

Leaf A -20 -10 -5 -1 5 15 28 30

Leaf B -2 -0.5 1.5 3 6 10 12 11

Procedure 步骤 1. Select the sheet of graph paper that has the X-axis and the Y-axis labeled correctly for the set of data above. (1 mark) 选择一张显示与数据表对应正确的X、Y轴之方格纸(1分)
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2. Write your name and your student number on the label on the sheet of graph paper you have chosen. 在你选的方格纸上填入姓名及代码。 3. Mark the scale of the units on each axis. 在两轴上标上适当的尺度 4. Plot the data presented in the table for each leaf to compare the photosynthetic rates (O production) of the leaves with respect to light. Clearly identify which line
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represents Leaf A and which line represents Leaf B. (2 marks) 依表中数据作图, 比较两叶片在不同光强度下的产氧速率, 并明确标示两条曲线, 何者为Leaf A?何者为Leaf B?(2分) 5.Examine the graphs you have drawn and determine which leaf (Leaf A or Leaf B) demonstrates the characteristics of a shade-adapted leaf and which demonstrates the characteristics of a sun-adapted leaf. Indicate your answer in the table below by writing an “X” in the correct cell. (1 mark) 检视所作的曲线图, 判断这两个叶片何者为适应阴暗、何者为适应光照?把答案 以「X」填入适当空格中。(1分) Leaf A Leaf B Shade-adapted 适应阴暗 Sun-adapted 适应光照 6. Use the data plots on your graph to answer the following questions: 利用所作曲线图回答下列问题 (a) Is the light compensation point of Leaf A higher than the light compensation point of Leaf B? Circle the correct answer. (0.5 mark) Leaf A的光补偿点是否较Leaf B高?圈出正确答案。(0.5分) YES NO (b) Can the light compensation point be defined as the light level at which the photosynthetic response reaches saturation? Circle the correct answer. (0.5 mark) 光补偿点是否可被定义为 「光合作用达到饱合时的光强度」 ?圈出正确答案。 (0.5 分) YES NO (c) Which of the answers below most correctly identifies the light compensation point of Leaf A? Circle the letter of that answer. (1 mark) 下列何者为Leaf A的光补偿点?圈出正确答案。(1分) i) between -10 and -5 μmol O m s
2 -2 -1

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-2 -1

ii) between 10 and 20 μmol O m s
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iii) between 25 and 50 μmol photons m s iv) between 50 and 75 μmol photons m s

-2 -1

-2 -1

v) between 500 and 600 μmol photons m s

-2 -1

(d) Which of the answers below best describes the maximum rate of photosynthesis of the sun leaf? Circle the letter of that answer. (1 mark) 下列何者最适宜代表适应光照叶片的最大光合作用速率?圈出正确答案。 (1分) i) 12 μmol O m s
2 2 -2 -1

ii) 15 μmol O m s
2

-2 -1

iii) 30 μmol O m s

-2 -1

iv) between 250 and 600 μmol photons m s v) greater than 600 μmol photons m s
-2 -1

-2 -1

(e) This graph gives information about the photosynthetic response to light. Can it also be used to estimate the response of respiration rate with regards to light? Circle the correct answer. (1 mark) 此图提供植物对光之光合作用反应, 它是否也能估计植物对光之呼吸作用速率? 圈出正确答案。(1分) YES NO - THE END – HAVE YOU WRITTEN YOUR STUDENT CODE ON THE FIRST PAGE OF THIS EXAM BOOKLET AND ON THE TOP OF EACH PAGE? 检查你是否在第一页以及每一页的最上方填入学生代码? REMEMBER TO HAND IN YOUR GRAPH PAPER WITH THIS EXAM BOOKLET. 记得把所画的方格纸连同此试卷一起交回

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