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一、根据英文单词写出中文词义 (每题 1 分共 20 分)

silicon 2 power dissipation 3 flip flop 4 base band 5 micron 6 assembly language 7 transient response 8 quality factor 9 power supply 10. quantization level 11. undersampling 12. dielectric 13. decibel 14. duty cycle 15. transducer 16. emulation 17. power-up 18. buffer 19. semi-custom 20. synthesis

硅 功耗 触发器 基带 微米 汇编语言 瞬态响应 品质因子 电源 量化电平 欠采样 介电的 分贝 占空比 传感器 仿真 加电 缓冲器 半定制 综合

二、根据中文词义写出英文单词 (每题 1 分共 20 分)

1. 电流源 2.晶体管 3.周期 4.稳定性 5.矢量 6.复位 7.除法

current source transistor period stability vector reset division

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8.振荡器 9.锁存器 10.滤波器 11.电感 12.电容 13.寄存器 14.正反馈 15.并联 16.谐振 17. 晶体 18.原理图 19.整流器 20.增益

oscillator latch filter inductance capacitance register positive feedback parallel resonance crystal schematic rectifier gain

What is a filter? A filter is a device that passes electric signals __at_ certain frequencies or frequency ranges __while_ preventing the passage of others. Filter circuits are used ___in____ a wide variety of applications. In the filed of telecommunication (在电信领域 ),band-pass filters are used in the audio frequency range (0kHz to 20kHz) for __modem and speech processing__ (调制解调器和语音 处 理 ).High-frequency band-pass filters(several hundred MHz) are used for ____channel selection_ ( 信道选择 )in telephone central offices. Data acquisition systems usually require _anti-aliasing low-pass filters__ (抗混叠低通滤波器) as well as low-pass noise filters in their preceding __signal conditioning_ (信号调理)stages. System power supplies often use band-rejection filters to suppress the 60-Hz frequency and high frequency transients. In addition, there are filters that do not filter_ (滤除)any frequencies of a complex input signal, but just add a ___linear phase shift__ (线性相移)to each frequency component,thus contributing a constant __time delay__(时延).These are called ___all-pass filter__ (全通滤波器). At high frequencies (>1 MHz), all of these filters usually consist __of_ passive components __such as__ inductors (L), resistors (R), and capacitors(C). They are then __called______ LRC filters. In the low frequency range (1 Hz to 1 MHz), however, the inductor value becomes very large and the inductor itself gets quite bulky, ___making__ economical production difficult. In these _cases_____, _active filters_
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(有源滤波器) becomes important. Active filters are circuits that use _operational amplifier__ ( 运算放大器 ) as the active device ___in__ combination with some resistors and capacitors to provide an LRC-like filter performance at low frequency.

四. 翻译(每题 5 分共 40 分) 1. As in the first-order case, the second-order low-pass transfer function tends to zero as frequency tends to infinity. 当频率趋近于无穷时, 二阶低通滤波器的传输函数趋近于零(和一阶低通滤 波器的传输函数一样) 。 2. The flash converter operates by simultaneously presenting the input signal to a bank of 2N–1 comparators, whose reference voltages are set by a resistor chain to exactly correspond to all of the possible sample levels, which can be represented by the converter 闪式 ADC 将输入信号同时置于一列(2N-1)个比较器之前,而比较器的 参考电压是由一组电阻设定的, 这些参考电压精确对应于转换器代表的所有可能 的采样电压值。 3. Duty cycle is the ratio of the output high time to the total cycle time. 占空比是输出高电平时间与总的周期时间的比值。 4. Signal integrity is defined by loss of quality of the input signal. Ideally, the signal at the output of an interconnect should be equal in all characteristics with the signal at the input of the interconnect. In reality, signal degradation occurs. 信号完整性是指输入信号质量的损失。理想情况下,互连器件的输出端信号 和输入端信号在所有特性上都完全相同。实际中会发生信号质量的下降。 5. This is called negative feedback, and it is the underlying operating principle for all modern day operational amplifiers

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这个方案被称为“负反馈”,它是现代运算放大器的基本工作原理 6. A flip-flop is basically a bi-state circuit in which either a 0 or 1 state can resides. A flip-flop will lose its state when the supply voltage is removed. Therefore, it is volatile. 触发器是一种存储“0”或“1”的双态电路。由于电源电压去掉后,触发器原有 的状态就失去了,因此它是“易失的”。 7. If we think of s as frequency, this formula confirms the intuitive feeling that gain is inversely proportional to frequency. 假如把 s 当作频率的话, 该公式印证了我们有关“增益和频率成反比”的直观 推断。 8. A transistor is a device that conducts a variable amount of electricity through it, depending on how much electricity is input to it. In other words, it is a digital switch. However, unlike the vacuum tube , it is solid state . 晶体管是一种依据输入电量大小而传导可变电量的器件。换言之,晶体管是 一种数字开关。然而,和真空管不同,晶体管是“固态”的。

5. The second-order function decreases twice as fast as the first-order case, however, because of the s2 factor in the denominator. 二阶函数递减的速度是一阶情况的二倍,这是因为分母中具有 s2 项因子的缘故。

6. Dynamic Random Access Memory. The word ? dynamic?indicates that the data is not held in a flip-flop but rather in a storage cell. The data in a storage cell must be refreshed ? 动态随机存取存储器 : “动态”这个词意味着数据不是保存在触发器当中,而是 保存在一个存储单元中。由 于存在泄漏,所以保存在存 储单元中的数据必须定期 更新(读出并重新写入)

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