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教案3 定语从句详解


高中定语从句详细讲解
一、定义及相关术语
1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先 行词之后。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等;关系副词 有 when, where, why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当 一个成分。 例如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中, who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the man, “who”是引导定语从 句的关系词,代替先行词 the man,在定语从句中作主语。

二、关系代词引导的定语从句
1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博 物馆的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。 2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈 论的那个人。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的 班长。 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 例如: The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3.Which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。 This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意 思也没有。 4.That 指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语, 作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观 这座城市的人数达一百万。

Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿? The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。 The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的 信。 5.Whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?

三、“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句
关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 例如: The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.明天我将把你要的杂志带来。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.我们将去听那位我们经常 谈论的著名歌唱家演唱。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 注意: 1. 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如: look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那个保姆照看 的小宝宝们都很健康。 The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. (误) 2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用 whom,不可用 who, that;关系代词指 物时只可用 which,不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是 我的邻居。 The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正)我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞 机实在很舒服。

The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误) 3. “介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词 或者数词。如: He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母,他们 俩待他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果, 有些已经坏了。 There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班总共有4 0个学生,大多数来自大城市。 Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 迄今为止, 他写了 10部小说,其中3部是关于农村生活的。

四、关系副词引导的定语从句
1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所 学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。 Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents. 你还记 得在农村和你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗? 2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛的农场。 Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗? 3. why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 如: From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时, 他就已经知道长大后要做 什么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活的城市正发生 巨大的变化。 The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒绝接受邀请的 原因是十分明了的。

五、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
1、限制性定语从句 形式上:不用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 意义上:是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上:译成先行词的定语:“...的” 关系词的使用上:A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用 that C.可用 who 代替 whom

限制性定语从句举例: The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是 我唯一的可以依靠的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 2、非限制性定语从句 形式上:用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 意义上:只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上:通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上:A.不可省略 B.不用 that C.不可用 who 代替 whom 非限制性定语从句举例 : His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他, 对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立 的, 现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every y ear. 去年夏天,我参观了人民大会堂,在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会议。 注意: (一)限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况 1. 当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定 代词时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如: Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗? There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么 不可能的事。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书馆查找所需 的资料。 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词 who,如: Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都不会做这样 的事。 All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 所有应邀来参加她 婚礼的客人都是重要人物。 2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。如: The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大 本钟。 3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如: This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 4.当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如: This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后, 那辆 旧车成了他的唯一拥有。 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如: Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校唯一出席会 议的人。

5.当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如: Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身? 6.当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如: They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能 记起的在校时的人和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他 的 毛驴。 (二)关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具体情况是: 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如: He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主 句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有“正如、正像”的含 义。如: As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知,中国是发展中国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人,这一点我们从他的口音可 以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知, 约翰是个著名作家。 Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过巴黎十多次 了,这一点我不相信。 注意:当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用 which。如: Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老是迟到,这 使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的,这使得这些 桌子很重。 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如: I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 引导的定语从句 意思有区别。如: She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一 条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。 (三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导,而且通常可以省 略。如: The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令 人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 (四)关系代词与关系副词的选择 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用(即所担当的成 分)。试比较:

A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景 色优美而闻名的地方。 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起 度假的日子。 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过 的日子。 C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 这就是 他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。 (五)but 有时也用作关系词引导定语从句。如: There are very few but admire his talents. 很少有人不赞赏他的才干的。 (but = who don’t) (六)定语从句与同位语从句的区别 1.定语从句修饰限定先行词,它与先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容, 它与先行词是同位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. (定语从句) 刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴 黎的。 The fact that he has already died is quite clear. (同位语从句) 他已经去世了,这个事实很 明了。 2.定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导,关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分,关系代词 在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。 同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导, 在从句中一般不担当成分; 有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导,这些连词则在从句中担当成分。 The news that he told me is true. (定语从句) 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The news that he has just died is true. (同位语从句) 他刚刚去世了,这个消息是真的。 The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. (定语从句) 我 们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. (同位语从句) 我们 如何筹集这么多资金,这个问题很难解决。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. (定语从句) 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. (同位语从句) 他是否 一定会赢得那场比赛,这个问题很难回答。 3.同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句则不能。 如: A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. (同位语从句)我们可 以向老师请教,这个主意不错。 The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. (同位语从句) 地球围绕 太阳转,这个事实人人皆知。 The fact is that the earth moves around the sun..


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