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ADXRS610


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±300°/sec Yaw Rate Gyro ADXRS610
FEATURES
Complete rate gyroscope on a single chip Z-axis (yaw rate) response High vibration rejection over wide frequency 2000 g powered shock survivability Ratiometric to referenced supply 5 V single-supply operation 105°C operation Self-test on digital command Ultrasmall and light (< 0.15 cc, < 0.5 gram) Temperature sensor output RoHS compliant

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The ADXRS610 is a complete angular rate sensor (gyroscope) that uses the Analog Devices, Inc. surface-micromachining process to create a functionally complete and low cost angular rate sensor integrated with all required electronics on one chip. The manufacturing technique for this device is the same high volume BiMOS process used for high reliability automotive airbag accelerometers. The output signal, RATEOUT (1B, 2A), is a voltage proportional to angular rate about the axis normal to the top surface of the package. The output is ratiometric with respect to a provided reference supply. A single external resistor can be used to lower the scale factor. An external capacitor sets the bandwidth. Other external capacitors are required for operation. A temperature output is provided for compensation techniques. Two digital self-test inputs electromechanically excite the sensor to test proper operation of both the sensor and the signal conditioning circuits. The ADXRS610 is available in a 7 mm × 7 mm × 3 mm BGA ceramic package.

APPLICATIONS
Vehicle chassis rollover sensing Inertial measurement units Platform stabilization

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
+5V (ADC REF) 100nF

+5V AVCC 100nF AGND

ST2

ST1

TEMP

VRATIO 25k?

ADXRS610

SELF-TEST

25k? @ 25°C

DEMOD
DRIVE AMP

MECHANICAL SENSOR

AC AMP

VGA

+5V

VDD

180k? ±1% CHARGE PUMP AND VOLTAGE REGULATOR CP1 CP2 CP3 CP4 CP5 SUMJ 100nF 22nF 22nF COUT RATEOUT
06520-001

100nF PGND

Figure 1.

Rev. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 www.analog.com Fax: 781.461.3113 ?2007 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.

ADXRS610 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1 Applications....................................................................................... 1 General Description ......................................................................... 1 Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Specifications..................................................................................... 3 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 4 Rate Sensitive Axis ....................................................................... 4 ESD Caution.................................................................................. 4 Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions............................. 5 Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 6 Theory of Operation .........................................................................9 Setting Bandwidth.........................................................................9 Temperature Output and Calibration.........................................9 Calibrated Performance................................................................9 ADXRS610 and Supply Ratiometricity ................................... 10 Null Adjustment ......................................................................... 10 Self-Test Function ...................................................................... 10 Continuous Self-Test.................................................................. 10 Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 11 Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 11

REVISION HISTORY
4/07—Revision 0: Initial Version

Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 12

ADXRS610 SPECIFICATIONS
All minimum and maximum specifications are guaranteed. Typical specifications are not guaranteed. TA = ?40°C to +105°C, VS = AVCC = VDD = 5 V, VRATIO = AVCC, angular rate = 0°/sec, bandwidth = 80 Hz (COUT = 0.01 μF), IOUT = 100 μA, ±1 g, unless otherwise noted. Table 1.
Parameter SENSITIVITY 1 Measurement Range 2 Initial and Over Temperature Temperature Drift 3 Nonlinearity NULL1 Null Linear Acceleration Effect NOISE PERFORMANCE Rate Noise Density FREQUENCY RESPONSE Bandwidth 4 Sensor Resonant Frequency SELF TEST1 ST1 RATEOUT Response ST2 RATEOUT Response ST1 to ST2 Mismatch 5 Logic 1 Input Voltage Logic 0 Input Voltage Input Impedance TEMPERATURE SENSOR1 VOUT at 25°C Scale Factor 6 Load to VS Load to Common TURN-ON TIME OUTPUT DRIVE CAPABILITY Current Drive Capacitive Load Drive POWER SUPPLY Operating Voltage (VS) Quiescent Supply Current TEMPERATURE RANGE Specified Performance
1 2

Conditions Clockwise rotation is positive output Full-scale range over specifications range ?40°C to +105°C Best fit straight line ?40°C to +105°C Any axis TA ≤ 25°C

Min

ADXRS610BBGZ Typ Max

Unit °/sec mV/°/sec % % of FS V °/sec/g °/sec/√Hz

±300 5.52

6 ±2 0.1 2.5 0.1 0.05

6.48

2.2

2.8

0.01 12 ST1 pin from Logic 0 to Logic 1 ST2 pin from Logic 0 to Logic 1 ?650 250 ?5 3.3 40 2.35

14.5 ?450 450

2500 17 ?250 650 +5 1.7 100 2.65

Hz kHz mV mV % V V kΩ V mV/°C k? k? ms μA pF V mA °C

To common Load = 10 MΩ @25°C, VRATIO = 5 V

50 2.5 9 25 25

Power on to ±? °/sec of final For rated specifications

50 200 1000 4.75 5.00 3.5 5.25 4.5 +105

?40

Parameter is linearly ratiometric with VRATIO. The maximum range possible, including output swing range, initial offset, sensitivity, offset drift, and sensitivity drift at 5 V supplies. 3 From +25°C to ?40°C or +25°C to 105°C. 4 Adjusted by external capacitor, COUT. Reducing bandwidth below 0.01 Hz does not reduce noise further. 5 Self-test mismatch is described as (ST2 + ST1)/((ST2 ? ST1)/2). 6 For a change in temperature from 25°C to 26°C. VTEMP is ratiometric to VRATIO. See the Temperature Output and Calibration section for more details.

Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 12

ADXRS610 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 2.
Parameter Acceleration (Any Axis, 0.5 ms) Unpowered Powered VDD, AVCC VRATIO ST1, ST2 Output Short-Circuit Duration (Any Pin to Common) Operating Temperature Range Storage Temperature Range Rating 2000 g 2000 g ?0.3 V to +6.0 V AVCC AVCC Indefinite ?55°C to +125°C ?65°C to +150°C

RATE SENSITIVE AXIS
The ADXRS610 is a Z-axis rate-sensing device (also called a yaw rate sensing device). It produces a positive going output voltage for clockwise rotation about the axis normal to the package top, that is, clockwise when looking down at the package lid.
RATE AXIS VCC = 5V LONGITUDINAL AXIS + 7 1 GND 4.75V RATE OUT

VRATIO/2

VRATIO/2

4.75
RATE IN
06520-002

Stresses above those listed under the Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Drops onto hard surfaces can cause shocks of greater than 2000 g and can exceed the absolute maximum rating of the device. Exercise care during handling to avoid damage.

A1

ABCDE FG LATERAL AXIS

0.25V

Figure 2. RATEOUT Signal Increases with Clockwise Rotation

ESD CAUTION

Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 12

ADXRS610 PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
PGND VDD CP5 CP3 CP4 7 6 ST1 ST2 TEMP CP1 CP2 AVCC 5 4 3 2 1 VRATIO G F E NC D SUMJ C B A
06520-023

AGND

RATEOUT

`

Figure 3. Pin Configuration

Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No. 6D, 7D 6A, 7B 6C, 7C 5A, 5B 4A, 4B 3A, 3B 1B, 2A 1C, 2C 1D, 2D 1E, 2E 1F, 2G 3F, 3G 4F, 4G 5F, 5G 6G, 7F 6E, 7E Mnemonic CP5 CP4 CP3 CP1 CP2 AVCC RATEOUT SUMJ NC VRATIO AGND TEMP ST2 ST1 PGND VDD Description HV Filter Capacitor (0.1 μF). Charge Pump Capacitor (22 nF). Charge Pump Capacitor (22 nF). Charge Pump Capacitor (22 nF). Charge Pump Capacitor (22 nF). Positive Analog Supply. Rate Signal Output. Output Amp Summing Junction. No Connect. Reference Supply for Ratiometric Output. Analog Supply Return. Temperature Voltage Output. Self-Test for Sensor 2. Self-Test for Sensor 1. Charge Pump Supply Return. Positive Charge Pump Supply.

Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 12

ADXRS610 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
N > 1000 for all typical performance plots, unless otherwise noted.

16 14

25

20
12 10 8 6 4

% OF POPULATION

% OF POPULATION

15

10

5
2 0

06520-003

–7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

VOLTS

% DRIFT

Figure 4. Null Output at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)
25

Figure 7. Sensitivity Drift over Temperature
45 40

20
% OF POPULATION

35
% OF POPULATION

30 25 20 15 10 5

15

10

5

0

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

–0.30

–0.25

–0.20

–0.15

–0.10

–0.05

0.30

0

06520-004

–570

–530

–490

–450 (mV)

–410

–370

–330

(°/sec/°C)

Figure 5. Null Drift over Temperature (VRATIO = 5 V)
30 45 40 25
% OF POPULATION

Figure 8. ST1 Output Change at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)

35 30 25 20 15 10

% OF POPULATION

20

15

10

5

5
06520-008

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 (mV/°/sec)

06520-005

0

0

330 350 370 390 410 430 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 (mV)

Figure 6. Sensitivity at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)

Figure 9. ST2 Output Change at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)

Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 12

06520-007

0

06520-006

2.26

2.30

2.34

2.38

2.42

2.46

2.50

2.54

2.58

2.62

2.66

2.70

2.74

0

ADXRS610
50 45 40
30 40 35

% OF POPULATION

% OF POPULATION
06520-009

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 % MISMATCH

25 20 15 10 5 0

VOLTS

Figure 10. Self-Test Mismatch at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)
600 3.3 3.1 2.9 200
VOLTS (mV)

Figure 13. VTEMP Output at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)

400

ST2

2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 ST1 1.7
06520-010 06520-013
06520-014

0

–200

–400

–600 –40

256 PARTS –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1.5 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

TEMPERATURE (°C)

TEMPERATURE (°C)

Figure 11. Typical Self-Test Change over Temperature
40 35 30
% OF POPULATION
60

Figure 14. VTEMP Output over Temperature (VRATIO = 5 V)
REF 50 40 30 20 10 0 –10 –20 750 Y X +45° –45°

20 15 10 5 0

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

4.0

4.1

06520-011

g OR °/sec

25

770

790 TIME (ms)

810

830

850

(mA)

Figure 12. Current Consumption at 25°C (VRATIO = 5 V)

Figure 15. g and g × g Sensitivity for a 50 g, 10 ms Pulse

Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 12

06520-012

2.40 2.42 2.44 2.46 2.48 2.50 2.52 2.54 2.56 2.58 2.60

ADXRS610
1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.05 0.10

(°/sec)

0.8 0.6 0.4 LAT 0.2 0 100 LONG RATE
06520-015

(°/sec)

0

–0.05

1k (Hz)

10k

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

TIME (Hours)

Figure 16. Typical Response to 10 g Sinusoidal Vibration (Sensor Bandwidth = 2 kHz)
400 300 200 100 DUT1 OFFSET BY +200°/sec

Figure 19. Typical Shift in 90 sec Null Averages Accumulated over 140 Hours
0.10

0.05

(°/sec)

0 –100 –200 –300 –400 DUT2 OFFSET BY –200°/sec

(°/sec)

0

–0.05

0

600

1200

1800 TIME (Seconds)

2400

3000

3600

(ms)

Figure 17. Typical High g (2500 g) Shock Response (Sensor Bandwidth = 40 Hz)
1

Figure 20. Typical Shift in Short Term Null (Bandwidth = 1 Hz)
0.1

0.01

06520-017

0.1

1

10

100

1k

10k

100k

100

1k (Hz)

10k

100k

AVERAGE TIME (Seconds)

Figure 18. Typical Root Allan Deviation at 25°C vs. Averaging Time

Figure 21. Typical Noise Spectral Density (Bandwidth = 40 Hz)

Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 12

06520-020

0.001 0.01

(°/sec/ Hz rms)

0.1

0.01

(°/sec rms)

0.001

0.0001 10

06520-019

0

50

100

150

200

250

06520-016

–0.10

06520-018

–0.10

ADXRS610 THEORY OF OPERATION
The ADXRS610 operates on the principle of a resonator gyro. Two polysilicon sensing structures each contain a dither frame that is electrostatically driven to resonance, producing the necessary velocity element to produce a Coriolis force during angular rate. At two of the outer extremes of each frame, orthogonal to the dither motion, are movable fingers that are placed between fixed pickoff fingers to form a capacitive pickoff structure that senses Coriolis motion. The resulting signal is fed to a series of gain and demodulation stages that produce the electrical rate signal output. The dual-sensor design rejects external g-forces and vibration. Fabricating the sensor with the signal conditioning electronics preserves signal integrity in noisy environments. The electrostatic resonator requires 18 V to 20 V for operation. Because only 5 V are typically available in most applications, a charge pump is included on-chip. If an external 18 V to 20 V supply is available, the two capacitors on CP1 through CP4 can be omitted and this supply can be connected to CP5 (Pin 6D, Pin 7D). Note that CP5 should not be grounded when power is applied to the ADXRS610. Although no damage occurs, under certain conditions the charge pump may fail to start up after the ground is removed without first removing power from the ADXRS610.
0.1 0.01

(°/sec/ Hz rms)

0.001

0.0001

0.00001

100

1k (Hz)

10k

100k

Figure 22. Noise Spectral Density with Additional 250 Hz Filter

TEMPERATURE OUTPUT AND CALIBRATION
It is common practice to temperature-calibrate gyros to improve their overall accuracy. The ADXRS610 has a temperature proportional voltage output that provides input to such a calibration method. The temperature sensor structure is shown in Figure 23. The temperature output is characteristically nonlinear, and any load resistance connected to the TEMP output results in decreasing the TEMP output and temperature coefficient. Therefore, buffering the output is recommended. The voltage at the TEMP pin (3F, 3G) is nominally 2.5 V at 25°C, and VRATIO = 5 V. The temperature coefficient is ~9 mV/°C at 25°C. Although the TEMP output is highly repeatable, it has only modest absolute accuracy.
VRATIO VTEMP RTEMP
06520-022

SETTING BANDWIDTH
External Capacitor COUT is used in combination with the onchip ROUT resistor to create a low-pass filter to limit the bandwidth of the ADXRS610 rate response. The –3 dB frequency set by ROUT and COUT is
fOUT =

(2 × π × ROUT × COUT )

1

RFIXED

and can be well controlled because ROUT has been trimmed during manufacturing to be 180 kΩ ±1%. Any external resistor applied between the RATEOUT pin (1B, 2A) and SUMJ pin (1C, 2C) results in

Figure 23. ADXRS610 Temperature Sensor Structure

CALIBRATED PERFORMANCE
Using a 3-point calibration technique, it is possible to calibrate the null and sensitivity drift of the ADXRS610 to an overall accuracy of nearly 200°/hour. An overall accuracy of 40°/hour or better is possible using more points. Limiting the bandwidth of the device reduces the flat-band noise during the calibration process, improving the measurement accuracy at each calibration point.

(180 kΩ × REXT ) ROUT = (180 kΩ + REXT )

In general, an additional hardware or software filter is added to attenuate high frequency noise arising from demodulation spikes at the gyro’s 14 kHz resonant frequency (the noise spikes at 14 kHz can be clearly seen in the power spectral density curve shown in Figure 21). Typically, this additional filter’s corner frequency is set to greater than 5× the required bandwidth to preserve good phase response. Figure 22 shows the effect of adding a 250 Hz filter to the output of an ADXRS610 set to 40 Hz bandwidth (as shown in Figure 21). High frequency demodulation artifacts are attenuated by approximately 18 dB.

Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 12

06520-021

0.000001 10

ADXRS610
ADXRS610 AND SUPPLY RATIOMETRICITY
The ADXRS610 RATEOUT and TEMP signals are ratiometric to the VRATIO voltage, that is, the null voltage, rate sensitivity, and temperature outputs are proportional to VRATIO. Thus, the ADXRS610 is most easily used with a supply-ratiometric ADC that results in self-cancellation of errors due to minor supply variations. There is some small error due to nonratiometric behavior. Typical ratiometricity error for null, sensitivity, selftest, and temperature output is outlined in Table 3. Note that VRATIO must never be greater than AVCC. Table 3. Ratiometricity Error for Various Parameters
Parameter ST1 Mean Sigma ST2 Mean Sigma Null Mean Sigma Sensitivity Mean Sigma VTEMP Mean Sigma VS = VRATIO = 4.75 V ?0.4% 0.6% ?0.4% 0.6% ?0.04% 0.3% 0.03% 0.1% ?0.3% 0.1% VS = VRATIO = 5.25 V ?0.3% 0.6% ?0.3% 0.6% ?0.02% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% ?0.5% 0.1%

may be suitable in some applications. Null adjustment is possible by injecting a suitable current to SUMJ (1C, 2C). Note that supply disturbances may reflect some null instability. Digital supply noise should be avoided particularly in this case.

SELF-TEST FUNCTION
The ADXRS610 includes a self-test feature that actuates each of the sensing structures and associated electronics as if subjected to angular rate. It is activated by standard logic high levels applied to Input ST1 (5F, 5G), Input ST2 (4F, 4G), or both. ST1 causes the voltage at RATEOUT to change about –0.5 V, and ST2 causes an opposite change of +0.5 V. The self-test response follows the viscosity temperature dependence of the package atmosphere, approximately 0.25%/°C. Activating both ST1 and ST2 simultaneously is not damaging. ST1 and ST2 are fairly closely matched (±5%), but actuating both simultaneously may result in a small apparent null bias shift proportional to the degree of self-test mismatch. ST1 and ST2 are activated by applying a voltage equal to VRATIO to the ST1 and ST2 pins. The voltage applied to ST1 and ST2 must never be greater than AVCC.

CONTINUOUS SELF-TEST
The on-chip integration of the ADXRS610 gives it higher reliability than is obtainable with any other high volume manufacturing method. In addition, it is manufactured under a mature BiMOS process with field-proven reliability. As an additional failure detection measure, a power-on self-test can be performed. However, some applications may warrant continuous self-test while sensing rate. Details outlining continuous self-test techniques are also available in a separate application note.

NULL ADJUSTMENT
The nominal 2.5 V null is for a symmetrical swing range at RATEOUT (1B, 2A). However, a nonsymmetrical output swing

Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 12

ADXRS610 OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
7.05 6.85 SQ 6.70 *A1 CORNER INDEX AREA
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A B

A1 BALL PAD INDICATOR TOP VIEW 4.80 BSC SQ

BOTTOM VIEW

C D E F G

DETAIL A 3.80 MAX

(BALL PITCH)

0.80 BSC

DETAIL A
0.60 0.25

3.30 MAX 2.50 MIN

SEATING PLANE

0.60 0.55 0.50 BALL DIAMETER

COPLANARITY 0.15

*BALL A1 IDENTIFIER IS GOLD PLATED AND CONNECTED TO THE D/A PAD INTERNALLY VIA HOLES.

Figure 24. 32-Lead Ceramic Ball Grid Array [CBGA] (BG-32-3) Dimensions shown in millimeters

ORDERING GUIDE
Model ADXRS610BBGZ1 ADXRS610BBGZ-RL1
1

Temperature Range –40°C to +105°C –40°C to +105°C

Package Description 32-Lead Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) 32-Lead Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA)

060506-A

Package Option BG-32-3 BG-32-3

Z = RoHS Compliant Part.

Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 12

ADXRS610 NOTES

?2007 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. D06520-0-4/07(0)

Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 12


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