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英语期末考试考点答案汇总


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Book5 Unit5 The American Civil War P182 The early life of Ulysses S. Grant showed little indication that the world would ever heard of him. An Ohio tanner’s son,Ulysses was small,sensitive,and quiet. The other children mistook his shyness for stupidity,nicknaming him “Useless”. An outstanding horseman,Grant had an otherwise undistinguished career at West Point.After graduating,he was put in command of infantry(步兵) divisions, but was forced to resign for insubordination(不服从)to his superiors.After leaving the Army in disgrace,he failed at half a dozen jobs in as many years. His opportunity came when the country was pitched into Civil War.Suddenly,experienced officers like Grant were in short supply.Grant was given a job that no one else would take;he was to make a disciplined fighting unit out of rebellious Illinois volunteer regiment(团)that no one had been able to tame(驯服).Grant drilled the men nearly to death,led them in several successful attacks against Confederate bands,and was promoted to brigadier general(准将).Grant was praised and also criticized for his willingness to fight,because it cost a large number of his soldiers’ lives.In April 1865,Grant trapped the main Confederate Army south of Richmond and forced a surrender in April 1865, ending the bloody Civil War.At the point,he was the most respected man in the Union. Book5 Unit8 Gambling Addiction P297 What differentiates(区分)an occasional gambler from a problem gambler?Any significant increase in gambling or a preoccupation(如痴如迷)with gambling that takes time away from work and family life may indicate/suggest a serious problem. Eric Geffner, a certified California gambling counselor in Los Angeles,emphasizes that compulsive gambling is a medical disorder;the brains of pathological(病态的)gamblers actually look different under a microscope from those of non-gamblers.But unlike other addictions such as alcoholism,an addiction to gambling can be difficult to spot.”We call it a(n) hidden/under-recognize disease,”says Geffner.”Gamblers often do well at work until/till their financial setbacks start taking a toll on them and their familie.”Gary Lange,of Palm Springs,Calif,a psychologist and state-certified gambling counselor,holds that a combination of genetic predisposition,personality type,and environment creates the blueprint for the addicted gambler.Also,living within 50 miles of a casino doubles the likelihood that an individual will develop a gambling disorder,he says.”In Palm Springs, there’s an exploding problem among retirees who have not one, but five casinos within a 50 mil radius.Add loneliness,boredom,or chronic pain to the mix,and you have an explosion.” The good news,according to Geffner,is that once a pathological gambling disorder has been identified/recognized,it is highly treatable.The most successful treatment program is one that combines cognitive(认知的)and behavioral modification therapy with a support group such as Gamblers Anonymous and some form of money management.”The goal is to get the patient back into family life,back into working out in the gym,developing alternative habits,and away from the activities that trigger the pathology(病征),”Geffner says.”As with any addiction, you have to take things one day at a time.”

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Book6 Unit1 The Scientist P27 John Forbes Nash,Jr was a child prodigy.While other boys his age were playing childhood games in their hometown of Bluefield,West Virginia,John was reading E.T. Bell’s Men of Mathematics.Learning more at home than he did at school,the young lad (who was encouraged by his educated parents) was able to solve some of math’s most difficult problems. John Nash was a thinking child,discovering his love of mathematics early.He was a thinking student,abandoning his early plan(s) to become a chemical engineer because engineering “was a matter of doing work neatly rather than thinking.” He was a thinking adult,developing a win-win theory that/which still has wide-reaching effects. At Carnegie Tech (known as Carnegie Mellon),John’s professors R.J Duffin thought the young mathematician was brilliant when he realized/discovered with some astonishment that Mr.Nash had independently proved Brouwer’s famed theorem. At Princeton,Nash was surrounded by other geniuses.There was Albert Einstein,later designated “Person of the 20th Century,”although he had been a grade-school failure.There was John Louis voin Neumann,whose game theories Nash later took to a different level if analysis. In 1994,at the age of 66, he shared/won the Nobel fir work he did as a graduate student.Most of his colleagues have commented that his dissertation, for which he was honored ,is far less sophisticated than his later work. Book6 Unit5 Research Ethnic P215 Unfortunately,instances of scientific misconduct may not remain as rare as they have been in the past.Throughout most of its history ,science was constrained only by the limits of its participants’ imagination and creativity.In the past few decades,however,that state if affairs has changed dramatically.Science is now held back mainly by the number of research posts and the amount of research funds available.What had been a purely intellectual competition has become an intense struggle for scarce resources.In the long run,this change will probably have an undesirable effect on ethical behavior among scientist. We scientists are guilty of promoting, or at least tolerating, a false popular image of ourselves.I like to call it the Myth of the Noble Scientist.Many people tend to regard scientists as disinterested seekers of truth who gather facts without any prejudice and preconception.The ideal scientists,they believe,would be more honest than ordinary mortals,certainly immune to such common human failings as pride or personal ambition.When people find out,as they invariably do,that scientists are not at all like that,they may react with understandable anger or disappointment. Book6 Unit6 Euthanasia P272 In the early 1992, Sue Rodriguz was diagnosed with ALS, a rare disease that causes a slow deterioration(衰败)of the nervous system while leaving the mind intact.It’s incurable and its cause remains a mystery. Some people with ALS can live a long time.World-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking has lived with the condition for 30 years.But for the majority,the average life expectancy(预期)after diagnosis is about three years.As it progresses,it slowly takes away a patient’s ability to walk,and then their ability to talk,and eventually their ability to breathe,

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After her initial diagnosis,she spent more than $10000 on medication,hoping to prevent the disease from advancing. When Rodriguez finally accepted ALS,she began to give some thought/consideration to her death.Her final days,she realized,would be grim:unable to speak,fed by tubes,breathing on a respirator(呼吸机).She decided that she would rather not die that way.Instead of waiting for a “natural ”death,she would help herself to a peaceful death,But she did not want to die in a violent manner.If she had to die young,then she wanted to die with dignity,on her own terms,in her own time. She came to the decision that she would end her own life when she was no longer enjoying life.But when the moment came,Rodriguez knew she would no longer be able to do it herself,since she wouldn’t be able to control her own body.She would need someone’s help.But assisted suicide was illegal,and punishable by up to14 years in jail under the Criminal Code.The law seemed unfair to Rodriguez.And this unfairness wasn’t going to be resolved unless someone take action. On Sep.29,Sue Rodriguez lost her legal fight.The Supreme Court of Canada decided by a 5-4margin.They ruled,and individual’s right to a dignified death does not override(否决)the sanctity(神圣)of life unde the law. On Saturday Feb12,1994,Rodriguez died.Her good friend,Svend Robinson,admits he was there to witness her death and that a doctor attended.Later,it was learned that she died of an overdose of two drugs.The doctor who helped Rodriguez to die was never identified and no charges were ever laid.

Translation
英译中 Book5 Unit5 P191 Text B A Brief History of the American Civil War The Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July,1863, marked a definite turning point in the war. Both sides now had seasoned, equally valiant soldiers, and in Lee and Ulysses S.Grant each had a superior general. But the North, with its larger population and comparatively enormous industry, enjoyed a tremendous material advantage. Both sides also resorted to conscription, even though it met some resistance. 1863 年 7 月联邦军队在葛底斯堡和维科斯堡的胜利标志着战争的一个转折点。当时, 双方的士兵同样训练有素,骁勇善战,双方也都有着出色的将军,李和格兰特。然而北方凭 借其更多的人口和相对庞大的工业拥有巨大的物资优势。双方也都采用了征兵制招募士兵, 尽管遭到了一些抵制。 The long war was over, but for the victors the peace was marred by the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the greatest figure of the war. The ex-Confederate states, after enduring the unsuccessful attempts of Reconstruction to impose a new society on the South, were readmitted to the Union, which had been saved and in which slavery was now abolished. The Civil War brought death to more Americans than did any other war, including World War II. The war cost untold billions and nourished rather than canceled hatreds and intolerance, which persisted for decades. Monuments commemorating Civil War figures and events are conspicuous in almost all sizable Northern towns and are even more numerous in the upper South, 旷日持久的战争结束了,但是对胜利者来说,战争中最伟大的人物阿伯拉罕·林肯的被

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暗杀给和平蒙上了一层阴影。 前联邦各州计划在南部重建一个新社会的企图失败后, 重新纳 入联邦,联邦因此而得以保住了,奴隶制被废除。内战造成的国民死亡人数超出了其他任何 一场战争,包括第二次世界大战。内战消耗了巨大财富,滋养而非化解了仇恨和偏狭,这种 仇恨和偏狭一直持续了几十年。 现在, 几乎在所有较大的北方城镇里都赫然竖立着怀念内战 人物和事件的纪念碑,在南方的北部地区其数量甚至更多。 Book5 Unit8 P306 Text B A Life Lost to Gambling A highly publicized case in the area has shed light on the ordeal. 一则在当地广为人知的案件披露了这种磨难的历程。 It involves Allan Loosemore, an Evansville,Ind., lawyer who is charged with forgery and theft in Vanderburgh Country. 案件涉及印第安纳州埃文斯维尔的一位律师阿兰· 洛塞莫尔, 他在范德伯格显被指控犯 有伪造和偷窃罪。 Prosecutors allege that Loosemore, 47, forged checks and stole clients’ money to fuel his gambling addiction. While sitting behind bars,he told The Evansville Courier & Press earlier this year that his uncontrolled gambling has devastated him and his family. 起诉人称 47 岁的埃塞莫尔伪造支票,盗用客户的钱款作赌资满足其个人嗜好。今年早 些时候,他坐在被告席上告诉《埃文斯维尔信使报》 ,由于赌博成瘾不加节制,毁了自己, 也毁了整个家庭。 Loosemore, a successful defense attorney, followed a common path. He won big shooting craps at Evansville’s Casino Aztar about four years ago, but when his luck soured he couldn’t stop. He was in the hole $100000 by mid-1999, he told the newspaper, and that’s when the trouble really began. 事业有成的辩护律师洛塞莫尔的堕落之路极为常见。 大约 4 年前, 他在埃文斯维尔的阿 兹塔尔赌场从掷骰子赌博游戏中赢了大钱,而当赌运不佳之时,他已嗜赌成瘾欲罢不能了。 他告诉该报,到 1999 年中期,他已亏空 10 万美元,麻烦从此开始。 Clients have accused him of pocketing settlement checks, and one former colleague said Loosemore stole his personal checks and forged them, according to court records. 客户指控他侵吞赠与款项。 根据法庭记录, 当时的一个同事说洛塞莫尔偷他的个人支票 并伪造签名。 Loosemore, the father of two school-age children, is now divorced and undergoing treatment at an Ohio problem-gambling center. He is scheduled to return to his Indiana jail cell early next month to await trail. He could spend years making restitution, but perhaps not as a lawyer. 洛塞莫尔的两个孩子还在上学, 目前他已离婚, 正在俄亥俄州一家戒毒赌中心接受治疗。 他将在下月初返回印第安纳州的监狱等待受审。 他可能得花好多年时间作出补偿, 而其律师 身份却将难保。 Last summer the Indiana Supreme Court suspended his law license for three years, and he must petition for reinstatement. 去年夏天, 印第安纳州最高法院决定吊销他的律师执照三年, 他要重新取得执照必须提 出申请。

中译英(下划线单词为要求使用的的单词)

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Book6 Unit1 The Scientist P27 在得到加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的研究生奖学金后, 玛丽对人类行为各方面的研究产 生了浓厚的兴趣。她渴望尽早完成计划中的各项实验。当前,她特别想搞清楚优雅的举止在 商业谈判中具有何种举足轻重的分量。玛丽很高兴理查德·辛格教授将指导她的研究工作。 虽然辛格教授是位著名的行为科学方面的专家, 他所主持的研讨班在社会科学的学生中很有 名气,但她和辛格教授却只是面熟。她希望她的研究结果能够通过媒体广为流传,以便从事 商业谈判的人们能够从她的研究中获益。 Having been granted a fellowship at the University of California at Berkeley, Mary’s interest in research on all dimensions of human behavior has come alive. She is now itching to carry out the various experiments she has planned as soon as possible. At present she is particularly keen on finding out how important a role graceful manner can play in the business negotiations. Mary is glad that Professor Richard Singer will supervise her research. Although she knows him only by sight, he is distinguished expert whose seminars enjoy an impressive reputation among students of social science. She dreams that her findings will be circulated widely through the help of the media so that people engaged in business negotiations will benefit from them. Book6 Unit5 Research Ethnic P218 韩先生是中医名家的后代。他在青年时代行医时,读了很多中医药经典。为了追求医疗 技术的完美并且避免出任何差错,他在临床实践中搬用一流医生的经验。 一天,他被一篇关于创造力和科学发展的社论深深吸引住了。他意识到,他那种凡事必 求绝对把握的作法事实上减少了他在医学研究方面取得突破性成就的可能性。 受这篇文章的 启发, 现在他决心充分利用他的实验室所提供的极好的设备来探索中医领域里出现的一些新 问题。 Mr.Han is a descendant of a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine. When he practiced medicine in his youth, he read many classical works on traditional Chinese medicine. In pursuit of perfection in sharpening his medical skills and to avoid all possibility of mistakes, he is constantly seeking ways to apply the experience of first-rate doctors in his own clinical practice. One day he was caught up in reading an editorial about creativity and the development of science. He then came to realize that his quest for absolute certainty in everything had in fact lessened the probability of making any breakthrough in this medical research. Inspired by the article, he is now determined to make full use if the superb facilities offered by his laboratory to explore a number of new problems that have surfaced in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. Book6 Unit6 Euthanasia P273 反对自杀,还是主张选择,这个问题是安乐死争论的核心。主张选择的人的立场是死的 权利与生的权利是不可分割的。他们认为如果一个病人选择结束痛苦庄严地死去,那么,医 生帮助他为他开致死剂量的吗啡没有任何过错,司法系统不应该阻挠医生执行病人的意志, 更不应该以谋杀罪起诉医生。 反对自杀的人则强烈反对一切形式的杀戮行为。 他们对结束生 命的一切尝试都皱眉蹙额,痛苦万分,大讲自杀是一个极大的罪孽,不管这自杀是有人协助 的还是无人协助的。 很难说在这个问题上最终会取得一致意见。 我个人对这个问题也做过一 些思考, 发现自己的立场在两个极端之间。 我虽然认为一个人在他的生活已经变得绝望和痛 苦,活着已经失去一切意义的时候,应该容许他放弃自己的生命,但是,我确实认为我们应 该有一个道德的罗盘,来指导医生以及那些有关的帮助病人离开这一世界的人们。 Pro-life or pro-choice, this question is at the heart of the debate over euthanasia. Take stance

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taken by the pro-choice people is that the right to die is inseparable from the right to live. They believe that a doctor assisting a patient who chooses to end his suffering and die with dignity by prescribing a lethal dose of morphine has done no wrong and the judicial system should not obstruct him in carrying out the patient’s will, let alone prosecute him for murder. The pro-life people, on the other hand, deplore all forms of killing. They wince in pain at every attempt to end like, and expound on the mortal sin of suicide, assisted or unassisted. It is doubtful whether we can ever reach a consensus on this matter. Personally I have given it some thought too, and find myself in a middle position between the two extremes. While I think one should be allowed to relinquish one’s life when it has become hopeless or empty and devoid of all meaning, I do think that we need to have a moral compass by which to guide the behavior of doctors as well as those who are involved in helping the patient’s exit from this world. 特此声明: 1、参考答案来源于各版本辅导用书,仅供参考。懒得校对,如有错漏,敬请谅解。 (码字码 得好辛苦→_→) 2、以上所涉及的练习及页码均为旧版本课本,使用新版课本的童鞋请对照单元课文标题查 找。新旧版本练习内容略有不同,请留意。 3、祝大家顺利 Pass ^O^.......

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