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Problem Solving


Problem Solving
Guidelines and Expectations

Benefits
? Effective problem solving corrects a given problem and prevents its recurrence. ? Corrects a given problem at both the systemic and manufacturing levels. ? May prevent the same problem from happening in the future, on new components, when PFMEA and Control Plan are updated.

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Terms and Definitions
? Champions and Co-Champions: These are executives and middle-level mangers who are responsible to empower Corrective Action teams, assure that they have the resources to complete their task and review the report for accuracy and completeness throughout the process. ? Containment: Those steps taken to prevent known or suspected non-conforming material from being used by the customer. ? Defect Root Cause: The basis of causes that allowed a defect or non-conformance to be made. ? Defect Verification: The testing done to confirm the defect root cause.

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Terms and Definitions
? Interim Corrective Action: Steps taken beyond normal process to assure that the customer has an uninterrupted supply of conforming material. ? Problem Analysis: The process used to organize and gather appropriate information about symptoms to determine and verify root cause. ? History of Actions Taken and Results: A graphic aid that identifies interim and permanent corrective actions, dates that the action was taken and verified results of the actions.

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Terms and Definitions
? Systemic Root Cause: The basis that allowed the defect to reach the customer. ? Systemic Verification: The testing done to confirm the systemic root cause. ? Team Leader: The person assigned by the Champion to lead the Corrective Action team members in investigating and resolving the concern. ? Verification: The actions taken to confirm that a potential cause is the actual cause. Verification can be thought of as those steps to be tested that "turn the problem on and off."

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Where does it usually start?
? Normally, at the customer when they discover a problem with the components. ? Should be found at supplier before parts are shipped. ? Where the problem is discovered is less important than the quality of the process used to identify its root cause and corrective action.

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The Problem Description
The problem description is a narrative. The Corrective Action team uses the initial problem description as their starting point. The team investigates the initial description to clarify the statement. Contacts listed on the Initiation Form may be contacted, customer visits conducted or returned parts analyzed. Other locations where this or similar parts are used need to be contacted to determine if the problem is present at other locations.

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The Problem Description
The goal of this step is to develop a statement that potential root causes will be tested against to determine if the potential causes explain why a problem happened. The problem description shall answer the following questions: 1.Who, What, When, Where, and How Many? 2.Who reported the problem? 3.What is the problem definition in customer terms? 4.What is the problem definition in our terms? 5.When was the problem reported, has it been increasing, decreasing, remaining constant or has it recurred?
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The Problem Description
6. When is the problem seen in time? When in the process (what step or station)? 7. Where is the problem seen in the process? Where on the part? (An illustration of the part highlighting the problem area is required for concerns that involve physical product.) 8. Have returned parts been analyzed? Have all customers using this product been contacted? How many parts are reported as involved? Can the problem be expressed in percentages, dollars, pieces, etc?

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The Problem Description
Example Problem Description Thomasville Assembly plant reported rattling console trim plates on seventy-two XJ-72 convertibles. Rattle is heard at the convertible top opening switch when analyzed on their Squeak & Rattle machine between 30 and 50 mph. Concern is only heard on convertibles produced at the Thomasville plant from Job 1 date onward. No concerns are reported on the XJ-72 coupes produced at Thomasville or on the XJ-72 sedans produced at Clarksville. (See illustration attachment A for reported interference between the console and convertible top opening switch.)

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Containment Actions
Goal: To define and implement interim or containment actions to isolate the effect of the concern from any internal or external customer until corrective action is implemented. The effectiveness of all interim or containment actions must be verified. Requirement: Interim (Containment) Actions must be started within 24 hours of the customer notification of concern. Note: Team leaders must be sure they understand the customer's needs for interim actions. Always verify the timing requirement with your champion.

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Containment Actions
? ? ? Document Interim (Containment) Actions describing what activity has taken place. List them in chronological order. Include in the narrative what took place, who took the

action, when it occurred and how actions were coordinated with the customer. NOTE: 100% inspection
? is the standard for containment activity.) This containment process starts at customer locations and traces the pipeline (parts in transit, finished stock ready to ship, work in process) back to manufacturing. For Verification describe the results of the interim (containment) actions. These actions collectively must completely isolate the concern from the customer. There are usually several levels of these actions.

?

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Containment Actions
? Interim (Containment) actions continue in-place until permanent corrective action is effected and verified. ? Interim actions may involve reworking parts. These reworks must be documented, verified and approved before any product is shipped to our customers. Check all areas to contain product: i.e., finished goods, work in progress, inventory, receiving, transit (inbound/outbound), and service inventories. ? Information from interim or containment actions may be useful to your problem solving efforts. Teams should consider what information to collect during sorts and/or reworks. ? Use of the History of Actions Taken and Results sheet is mandatory, and starts at this step. It is part of this workbook. Its use makes it easy to track the actions taken and the results of these actions.
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Containment Actions
HISTORY OF ACTIONS TAKEN AND RESULTS TOTAL SHIPPED WITH NO DEFECTS Production Dates ACTION SUMMARY (SEE LEGEND) VOLUME SHIPPED IN PIECES NUMBER OF DEFECTS FOUND SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
PERMANENT CORRECTIV E ACTIONS

LEGEND: A: B: C: D: E:

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Defect Root Cause Analysis
Goal: To determine and verify what caused the defect to be produced. Tools: The team needs to collect and review the current design and process FMEAs, control plans, and other process performance indicators, i.e. Pareto charts, control charts, etc. Cause and effect charts are very useful team tools to identify potential root causes. Other tools include: ?5 Why’s, ?Fault Tree Analysis, ?Fish Bone Diagrams.

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Defect Root Cause Analysis
? 5 WHY’S
Start with the problem description. Keep asking the question WHY until the answer no longer makes sense. Example: A stamped part was received with an egg shaped hole, not a round one.
1st Why – Because the tool made the hole that way. 2nd Why – Because the material was not being moved through the die at a steady pace. 3rd Why – Because there were no pins in the tool to move the material. 4th Why – Because they were not designed into the tool. 5th Why – Because we did not think they were needed.
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Defect Root Cause Analysis
? Fault Tree Analysis
Start with the problem description. Draw a diagram with the problem description at the top and center. For each potential cause, create a branch of a tree.

For each branch you create additional branches as needed until all the potential causes have been identified.

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Defect Root Cause Analysis
Fault Tree Analysis
Car does not start

Battery

Petrol

Driver

No Charge

Low Charge

Tank is empty

Gas is bad

Wrong Ignition Key

Can抰Find Where to Put Key

Wrong Keys Battery Dead Cables loose or not connected

Forgot Key Needs Glasses

Too much to drink last night

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Defect Root Cause Analysis
Fish Bone Diagram
Needs Glasses

Machine

Man
Solenoid worn out

Cannot See

Had too much to drink last night Cannot get key into slot

Batter does not work Started does not work Battery dead Cable loose Wrong Keys

Car Does Not Start
Cables Loose No Charge Vibration Petrol Poor Quality Worn Connector Empty Tank

Materials

Method

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Defect Root Cause Analysis
When starting root cause analysis you should list potential root causes showing them with a (P). As potential root causes are eliminated they should be shown with a (D), indicating it is now a Defect root cause. Note: The defect root cause is tested against the problem description. It should explain every case where the concern was noted. If the defect root cause statement reads, "The concern was caused by a broken stud", the team must ask "why" the stud broke. If they can answer this "why", then the earlier statement is not the defect root cause. The

defect root cause answers the last "why" in this repeating process.

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Defect Root Cause Analysis
? Root causes are verified by "turning the root cause on and off". ? If the team has identified the root causes, then eliminating the cause will eliminate the concern. ? Effecting the cause will make the effect recur. ? Verification of the cause must be based on

a statistically significant sample.

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Systemic Root Cause
Goal: To determine and verify what caused the defect to move from its point of origin; what in the system allowed the concern to reach the customer.

Tools: The team needs to collect and review the current procedures and control instructions. The same tools used to analyze the Defect Root Cause are used for the Systemic Root Cause.

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Systemic Root Cause Analysis
When starting root cause analysis you should list potential root causes showing them with a (P). As potential root causes are eliminated they should be shown with a (D), indicating it is now a Defect root cause. Note: The system root cause is tested against the problem description. It should explain every case where the concern was noted. If the defect root cause statement reads, "The concern was caused by a broken stud", the team must ask "why" the stud broke. If they can answer this "why", then the earlier statement is not the system root cause. The

system root cause answers the last "why" in this repeating process.

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Systemic Root Cause Analysis
? Root causes are verified by "turning the root cause on and off". ? If the team has identified the root causes, then eliminating the cause will eliminate the concern. ? Effecting the cause will make the effect recur. ? Verifying by "turning on and off" may be more difficult for systemic root causes; it may be necessary to simulate changing the system.
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Permanent Corrective Action (Defect)
Goal: To determine, verify and implement permanent actions to prevent the defect root cause from recurring. Hint: Do not implement any permanent corrective action until the root causes have been determined and verified. Always check with the team champion for the extent of resources and the timing available to implement corrective actions.
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Permanent Corrective Action (Defect)
? The team should brainstorm potential corrective actions that would prevent the defect root cause from recurring. ? Before implementing any actions, their effectiveness must be checked. ? This checking should take place under controlled production conditions and be based on statistically significant sample sizes. ? No permanent corrective action should be implemented without testing. ? Once the team determines the corrective actions, they must develop an implementation plan.

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Permanent Corrective Action (Defect)
? Part of the implementation plan needs to be the verification plan to be followed after the action(s) are in place. ? As actions are implemented they are recorded together with their verification. ? Actions and results are also logged onto the History of Actions Taken and Results sheet.

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Permanent Corrective Action (Defect)
Note: Depending on the nature of the corrective action, design or process FMEAs, Mistake-Proofing checklist, control plans and/or manufacturing instructions will need to be updated.

Reminder: Do not discontinue the interim actions until the defect corrective action(s) are in place and verified.

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Preventive Corrective Action (Systemic)
Goal: To determine, verify and implement preventative actions to prevent the systemic root cause from recurring. Hint: Do not implement any preventative corrective action until the root causes have been determined and verified. Always check with the team champion for the extent of resources and the timing available to implement corrective actions. The team should brainstorm potential corrective actions that would prevent the systemic root cause from recurring.
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Preventive Corrective Action (Systemic)
Note: The systemic cause presents unique challenges and opportunities. Systemic causes may effect multiple products, plants or operations. Because their scope may be more global, team membership may need to be changed at this point to reflex the wider extent. Potential solutions may need to be validated with more operations before they are implemented.

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Preventive Corrective Action (Systemic)
? Before implementing any effectiveness must be checked. actions, their

? This checking should take place under controlled production conditions and be based on statistically significant sample sizes. ? No preventative corrective action should be implemented without testing. ? Once the team determines the corrective actions, they must develop an implementation plan.
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Preventive Corrective Action (Systemic)
? Part of the implementation plan needs to be the verification plan to be followed after the action(s) are in place. ? As actions are implemented they are recorded on together with their verification. ? Actions and results are also logged onto the History of Actions Taken and Results sheet.

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Permanent Corrective Action (Systemic)
Note: Depending on the nature of the corrective action, design or process FMEAs, Mistake-Proofing checklist, control plans and/or manufacturing instructions will need to be updated. Reminder: Do not discontinue the interim actions until the defect corrective action(s) are in place and verified.

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