TOEFL新托福TPO1—24口语参考答案【无老师力荐】

3. Explain why the woman disagrees with the reasons expressed in the letter. The writer of the letter opposes the university’s plan to acquire a new sculpture because the university’s financial condition is poor and the sculpture is so large that it’ll take up all the green space in front of the campus center. The woman in the conversation thinks the two reasons are totally unconvincing. The woman says it’s an anonymous donor who pays the bill of the sculpture not the university so there is no need to worry about the university’s financial condition. As for the point about the space, the woman thinks Paul, the writer of the letter, always plays soccer with his friends on the lawn where the sculpture will be. She thinks Paul just doesn’t want to move to another place. For him, it’s convenience versus sculpture.

4. Explain groupthink and its effects using example of the computer company. Groupthink is a process in which individual members of a group conform their ideas to the group consensus even if the result may not be well. The professor in the lecture uses his personal experience in a computer company to illustrate this process. Once he and his co-worker suggested to give their computer a design make-over to look cooler in order to attract new customers. At first, the majority supported their suggestion. But there were a few senior managers who didn’t support. Then some supporters changed their mind, so did the professor’s co-worker. The co-worker changed his mind because he didn’t want to make a bad impression on senior managers. He thought disagreeing with them might harm his future promotion. Then after a long discussion and with more and more people sided with senior managers, the professor himself thought he was the only one who’s delaying the decision. Then, he voted against himself. So they all agreed not to have this design make-over. At last, the company lost profit because its competitors came up with good-looking computers and win more customers. 5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which should solution you recommend and explain why. The woman was supposed to drive a bunch of elementary students to the zoo tomorrow but she didn’t rent a van in time and the kids will be disappointed if the trip gets cancelled. The man suggests her to borrow a car from one of her friends. But she has to borrow two cars to hold all the kids and it’s hard to find another driver. Then the man suggests her to take the public transportation. He is pretty sure that there is a bus line past the zoo. But the woman thinks it’s hard to control the kids on the bus. Well personally, I would recommend the woman to take the bus line. Even if the kids are handful, they are still controllable. But there is no guarantee that she can borrow two cars and find another driver at the same time.

6. Using the research described by the professor, explain what scientists have learned about the mathematical abilities of babies. In the lecture the professor describes how scientists learn about baby’s mathematical abilities. Researchers did an experiment to test baby’s ability to add that baby knows one plus one equals two. They first put a doll in front of a baby and lowered the screen to hide the doll. So the baby knows it’s there. Then they clearly put another doll behind the screen so there should be two dolls. But researchers secretly took one away and when they lift the screen up, the baby was surprised because it expected to see two dolls but there was only one. We know when a baby is surprised, it stares at the thing that makes it feel surprised. The researchers recorded the baby’s eye-movement with a camera and found that the baby stared. So the baby has the ability to add. It knows one doll plus one doll equals two dolls.

1. Choose a place you go to often that is important to you and explain why it is important. Please include specific details in your explanation. I often go to the basketball court near my apartment. It’s very important to me because I play basketball there everyday and basketball is my favorite sport. Ever since I was a little boy, I have been playing in that court with my friends. When in junior high, I practiced shooting and dribbling in that court nearly everyday till late at night. Besides, the court is the reminder of an awful lot of my valuable memories. I still can remember that how I started out shooting badly and then after several weeks’ practice, I could shoot well and dribbled well. I can also remember many friends with whom I played basketball and form teams. Without that court, I couldn’t possibly make so many friends. So it’s very important to me.

2. Some college students choose to take courses in a variety of subject areas in order to get a broad education. Others choose to focus on a single subject area in order to have a deeper understanding of that area. Which approach to course selection do you think is better for students and why? Well, I think taking a wide variety of courses is better for students. Because, first of all, I think undergraduate study is meant for broadness. Students had better broaden their horizon and prevent themselves from being narrow-minded. Second of all, I think before students find their “true love”, I mean, the subject they really want to go deep into, they should probably extend their study field and taste different subjects in various areas so as to identify the “true love”. Take myself as an example, my major is software engineering in the college, but I took various courses outside my major field. Then I found out that I was more interested in literature than in computer and software. So literature is my “true love”. I think it depends on the students themselves. If a student doesn’t know his or her interest. It’s better for them to take a variety of courses so as to taste various kinds of subjects to find their interest. Take myself as an example, my major is software engineering in the college, but I took various courses outside my major field. Then I found out that I was more interested in literature than in computer and software. So literature is my interest. If a student already know what he likes and what he needs to learn. Then taking many different classes will be a little bit waste of time. It’s better for this student to concentrate on his or her interest. For instance, I don’t think Bill Gates need to take courses other than computer science when in Harvard, coz he knew what he liked and what he wanted. He already knew his interest.

3. The man expresses his opinion of the university’s plan to eliminate the bus service. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The university has decided to stop its free bus service because not very many students ride the bus and plans to use the money saved to expand the overcrowded parking lots. But the man in the conversation doesn’t like the plan. As for the point about few students riding the bus, the man says it’s because the bus routes are out of date. The bus only goes through the places that are too expensive for students to live. If the buses change route and the man thinks there will be plenty of students taking those buses. The man also disagrees with the university’s plan to expand the parking lots. He thinks the plan will encourage more students to drive, which will add noise and create more traffic. Then they’ll need more parking space. He thinks the university should make it easier for students to take the public buses not the other way around.

4. Explain how the examples of tying shoes and learning to type demonstrate the principle of audience effects. The principle of audience effects is that individuals’ performance is affected by the knowledge that others are watching them. The professor uses examples of tying shoes and learning to type to demonstrate that we actually increase our speed of performing if we know that we are being observed. In the example of tying shoes, one group of college students was told that they were being observed, the other didn’t know they were being observed. The students who knew they were being watched tied their shoes much faster than the other group. And in the example of learning to type, when we are conscious of being observed, we will increase typing speed. We type faster than we do alone. Also, other behavioral pattern will increase, like making mistakes. So when we type faster when we know we are being observed, we also make more mistakes.

5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Describe the problem and the two solutions. Then explain what you think the woman should do and why. The professor asks the woman to attend a field trip, but the woman has already promised another professor to help set up a museum exhibition next week. And this is the problem. The professor offers two possible solutions. The first is that she can talk to the other professor to see if there is someone else who can replace the woman to help set up the museum exhibition. The second is that the woman finishes setting up the museum before they set out the field trip. Actually, I think the woman should choose the second solution, because she has already agreed to help the other professor and the other professor is counting on her. It’s possible that there is no one else who can take her place. So she’d better finish the task first before she goes to the field trip.

6. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two definitions of money presented by the professor. The professor talks about two definitions of money, a broad one and a narrow one. By the broad definition, money is everything with which we can make purchases. For example, coins and bills can be money, because we can use them to buy goods such as vegetables and pay for services such as taxi. But in a barter system, vegetables can be money, because farmers can give drivers vegetables in exchange for a drive. By the narrow definition, in a society, the legal tender is money. For instance, in the US, drivers and farmers must accept dollars as payment. People can use dollars to pay for taxi and buy vegetables because dollar is the legal tender in the US. So, dollar in the form of coin and bill is money.

1. What characteristics do you think make someone a good parent? Explain why these characteristics are important to you. I think a good parent should be patient. Because children are always confused with the things around them, they ask questions every now and then. A good parent should be patient enough to give them answers. When i was very young, I always asked questions like “Why can airplanes fly?”,“Why can’t we fly?” and “Why the earth is a globe?”. My parents answered these questions patiently and if they couldn't, they would buy books that have the answers to my questions. I also think a good parent should be open-minded. In other words, they should respect their children's decisions when their kids are growing up. My parents always show their respect to my decisions. My major in the college is software engineering, but I decided to be an English teacher after graduation. My parents respected my decision and allow me to pursue my own interest. Thanks to my parents, I am patient and I respect other people.

2. Some students prefer to work on class assignments by themselves. Others believe it is better to work in a group. Which do you prefer? Explain why. I prefer to work on assignments individually. There are two reasons. The first is that I like to be in a quiet place while studying. If I study in a group, I will always be interrupted by group members who talk about irrelevant things. Then it’s possible that I can’t even finish the assignments. Once, I attended a group discussion. Many people were not even discussing. They were just talking about NBA games. When it ended, I got nothing from it. The second reason is that I’d like to think independently. Studying individually gives me enough time to develop my own ideas. When studying in a group, I will always be distracted by other’s opinions and thoughts. So sometimes many assignments are not done by myself but by other group members. Like last week, I worked in a group to solve math problems. It turned out that many problems were solved by others not by myself. I felt very unhappy about it. Personally, I like working in groups better. There are two reasons to name. First is that there is diversity in groups. Group members all have their different perspectives so some members can help other members. Last week, I attended a math group and there was one math problem I couldn’t work out. But there was one member who knew how to solve that problem and he worked out the problem in a completely different way. Then I learned from him. The second reason is that I can practice my communicative skills. In group discussions, I should be able to understand others’ ideas and at the same time to convey mine clearly in order to make the communication go well. I learn how to express myself properly and to be a good-listener.

3. The woman expresses her opinion of the change that has been announced. State her opinion and explain her reasons for holding that opinion. Dining services will not serve hot breakfast food anymore. They only serve cold breakfast food. The woman in the conversation thinks the change is ridiculous. First of all, she thinks whether something is hot or cold doesn’t necessarily mean it is healthy. She says that in a really cold morning, a nice warm omelet is obviously better than a bowel of cold cereal. Secondly, she thinks the change will not help save money. Because if the students can’t get what they want from dining hall, they will go off-campus. Then they have to pay off-campus price, which is more expensive. So this change will not help save money but actually end up costing more.

4. Using the example discussed by the professor, explain what cognitive dissonance is and how people often deal with it. Cognitive Dissonance is a kind of mental discomfort people feel when they experience contradictions between their actions and their beliefs. The professor uses his own experience to illustrate this phenomenon. When he was in high school, he was addicted to video games. He didn’t do well in study and even failed in chemistry. He knew he should study well in order to find good jobs and have a good career. But he just couldn’t give up video games. And this was his conflict. His solution was to change his perspective. Chemistry was the only class he did badly. He was pretty sure that he wanted to be a sociologist and being a sociologist doesn’t need to be well in chemistry. So he reinterpreted his understanding of doing well in school. Initially, he thought he should do well in all subjects to be successful in school. But then, he thought he should only do well in the subjects that are directly related to his future career. So he changed his belief to eliminate the conflict.

5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which of the solutions you recommend and explain why. The woman won an award and is invited to attend the award ceremony. But her biology exam is scheduled at the same time. So she is struggling about what to do. There are two possible solutions. The first one is that she could write a 5-page paper instead of taking the exam. But she thinks writing a paper will take more time than preparing for and taking an exam. She’s got many other things to do. The second solution is that she could ask someone else to receive the award on her behalf. But her parents were really looking forward to seeing her on the stage. Still, she’s struggling. Well, I would recommend her to choose the first solution. Since she doesn’t want to disappoint her parents, she has to try harder to win the time to attend the ceremony even though it’ll take her more time to write the paper. It's the trade-off.

6. Using the examples from the talk, explain how persuasive strategies are used in advertising. The professor talks about two kinds of persuasive strategies in advertising. The first strategy is repetition. When a slogan is repeated enough times, we tend to believe what the slogan says. The example is a car commercial. A guy is driving around and keeps stopping to pick up different people, each time a narrative says“Plenty of room for friends”,“Plenty of room for family” and so on. If we hear the slogan so many times, we tend to believe the car is spacious even if it’s not. The second strategy is using celebrities. We believe celebrities are trustworthy. For example, in a car commercial, If a famous race-car driver is shown in a car and says“I like my car fast.”, people will believe the car is fast even if it’s actually not a very fast car

1. What do you miss most about your home when you are away? Use specific details in your explanation. I miss food most when I am away from my home, particularly the noodles cooked by my father. When I was in high school, my father always cooked noodles for me at night. Every day after evening self-study classes, I came home and had the noodles. The noodles were delicious, coz you know, after long-time study, it’s easy to be tired and hungry. So the first thing I did when I got home at that time was to eat noodles. Sometimes, my father would add beef to the noodles and beef is kind of my favorite meat. The most important ingredient of the noodles is the specially-made sauce. Sadly, I don’t know how exactly my father makes the sauce. But whenever I go back home, I need to have the noodles cooked by my father.

2. Many universities now offer academic courses over the Internet. However, some people still prefer learning in traditional classrooms. Which do you think is better? Explain why. I think learning in traditional classrooms is better. The reason why I think so is that there are more interactions in traditional classrooms than in online courses. Students can have discussions and they see each other face to face. It’s highly probable that some of them will become friends. While in the online courses, students don’t know each other, they miss a chance of making friends. Also, in a traditional classroom, if a student doesn’t understand a concept or an idea, he or she can raise hand to ask the teacher directly. While in an online course, there is no chance for students to raise hands or to throw out questions immediately. Students in traditional classrooms not only learn the academic knowledge but also learn basic interpersonal interactions. I prefer to take academic courses on the Internet. Since the courses are offered online, I don’t have to live near campus. All I need is a computer and a well-connected Internet. I can study at home and anywhere convenient. Besides, I don’t have to worry about my housing, nor do I need to drive back and forth. So it saves me money and time. Also, it’s easier to record online courses so I can review the part I don’t understand. With the recorded courses, I can have a good review before final examination.

3. The computer department is considering a scheduling change. Explain the man's opinion of the change and the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The Computer Department proposes to add evening computer classes because daytime computer classes have become overcrowded. But the man in the conversation thinks it’s a bad proposal. The man says that most of the students have already got their own plans in the evenings. They have jobs, family, clubs and social events so they won’t have time to attend the evening classes. The man also says that it’s actually going to cost more to open evening classes than to simply buy more computers, since to open new classes need to hire new teachers. However, computer is not expensive now. Plus, the computer classrooms are big enough to hold more computers. So he thinks buying more computers is a better way to solve the problem.

4. Explain how the examples from the professor's lecture illustrate the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication. The professor uses his two experiences to illustrate the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication. In his first experience, his uncle visited him. Since he hadn’t seen his uncle for a long time, when he saw his uncle, he said“What a surprise！” and because he was so happy that he jumped like a little boy and had a huge smile on his face. His uncle felt good because of his words and actions. Since the professor’s verbal message agrees with his nonverbal signals, the verbal message is enhanced. In his second experience, when he was showing his daughter how to use a hammer, he smashed his thumb. He said to his daughter “Don’t worry, honey. It’s nothing.” but at the same time he was shaking his hand and his face was contorted. His daughter kept asking him if he was okay. Because the professor’s verbal message doesn’t agree with his nonverbal message, the communication is totally different.

5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the man's problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why. The man didn’t take his class schedule with him and it’s his first day in the college, so he couldn’t find his classroom. The woman offers two possible solutions. The first solution is that he can go to use the computer in the computer center to check the schedule. But it’ll take sometime to go there and he doesn’t want to be late for his first class. The second solution is that he can just go to big classrooms in the building to check which one is the class he is going to take. But he thinks it’ll be embarrassing if he goes into a classroom and asks if he is in the right room. I would recommend he to go to the computer center, since he didn’t take his class schedule, it’s necessary to check all classes for the whole day. Maybe he’ll be late for his first class, but at least he won’t feel embarrassed for the rest of the day.

6. Using points and examples from the lecture, explain the importance of visual elements in painting. In the lecture, the professor says in order for art to express meaning or emotion, artists need to combine various visual elements such as color and texture. Different colors can evoke different moods. Red is a strong color so it evokes strong emotions such as extreme joy, excitement and anger, whereas blue is a cool color so it evokes calming effect. As for texture, a rough texture can evoke strong emotions and strength, while a smooth texture is more calming and less emotional. Artists need to combine these elements to express meaning or convey message. For example, if a painting uses strong colors such as red and orange and uses brush strokes to give a rough texture, it will convey a wilder and more chaotic emotion in a viewer than a painting with soft colors and smooth texture.

1.Talk about a place you enjoyed going or visiting when you were a child. Describe the place. Explain why you enjoyed it. When I was a child, I enjoyed going to an Internet Bar. It is still open now. It's only 5-minute's walk away from my home and sits beside the street. The internet bar is not very big. It only has two rooms and each is full of computers. In summer vacations, My friends and I usually went there early in the morning playing many computer games such as Age of Empire, Star War and Counter Strike. The owner of the bar is a very kind person. He opened the door very early in the morning just for us. My friends and I occupied a room, sit side by side and yelled to each other when we were playing games. It was a lot of fun. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Why or why not? Use details and examples to explain your answer. It is more important to study math or science than it is to study art or literature. I strongly disagree with the statement that studying math or science is more important than studying art or literature. Of course, math and science are very important. But it is meaningless to say that they are more important than art or literature. We admire Newton for his scientific achievements such as Newton's first law. We equally admire Leonardo for his art accomplishments such as Mona Lisa. These two people are not comparable because they are in two different fields. So some people may like studying science. Some may like studying literature. They all make contributions to the human civilizations. So math or science and art or literature, they are equally important. 3. The man expresses his opinion about the university's plan. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The man thinks it's a great idea to let the culinary students to cook meals in the Campus Dining Club. His first reason is that it's good for students in the culinary program. His cousin is in the program and says preparing meals for a large number of people is very different from just cooking in the classes. Because cooking in classes, you can just take time, but cooking for many people, you have a lot of pressure and might make mistakes. So it's a very a good practice for them. His second reason is that even with the extra cost, the meals provided by these students are still much cheaper than that of the fancy restaurants in the town. But the food will be equally good. He thinks it'll be worth it.

1. Talk about a photograph or painting you have seen that was memorable. Explain what you liked or disliked about it. I can’t forget the photograph hung on the wall of my grandparents’ apartment. It’s our big family photo. It was taken in one Spring Festival when all relatives gathered together. It’s very hard to unite all the family members since my aunts and uncles all live in another city. Usually, some uncles or aunts wouldn’t come back home to spend spring festival. But at that time, they all came back. In the photo I can see myself standing at the third row with my parents beside me and all my aunts, uncles and cousins standing in rows. In the front row sit my grandparents. They were very happy. We all got our huge smiles on our faces. It was an unforgettable moment and the photograph captured it.

2. Some people have one career throughout their lives. Other people do different kinds of work at different points in their lives. Which do you think is better? Explain why. I think having different kinds of work at different points in lives is better. Life has different stages and in each stage people might want to do different things. For example, I have a friend who became a programmer when he just graduated from the college. After three-years programming, he got bored with it and wanted to be a designer. Then he changed his job to design the appearance of computers. After four-year’s designing career, he suddenly wanted to be a writer. Since he never stopped reading and he loved novels, he was good at writing stories. Guess what? Now, he is a freelancer and has published several articles. He believes he has experienced enough and wants to write something out. Life is a long, long journey in which we go to many different places and in each place we do different things. I think having only one career throughout life is better. Everyone can make accomplishments if he or she focuses on one thing for a long time. It’s the cumulative knowledge that helps a person become excellent in a specific area. If people always change jobs or careers, they can’t accumulate their knowledge. In other words, they can’t be experts or specialists. Some of them may even be lost in society and don’t know what they are good at. I have a friend who always changed his jobs. He never worked in a company for longer than a year. He was a salesman, a teacher and an assistant. He still doesn’t what to do now and is considering to change his job.

3. The woman expresses her opinion about the proposal that her friend Tim made in his letter to the newspaper. State her opinion about his proposal and explain the reasons she gives for her opinion. Tim proposes to shorten the seminar to two hours because most students can’t concentrate for three hours straight and students stop learning at the third hour. The woman in the conversation totally disagrees with the proposal. She says Tim is not a typical student. He stays up late every night and that’s why he can’t concentrate in the seminar. But most students aren’t like him. They all come to seminars with good rests and preparation. Also, Tim always sleeps in the classes. He doesn’t know that the third hour of a seminar is the most important part because that’s when students begin discussions and start to exchange ideas. So the last hour is the most worthwhile part of a seminar and shouldn’t be canceled.

4. Using the example of the car advertisement, explain what is meant by implicit memory. Explicit memories are conscious recollections whereas implicit memories are not conscious. But implicit memories still have effects on us. The professor in the lecture uses an example of billboard to explain implicit memory. There are many billboards along the highway and when drivers drive through, they see those billboards. They don’t remember all the billboards but the billboards affect them. Suppose there is a car advertisement with its name panther above its picture. A lot of drivers passed it by. Later, when asked whether they remember seeing any car advertisements, the drivers will say no because they honestly don’t remember. They don’t have conscious memory of the panther billboard. But if asked to name an animal starting with a letter “P”, drivers will say “panther”. So the car billboard had effect on them.

5. The professor proposes two solutions to the problem the woman describes. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why. The woman’s studying group has got a problem. The members all become friends and they all joke around instead of studying. The professor proposes two possible solutions. The first solution is to change the time they meet. Currently, they meet on Friday afternoons, but students are exhausted at that time and they all want to relax and unwind at the end of a week. But the woman says everyone has already got their own schedule, if they change time, they may lose members. The second solution is to find a leader. The leader can set the agenda, email it to everyone else before the meeting and then make sure everyone is focused on the topic when they meet. The professor says the woman is suitable to be the leader. But it sounds like much work to the woman. I would recommend the woman to take the second solution. If she’s worrying about the work, she can just be a temporal leader and later let other members to do the work.

6. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the difference between active and passive attention. Active attention is that we intentionally pay attention to something, so it’s voluntary. Since it requires efforts, it won’t last very long. Passive attention is involuntary and lasts longer than active attention. In the lecture, the professor uses a biology class as an example. Suppose I am the teacher of the class and the topic is about frog. If I walk into the classroom and stand on the podium saying “Frog is kind of animal…” , the students will force themselves to pay attention to my words but this active attention won’t last long. The students will be distracted sooner or later. However, if I take a live frog with me and show it to the students while talking about it, the students will be interested and will involuntarily pay attention to my class. So by taking something unexpected, I make the class engaging and tap into(utilize, take advantage of) the students’ passive attention.

1. If friends from another country were going to spend time in your country, what city or place would you suggest they visit? Using details and examples, explain why. I would suggest them to visit Chongqing. I lived there for five years so I am familiar with it. Firstly, Chongqing has a unique scenery. It’s a mountainous city. Because of this special terrain, the buildings and Pedestrian Malls are built in a different way from other cities. For example, the fourth floor of one building may be the ground level of another one. Secondly, Chongqing has many kinds of delicious food. Hot pot is like world-famous. Everyone in China knows it originate from Chongqing. Besides, there are some other famous food such as Kung Pao Chicken and double-cooked pork slices. Anyway, if one goes to Chongqing, one will feel that every meal is a feast.

3. The woman expresses her opinion of the university's plan. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. The university is planning to discontinue the sculpture course because students lack interest in it and the department’s only professor is retiring. The woman in the conversation thinks the university has got it all wrong. The low enrollment in the sculpture course is not due to students’ lack of interest but to students’ lack of time. Sculpture course is optional. The required courses such as painting and drawing take much of the students’ time. Besides, the woman thinks the university can hire a part-time teacher to teach sculpture course. There are many professors who have secondary fields. For instance, many painting teachers are also good sculptors. The woman is sure that these professors can teach the sculpture course.

4. Using the example from the lecture, explain what behavior modification is and how it works. Behavior modification is a phenomenon that individuals change their behaviors based on what they have learned about the consequences of certain behaviors. The professor uses an example to illustrate the phenomenon. In the example, at the beginning, the kids at school don’t know the rules of class. They may interrupt the teacher, walk around the classroom. The teacher gets angry with them, so the kids get published. They have to sit in the classroom when everyone else is playing outside. They don’t like this consequence. They know these behaviors get them in trouble. So they start to raise hand, sit quietly, and pay attention to the teacher. They get reward from doing so. The teacher may say that she is proud of them and maybe put happy face stickers on their homework. Now that their behaviors get good reactions from teacher, the kids learn to always act like this.

5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman‘s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why. The woman’s computer is broken and it won’t be back until the end of next week. But it’s now the end of semester, all her papers are due next week. The man gives her two possible solutions. The first solution is to go to computer club where there are lots of machines. But the woman thinks it’s so crowded and noisy that she can’t concentrate. The second solution is to call the repair shop to ask if they can fix the computer quickly and give it back to her at the beginning of next week. Then the woman will have enough time to finish her paper. But the repair shop is closed today and tomorrow. It’ll be a few days before the woman can talk to them. I would recommend her to choose the first solution. Since time is limited and it’s not sure whether her computer can be fixed in time, using the computer center is the only choice. Even though the computer center is crowded and noisy, it’s always possible to concentrate on work.

6. Using points and examples from the lecture, explain the two major factors of product quality and how their role in consumer decision making has changed. When a purchaser is considering two identically priced products, they make decisions according to the quality. There are two major factors of product quality: reliability and features. A product is reliable when it works the way we expect. For example, if a car doesn’t work the way it should and it needs repair all the time, it is not reliable. So reliability means the absence of defects and problems. However, our concern with reliability is different now, manufacture standards are so high that products are all very reliable. So reliability is not a deciding factor anymore. Instead, features are becoming more important in making decisions. Features are extras and things aren’t necessary. Features make a product cool and easier to use. For example, in a car, features are electric windows, air conditioning and stereos. Since reliability of different products are almost equal, people care more about the features.

1. Talk about a time when a friend or family member helped you in the past. Describe how the person helped you. Then explain why this was important to you. When I was in the third summer vacation in the college, I found a job in downtown. I lived on campus at that time but the campus is very far away from downtown so I got to find a place to live nearby. There was one friend who studied in another college located near downtown. He called me to live with him in his dorm since all his roommates were gone. He introduced me to his campus and told me where to eat, where to buy necessities and where to work out. I didn’t have to pay anything for this housing service. Also, living in his dorm saved me a lot of time. I shorten the travel time from 2 hours to 20 minutes.

3. The man expresses his opinion of the university‘s plan. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The university’s planning to broadcast classical music during mealtimes in cafeterias in order that students can relax and communicate more with each other. The man in the conversation thinks it’s a bad plan. First of all, he says that most of the students aren’t looking for relaxing in lunch time. They’d rather study there especially when they have exams coming up or when they have many assignments undone. The music will be distracting so the student’s won’t be able to concentrate. Secondly, most students don’t like classical music. If the cafeterias play classical music, students will be more likely to put on their personal music devices to block out the classical stuff.

4. Using the examples of the peanut bug and the morpho butterfly, explain the concept of revealing coloration. Revealing coloration is a defensive strategy used by animals to protect themselves from predators. The professor uses two examples to explain this concept. The first example is peanut bug. The peanut bug’s back wings are usually closed and have bright colorful spots on them. When peanut is attacked, it suddenly opens its back wings to show its bright colors that surprise its predators. So it reveals the usually hidden bright color in back wings to startle its predators. Then the peanut bug can escape. The second example is morphobutterfly. Parts of Morpho Butterfly’s wings are very shiny. When the butterfly is resting, the wings are hidden. When the butterfly is attacked by birds, it flaps the wings to reflect flashes of light that can make it hard for birds to catch the butterfly. In other words, it reveals the bright color of its wings to confuse its predators. So the Morpho Butterfly can get away.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The man has to take two courses to fulfill the requirement but these two courses are scheduled at the same time. In the conversation, they talked about two possible solutions. The first solution is to do independent study in the Shakespeare course. He read texts, finish assignments on his own and have discussions with the professor. But he’s afraid that he won’t be motivated. The second solution is to take the Shakespeare course in another university. But it takes him one hour to drive back and forth the universities. I would recommend he to take the Shakespeare course in the other university. Since he won’t be motivated if he studies independently，this is a good way to motivate him. Although this will cost him some time and money, he will finish the course.

6. Using the points and examples from the lecture, explain the two pricing strategies described by the professor. The professor talks about two approaches to make initial price of products. One approach is to set the initial price high followed by a lower price later, because companies want to build a high quality image for new products and products with high price are believed to have high quality. Companies can make profits from customers who are willing to pay high price to experience high quality products, especially those innovative high-tech products such as video recorders, video cameras and even cellphones. Another approach is to set the initial price low to undercut competitors. For example, if a new computer company wants to gain market share, it sells computer in an affordable price. So the company can appeal to customers who wouldn’t be interested to buy computers and those who want to change brand. The company can make profits through selling accessories to its customers.

4. Using the professor's example, explain what an establishing shot is and how it is used. Establishing shot is an image shown briefly at the beginning of a scene in order to communicate background information to viewers and establish mood or feeling of the scene. The professor uses a movie he recently watched as an example. At the beginning of the movie, You can see an image of a city with tall buildings, skyscrapers. In the city the cars and signs are old-fashioned. It seems like the city is in the 1940s. Also, before the scene started, the city seemed gloomy. It was mostly darkness, with little light from street lamps and it was raining, kind of foggy. These give viewers a dark, gloomy mysterious feeling. So when detectives are talking in an office, the professor had already known that the scene is a located in tall building, big city, sometime in the 1940s and the event is dark, gloomy and mysterious.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman has to move out of her apartment right away because there is something wrong with the water pipe and it’s going to take about two weeks to fix it. Also, the mid-term exams are coming up. The first solution is to stay at some friends’ place. The woman can sleep on the living room couch. But their place has already got four people, it’ll be a little crowded. Plus, there will be many distractions. The second solution is live in a hotel near campus. She could get a room there. But her budget is very tight now, even if the weekly rate is reasonable, it’ll still end up costing her some money. Considering the options and problems, I would recommend her to choose the first solution. Since her budget is tight, living at the friends’ place can save her money. Concerning the problem of distractions, she can just study in classrooms and only sleep on the couch at night.

6. Using points from the lecture, explain how the passion plant and the potato plant defend themselves from insects. The professor talks about two different ways plants develop to protect themselves from insects. The first way is use physical features. For example, the passion plant has leaves with spiky hairs sticking out. The hairs are so numerous and dense that there is no room for insects to land. Since insects can’t land on the leaves, they can’t eat the leaves. The second way is to use chemical defensives. For instance, potato plant releases a kind of chemical whenever insects start eating its leaves. The chemical it releases can discourage the insects from wanting to eat more, so the chemical makes insects feel full, and then insects stop eating the plant.

1. Talk about an important experience that you recently had. Describe what happened and explain why it was important to you. I recently attended a prayer meeting of BAHAI. The host is a couple. They hold the meeting at their apartment every week. We prayed in the living room together and recited the scripture. Also, we all talked about our happy events and unhappy events happened recently and exchanged our ideas about everyone’s events. It was important to me because it’s the first time I attended a small prayer meeting like that and we talked without concealment. It’s like a whole new experience to me. In addition, I made some friends there.

2. Some people think that family members are the most important influence on young adults. Others believe that friends are the most important influence. Which do you agree with? Explain why. I believe friends are the most important influence. We all know that one takes the behavior of one’s company. Friends are always our companies. We play games together, keep secrets and talk anything we like. We share interests and hobbies. For example, many of my friends like playing basketball because I like playing basketball very much. I learned a lot from my friends, their way of talking and their behaviors. However, I rarely spent time with my cousins or with my parents. They might have some influence on me, but they are definitely not the most important influence. In a word, because we are closest to our friends, friends have the most important influence on us. I believe family members are the most important influence on young adults. Young adults need directions when they are growing up. Even though they spend most of the time with friends, they get instructions from family members, especially parents. Take myself as an example, when I was the college, my father always told me the importance of “How to study by oneself.” He called me every week and gave me instructions. On the other hand, even though I spent much time with my friends playing video games or basketball, I didn't feel that I was influenced by them. All they talked about was how to play and how to get laid and I didn't like that.

3. The woman expresses her opinion of the university's new policy. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. The business apartment will now require all students to have one semester work experience in a local company so that students can develop leadership and organizational skills and may secure permanent employment after graduation. The woman in the conversation doesn’t think the policy will help students. Firstly, the students don’t do the work that can develop leadership and organizational skills. Typically, students are there to do basic jobs such as typing and filing. Secondly, there are many other universities in this area that have the same requirements so there must be a lot of students holding the same positions. So after graduation, the competition for business jobs will actually be fierce.

4. Using the professor's example, explain what an establishing shot is and how it is used. Establishing shot is an image shown briefly at the beginning of a scene in order to communicate background information to viewers and establish mood or feeling of the scene. The professor uses a movie he recently watched as an example. At the beginning of the movie, You can see an image of a city with tall buildings, skyscrapers. In the city the cars and signs are old-fashioned. It seems like the city is in the 1940s. Also, before the scene started, the city seemed gloomy. It was mostly darkness, with little light from street lamps and it was raining, kind of foggy. These give viewers a dark, gloomy mysterious feeling. So when detectives are talking in an office, the professor had already known that the scene is a located in tall building, big city, sometime in the 1940s and the event is dark, gloomy and mysterious.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman has to move out of her apartment right away because there is something wrong with the water pipe and it’s going to take about two weeks to fix it. Also, the mid-term exams are coming up. The first solution is to stay at some friends’ place. The woman can sleep on the living room couch. But their place has already got four people, it’ll be a little crowded. Plus, there will be many distractions. The second solution is live in a hotel near campus. She could get a room there. But her budget is very tight now, even if the weekly rate is reasonable, it’ll still end up costing her some money. Considering the options and problems, I would recommend her to choose the first solution. Since her budget is tight, living at the friends’ place can save her money. Concerning the problem of distractions, she can just study in classrooms and only sleep on the couch at night.

6. Using points from the lecture, explain how the passion plant and the potato plant defend themselves from insects. The professor talks about two different ways plants develop to protect themselves from insects. The first way is use physical features. For example, the passion plant has leaves with spiky hairs sticking out. The hairs are so numerous and dense that there is no room for insects to land. Since insects can’t land on the leaves, they can’t eat the leaves. The second way is to use chemical defensives. For instance, potato plant releases a kind of chemical whenever insects start eating its leaves. The chemical it releases can discourage the insects from wanting to eat more, so the chemical makes insects feel full, and then insects stop eating the plant.

1. Talk about a time when you accomplished something you didn't think you could do.What did you accomplish? Why did you think you couldn't do it? When I was a sophomore, I took IELTS. I got 8.5 in Listening section which is almost the full mark,9. Originally, I didn’t think I could get above 7 because I couldn’t really follow the speakers’ speed and my vocabulary wasn’t big. So I wasn’t confident. But I knew that my weak point was in listening section, so I listened to the IELTS recordings whenever I had time. When I was walking along the street, I listened to the recordings. When I was relaxing, I listened to the recordings. When I was taking a nap, I listened to the recordings. Besides, I bought a book to enlarge my vocabulary. I think it were these efforts I paid that helped me get 8.5.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use details and examples to explain your answer. I don’t think all children should be required to learn a second language in school. Some children don’t even like to learn language. They are more interested in playing basketball, football and other sports. Even if they are required to learn a second language, they won’t treat it seriously. I had many friends in junior high who didn’t learn language at all. But they could play basketball very well and maybe some of them can become professional players. There is no need to learn a second language to achieve their goal. Also, many of the children won’t have chance to use the second language they learned at school, because when they grow up their job doesn’t need any foreign language skills. For example, many of my high school classmates now work as clerks in banks and they don’t need to use foreign language in their work. Still, they can do just fine. 3. Briefly summarize the proposal in the student's letter. Then state the woman's opinion about the proposal and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. In the letter, the student proposes to put the artworks in the lobby at the entrance to the student center, because the center has many students and is full of natural light. But the girl in the conversation doesn’t agree with it. For the first point about many students passing through student center, she thinks the number of students coming and going is huge, which could be distracting for people to view the artworks. The center is always crowded with people. It’s hard to appreciate the artworks with so many people around. For the second point about natural light, she thinks it’s not very good. If it’s a sunny day, it’ll be way too bright. If it’s a cloudy day, it’ll be way too dark. Instead, the artworks need consistent light like the electric light in an art museum because the electric light is always carefully controlled and stays at a same level.

4. Using the examples from the lecture, explain the concept of entertainment merchandising. Entertainment merchandising is a marketing practice using the brand or image from one product to sell another. The professor uses two examples to illustrate this practice. The first example is that when he was a kid, his friends and he liked a character named Action Hero and they always watched the Action Hero program on Television and played games pretending to be the powerful hero. After a time, they started to see small hero figures in all the stores. They all watched the TV show so long that it was natural they wanted to buy the toys. The second example is that his 7-year-old daughter and her friends like a cute little baby doll named Rosa. One day his daughter told him that a new TV program with Rosa as the main character would show every week. Naturally She and her friends all started to watch the television show which was already popular, as popular as the toy doll.

5. Briefly summarize the woman's problem. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman has a history paper due tomorrow and she has been writing it on her laptop, but the electricity went out and the battery is running low. What’s worse, the electricity won’t be back before several hours. The man suggests her to go to Jefferson City. It’s got electricity and there is library where she can plug in her laptop and it’s only about 20minutes drive. But then she has to pack up all her stuff and it’s raining outside. Then the man gives another suggestion that she can just go to ask the professor for an extension. But the woman says the professor said he didn’t grant any extensions when he assigned the paper. Well, I would recommend the girl to drive to Jefferson City. Though she has to pack her stuff and it’s raining outside, finding a place to finish her paper is the most important thing to do. As a student, she has the responsibility to finish the homework. Accident caused by weather is not an excuse for not finishing homework on time.

6. Using the points from the lecture, explain why researchers think that babies may feel empathy. The professor talks about an experiment testing babies' empathy. We all know that if one baby cries in a room, other babies in the same room will cry. Originally, we think it’s because of the noise of the crying, which means baby is directly influenced by the noise rather than feel concern for other babies. But in the experiment, the researchers played a tap recording of a baby’s cry to another baby, then of course the other baby cries. Then the researchers played a tap recording of the baby’s own crying which is equally noisy; however the baby didn’t cry. So baby cried not because of the noise. It could be that the baby felt empathy for the other baby. Then researchers concluded that it’s possible that babies feel empathy, concern, for others.

1. Talk about an interesting book you have read. Explain why you thought the book was interesting. Give specific details and examples to explain your answer. Recently, I read an interesting novel named “Keep the aspidistra flying” which is written by George Orwell. I think it’s very interesting because in the story the main character’s experience is similar to mine. The main character wants to be a poet while I want to be a writer. He abandoned his well-paying job for his dream and I also quit my job for my dream. He had a time when he was impoverished and I also experienced a time when I couldn’t afford a lunch. He lives in a society where money talks and I live in a society where money is everything. So these similar experiences make me think the book interesting.

2.Some people think that children should be allowed to watch whatever television programs they choose to. Others think that parents should exercise control over the television programs their children watch. Which do you agree with? Explain why. I think parents should exercise control over the television programs their children watch. It’s a way of protection, since many shows are full of violent or horrifying scenes. But children are not mature enough to bear those scenes so they may feel terrified. Take myself as an example, When I was 7-year-old, I was watching TV alone at home. I accidentally ran into a horror movie and was frightened by the horrible zombies in the movie. They eat human beings and tear bodies into pieces. I was shocked by the bloody scenes. From then on, I started to be afraid of darkness. Every time I walked along the street in the evening, I would feel a zombie following me. I didn’t get rid of the bad influence from that movie until high school.

3. The woman expresses her opinion about the university' s plan. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. The college is planning to renovate the dormitories in order to attract more students to remain on campus. The woman thinks the plan is a mistake. The woman says that the constructions will create too much noise and will constantly disturb students who are now living on campus. So it’s possible that more students will choose to live off-campus. She also says that the new campus housing is going to cost more because the college plans to use the students’ housing fees to pay for the renovations. So students won’t be able to afford to live on campus. They may still choose to rent an apartment off-campus. So the college may not achieve its goal to attract more students to remain on campus.

4. Explain why Henry Darger is considered an Outsider Artist. According to the reading passage, outsider artists work in isolation and don’t get formal artistic training and they also invent their own ways of doing things. Therefore, their work may look strange and can be very different from other artists’. According to the professor, Henry Darger lived by himself, had no friends and thus worked in isolation. Also，He never received any formal training and his work is very unique. Darger had a hard time painting figures but he managed to come up with his own method. He cut out pictures of children from newspapers and pasted them on the painting. So his painting looks a little strange. It’s more cluttered and more crowded with details than other artists’ paintings. Also because the entire space is painted, Darger’s painting is a lot longer than other artists’

5. The students discuss a problem and two possible solutions. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why. The man has got a summer research position on campus but he didn’t apply for a dorm room for the summer. And it’s too late to apply now. In the conversation, they talk about two possible solutions. The first one is that the man can stay with his parents and commute to campus everyday. His parents will be happy to have him home and many old friends will come back home for the summer vacation. But it’s a little tiring to drive on the road. The second solution is to rent an apartment near campus. It saves time and gas fee. But still the man has to pay for the rent. Well, I would recommend the man to choose the first solution. Since his parents are happy to live with him and he can meet many old friends, why not stay with his parents. Even if it’s tiring to drive, he can save the money for the rent.

6. Using the points and examples from the lecture, explain what unity and contrast are, and how they make interior design more effective. In the lecture, the professor says an effective design needs to balance unity and contrast. An easy way to achieve unity is to bring together similar elements. A common practice is by matching colors. For example, we can pick green and use light shade green for the walls ,dark shade green for the sofa, and green for the rug. When elements match, the room is unified and gives senses of order and comfort. But too much unity will make a room boring. So we need contrast to break the unity. Contrast serves to disrupt unity in a careful and intentional way. In order to create color contrast, we need to change colors now and then. For example, we could put light red cushion on the dark green sofa. Contrast makes things stand out. Green will look greener next to the red. But too much contrast will make a room feel dizzy and chaotic. So an effective design must avoid too much unity and too much contrast.

1. What is the most efficient type of transportation in your country? Explain why you think it is efficient. Include specific reasons or examples I think airplane is the most efficient type of transportation in my country because it’s fast and comfortable. It only takes me three hours to fly from Beijing to Chongqing. This saves me a lot of time. I can go to Chongqing in the morning and come back to Beijing in the evening. However, if I take train or bus, it’ll take me at least 20 hours. So it’s very fast to take planes. Also, every time I am on the plane, the flight attendant serves me delicious food and drink, all free of charge. But in a train, the attendants aren’t very hospitable and you have to pay for all the food and beverage even though they aren’t of high quality. So that’s why I think taking plane is comfortable.

2. Some people believe it's essential for a person's education to learn to play a musical instrument. Others don't believe music education is important. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. I think it’s essential for a person’s education to learn to play a musical instrument. There are two reasons why I say so. First, learning to play a musical instrument can give a person a way to express emotion. For example, I have a sister who can play the piano. Every time she was happy or depressed, she’d play the piano. Second, learning to play a musical instrument makes a person artsy or develop a person’s artistic talent. Artistic people are more sensitive than normal ones. They can feel something that others can’t feel. They can sense the emotions from what normal people think is a normal scene. For example, Beethoven can compose his Moonlight at night. But I don’t think anybody can make a moonlight at night.

3. The woman supports the proposal described in the article. Explain why she thinks it will achieve the university's goals. The university plans to expand college radios station’s broadcasting range so as to attract more students to apply to its program and to provide the university with an extra source of revenue. The woman in the conversation thinks this change will work. She says currently the radio station range is limited to the campus. If they expand the range, there’ll be more programs. Also they will reach a larger audience and this will give students more experience in the real life broadcasting and put them in a favorable position to find jobs. Besides, the woman says this change will benefit the whole university. Since her friend’s university started a similar change five years ago and make a lot of money out of commercials. They use the money to offer more scholarship and fund projects to renovate new facilities.

4. Describe what subliminal perception is and explain how the experiment discussed by the professor illustrates this phenomenon. Subliminal perception is a phenomenon that the perception of stimulus is just below the threshold of conscious awareness and it can influence people’s thought and attitudes. The professor uses an experiment to illustrate this phenomenon. In the experiment two groups of people were asked to watch TV. A picture flashed on the screen. It appears so fast that it’s barely noticeable. The picture is a boy with a birthday cake. But each group is shown to a slightly different version of the picture. One group is shown to a picture in which the boy is angry and trying to throw the cake. The other group is shown to a picture in which the boy is smiling and trying to offer the cake. Later, these two groups of people were shown to a third picture in which the boy is holding the cake without any expressions. The people were asked to describe the boy’s personality. The result is that the group that has seen the angry boy describe him negatively, whereas the group that has seen the smiling boy described him positively. 5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which of the solutions you recommend and explain why. The woman won an award and is invited to attend the award ceremony. But she’s got a philosophy exam that is scheduled to end at the time when the ceremony begins. There are two possible solutions. The first one is to attend the ceremony after taking the philosophy exam since these ceremonies never start on time and give long introductions. So she won’t miss anything important. But she thinks it’s a bit risky and she doesn’t want to miss being there when they announce her name. The second solution is talk to the professor and reschedule the exam. But the professor always reschedule the exam earlier which means less studying time for the woman. I think the woman had better choose the first solution. Since rescheduling exam will reduce her studying time, the second solution will probably harm her score. Even if it’s possible that she’ll miss the announcement of her name, she can still go to the award after the exam. 6. Using the points and examples from the talk, explain how substitute goods and complement goods influence demand for a particular product The demand of a product can be influenced by the price of a related product. The first kind related products are called substitute goods, goods that can be substituted for one and another. They are interchangeable so the increase in the price of one product means the increase in the demand for another. For example, butter and margarine are interchangeable. If the price of butter goes up, people will buy margarine instead. So the increase in the price of butter lead to the increase in demand for margarine. The second kind related products are called complement goods, goods that can’t be used without each other. They complement or complete each other. For example, compact discs and disc player are complement products since they should always be used together. So if the price of either product increases, the demand for both will decrease. If the price of CD goes up, the demand for CD will go down. Since CD player complements CD, the demand for CD player will go down too.

4. Explain what is meant by "perceptual constancy, " using the examples provided by the professor. Perceptual Constancy is our ability to recognize the same object in many different contexts, even if the object may look different in different contexts. The professor uses two examples to illustrate this ability. The first example is plate. If we put a round plate directly at our face, it is a perfect circle. But if we put it in a horizontal position, it is no longer a circle but an oval. Still we recognize it as the same plate. The oval one is not a different object. Even if It looks different, we still perceive it as the same. The second example is the professor himself. He looks bigger to the students in the front row than those in the back row. If a student sits in the front row today and then in the back row tomorrow, the student will still perceive him as the same professor, even if to the student the professor’s size has changed.

5. The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the man‘s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why. The man is supposed to drive everyone in the club to see an exhibition and he borrowed his mom’s van. But the problem is that the van broke down and can’t be repaired in time. There are two possible solutions to this problem. First, he can rent a van. But he thinks it’s a little risky. Because only a few people in the club agree to contribute some money to the van, it’s possible that the man will have to pay most of the bill. The second solution is to postpone the trip until his mom’s van is in good condition. But the man says everyone will be disappointed if they find out that they can’t go to the exhibition when they are ready. Personally, I would recommend the man to rent a van. Since some of the students have already promised to split the rent, those who haven’t replied will definitely agree to contribute money to the van. Even if the man has to pay most of the bill, he has to pay because he is the president and he has the responsibility to complete his task.

6. Using the examples of the leafy sea dragon and the cuttlefish, describe two kinds of camouflage and the benefits they provide. Some sea animals have developed colors and shapes to resemble environmental features in order to avoid predators. For example, leafy sea dragon has leafy protrusions sticking out like arms. Its shape and color resemble the green sea plants so it blends in well in the environment. When it is swimming through green sea plants, predators have trouble seeing it. But without green plants, its camouflage doesn’t work. Another example is cuttlefish. Unlike leafy sea dragon, Cuttlefish’s camouflage can work anywhere. It changes color to blend in any environment. It has shifting pigments and can change color instantly. If it is swimming by the green sea plants, its color can change to green. If it is swimming by the brown sea floor, its color changes to brown.

1. People enjoy reading many different types of books such as mystery, biography, romance, etc. Of all the different types of books that there are. What type do you most enjoy? Explain why. I enjoy biography most, because reading biography tells me a life story of a great person. I get to know the great person’s ups and downs during his or her life and how he or she managed to get through all the difficulties. For example, the biography of Steve Jobs recounts how he was kicked out of Apple. But he continued his career in Computer Science and founded Pixar which created the world-famous film, Toy. Besides, he was invited back to Apple and saved Apple by introducing Ipod. I specially enjoy this part of his life, his great second-coming. I gain inspiration from his experience and from many other biographies and that’s why I enjoy reading biography most.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the statement? One of the best ways to learn is by making mistakes. Use specific examples and details to support your opinion. I totally agree with this statement that making mistakes is one of the best ways to learn. Through mistakes, we can learn what we don’t understand. After understanding the things we don’t know previously, we improve. Like in high school I had difficulty solving math problems. But I always remembered the problems I couldn’t solve. After asking teachers and discussing with classmates, I could work out these problems easily. Then I improved. Also, sometimes making a mistake is like learning a lesson. When I first went to a western restaurant, I directly went in to find empty seats. Fortunately, my American friend pulled me back and told me that I should wait until a waiter comes by and takes me to the seats. I make a mistake but I gained knowledge.

3. The man expresses his opinion about the proposal in the newspaper Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state the man's opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The writer proposes that university should allow students to eat in the classroom so that students can concentrate better and can have in-class parties on the last day of class. The man doesn’t think the proposal is a good idea. For its first reason that students can concentrate better, The man says it indeed helps the person who eats snacks to concentrate but others will be disturbed and interfered by the eating noise. So other students can’t pay attention with all the eating noise around. For its second reason, The man says it’s not appropriate to have parties in the last class, because the last class is very important. Students do reviews for the final exam. If they spend time doing other things, they won’t be well-prepared.

4. Using the example from the lecture, explain the comfort zone bias. Comfort Zone Bias is a tendency that we prefer to remain in comfortable, familiar situations rather than enter into new, unfamiliar ones. The reason is that we naturally prefer what we already know and want to avoid risks. The professor takes his friend as an example to explain comfort zone bias. His friend always wanted to be a film reviewer, because his friend loved to write about movies. So when his friend graduated, his friend looked for a job as a film reviewer. But he couldn’t find one. Then he took a position as a news reporter, investigating stories and writing about events. At first, he wasn’t sure he would be good at this but he adjusted, gained confidence and became a pretty good reporter. After a few years, he was offered a job to be a film reviewer and the new job would actually pay him more. But he didn’t take it. He turned it down because he’d gotten used to being a news reporter. He didn’t want make a change because chances are that the new job might not work out.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The man is worrying about his housing next semester, because his great roommate is moving off campus. In the conversation, they talk about two possible solutions. The first one is waiting the university to assign a new roommate to him. But the man thinks the new roommate may have a different study habit. Like, the man is used to studying late at night. What if the new roommate likes to go to bed early. Then this will throw off the man’s study schedule. The second solution is to live in a house off campus with other students. But the thing is the house is very far away from the campus. The man has to get up much earlier to get to campus on time. In my opinion, the man had better choose the first solution, to let university assign a new roommate for him. Chances are that the new roommate also likes to study late at night. The man shouldn’t assume that the new roommate will have a completely different habit. Besides, living on campus is a lot more convenient than living off campus. 6. Using the examples of the eel and the angler fish, explain two types of adaptations that help animals survive in the deepest parts of the ocean The professor uses two examples to illustrate two adaptations that help animals survive in the deepest parts of the ocean. The first example is a kind of eel fish. This eel fish has body features that allow it to eat prey larger than itself. It has an enormous mouth and a stomach that can expand. So when it captures a big prey, it gains a lot food, a lot of nutrition. This allows eel fish to sustain very long before it find another prey. The second example is angler fish. Angler fish has the ability to generate light. It has a little structure on its head which produces light and glows in the dark. The light is close to the fish’s mouth and many other fishes are attracted to this light. So they swim straight toward it and make it easier for angler fish to capture food.

1. People make friends in many different ways. What do you think is a good way to make new friends? Use specific details and examples in your response. I think attending group activity is a good way to make new friends. In a group activity, people usually have same interests and they perform some tasks together, so there’s a chance that some of the group members need to cooperate. Through cooperation, people start to know each other and then make friends. For example, I always play basketball with strangers. At the beginning, I don’t even know my teammates’ names. But after a few hours' cooperation, we become friends and start to talk about each other. Sometimes, we even go to have a meal after playing. And actually, this is how I make friends.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It's important to remember and learn from the past. Use details and examples to explain your opinion. I totally agree with this statement that it’s important to remember and learn from the past. We all make mistakes and we all have to remember mistakes. Because mistakes tell us what isn’t right. For example, when I was in the first grade primary school, I took a toy car from another student without informing him. I was too young to know that taking things from others without mentioning isn’t right. Then my teacher helped the other student find this toy car and labeled me as a thieve. I didn’t realize how serious this matter was until my father told me that this was humiliating. I swore to myself that I would never take anything from others without informing the owners. I think this is a valuable lesson and I’ll remember it forever.

3. The man expresses his opinion about the proposal in the student's letter. Briefly summarize the proposal. Then state the man's opinion about the proposal and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The writer of the letter proposes that university should pave running trails to increase their safety and also make them look nicer. The man in the conversation thinks the proposal is a terrible idea. As for the thing about making trails safer, the man says the writer doesn’t think about the long-term consequences of running on a hard surface. It’s too hard on bones and joints and can lead to injuries. So it’s actually safer to run on the soft surface. About making trails look nicer, the man doesn’t think people will like it. He says the main reason why people enjoy the trails now is that people can take a break from buildings and streets to feel the nature. If the university pave the trails, the trails will look similar to buildings and streets. Then people wont’ go there any more.

4. Explain how the example from the professor's lecture illustrates the experimenter effect. Experimenter Effect is a problem that occurs when a researcher’s expectations affect the outcome of the experiment. In the example, the researcher was given two groups of monkeys. He was asked to train them to pick up a ball and put it in a box. Then he recorded how many hours it took to train each group of monkeys to learn to do so. Before experiment, the researcher was told that one group is more intelligent than the other. But actually they are all the same. What's surprising is that it took the researcher two-hour less time to train the supposedly more intelligent group than the supposedly less intelligent group. This is because the researcher thought one group is smarter and would be easier to train so he smiled to them, gave them encouragement and communicated with them a lot. However, the researcher wasn’t very enthusiastic about the other group, the supposedly less intelligent group. So the researcher’s expectation actually influenced the result of the research. 5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman is in a choir and the choir is going to have a concert in a hour. All the choir members are required to wear white shirts and black pants. But the woman spilled the spaghetti all over her white shirt and she doesn’t have time to buy another new one. There are two possible solutions. The first one is to wear another shirt that’s not exactly white. It’s a little cream color. But she won’t be looking exactly same as others and some audience may be able to tell the difference. The second solution is to borrow a shirt from her roommate. But her roommate is out of town. And the woman hates to take things without asking. Personally, I would recommend the woman to borrow the white shirt from her roommate. The woman can send a text message or voice message to her roommate to inform her. Since the concert is going to start in an hour, I think the woman’s roommate will understand her action in this emergence. 6. Using the examples in the lecture, explain how the position of bird's eyes is critical to their survival. The professor talks about how the position of bird’s eyes help them find food and avoid predators. Some birds have eyes that face forward to the skull so that they can clearly see and judge distance. They can focus on things with both eyes and accurately predict height, width and depth. For example, hawks position their eyes in the front. They have such a good eye sight that they can spot a tiny mouse in a field from high in the sky. When they spot a mouse, they will swoop down and catch it. So the placement of their eyes help them find food. Some other birds have their eyes positioned on each side of the skull in order to avoid predators. Their eyes on both sides help them watch for dangers. For example, when a duck is eating grass and insects, it is constantly looking out for danger from both sides. If a fox is approaching from either side, the duck will fly and escape. So the placement of ducks' eyes help them avoid predators.

1. If you could have any job or career you wanted. Which would you choose and why? Give specific details to explain your response. If I could have any job I wanted, I would choose to be a writer. There are a couple of reasons why I want to be writer. Firstly, being a writer doesn’t need to go to office or a place full of many other people. Writers usually stay at a quiet place and write articles or books. I enjoy being alone, thinking alone and writing things alone. Every time I am alone, I write stories. Secondly, I love the art of telling stories. Writing stories not only pleases myself but may entertain other people, the readers, as well. I especially like the scene in which people laugh and think when they are reading my stories.

2. Some people who unexpectedly received a large amount of money spend it on practical things, while others spend it for pleasure only. Which do you think is better and why? I think spending it on practical things is better. Spending large amount of money for pleasure only is not a wise way to handle money. It’ll only make people want to spend more because human desire is insatiable. If you buy a big house, there will be a bigger house. If you buy a large company, there will be a larger company. So wiser people should spend the money on practical things such as setting up a fund for charity, helping those who are in urgent need of food and sanitation, building schools for kids who live in the rural areas and so on. Even opening a bookstore is better than just spending the money only for pleasure.

3. The man expresses his opinion about the student's suggestions that are made in the letter. State the man's opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The writer suggests that health center hire more doctors so that each patient receives quality treatment and that health center open on weekends in order to treat people who get sick over the weekend. The man in the conversation doesn’t think the two suggestions will do much good. As for the first suggestion, the man says the health center is tiny. It suffers lack of space. Unless it builds more treat room or offices, problems can’t be solved. About the second suggestion, the man says most students aren’t here on weekend. There are just not a lot of people here. Most of them are in town. Plus, students leave more often on weekend. All these mean that there is not much demand for treatment on weekends.

4. Using the example from the lecture, explain what social loafing is and how it affects people's behavior. Social loafing happens when individuals in a group perform less well than they do on their own, which leads to less personal efficiency. The professor uses a study to illustrate this phenomenon. In the study, people were asked to peel potatoes, to peel as many potatoes as possible at a given amount of time. Some chose to work alone and were told that the number of potatoes each peeled will be record. Others chose to work in a group and they were told that only the total number of potatoes peeled would be recorded. So it was impossible to tell how many one person had done. Then the researchers compared the average number of potatoes peeled alone and that peeled together. They found out that people who worked as a group peeled significantly fewer potatoes than those who worked alone.

5. The students discuss two possible solutions to the man's problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which of the solutions you prefer and explain why. None of the bookstores in the campus area has the book the man wants and it’ll take about two weeks to have the book in stock. But the class will be discussing the book next Tuesday. The first solution is to buy the book on the Internet and use Russia order delivery. But it’ll cost twice as much money as it takes to buy one in a bookstore. The second solution is to share the woman’s copy until he can get a book from a bookstore. He can read part of the book one day and then the woman can read part of the book another day. But the man worries that he won’t get the book back to her in time. I prefer the second solution. Just like the woman says, as long as the two students keep careful, they won’t delay each other. Furthermore, they only have to share the book for two weeks, since bookstores will have the book in two weeks.

6. Using points and examples from the talk, explain internal and external locus of control. The professor uses two interviewees as examples to explain internal and external locus of control. In the first example, the girl who has internal locus of control believes her success and preparation are her responsibilities. So she worked hard ahead of time. If she succeed, she will think its because of her hard work. If she fails, she will be disappointed and try to figure out how she can improve for the next time. Another example is a man who has external locus of control. He thinks interviewers have more influence on his interview, which means his success depends on luck. So he didn’t work hard to prepare for the interview. He is more likely to take risks, interviewing jobs that he is not qualified for. If he gets it, he thinks it’s because interviewers are having a good day. If he doesn’t get it, he will blame the interviewers and won’t try to figure out how he might have done better.

3. The man expresses his opinion about the upcoming change. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The library is going to change big, multiperson study tables into personal study cubicles in order to eliminate noise in the library and accommodate more students attending the university. The man in the conversation thinks the university is making a mistake. As for the first purpose to reduce distraction, the man says if there is no multiperson tables in the library, there will be no place to get together to do group projects. He thinks instead of changing tables, the university should build meeting rooms to reduce the noise in the main library hall. As for the second purpose to accommodate more students, the mans says the library has no problem with over crowding. He sees empty tables all the time and the woman always takes a whole table for herself. The man thinks it’ll be a waste of money to build the cubicles since the library now is sufficiently big to hold more students.

4. Explain the concept of ritualization using the example of dogs discussed by the professor. Ritualization is a process in which an animal’s behavior that originally serves a practical purpose develops into one that communicates a specific message. The professor use dog’s baring teeth as an example to explain the concept. If dogs feel threatened, they show their teeth, meaning stay away. Before this dog’s behavior become a recognizable warning, its original purpose is to avoid biting its own lips. When dogs sense danger, they bite and instinctively bare teeth to avoid biting their own lips. But other animals over time notice the teeth baring behavior always came before a dog’s going to bite. So they started to read it as a signal to be careful. After this scenario repeated time after time, dogs themselves start to be aware that simply baring teeth is enough to protect themselves. So they use this behavior as a warning signal to communicate the possibility to attack rather than actually attack.

5. The speakers discusses two possible solutions to the man's problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why. The man just got his first draft of paper from the professor and he has to review all the comments and write a final draft. But there is only one day left. The woman offers him two possible suggestions. The first suggestion is to ask the professor for a deadline extension. Since all the other students got their paper a few days ago and only the man got his paper just now, the professor should take some responsibility for this situation. But the man doesn’t want to seem pushy and offensive. The second possible solution is to do his best with the time left. He can finish the paper quickly and work hard. Since he is a pretty good student, he can get a pretty good grade. But there are too many comments to deal with. If I were the man, I would choose the first solution. Since this is the professor’s fault, even if it’ll be a little uncomfortable asking the extension, it’s still reasonable to do so. There is no need to worry about being offensive. The man just need to tell the problem to the professor in the first place. I’m sure the professor will understand. 6. Using points and examples from the talk, explain the concept of diffusion. Diffusion is a culture process whereby one group or society adopts another’s item such as a custom, a type of food or an invention. Take the modern newspaper in the US as an example, the characters on the page came from another culture many centuries ago, the printing of words was invented in Germany and paper in China. These innovations were shared across cultures over a long distance and over a long periods of time. Besides, diffusion is sometimes selective. For example, people in the US accept the practice of acupuncture, but few of them fully understand it. Because cultures tend to resist ideas that are too different from their own beliefs and values. If ideas are close to their own, they will incorporate, absorb and diffuse them. So American culture only accepts the practice of acupuncture but not the philosophy of Chinese medicine.

1. Imagine your life ten years in the future. Talk about one way you think your life will be different in ten years than it is now. Use details to explain your answer. I imagine my life ten years in the future to be free. My life will be different in one way from now that I don’t have to be tied to a job. I can travel around the world, go anywhere, see different things, meet different people, broaden my horizon and thus feel the world. I don’t have to confine myself to just one place. I can go to France, South Africa, South America and Islands in the Pacific. In addition, I can be a freelancer, live on my royalties. I will have plenty of time to write novels and read all the masterpieces. This is what I imagine my life will be in ten years.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is important to learn about other cultures.Use details and examples to explain your opinion. I totally agree with this statement because we can learn different perspectives from other cultures. It’s important to know different perspectives to be reflective. For example, I went to the US in my sophomore year and found out that many students in the US don’t use their parents’ money. They usually work in the summer to earn tuition fees and living expenses. However, most of my classmates including me use parents’ money without even thinking about it. We believe that it’s our parents’ obligation to pay for the college and give us allowances. I reflected on this issue and thought I should take on the responsibilities myself. Then I took a government loan to pay for the tuition fees and also got some part-time jobs. Therefore, I changed my perspective because I learned a new one from another culture.

3. The man expresses his opinion about the change described in the article. Breifly The university choir decides to enter off-campus Singing Competitors in order to better its performance and help the music program grow. The man in the conversation likes this plan. Firstly, he thinks this change will motivate the singers in the choir. Since other schools’ choirs are very good, the university choir has to work harder to compete against them. So the university choir may practice more often than did it before and thus better the performance. Secondly, he says if the choir goes to those off-campus events, there will be many students listening to them and if the students feel good, they may choose to come to the university and join the program. Therefore, the music program will grow.

4. Using the example of the pronghorn and lion, explain the concept of a relict behavior. Relict behavior no longer serves its original purpose because of changed conditions. It might be useful to the animal when habitat was different. Pronghorn lives on open grassy plains. It is superfast, actually the fastest animal in the western hemisphere. Whenever its predators appear, it’s off in a flash. The reason why it runs so fast is that long time along, the grassy plain was different. Lions used to live there and chased pronghorns. Lions were much faster than bobcat, so pronghorn’s speed was critical to its survival. But now lions are extinct. They are no longer the predators. Because of this condition change, pronghorn’s speed doesn’t serve its original purpose and thus becomes a relict behavior.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The man wrote his paper last night but he forgot to take it with him. There are two possible solutions. The first one is to drive back to his place and bring the paper back. Since he lives offcampus, if he hurries, he can only come back before the class is over. Still he’ll miss part of the class. The second solution is to talk to the professor and ask her if it’s okay to send the paper later by email. But the professor always starts class on time, the man will only have chance to ask her when the class is over. I would recommend the man to take the fist solution. Since the professor is strict with latesubmissions and he doesn’t know whether she’ll allow him to submit the paper later by email, it’s better to drive home and bring the paper back even if he’ll miss part of the class.

6. Using points and examples from the lecture, explain how the characteristics of target customers influence marketing strategy for products. The professor talks about two characteristics of target customers that can influence company’s marketing strategy. The first characteristic is age. If a company makes toy cars, its target customers are kids. It should advertise on Television during the time kids watch television. This makes sure that the advertisement reaches the kids so the company can get people in that age group to buy toy cars. The second characteristic is geographical location where the target customers live. If a company wants to sell boats, its target customers must live near ocean and lakes since only people live near water need boats. So the company will advertise in cities and towns that are near ocean and lakes in order to reach its target customers and therefore to sell more boats.

1. Talk about a skill or ability that you consider especially important for a student to have. Use details and examples to explain your answer. The ability to find answers one one’s own is important for students to have. As we all know, there are many problems we can’t solve by simply asking others, classmates, friends or even teachers. And sometimes we meet a problem but there is no one around to offer help. So we have to find the answers by ourselves. We can use Search Engines such as google to see if any similar questions have been asked. We can also use Internet database such as Wikipedia to see if there is any relevant items that can provide useful information to answer our questions or to help solve problems. In a word, the ability to find answers by oneself is very important.

2. More and more people are buying items on the Internet and from magazines or catalogs. Other people prefer shopping in a store. Which do you prefer and why? I prefer to buy things on the Internet rather than do shopping in a store. Firstly, it’s very easy to find things on Internet. You just have to input the key words into search engine on a web store, the results will be listed on the screen immediately. Then you pick the one you need and use credit card to pay the item. After a few days or so, the item will be delivered directly to your house or apartment. Secondly, Internet has more items than does store. Many times I walk in a bookstore and walk out without the book I want. But I never meet the problem buying books online. I can either buy books from Web bookstores such as Amazon or buy second-handed books from individuals. So, these are the reasons why I choose to buy items on the Internet.

3. The man expresses his opinion of the university’s plan. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion. The university is going to make a 25-dollar increase in student fee for using the campus recreation center to upgrade the facility so that more students will use the facility. Also, the decision is approved because 25-dollar is a reasonable amount of money. The man in the conversation thinks it’s a great idea. Firstly, he says people don’t go there because the facility is old and exercise equipment breaks down. If they upgrade the facility and provide new equipment, students will get more use at it. It’s not good to just let it empty. Students will be stressed out if they don’t do any exercise. Secondly, he says 25 dollars is not much, compared to the money students spend on CDs and movies. Furthermore, it’s one charge for a whole year. Considering the benefits, this is not much to pay.

4. Use the examples from the lecture to explain the concept of social learning. Social learning is a way people learn by watching the behavior of others. If the behavior leads to desirable results, people will imitate it. If the behavior leads to undesirable result, people will not imitate it. In the professor’s example, two kids, sister and brother are shopping with their mother. If the girl wants a toy and asks her mother to buy it for her. But the mother says no. Then the girl cries and screams. Finally the mother gives in and buys the girl the toy. At the same time, the little brother is watching all this. Next time if he wants something, he will cry and scream, which means he imitates the behaviors from his sister. But if the mom didn’t give in, didn’t buy the girl the toy and didn’t let the girl watch TV program. Again the boy is watching. Next time if he wants a toy, probably he is not gonna cry and scream. Since the behavior doesn’t lead to a desirable consequence, the boy will not imitate the behavior. 5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman’s got a scheduling problem. The day the woman has been assigned to teach at the school in town will be the same day her Chinese history course meets. There are two possible solutions. The first one is to take the Chinese history course in another semester. But this course is taught by a visiting professor who is amazing and will only be here one semester. Another solution is to change her teaching assignment to a different day to teach little kids. But she wants to teach old kids because that’s what she wants to do after graduation. I would recommend the woman to take the second solution. Since the visiting professor will only be here in one semester and she is planning to go to China, it’s important to grip this opportunity. There must have some other ways to gain experience of teaching old kids but having a Chinese history course taught by a Chinese professor is not that easy.

6. Using the examples of the albatross and fulmar, explain two special adaptations that have developed to help seabirds find food. The professor talks about two special adaptations developed to help seabirds find food. The first adaptation is the Length of wings. Usually, when birds fly, they have to flap wings up and down and uses a lot of energy. Bu albatross, a kind of seabird, has specially long wings that enable it t fly without moving wings up and down. So it can glide and float on the wind using little energy. This is so because albatross has to cover huge expanse of ocean to locate food. Another adaptation is acute sense of smell. Fulmar also has to find food scattered in the ocean and its main source of food is tiny plankton. Fulmar develops tiny tubes inside nose hole and the special tube-shape nostrils help them to pick up the scent of food. Plankton is hard to see but it gives sharp distinctive odor. So Fulmar can find plankton by smelling them even from far away.

1. Choose a quality you think makes someone a valuable member f a team. Explain why you

think it is an important quality for a team or group member to have I think a valuable member of a team should be cooperative. If a member is cooperative, he or she will take the goal of the team as main goal not that of his or her own as the main goal. So he or she is willing to help other team members, to talk with others, to solve problems with others. Once I attended a computer program group. At that time we had four members and only one day left before we had to submit the program. So we all decided to gather together and stay overnight, writing the program, sharing ideas, discussing and solving problems. That was the time I felt we were like a team.

2.

Some people prefer to learn about current events from watching television news programs.

Others prefer to read about current events in newspaper or on the Internet. Which do you think is better: watching the news or reading the news? Explain why. I prefer watching the news to reading the new because watching the news can provide me with more details about what had happened. Usually in the video, I can see the scene, see the people and even hear their words. It seems as if I am in the scene. Besides, watching the news can get more objective information. Since the news articles in the newspaper should be edited or censored, some important information may be omitted. However, videos news bring me to the scene and make me one of the witnesses. Even though, some might say videos can be clipped, I believe at the same censoring level, video is more objective than words.

3.

The woman expresses her opinion about the plan described in the article. State her opinion

and explain the reasons she gives for holding the opinion. （题目 并没有让我们总结阅读材料,所 以阅读内容可说可不说） The girl doesn’t agree with the university on the plan. Firstly, she says that the teaching buildings aren’t just used for classes. They are also used by her evening study group. The group hold meetings in the classrooms. Now that it’s winter and cold, the study group has nowhere else to go. Secondly, she says the university shouldn’t disrupt the students’ academic study. There are many other things the university should do. The university can replace the old drafty windows that are poor isolated and always let the cold in classrooms. Also, the old buildings are not energy-efficient. So she thinks there are many basic improvements the university can do to make difference in the long-term and still leave them somewhere to study.

4.

Using the example given by the professor, explain how franchising works.

If someone opens a store or restaurant, he or she pays an established company to use the company’s name and sell the company’s products. This practice is called franchising. The professor uses an example to illustrate this practice. In the example, he wants to open a pizza restaurant. He wants to be successful, so he pays a big company that owns a chain of pizza restaurants called pizza town to use the name, pizza town. Since pizza town is already popular, it will surely sell well. So the new restaurant will have better chance to succeed. But in exchange, the new restaurant should follow the pizza town’s standard practice, selling pizzas like pizza town’s pizza, making store look like pizza town, and advertising like pizza town. So there is not much freedom. But the thing is they sell a lot of pizza. 5. Briefly summarize the woman’s problem, then sate which solution you would recommend.

Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman’s supervisor, Professor Green， is going to France for a semester, but she still needs a lot of help for her project. Professor Green’s suggestion is that professor Baker can help woman. But the woman doesn’t know professor Baker at all and professor Baker is specialized in another area, so they are not exactly the best matched. Another solution is that the woman can have Professor Green’s advice long distance. Professor Green can look at the woman’s data through emails. But there will be no one supervising the woman’s experiment. In my opinion, I would recommend the woman to take the first suggestion. Even if professor Baker’s expertise is not the woman’s study area, as a great biologist, professor Baker is still able to advise the woman and may give her new perspectives. 6. Using points and examples from the talk, describe the two defense mechanisms mentioned

by the professor. The professor says when people experience difficult situations, they may feel helpless and have psychological pain. In order to psychologically protect themselves they will unconsciously use defense mechanisms. For example a woman has a pet dog for a long time. But one day the dog runs away, she looks everywhere and just can’t find him. She feels helpless and sad. The first defense mechanism to deal with the pain is fantasy. She will use imagination to invent a happy story in her mind. In the story a nice family found the dog and feeds him well and the dog is playing, running around, having fun so she doesn’t have to feel sad. Another mechanism is sublimation. Sublimation turns negative emotions into something useful, practical. The woman may start a dog training school to prevent other people dogs from running away. So by using sublimation she redirects her negative feeling into a positive, constructive activity.

1. Talk about an important news event that happened recently in your country .Describe the

event and explain why it was important. Recently, there was a news about a little girl run over by a van and within 7 minutes,18 people walked by without giving a hand. Finally she was saved by a scavenger. The news is very important because it shows that our society is apathetic. People aren’t willing to help others and they fear to help others. This is pathetic. This news sparked an awful lot of discussions on the Internet and increased the public awareness of an issue that we are gradually losing our virtue. Our virtue has been sapped by our apathy. What should we do to save the society and save ourselves?

2.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Your friends are the most important

influence in your life. Use details and examples to explain your opinion I agree with the statement friends are the most important influence in my life. Firstly, I learned how to be sociable from friends. When I first entered a company, I was a loner. I didn’t understand the basic social rules. One of my friends, Lillian, gave me a lot of advice about how to behave in front of the boss and what to say in front of colleagues. Secondly, friends are my good-listeners. Many times I felt helpless and painful because of some frustrations, I went to my friends. They would sit in front of me, listening to my complaints or swear words and thencomforted me. These are the things that neither my parents or other relatives can give me.

3.

The woman expresses her opinion about the university’s plan. Briefly summarize the plan.

Then sate her opinion about the plan and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. The university is planning to send daily e-mail to all students so that they can get information about campus events and activities every day. The woman thinks it’s a great idea. First of all, the woman thinks the weekly newspaper is not up-to-date. She reads it every Monday, but she’ll forget a concert on Thursday or a film on Wednesday. She also says that the email can serve as an reminder so if any event gets cancelled, people will know and won’t waste time going. Second of all, the woman says everyone checks email once a day and if they include cafeteria menu in the email every day, people definitely will read it.

4. of effect.

Explain how the example from the lecture illustrates the technique of questioning awareness

5.

Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you

would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman has been rehearsing for a play. But there is a guy named Bill who can’t remember his lines. The woman is not sure whether he will be ready for the opening night. There are two solutions discussed in the conversation. The first one is to replace him with another actor who can play the part. But the woman worries that removing Bill will hurt his feelings. The second solution is to spend time with Bill, work with him to help him remember lines. But the woman has other parts of the production to take care of. Personally, I recommend the woman to try the second solution first to see if Bill will improve under her help. Maybe Bill’s got some real problems remembering some lines or maybe he is just nervous and forgetful on the stage. So find problems first and then decide whether to replace him or not. 6. Using points and examples from the talk, describe two changes that occurred after machines

began to be used for manufacturing goods. The first change is that the center of production moved from homes to factories. Take the production of clock as an example, traditionally people had made clocks by hand at home. But when steam-powered machines were invented and used to weave clock, the clock production became more quickly and efficiently. So the making of clocks shifted from home-made business to factory production. Another change is that cities started forming around factories. For example, if a clock factory was built in a small village, the factory would hire a lot of rural workers. So the workers started to congregate in the village. As a result,the village got bigger and bigger and eventually grew to a city.

1. Talk about one way your personality has changed since you were a child. Use examples and details to explain your answer. On way my personality has changed since I was a child is that I became honest. When I was a little kid, I always lied to my parents because I didn’t want them to know that I stole money from them, didn’t do homework well and played video games outside. Once I stole five yuan from my mom and used the money to play video games. Also, I was late for school. On that day, I lied to my teacher and my parents. Even if I wasn’t caught by anyone, I still felt guilty of lying. I found that one lie makes many and that once people realized that I had lied to them, they started not to believe me. I felt sad about myself at that time. Gradually, I started to hold the belief that honesty is the best policy.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement. Children should be required to learn practical skills in school, such as cooking or personal finance, in addition to academic subjects. I totally agree with the statement. School isn’t just a place for kids to learn math, physics or chemistry. Children need to learn some practical and useful skills. Like, if children can learn cooking at school, they not only learn the basic survival skill but also a skill that can help them become more sociable. In a party, children can cook for friends. At home, children can cook for parents and relatives. Also, if children can learn personal finance at school, they’ll learn how to budget their allowance and develop a good habit of spending money. Therefore, I think children should be required to learn practical skills.

3. The woman expresses her opinion about the university’s plan. Briefly summarize the plan. Then state her opinion about the plan the explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. The university decides to let current students lead the campus tours for second-school students because the staff of the admissions office have not enough time and the current students can offer an unique and valuable insight to the visitors. The woman in the conversation thinks it’s a good idea. Firstly, she went to admission office several times. Every time she went there, the staff were very busy, running around like crazy, handling tons of paperwork, doing interviews and receiving phone calls. Secondly, she thinks current students will be really good at this. Unlike the staff, current students can answer questions concerning practical things such as which dorm is nosier, which dorm is the quietest and which cafeteria is recommendable. Their point of view will be very helpful.

4. Explain how the example from the professor’s lecture illustrate irrational commitment. The irrational commitment is a tendency to continue a project even if the project is more likely to fail than succeed. This tendency can be especially strong when people feel that others are judging the success or failure of their projects. In the professor’s personal example, he wanted to buy an old house. But his wife said it was in no good condition and didn’t want to buy it. He convinced his wife to buy the house and decided to fix the house before they live in. However, house turned out to have many problems, the professor had to spend huge amount of money to fix the damaged roof and electrical problems. Then his wife reminded him of her earlier doubts. But he became more determined than ever. Even if the problem of the house got worse and took more money to fix, he just kept going, because he didn’t want his wife to think he was wrong for not following her advice. In other words, he didn’t want his wife to judge his success or failure.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman spilt some soup on the research paper she is going to hand in in the class. There are two possible solutions discussed. The first one is to hand in the paper like this and explain to the professor what happened, since the paper can still read and will dry out. But the professor is strict about the looking of paper. The second solution is to go to computer lab to print a new copy. But she will have to wait in a line and so she will probably be late for the class. And the professor is strict about lateness too. I would recommend the girl to choose the second solution because she can have a new copy of the paper and even if she will be late for the class, she shows the professor that she cares about the looking of the paper and that because of the accident, the lateness is somehow inevitable.

6. Using the example of the mole, explain two different types of underground adaptation. The professor talks about two physical adaptations of mole for living underground. One adaptation is used to deal with the challenge to move underground. Moles have wide super strong front feet with big claws that allow moles to dig through the dirt and so to move through thick, dense soil efficiently. Using the shovel-like front feet, the mole loosens up the soil and throw the dirt behind as it moves forward. Another adaptation is used to protect their sensitive parts of body. Moles have developed the hairy membrane on their tiny eyes. The hairy membrane can prevent particles from going into moles’ eyes, the most sensitive parts. And So when mole is digging through the dirt, dirt particles will just slide by its eyes.

1. There can be several advantages to spending time living in another country.

Talk about one advantage and explain how living in another country provides that advantage. Use details and examples in your response. One of the advantages to spending time living in another country is to learn a new perspective. Different country has different cultures. Different culture views things differently. For example, I once lived in United State. Almost all I experienced there are different from my experience in my home country. College students in the US earn living expenses and tuition fees by themselves while those in my country rely on their parents. Their way of living is also different from ours. They usually live off-campus and drive to school. We live on campus and walk to classroom. They don’t always eat in cafeteria because food there is a little experience, while we always eat in cafeteria because food there is the least expensive. So many different things come together to help me form a new perspective toward college life. 2. Some people enjoy spending their free time alone in activities such as reading, thinking or

writing. Others enjoy spending their free time in shared activities with other people. Which do you prefer and why? I prefer to spend free time alone doing activities like reading, thinking and writing. I value my free time very much because that’s the time I can do whatever I like. I like reading and writing. By reading books, some masterpieces, I feel like I am talking with those great authors and masters. I enjoy great stories such as Robinson Crusoe, Boy’s life and Catcher in the Rye. By writing, I can take down the meaningful moments and thoughts in my life. Also, I can write my own stories. Every time I work out a story, I feel great and eager to let others read it. Through reading and writing, I can better understand my life. Only by staying alone can I read, write and think.

3.

The woman expresses her opinion about the plan announced in the article.

Briefly summarize the plan. Then state her opinion about the plan and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. Campus newspaper editors have made the decision to eliminate the international news section because other news sources can provide better international news coverage. Also, the space will be used as a calendar page covering events and activities around campus. The woman thinks it’s the right thing to do. Her reason is that hardly anyone reads the international news section and students already know about the major stories from local paper and Internet before they read the section. So she thinks the campus newspaper should stick to the campus news. Her second reason is that right now information is everywhere on campus, in different buildings or in the student center. With the new calendar, students can cut it out, carry it around, and know what’s taking place and when and where.

4. groups.

Using the example from the lecture, explain how people’s behavior is affected by reference

Reference groups are groups of people we admire. We tend to imitate their behavior and attitudes. The professor uses his own life experience to illustrate this phenomenon. When he entered university, he made friends with art students. The art students always dressed casually. They wore t-shirts, jeans and sneakers. The professor thought they were cool so he also started wearing t-shirts, jeans and sneakers. But after graduation, the professor got a job in Chicago. When his co-workers and he gathered for a concert or a baseball game, he found out that they all dressed up a little bit. The man would wear a nice pair of pants and the woman would wear fashionable dress. And he started to think these look really classy and sharp and began to wear like them. So his reference group has changed from the art students to his co-workers. 5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you

would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendat ion. The bus schedule has changed. But the man has to take a bus from campus to his job in town. Because the bus he used to take is going to leave earlier, he can’t get there in time. There are two possible solutions discussed in the conversation. The first solution is to talk to boss and change the work hours to late at night so that he can catch the later bus. But if he works late at night, he will be tired in the class early next morning. The second solution is to ride bike to work. It only takes 15mins. But the man is worrying that in bad weather, riding bike will be inconvenient. If I were the man, I would choose the second solution, since it only takes 15mins to get to work. Also, he can get exercise from riding the bike. Plus, not every day has bad weather. Even if the weather is bad, he can read the weather forecast and shift work hours ahead of time. 6. Using the examples of the Venus flytrap and the sundew, describe two ways that carnivorous

plants get their nutrients. In the lecture, the professor talks about two ways carnivorous plants capture insects. The first way is active trap. For example, Venus flytrap has some parts that can move to catch the prey Its leaves are hinged in the middle and the two parts of the leaves look like a mouth. Also its leaves have sweat nectar on them to attract the insects. When insects are attracted by the nectar and land on the leaves, the leaves spring shut and form little cages. Then Venus flytrap can digest the insects and get nutrients. The second way is passive trap. For example, the Sundew plant has no moving parts. It also has sweet nectar on its leaves. But its leaves are full of little hairs. When insects land on the leaves, hairs can produce super sticky glue substance. So the insects get stuck on the leaves and then Sundew plant can digest the insects and absorb nutrients.

1. Talk about a popular gathering place in your town where people like to go.Describe the place and explain why people enjoy going there. (2011.5.13； 2009.10.24) In my town, the public park is the popular gathering place. There are several reasons why it’s popular. The first reason is that the park has a very big square where senior citizens go nearly every day to do some physical exercise. I can see t hem every day after dinner, they dance together energetically. Another reason is that there is a beautiful lake beside the park, and young people, especially those from the university, like to sit on the bank, enjoying the view and having some talk. If the weather is fine, beautiful young girls and handsome boys can be seen sit side by side.

2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Students benefit more from classes with a large number of students than they do from smaller classes Use specific examples and details to support your opinion I don’t agree with this statement. I believe students benefit more from small classes than from large classes.. First of all, there are many students in a large class and it’s usually in a big lecture hall. Teachers or lecturers will always focus on their own topic. There aren’t as many interactions in it as in a small class. In small classes, students are allowed to make discussions. Also, students can get more attention from teachers and thus have more opportunities to voice themselves. Secondly, in a large class, if there is a point a student doesn’t understand, he or she might be left behind, while in a small class, teachers give attention to every student, so no one will be left behind.

3. The woman expresses her opinion about the student’s proposal. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. The student proposes to close the Campus Coffee house because students usually don’t use it and the food in the coffee house is not good. The woman in the conversation doesn’t like the proposal. She says the good thing about the Coffee House is that it’s never crowded. So it’s a great place to study. She always reads a book or works on a paper in it. She even prefers it to the library. Plus, students can eat while they study there. She also says that though the food wasn’t great, it’s a lot better now. The Coffee House has got a new manager. Last week she went there and the food was delicious. Besides, the new manager has added a lot of really healthy food and snack.

4. Using the example of the macaw from the lecture, explain the concept of a flagship species. A flagship species is a particular species that represents a threatened habit to the general public. The professor takes Macaw as an example to explain the concept. Macaw is a beautiful bird and has colorful features. It lives in the rain forest and relies on the trees for food and nesting. But the trees have been cut down. So macaw and a lot of other animals are in trouble. The populations of animals drastically declined. Then a group of people used macaw to represent the threatened habitat. They spread the word about how macaw needed the help and distribute books with macaw’s pictures to the school and other communit y places. After that, a lot of people started to take actions and contribute money to help set up a protected land, a special area where no one could cut down the tree. So, the number of macaw and other animals increase.

5. Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman just moved into a new place to live. But the problem is that the new doesn’t have an Internet connection. She has to do research and email people everyday. There are two possible solutions to this problem. The first solution is to call Internet companies to install Internet. But it’s costly, the woman has to pay for the service every month. The second solution is to use the computer center on campus. The Internet there is free. But the woman doesn’t have classes on campus every day and the computer center can get crowded sometimes. I would recommend the woman to take the first solution. Even if installing the Internet will be costly, it’s absolutely worth it. Since she has to do research and email people everyday, she must need a stable and handy Internet connection. After all, computer center is on campus and it may be crowded. 6. Using the examples from the lecture, discuss two types of narrators that an author of fiction might use. The professor talks about two types of narrator in fiction. The first type is an objective narrator. An objective narrator can describe what the characters do and say. For example, if a man and woman is about to take a trip, the only information we get from the objective narrator is what the characters say to each other and their actions such as getting on a train and looking out the window. It forces the reader to fill in the information and to decide what the conversation might mean. The second type is an omniscient narrator. An omniscient narrator knows everything about the characters. In the example above, the omniscient narrator knows not only what they say and do, but also what they are thinking. Like, it may tell us that the man is nervous because he hasn’t seen his friend in a long time and he is worried about whether his wife will like his friend.