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英文论文diesel engine development and durability


Diesel Engine Development and Durability
ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

Rakesh Aneja Detroit Diesel Corporation Brian Bolton Detroit Diesel Corporation Adedejo Bukky Oladipo Detroit Diesel Corporation Zornitza Pavlova-MacKinnon, Detroit Diesel Corporation Amr Radwan Detroit Diesel Corporation

ABSTRACT Advanced diesel engine and after treatment technologies have been after treatment systems. CLEAN

Combustion allows partial control of exhaust species for after treatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and after treatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental

developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low

emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines.

technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and

The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies

transient simulate cycles.

dynamometer chassis

test-beds

to test

dynamometer

(CLEAN Combustion) with prototype

Key Words: diesel engine, Tier 2, SCR, after treatment, emissions, urea

INTRODUCTION

In

the

late

1990s,

fuel

use

reduction on the U. S. transportation energy use; however, many people questioned whether the diesel engine's potential to achieve future Tier 2 emissions would make it a viable option. Those who considered that the emissions hurdle could be overcome, then

projections were prepared for future transportation requirements. Energy use among automobiles was shown to be fairly steady for the future outlook from 2000 to 2020, while Class 3 through Class 8 trucks (heavy-duty type vehicles) were predicted to increase marginally over that same twenty-year time frame. However, a significant increase was seen in the Class 1 to Class 2 trucks (pickups, vans and SUVs). In some cases, these are used commercially, but the primary source of increase was seen as a growing part of the passenger car market for use for personal transportation. This major increase in the use of these vehicles is subsequently increasing the energy use and thereby driving up total energy use in terms of millions of barrels per day of petroleum, from approximately 8 million barrels in the late 1990s up towards 12.5-13 million barrels in 2020 [1,2]. (See Figure 1.)

questioned what the resulting fuel economy improvement would be after all of the NOx abatement technologies were applied and the fuel efficiency was reduced.

As a response to this, a series of collaborative projects with the

Department of Energy were initiated including the DELTA program, and later, the LEADER program at Detroit Diesel Corporation. The purpose of these programs was to look at the technical viability of meeting Tier 2 emissions and also the fuel economy impact that that would have. The approach that was followed at Detroit Diesel was an integrated analytical and experimental

At that time, it was forecast that the dieselization of the vehicle fleet,

approach that utilized simulation in the early stages of the program to develop the concepts required for engine design as well as strategy development.

primarily these Class 1 and Class 2 light trucks, would have a significant

Figure 1: “Dieselization” of Vehicle Fleet Offers Significant Reduction to U.S. Transportation Energy Use

METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS

Control systems were integrated along with the engine control system in a fairly dynamic, yet effective way that led to significant advancements in the overall emissions characteristics of the engine while maintaining the inherent fuel economy advantage of the diesel engine over the baseline gasoline engine. Initially, extensive simulation was

Once

this

activity

established

calibrations and a robust, repeatable engine performance level, it was used to forecast transient engine performance by characterizing transient cycles, again still in a steady state type of scenario. Integrating with analytical tools allowed for transient types of situations to be identified and then run in a steady state test cell environment which is highly controlled. This allowed for critical answers to questions such as tradeoffs between air systems, EGR systems and combustion systems to allow an

conducted to design a clean sheet engine. This simulation was validated by

actually procuring and building the engine and doing the steady state modal development. This effort both validated the simulation and quantified the

improved engine development scheme to be worked out.

performance in the steady state mode.

workhorse dynamometer system, the Following the steady state engine was used to repower a number of commercial light truck vehicles: Dodge Durango, Dodge Dakota, and also a Class 1 DaimlerChrysler Neon

development, the work and theories were validated in a transient engine dynamometer setting where the engine could run transient engine-type of operations. Also, vehicle integration was forecast and vehicle emission types of driving cycles, such as the Federal Urban Drive Cycle, the FTP-75, the US06, and the Highway Fuel Economy Test Modes were programmed into the transient engine dynamometer. These could be run in a very controlled setting to allow for the control system and calibration to be refined. Following development on this

passenger car vehicle, and validate some of the control system development in calibrations that had been developed. This vehicle integration then led back into the simulation domain to develop higher fidelity control systems and calibration development. This path leads through an iterative network of engine and after treatment development. On the second, third and fourth iterations through this loop, after treatment was increasingly integrated.

Figure 2: DAKOTA Light Truck Platform

As shown in Figure 2, the platform used in the program for the Tier 2 demonstration was a DaimlerChrysler Dodge Dakota light truck platform. It was repowered with a DELTA 4-Liter V6 engine [3,4]. This engine used variable geometry turbo charging,

the light truck and SUV platform, as shown in Figure 3. It was based on the FTP-75 emission performance and it looked at two domains. The first domain identified the emission performance targeted for engine out utilizing engine control strategy and advances in Clean Combustion. The patented advanced combustion technique developed in the program allows significant reductions in engine out emissions without a

common rail fuel injection, unique high pressure loop, cooled EGR system, created 235 HP at 4000 rpm and has been shown at the 2002 DEER

conference and participated in the 2002 Ride-and-Drive in San Diego. Early in the program, an integrated emission reduction roadmap was developed for

significant impact on fuel economy; and, in fact, without any tangible impact on transient fuel economy.

Figure 3: Integrated Emissions Reduction Roadmap Light Truck / SUV Platform

Once this engine out emission performance was established, then the second goal was identified: tailpipe out

emissions, which showed the integration of this advanced engine control strategy with after treatment. The target for

engine out emissions was essentially at a Tier 2 Bin 10 level and then going down very close to a Tier 2 Bin 9 level that was targeted, with the ultimate objective of reaching Tier 2 Bin 5 with the implementation of after treatment. At the 2002 DEER Conference,

to the baseline gasoline engine.

The accomplishments since the 2002 DEER conference have shown significant improvements in the engine out emissions and are shown in Figure 4. Without any active NOx after treatment, emissions very near the Tier 2 Bin 9 level were achieved: NOx of ~0.3 grams per mile with very low particulates. This exceeds the roadmap objectives

preliminary results were presented that showed the demonstration of engine out FTP-75 emissions at the Tier 2 Bin 10 level without any after treatment [5]. This is significant in that it achieved very low engine out emissions while maintaining very high fuel economy, over 50% better than the gasoline engine that was the baseline powertrain in the vehicle. By adding a catalyzed soot filter, a urea-based SCR technology and related controls, a significant reduction in both NOx and PM was attained, and a Tier 2 Bin 6 level of emission performance was achieved without any ammonia slip over the FTP-75. This emission benefit was achieved with a 45% fuel economy benefit as compared

established in the early stages of the program. Adding the urea-based SCR technology to this engine out baseline actually achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 levels over the FTP-75 while maintaining over a 40% fuel economy benefit as

compared to the baseline gasoline engine. Again, these emissions levels were achieved without any ammonia slip throughout the FTP-75 cycle.

Furthermore, US06 levels were also demonstrated at the Tier 2 level utilizing the catalyzed soot filter and the

urea-based SCR technology.

Figure 4: NOx Reduction Via Combustion and Aftertreatment Development Light Truck / SUV Platform

One way to show the benefit of advanced technologies employed is to categorize the NOx reduction by

reduction in engine out NOx has been achieved. Furthermore, significant

improvements in the NOx reduction over the FTP-75 cycle has occurred going from an 85% level shown last year, now upwards of 90% at this very low overall NOx level. This is achieved by fully utilizing the capabilities of the control system and the multi-mode advanced combustion. It essentially demonstrates the improved engine and after treatment integration that is

combustion or engine out as well as by the integration with after treatment by comparing the FTP-75 vehicle out NOx to the FTP-75 engine out NOx. This is shown in Figure 5. After treatment efficiencies are usually between ~80 95% over the FTP-75 cycle. These are fairly high levels of NOx reduction for the low temperature FTP-75 cycle. What the program shows is that significant reductions were attained on the engine out NOx levels over the last year, further utilizing the CLEAN Combustion? technology and enhancing calibration and controls strategies. Over a 50%

inherent in this technology and this project approach, especially when you consider going over the iterative process starting with simulation, going through the steady state, the transient engine and then finally the vehicle validation step.

The more times that we go through that iterative loop, the more we are able to integrate the after treatment and engine

through engine design, through engine controls capabilities. and through advanced

Figure 5: NOx Reduction Via Combustion and After treatment Development Light Truck / SUV Platform

While achieving Tier 2 Bin 3, essentially significantly breaking the traditional NOx/PM tradeoff curve, it is important to identify that that NOx/PM tradeoff curve still remains at each of these individual milestones. In the same way, the NOx/Fuel Economy tradeoff curve also remains. We can plot the tradeoff curve for the range of NOx emissions from a Bin 7 to a Bin 3 showing that as NOx is reduced, the fuel economy for the FTP-75 is also reduced at some level. What is important to identify is the fuel economy recovery

potential

that

is

inherent

in

the

methodology used in this project in terms of using the analytical-based approach. At each individual step of the development methodology, the causes of the fuel economy degradation is

identified and can be addressed in the following iteration.

So, for the 2002 Tier 2 Bin 6 level, the fuel economy for the FTP-75 was ~20 miles per gallon for this light truck. In 2003, although we still have this tradeoff with fuel economy and NOx,

we can now achieve a Tier 2 Bin 5 level of NOx at the same miles per gallon. This shows ~55% reduction in NOx from the previous level at the same fuel economy. Alternatively, if we maintain the same NOx, we can increase the fuel economy to a 20.5 mpg with the 2003 level emissions performance identified. Or, we can reduce the NOx significantly to the Tier 2 Bin 3 level which is more of a 70% reduction in total NOx with minimal degradation in fuel economy. But, the message is that through subsequent iterations of engine

to a much cleaner level down to a 0.4 g/mi NOx and a .05 g/mi particulate engine out without any after treatment applied. Including a catalyzed soot filter, over the FTP-75 a Tier 2 Bin 8 result was achieved, again without any active NOx after treatment (0.2 g/mi NOx with a very low particulate level). Adding urea-based SCR technology allowed a significant reduction in v, again down to a Tier 2 Bin 3 level, both NOx and particulate, again without any ammonia slip. These results are shown in Figure 6.

development, the fuel economy can be recovered so that there is no significant fuel economy penalty with further reductions in NOx.

This project showed a significant improvement in fuel economy with each progressive iteration of the development methodology, where there is essentially a horizontal reduction in NOx without a

These

results

are

further

fuel economy penalty. Tier 2 Bin 5 results were obtained with ~67 mpg combined fuel economy, which is the combination of a FTP-75 and Highway Fuel Economy for this Neon mule vehicle. It clearly shows how the fuel economy can be recovered, or even improved, with successive R&D when utilizing an integrated analytical and experimental approach.

demonstrated and prior results have been previously presented, if we compare the results on the passenger car platform [6-8]. We had a similar roadmap as the light truck, again, identifying two regimes: one with engine out NOx and PM targets over the FTP-75 and one integrated with after treatment looking at Tier 2 Bin 5 level. In this case, the engine out baseline was refined early on

Figure 6: Integrated Emissions Reduction Roadmap Passenger Car Platform SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

In

summary,

this

project

controls species at the inlet of the SCR and has a very high fidelity mixing design inherent in the doser and into the system itself. The urea injection control strategy is also a primary reason for the excellent emissions results obtained which minimizes the risks of ammonia slip while maximizing the total NOx reduction.

demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions for the light truck SUV applications, as well as for the passenger car platform, utilizing integrated diesel engine and after treatment technology, in this case, a catalyzed soot filter with a urea-based SCR system. Tier 2 is also demonstrated for the light truck platform over the US06 cycle and for the FTP-75 results (Tier 2 Bin 3). A 41% fuel economy advantage was demonstrated over the light truck gasoline baseline, again with the same vehicle running the tests. The emissions reductions are attributed to advanced primarily, combustion and this is technology shown by

Also,

in

summary,

the

development methodology emphasizing integrated testing and analysis was one of the core reasons that the Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions were demonstrated with both the light truck and passenger car platforms in a fairly efficient short time scale. Considering the drivers of in for the after by

achieving a near Bin 9 engine out NOx and PM level without active NOx after treatment. Also, through engine and after treatment integration which actively

commercialization technology, treatment a

potential reduction

system

complexity

increased

engine

after

treatment

Tier 2 levels. The effective aging and device variability on the after treatment performance and the combination of these two effects can play significant role in trying to predict long-term degradation or long-term emissions. A statistical type of analysis is required in post processing these types of results for future low emissions engines.

integration is required to make the technology more feasible for large scale implementation. sophisticated integration is In controls absolutely addition, a

technology required

considering the multi-mode combustion strategy employed and incorporating a urea reductant injection strategy and soot filter regeneration strategy in one control ECU fully integrated over the driving cycle. This is a significant hurdle left in the project development.

Finally, the integrated analytical and experimental test approach is

valuable and absolutely required given the limited resources high-risk and these

There

are

infrastructure

needs

nearer-term,

objectives.

including low sulfur fuel below the 15 ppm level that is absolutely required, and also a urea reductant for SCR. We believe that the will urea be led reductant in the

Fundamental aftertreatment kinetic data is also a key of need, these pacing tools the and

applications

methodologies and especially pacing the integration of engine and aftertreatment technology. Hence, the species at the inlet of the aftertreatment devices over the transient is critical to ultimately integrating these devices and further simplifying them.

infrastructure

heavy-duty arena, which will lay a foundation from which the light duty infrastructure can then be subsequently developed. Significant concerns are the measurement techniques and the

emissions variability that are seen at the

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to acknowledge the support received from the Office of

FreedomCar Vehicle Technologies, John Fairbanks, Program Manager of DDC's

Light Truck Program and Ken Howden, Program Manager of DDC's

Aftertreatment Program.

REFERENCES

1. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383 (2000), December 1999.

2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19, DOE/ORNL-6958, September 1999.

3. Hakim, N., Freese, C., and Miller, S., “The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles – Year 2000 Update”, SAE Paper 2000-1-2197, SAE Government/Industry Meeting, Washington, DC, June 2000.

4. Hakim, N., and Bolton, B., SAE Paper 2001-01-2062, “The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine – Recent Technological Achievements”, 2001 SAE Government/Industry Meeting, Washington, DC, May 2001.

5. Aneja, R., Bolton, B., Hakim, N., and Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z., “Attaining Tier 2 Emissions Through Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment Integration - Strategy and Experimental Results”, 8th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop, Coronado, California, August 2002.

6. Zhang, H. and Bolton, B., “Application of Advanced Emission Control Sub-System to State-of-the-Art Diesel Engine,” Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines, 2000 Annual Progress Report, U.S. Department of Energy, November 2000.

7. Zhang, H., “Demonstration of Integrated NOx and PM Emissions for Advanced CIDI Engines,” Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines, 2001 Annual Progress Report, U.S. Department of Energy, November 2001.

8. Bolton, B., Hakim, N. and Zhang, H., “Demonstration of Integrated NOx and PM Emissions for Advanced CIDI Engines”, Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines, 2001 Annual Progress Report, U.S. Department of Energy, November 2002.


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