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【创新方案 】2015届高三英语(湖北专版)一轮语法突破:第五讲 动词和动词短语]

第五讲 动词和动词短语

考点一动词词义辨析 1.(2013· 湖北高考)While intelligent people can often ______ the complex, a fool is more likely to complicate the simple. A.sacrifice B.substitute C.simplify D.survive 解析:选 C 考查动词辨析。句意:聪明的人常常能把复杂的事情简单化,而愚蠢的人 更可能把简单的问题复杂化。根据句意可知,这里用 simplify 与后面的 the simple 对应,the complex 与后面的 complicate 呼应。 sacrifice“牺牲”; substitute“代替”; survive“幸存”。 2.(2013· 新课标卷Ⅰ)Try not to cough more than you can ________ since it may cause problems to your lungs. A.check B.allow C.stop D.help 解析:选 D 考查动词辨析。句意:尽量不要过多咳嗽,因为咳嗽过多可能引发你的肺 部问题。not more than one can help 意为“能少尽量少”,符合句意。 3. (2013· 浙江高考)A good listener takes part in the conversation, ________ ideas and raising questions to keep the talk flowing. A.realizing B.copying C.offering D.misunderstanding 解析:选 C 考查动词辨析。句意:善于倾听的人在谈话的时候,往往会提出想法和问 题,从而使得谈话能流畅地进行下去。offer“提供,主动提出”,符合句意。realize“意识 到”;copy“复制”;misunderstand“误解”。 考点二动词短语辨析 4.(2013· 湖北高考)In much of the animal world, night is the time ________ for sleep — pure and simple. A.set aside B.set down C.set off D.set up 解析:选 A 考查动词短语辨析。句意:在很多动物世界里,夜晚完全是用来睡觉的时 间。pure and simple“完全是,不折不扣是”。set aside“留出,拨出(时间等)”,符合句意。 set down“写下”;set off“出发,引起”;set up“建立”。 5. (2013· 湖北高考)Butterflies ________ a sweet liquid produced by flowers, which bees and other insects collect. A.carry on B.feed on C.put on D.focus on 解析:选 B 考查动词短语辨析。句意:蝴蝶以花产生的一种甜甜的液体为食,蜜蜂和 别的昆虫则采集这种液体。carry on“继续”;feed on“以……为食物”;put on“上演,穿 上”;focus on“集中(注意力、精力等于……上)”。根据句意可知应选 B。 6.(2013· 辽宁高考)Briggs will ________ as general manager when Mitchell retires. A.get away B.take over C.set off D.run out

解析: 选 B 考查动词短语辨析。 句意: 米切尔退休时布里格斯将接任总经理职务。 take over“接管,接收”,符合句意。get away“脱身”;set off“出发”;run out“用完”。 7 . (2013· 江西高考 )Mother always complains that children ________ their shoes very quickly. A.find out B.wash out C.wear out D.set out 解析:选 C 考查动词短语辨析。句意:母亲总是抱怨孩子们的鞋很快就穿破了。wear out“用坏,(使)磨损”,符合语境。find out“查明”;wash out“把……洗掉”;set out“启 程,动身”。 一、动词词义辨析 ①It is thought by some people that Ebooks might substitute traditional books in the future because of various advantages of Ebooks over paper ones. 有些人认为,将来电子书籍可能取代传统书籍,因为电子书籍较纸质书籍有很多优势。 ②The watch was very good, and he paid 20 percent down for it.(2013· 新课标卷Ⅱ) 那块表很不错,他以 20%的折扣价买下了它。 ③According to scientists, our mental abilities begin to decline from the age of 27 after reaching the highest level at 22.(2012· 浙江高考) 根据科学家的研究,我们的智力在 22 岁达到最高水平后从 27 岁开始下降。 ④—Are you still mad at her? —Not really, but I can't deny that her remarks hurt me.(2011· 江苏高考) ——你还在生她的气吗? ——不那么生气了,不过,我不能否认她的话伤害了我。 动词词义辨析一直都是高考考查的重点, 这类题绝大多数情况下所给的四个选项的含义 各不相同,没有关联性,此时考查的是对题干和语境的理解。近三年全国各地高考考查到的 还有: ①sacrifice (牺牲); substitute (代替); simplify (简化); survive ②conclude; lead; avoid (避免); hold ③persuade(说服); promise; invite; support ④open; narrow; widen; leave ⑤make; turn; take; have ⑥sponsor (赞助); launch (发射); organize; plan ⑦tell; remind (提醒); warn; advise 二、动词短语辨析 短语动词是由动词与介词、 名词或副词结合在一起而组成的。 有些短语动词相当于及物 动词,有些则相当于不及物动词。 1.动词+副词 break down 坏掉;分解;垮下来 break up 打碎;分解;分手 bring down 使降低,使下降 come out 出现,出版,结果是 cut down 砍倒;削减 get over 克服 make out 辨认出 put away 收起;储存

set aside 拨出;置于一旁 set off 出发,引爆 take off 起飞,腾飞;脱掉 take over 接管 turn out 结果是,证明是 turn down 拒绝,把音量开小 work out 解出,进展顺利,锻炼身体 figure out 弄清,搞明白 Traditionally, college students hold a graduation ceremony to encourage themselves before they set off on their life journey.(2013· 安徽高考) 传统上,大学生在开始他们的人生旅途之前会举行毕业典礼来鼓励自己。 Oldfashioned phones matter when wireless networks break down in disasters.(2013· 福建高 考) 无线网络在灾难中瘫痪的时候,老式电话起到重要作用。 [点津] “动词+副词”搭配构成的短语,其宾语若为代词,应放在动词与副词中间。 如 put it on, think it over。 2.动词+介词 break into 破门而入 believe in 信任 begin with 以……开始 come across 偶然碰到 depend on 依靠 go through 从……穿过 see to 处理 come to 共计 look into 调查 set about 着手做 bring about 引起,导致 agree with 同意,适合 I'm so glad you've come here to see to this matter in person.(2012· 湖北高考) 我很高兴你亲自来这里处理此事。 You look well. The air and the sea foods in Sanya must agree with you, I suppose. (陕西高 考) 你气色很好,我想三亚的空气和海鲜肯定适合你。 3.动词+副词+介词 add up to 加起来;总共 break away from 躲开;脱离 catch up with 赶上;超过 do away with 废除 go in for 从事;参加 put up with 忍受;容忍 get along with 与……相处;进展 get on with 与……相处;进展 keep out of 使……不进入 look forward to 盼望 live up to 达到;不辜负 get down to 着手做 come up with 想出,提出 look up to 尊敬 get across to 使明白,使清楚 He will have to find some other work, for he can't put up with this loud noise any more.

他必须找其他工作,因为他再也无法忍受这么大的噪音。 A good speaker is supposed to manage to get across to the listeners what he means. 一个好的演讲者应该让听众明白他所表达的含义。 4.动词+名词+介词 catch sight of 突然发现 make use of 利用 pay attention to 注意 make sense of 理解 take notice of 注意到 take the place of 代替 take part in 参加 take pride in 为……自豪 make sense of 理解 take advantage of 利用 make room for 为……腾出空间 keep up with 与……保持联系 James took the magazines off the little table to make room for the television.(天津高考) 为给电视机腾出空间,吉姆把杂志从这张小桌子上拿走了。 The school isn't the one I really wanted to go to, but I suppose I'll just have to make good use of it. 这所学校并不是我真正想去的学校,但既然来了,我还是想充分利用它。

1.She has________tears because she needs to be “that strong one” and because now it is time to fight, she says, not to mourn. A.brought back B.given back C.held back D.looked back 解析: 选 C 考查动词短语辨析。 句意: 她已经抑制住泪水, 因为她需要成为坚强的人, 她说,因为现在到了战斗,而不是哀悼的时候。 hold back“抑制住(泪水、愤怒 )”;bring back“拿回来”;give back“归还”;look back“回头看”。 2.Despite the fact that all three teams ________ different approaches to the problem, they were all immediate successes. A.adopted B.attained C.adapted D.attached 解析:选 A 考查动词辨析。句意:尽管三个队伍采取了不同的解决方法,但这些方法 都立刻奏效了。adopt“采纳,采取”,符合句意。attain“获得,达到”;adapt“(使)适应, 调整”;attach“连接,附上”。 3.(2014· 武昌调研)For the dance she had been looking forward to for many days, she wore her best clothes that she ________ in the closet. A.set down B.set aside C.set out D.set off 解析:选 B 句意:这场舞会她已经期盼好久了,她穿上她留在衣柜中的最好衣服。set aside“留出,拨出”,符合题意。set down“记下”;set out“开始,出发”;set off“出发, 引起”。 4.He became confused because the book contains new ideas which ________ what he has been taught to believe. A.contradict B.assess

C.acknowledge D.confirm 解析: 选 A 句意:他被弄糊涂了,因为这本书里讲的新观点驳斥了他所学的。 contradict“ 与 …… 矛盾,驳斥 ” ,符合题意。 assess“ 评估 ” ; acknowledge“ 承认 ” ; confirm“证实”。 5. (2014· 武汉调研)I have decided to ________ some furniture for my living room, but I'm at a complete loss as to which brand to buy. A.decorate B.launch C.maintain D.purchase 解析:选 D 句意:我已经决定为我的起居室添置一些家具,但完全不知道购买什么品 牌的家具。 purchase“ 添置,购买 ” ,符合题意。 decorate“ 装饰 ” ; launch“ 发射 ” ; maintain“维持,维修”。 6.(2014· 宜昌调研)They built strong walls along the borders to ________ those who wanted to do them harm. A.cut out B.put out C.work out D.keep out 解析: 选D 句意: 他们沿着边界建起坚实的城墙, 不让想伤害他们的那些人入侵。 keep out“阻止进入”,符合题意。cut out“删去,裁剪”;put out“熄灭,出版”;work out“制 订”。 7.They worked hard and many saved enough money to buy their own land.In this way they came to ________ the sugar industry on many parts of the Queensland coast. A.dominate B.contradict C.prohibit D.accumulate 解析:选 A 考查动词辨析。句意:他们努力工作,很多人省下了足够的钱买了他们自 己的土地,这样他们就控制了昆士兰海岸很多地方的制糖业。dominate“控制,支配”,符 合句意。contradict“反驳,与……矛盾”;prohibit“禁止”;accumulate“积聚”。 8.What is most important is facing the hard times, ________ the changes, and getting through to the other side where the sun is still shining just for you. A.meeting with B.agreeing with C.going with D.coping with 解析:选 D 考查动词短语辨析。句意:最重要的是正视艰难时刻,应对变化,到达太 阳仍只为你发光的那一边。 这里用 cope with 表示“对付, 应付”。 meet with“遇见”; agree with“同意”;go with“伴随”。 9 . (2014· 湖 北 七 市 联 考 )The Chinese football team had experienced a series of reforms.However, its performances in Shenzhen in October ________ all the people, especially the crazy fans. A.knocked down B.let down C.pulled down D.brought down 解析:选 B 考查动词短语辨析。句意:中国足球队已经经历了一系列的改革。然而, 它十月份在深圳的表现让所有的人失望,尤其是疯狂的球迷们。let down“使失望”,符合 句意。 10.WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange was in court today, and when asked for his address he said he didn't want to ________ that information. A.give out B.keep out C.hold out D.bring out 解析:选 A 考查动词短语辨析。句意:维基解密创始人 Julian Assange 今天出庭,当

法官问他住址时,他回答说,他不想公布这一信息。give out“公布,宣布”符合句意。keep out“阻止进入”;hold out“坚持”;bring out“出版”。 11.Most of the people present at the meeting think poorly of think will________ the worsening of the environment. A.adapt to B.refer to C.subscribe to D.contribute to the proposal, which they

解析:选 D 考查动词短语辨析。句意:大多数与会者都不看好这一提议,他们认为它 会导致环境的恶化。contribute to“导致,是……的原因之一”,符合句意。 12.I'm looking for a job in which I can ________ the different aspects of my experience so far. A.combine B.associate C.comprise D.accumulate 解析: 选 A 考查动词辨析。 句意: 目前我正在寻找一份能综合应用我不同经验的工作。 combine“(使)结合,组合,综合”,符合句意。associate“把某人/某物与……联系起来”; comprise“构成,组成”;accumulate“积累,积聚”。

【创新方案湖北】2015届高三英语一轮复习语法全线突破(知识讲解典题在线创新预测)第十一讲定语从句_英语_高中教育_教育专区。第十一讲 定语从句 考点一关系代词引导...