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新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO1
1.Talkaboutabookyouhave readthatwasimportantto youfor somereason.Explain why the book wasimportanttoyou. Give specificdetailsand examplestoexplainyour answer Recently,I read a book named Keep the aspidistra flying written by George Orwell.The book influences me a lotbecause the story has something that touches my heart.Thestory talksabouta man who wants to be a poetand who abandons many well-paying jobs topursue his dreamofbeing a poet.I have a similarexperience ofquitting a very good job in orderto bea writer. Also,the man in the story is lack ofmoney because he works as abookstore assistantand thus has a very low salary.He lives in a shabby apartmentand sometimeshave no money to buy food.Again,I?ve got similarexperience.I once lived in a cramped apartmentalone andhad no money.The book is importantto me because ittouches me andgives me encouragementto persist. 2.Some people believe that television has had a positiveinfluence on society. Others believe ithas had a negative influence on society.Which do you agree with and why? Use details and examples to explain youropinion. Ithinktelevisionhasapositiveinfluenceonsociety.It?sagoodsourceofnews. ThemembersinthesocietycangetnewseasilyfromNewsChannelsandthus keep themselves informed ofwhat?s happening around.Like,mygrandfather watches News on TV everyday justtokeep up with the latestevents.Beside televisioncanbeakindofentertainment.Peoplecanwatchdifferentshowson TV such as funny talkshows andsoap operas.I have many friends who like watching Late show with David Letterman and some otherfriendslikewatching TV series such as Lost and Friends.They all consider TV as a good way ofrelaxing themselves and ofkilling time.So,withthe news and same TV programs, people in asociety share a lotof things that they can talk aboutin any event. Therefore, society actually benefits fromTV.

3.Explainwhy the woman disagrees with the reasons expressed in the letter. Thewriteroftheletteropposestheuniversity?splantoacquireanewsculpture because the university?s financial condition ispoorand the sculpture is solarge thatit?ll take up all the greenspace in frontof the campus center.The woman in the conversation thinksthe two reasons are totally unconvincing. The woman says it?s an anonymous donorwho pays the bill ofthe sculpture notthe university so there is no need to worry about the university?s financial condition.As for the pointaboutthe space,the woman thinks Paul,the writer ofthe letter,always plays soccer with his friends on the lawn wherethe sculpture will be.She thinks Paul justdoesn?twantto move to anotherplace. Forhim,it?s convenience versus sculpture.

4.Explaingroupthinkand its effects using example ofthe computercompany. Groupthink is a process in which individual members of a group conform their ideas to the group consensus even iftheresultmay notbe well.The professorinthelectureuseshispersonalexperienceinacomputercompanytoillustrate this process.Once heand his co-workersuggested to give theircomputera design make-overto look coolerinordertoattractnew customers. At first, the majority supported theirsuggestion.Butthere were a few seniormanagers who didn?tsupport.Then some supporters changed theirmind,sodid the professor?s co-worker. The co-workerchanged his mindbecause he didn?t wantto make a bad impression on seniormanagers. He thoughtdisagreeing with them mightharm his futurepromotion. Then after a long discussion and with moreand more people sidedwith seniormanagers, the professorhimself thoughthe was the only one who?s delaying the decision.Then,hevoted againsthimself.So they all agreed notto have this design make-over.At last, the company lostprofitbecause its competitors came upwith good-looking computersand win more customers. 5.The speakers discuss two possible solutions to thewoman?s problem. Briefly summarize theproblem.Then state which shouldsolution you recommend and explain why. The woman was supposed to drive a bunch ofelementary students tothe zoo tomorrow butshe didn?trent a van in time and the kids will be disappointed if the trip gets cancelled.The mansuggests herto borrow a carfromone ofher friends.Butshe has toborrow two cars to hold all the kids and it?s hard to find anotherdriver.Then the man suggests her to takethe public transportation.Heisprettysurethat thereisabuslinepastthezoo. But thewomanthinksit?s hard to control the kids on the bus.Well personally,Iwould recommend the woman to take the bus line.Even ifthe kids are handful,they arestill controllable.But there is no guarantee thatshe can borrow two cars and find anotherdriverat the same time.

6.Using the researchdescribedby the professor,explain whatscientists have learned aboutthe mathematical abilities ofbabies. In the lecture the professordescribes how scientists learn aboutbaby?s mathematical abilities.Researchers did an experimenttotestbaby?s ability to add thatbaby knows one plus one equals two.They firstputadoll in frontofa baby and lowered thescreen tohide the doll.So the baby knows it?s there. Then they clearly putanotherdoll behind the screen so there should be two dolls.Butresearcherssecretlytookoneawayandwhentheyliftthescreenup, the baby was surprised because itexpected to see twodolls butthere wasonlyone.Weknowwhenababyissurprised,itstaresatthethingthatmakesit feel surprised.The researchers recorded the baby?s eye-movement with a camera and found thatthe babystared.So the baby has the ability to add. It knows onedoll plus one doll equals two dolls.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO2
1.Choose a place yougo to often thatis importanttoyou and explain why it is important. Please include specific details in yourexplanation. Ioften go to the basketball courtnearmy apartment. It?s very importantto me because Iplay basketball there everyday and basketball is my favorite sport. Eversince Iwas a little boy,I have been playing in thatcourt with my friends. When in juniorhigh,I practiced shooting and dribbling in thatcourt nearlyeveryday till late atnight.Besides,the courtis the reminderofan awful lotof my valuable memories.I still can rememberthathow Istarted outshooting badly and then afterseveral weeks? practice,I could shootwell and dribbled well.Icanalso remembermanyfriends with whomIplayed basketball and form teams.Without thatcourt, I couldn?tpossibly make so many friends.So it?s very importanttome.

2.Some college students choose to take courses in a variety ofsubjectareas in ordertogeta broad education.Otherschoose to focus on a single subject area in orderto havea deeperunderstanding ofthatarea.Whichapproach to course selection do you think is better forstudents and why? Well,Ithink taking a wide variety ofcourses is better forstudents.Because, firstof all,Ithink undergraduate love”,I study is meantfor broadness.Students had betterbroaden theirhorizon andpreventthemselves frombeingnarrow-minded.Second ofall,I think before students find their“true mean,thesubjectthey really wantto go deep into,they should probably extend theirstudyfieldand tastedifferentsubjects in various areas so as to identify the “true love”.Take myselfas an example,mymajoris software engineering in the college,butI took variouscourses outside mymajor field. Then Ifound outthat I was more interested in literaturethan in computerand software.So literatureis my “truelove”. Ithink itdepends on the students themselves.Ifa studentdoesn?tknow his or herinterest.It?s betterforthem totake a variety ofcourses so as to taste various kinds ofsubjects tofind theirinterest.Takemyselfas an example,my majorissoftwareengineeringinthecollege, but Itookvariouscoursesoutside my major field.Then Ifound outthatIwas more interested in literature than in computerand software.So literature is my interest. Ifastudentalready know whathe likes and whathe needs to learn.Then taking many differentclasses will be a little bitwaste oftime. It?sbetterfor this studentto concentrate on his orherinterest.For instance,I don?tthink BillGates need to take courses otherthan computerscience when inHarvard,coz he knewwhathe liked and what he wanted.He alreadyknew his interest.

3.The man expresseshis opinionofthe university?s plan to eliminate the bus service.State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives forholding that opinion. The universityhas decided to stop its free bus service because notverymany students ride the bus and plans to use themoney saved to expand the overcrowdedparkinglots.Butthemanintheconversationdoesn?tliketheplan. As for the pointaboutfew students riding the bus,the man says it?s because the bus routes are out ofdate.The bus only goes through the places thatare too expensive forstudents to live.If the buses change route and the manthinks there will be plenty ofstudents taking those buses.The man also disagreeswith the university?s plan to expand the parking lots.He thinks the plan will encourage more students to drive, which will add noise and create more traffic.Then they?ll need more parking space.He thinks the university should make iteasierforstudentstotake the public buses nottheotherway around.

4.Explainhow the examples oftying shoesand learning to type demonstrate the principle ofaudience effects. The principleofaudience effectsis thatindividuals? performance isaffectedby theknowledgethat othersarewatchingthem.Theprofessor usesexamplesof tying shoesand learning to type to demonstrate thatweactually increase our speed ofperforming if we know thatwe arebeing observed.Inthe example of tying shoes,one group ofcollege students was told that they werebeing observed,the otherdidn?tknow they were being observed.The students who knew they were beingwatched tied theirshoes much fasterthan the other group. Andintheexampleof learningtotype, whenweareconsciousof being observed,we will increase typingspeed.We type faster than we do alone. Also,otherbehavioral pattern will increase,like making mistakes. So when we type fasterwhen we know we arebeing observed,we also make more mistakes.

5.The speakers discuss two possible solutions to thewoman?s problem. Describe theproblemand the two solutions.Then explain whatyou think the woman should doandwhy. Theprofessorasksthewomantoattendafieldtrip,butthewomanhasalready promised anotherprofessorto help setup amuseumexhibition nextweek.Andthisistheproblem.Theprofessorofferstwopossiblesolutions.Thefirstis thatshecantalktotheotherprofessortoseeifthereissomeoneelsewhocan replace thewoman tohelp setup the museumexhibition.The second is that the woman finishes setting up the museumbefore theysetout the field trip. Actually,Ithink the woman should choose the second solution,because she has already agreed to help the otherprofessorand theotherprofessoris counting on her.It?s possible thatthere is noone else who can take herplace. So she?d better finish the taskfirstbefore she goes to the field trip.

6.Using points and examples fromthetalk, explain the two definitions of moneypresented by the professor. Theprofessortalks abouttwo definitions ofmoney,a broad one anda narrow one.By the broad definition,money is everything with which we can make purchases.Forexample,coins and bills canbe money, because we can use themtobuygoodssuchasvegetablesandpayforservicessuchastaxi.Butin a bartersystem,vegetables can be money, because farmers cangive drivers vegetablesin exchange fora drive.By the narrow definition,in a society,the legal tenderis money. Forinstance,in the US,drivers and farmersmust acceptdollars as payment.People can use dollars to pay for taxiand buy vegetablesbecause dollaris the legal tenderin the US. So,dollar in the form ofcoin and bill is money.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO3
1.Whatcharacteristics do you think make someone a good parent? Explain why these characteristics are importanttoyou. I think a good parentshould be patient.Because children are always confused with the things aroundthem, theyask questions every now and then.A good parentshouldbepatientenoughtogivethemanswers.Wheniwasveryyoung, Ialways asked questions like “Why can airplanes fly?”,“Why can?twe fly?”and “Why the earth is a globe?”. Myparents answered these questions patiently and iftheycouldn't,they would buy books thathave the answers to my questions. Ialso think a good parentshould be open-minded.In otherwords, they shouldrespecttheirchildren's decisionswhen theirkids are growing up. Myparentsalwaysshowtheir respect tomydecisions. Mymajor inthecollege issoftwareengineering,butIdecidedtobeanEnglishteacheraftergraduation. My parentsrespectedmy decision and allowme topursue my own interest. Thanks to my parents,I ampatientand I respectother people.

2.Some students preferto workon class assignments by themselves.Others believe itis better to work in a group.Which do you prefer? Explainwhy. Iprefertoworkonassignmentsindividually.Therearetworeasons.Thefirstis thatIliketobeinaquietplacewhilestudying.IfIstudyinagroup,Iwillalways be interrupted by group memberswho talk aboutirrelevantthings. Then it?s possible thatI can?teven finish the assignments. Once,I attended a group discussion.Many people were noteven discussing.They were justtalking aboutNBAgames.When itended,I gotnothing fromit. The second reason isthatI?d like to think independently.Studying individually gives me enough time todevelopmyownideas.Whenstudyinginagroup,Iwillalwaysbedistracted by other?s opinions and thoughts.So sometimes manyassignments are not done by myselfbutby othergroup members.Like last week,Iworked in a group to solve math problems.It turned outthatmany problems were solved by others notby myself. I feltveryunhappy aboutit. Personally,Ilike working in groups better. There are tworeasons toname. Firstis that there is diversity in groups.Group membersall have theirdifferent perspectives so somemembers can help othermembers.Lastweek,I attended a math group and therewas one math problemI couldn?twork out. Butthere was one memberwho knew how to solve thatproblemand he workedouttheprobleminacompletelydifferentway.ThenIlearnedfromhim. The second reason is that Icanpractice mycommunicative skills.In group discussions,Ishouldbeabletounderstandothers?ideasandat thesametime toconveymineclearlyinordertomakethecommunicationgowell.Ilearnhow to express myselfproperly

and to be a good-listener.

3.The woman expresses heropinion ofthe change thathas been announced. State heropinion andexplain herreasons forholding thatopinion. Dining services will notserve hot breakfastfood anymore.They only serve cold breakfastfood.The woman in the conversation thinks the change is ridiculous.Firstofall, she thinks whethersomething is hotorcolddoesn?t necessarilymean itishealthy.She says that in a really cold morning,a nice warmomeletis obviously betterthan a bowel ofcold cereal.Secondly,she thinks the change willnothelp save money. Because ifthe students can?tgetwhattheywantfromdininghall,theywillgooffcampus.Thentheyhavetopay off-campusprice,which is more expensive.So this change will nothelp save money but actually end up costing more.

4.Using the example discussedby the professor,explain whatcognitive dissonanceis and howpeople often deal with it. CognitiveDissonance is a kind ofmental discomfortpeople feelwhen they experiencecontradictions between theiractions and theirbeliefs.The professoruses his own experience to illustrate this phenomenon.When he was in highschool,hewas addicted to video games. He didn?tdo well in study and even failed in chemistry. He knew he should study well in ordertofind good jobs and have agood career.Buthejustcouldn?tgive up video games. And this was his conflict.His solution was to change hisperspective. Chemistry was the only class he did badly.He was pretty surethathe wanted tobeasociologistandbeingasociologistdoesn?tneedtobewellinchemistry. So he reinterpreted his understanding ofdoing well inschool.Initially,he thoughthe should dowell in all subjects to be successful in school.But then, he thought he should only do well in the subjects that are directly related to his future career.So he changed hisbeliefto eliminate theconflict.

5.The speakers discuss two possible solutions to thewoman?s problem. Briefly summarize theproblem.Then state which ofthesolutions you recommend and explain why. Thewoman won an award and isinvited to attend the award ceremony.But herbiologyexamis scheduled atthe same time.So she is struggling about whatto do. There aretwo possible solutions.The first one is thatshe could writea5-pagepaperinsteadoftakingtheexam.Butshethinkswritingapaper will take more time than preparing forand taking an exam.She?s gotmany otherthings to do. The second solution is thatshe could ask someone else to receivetheawardonher behalf.But her parentswere reallylookingforwardto seeingheronthestage.Still,she?sstruggling.Well,Iwouldrecommendher to choosethefirstsolution.Sinceshedoesn?twanttodisappointherparents,shehas to try harderto win the time to attend the ceremony even though it?ll take hermoretime to writethe paper. It's the trade-off.

6.Using the examplesfrom thetalk,explainhow persuasive strategies are used in advertising. The professortalks abouttwo kindsofpersuasive strategies in advertising. The firststrategy is repetition.When a slogan is repeated enoughtimes,we tend to believe whatthe slogan says.The example is a carcommercial.A guy is driving around and keeps stopping to pick up different people,each time a narrativesays“Plentyofroomforfriends”,“Plentyofroomforfamily”andsoon. Ifwe hear the slogan so many times,we tend to believe the caris spacious even ifit?s not.The second strategy is using celebrities.We believecelebrities are trustworthy.For example,in a carcommercial,Ifa famous race-cardriver isshowninacarandsays“Ilikemycarfast.”,peoplewillbelievethecarisfast even ifit?s actually nota veryfast car

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO4
1.Whatdoyou miss mostaboutyourhomewhen you are away? Use specific details in yourexplanation. Imissfood mostwhen Iamaway frommyhome,particularly the noodles cooked by my father. When Iwas in high school,my fatheralways cooked noodles forme at night.Everyday after evening self-study classes,I came home and had the noodles.The noodles were delicious,coz you know,after long-time study,it?s easy to betired and hungry.So thefirst thing I did when Igothome atthat timewas to eat noodles.Sometimes, my fatherwould add beefto thenoodles and beefis kind ofmyfavorite meat.The mostimportant ingredientofthe noodles is the specially-made sauce.Sadly,Idon?tknow how exactly my fathermakes the sauce.ButwheneverIgoback home,I need to have the noodles cooked by my father.

2.Many universities now offeracademic courses overthe Internet.However, some people still preferlearning in traditional classrooms.Which do you think is better? Explain why. Ithink learning in traditional classrooms is better. The reason whyIthink so is thattherearemoreinteractionsintraditionalclassroomsthaninonlinecourses. Studentscanhavediscussionsandtheyseeeachotherfacetoface.It?shighly probable thatsome ofthemwill become friends.While in the online courses, studentsdon?t knoweachother, theymissachanceofmakingfriends. Also, in a traditional classroom,ifastudentdoesn?tunderstanda concept oran idea,heor she canraisehandtoask theteacher directly. Whileinanonlinecourse, there is nochance for students toraise hands ortothrow outquestions immediately.Students in traditional classrooms notonly learn the academic knowledgebutalso learn basic interpersonalinteractions.Iprefer to take academic courses on the Internet.Since the courses are offered online,Idon?t have to livenearcampus.All Ineed is a computerand a well-connected Internet. Ican study athome and anywhere convenient. Besides,Idon?thave to worry aboutmy housing,nordo Ineed todrive back and forth. So itsaves me moneyand time. Also,it?s easierto record onlinecourses so Ican review the part I don?tunderstand. With the recorded courses,Ican have a good review before final examination.

3.The computerdepartmentis considering a schedulingchange.Explain the man's opinion ofthe change andthe reasons he gives forholding thatopinion. The ComputerDepartmentproposes to addevening computerclasses because daytime computerclasses have become overcrowded.Butthe man in the conversation thinks it?s a bad proposal.The mansays thatmostof the students have already gottheir own plans in the evenings.They have jobs, family,clubs and social events so they won?thave time to attend the evening classes.The man also says that it?s actuallygoing to costmoretoopen evening classes than to simply buy more computers,since to open new classes need to hire new teachers.However,computeris notexpensive now. Plus,the computerclassroomsare big enough to holdmore computers.Sohe thinks buying more computers isa betterway to solve the problem.

4.Explainhow the examples fromthe professor's lecture illustrate the relationshipbetween verbal and nonverbal communication. The professoruses his two experiences to illustrate therelationshipbetween verbal andnonverbalcommunication.In his firstexperience,his uncle visited him.Since he hadn?tseen his uncle foralong time, when he saw his uncle,hesaid“Whata surprise!”and because he was so happy that he jumped like alittle boy and had a huge smile onhis face.His uncle feltgood becauseofhis words and actions.Since the professor?s verbal message agrees with his nonverbal signals,theverbalmessage is enhanced.Inhis second experience,when he was showinghis daughterhow to use ahammer,he smashed his thumb.Hesaid to his daughter“Don?tworry,honey.It?s nothing.”butat the same timehe was shaking his hand and his face was contorted.His daughter keptaskinghimifhe was okay.Because the professor?s verbal message doesn?tagree with his nonverbalmessage,the communication is totally different.

5.The speakers discuss two possible solutions to theman's problem.Briefly summarize the problem.Then state which solution yourecommend and explain why. The mandidn?ttake his class schedule with himand it?s his firstday in the college,so he couldn?tfind his classroom.The woman offerstwo possible solutions. The firstsolution is that he can go to use the computerinthe computercenterto check the schedule.But it?ll take sometime togo there and he doesn?twantto be late forhis firstclass.The second solution is thathe can justgoto big classrooms in the building to check whichone is theclass he is going to take.Buthe thinks it?ll be embarrassing ifhe goes into a classroom andasksifheisintherightroom.Iwouldrecommendhetogotothecomputer center,since he didn?ttake his class schedule,it?s necessary to check all classes for the whole day.Maybehe?ll be lateforhisfirst class,but atleasthe won?tfeel embarrassed for the restof the day.

6.Usingpointsandexamplesfromthelecture,explaintheimportanceofvisual elements inpainting. Inthe lecture,the professorsaysin orderfor arttoexpress meaningor emotion,artists need to combine various visual elements such ascolorand texture.Differentcolors can evoke different moods.Red is a strong colorso it evokes strong emotions such as extreme joy, excitementand anger,whereas blue is a cool colorso itevokes calming effect.As fortexture,a rough texture can evoke strong emotions and strength,while a smoothtexture is more calming and less emotional.Artists need to combine these elements to express meaning orconvey message.Forexample,ifa painting uses strongcolors such as red and orange and uses brush strokes to give a rough texture, itwill convey a wilderand more chaotic emotion in a viewerthan apainting with softcolors and smooth texture.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO5
1.Talkabout aplaceyouenjoyedgoing or visitingwhenyouwereachild. Describethe place. Explainwhyyou enjoyedit. WhenIwasachild,Ienjoyedgoing toanInternetBar.Itisstillopen now.It'sonly5minute'swalkawayfrommyhomeandsitsbesidethe street. Theinternetbar isnot very big.Itonly has tworoomsandeach isfull of computers.In summervacations,My friendsand Iusuallywent there earlyinthe morning playingmanycomputer gamessuch as Ageof Empire, StarWarandCounter Strike.Theownerof the bar isavery kind person. Heopenedthe door very earlyinthe morning justforus.My friendsandI occupiedaroom,sitsidebysideandyelledtoeach otherwhenwewere playinggames. Itwasa lotof fun. 2.Doyouagreeor disagreewith the followingstatement?Whyor whynot? Usedetailsand examples toexplainyour answer.Itismoreimportant tostudymath or sciencethan

itistostudyartor literature. Istronglydisagreewith the statementthatstudyingmathor scienceis moreimportantthan studyingart or literature.Ofcourse,math and scienceare very important.But itismeaninglesstosay thatthey are moreimportantthan artorliterature.WeadmireNewtonforhisscientific achievementssuch as Newton'sfirstlaw.We equallyadmire Leonardo for hisartaccomplishmentssuch as MonaLisa.These two peopleare not comparablebecausethey are intwodifferentfields.Sosomepeoplemay likestudyingscience.Somemaylikestudyingliterature.Theyallmake contributionstothe humancivilizations.Somathor scienceandartor literature,they are equallyimportant. 3.Themanexpresseshisopinionabout the university'splan.Statehis opinionand explainthe reasonshe givesforholdingthat opinion. Themanthinksit'sagreatideatoletthe culinarystudentstocookmeals inthe CampusDining Club. Hisfirstreasonisthatit'sgoodforstudents inthe culinary program.Hiscousinisinthe programandsays preparing meals fora largenumberof peopleis very differentfrom just cooking inthe classes.Because cooking inclasses,youcan justtaketime,but cooking formanypeople,youhavealotofpressure andmightmakemistakes. Soit'savery agoodpracticeforthem. His second reasonisthateven with the extracost,the meals providedbythesestudentsare stillmuch cheaperthan thatof the fancy restaurantsinthe town. Butthe food will be equallygood. Hethinksit'llbe worth it. 4.Usingthe professor'sexamples,explainthe advertising techniqueof target

marketing. Targetmarketingisa strategyof advertisingtosmaller,specific customers.Theprofessoruses acell-phonecompanyas anexample.If the companywants tosellphones to youngpeople,it?llchoose toput aTV commercial inthe programs thatyoung peoplelike towatch and inthe commercial,the phoneisshowntobecoolandhas abrightcolor.Also, inthe commercial,kidsare having agoodtime with theirfriends.Ifthe companywants to appealto businessmen,it?llput a differentTV commercial inabusinessprogram.Besides,the commercial willshowhow the cell-phonecan handleall businessefficiently and can save money. Soit?sbasicallythe samecell-phone,but the companymakestwo differentcommercialstoattracttwo specificgroups of people. 5.Brieflysummarizethe woman?sproblem.Thenstatewhichsolutionyou would recommend. Explainthe reasonsforyour recommendation. Thewoman sprainedher wrestbut she issupposed toplay the violinin her stringquartetconcertnext week. Now she isupset.In the conversation,they talkabout twopossiblesolutions.Thefirstone is thatshecanjustwait andplay theviolininthe concertnext weekbecause her doctorsays thatshe willbebetterwhenthe concertbegins.Butshe willbeout of practiceandprobablyperform badly.Thesecond solution isthatshe can ask Jimtotakeher place.Jimisavery goodviolinist. But he isnot very reliable,becausehe isalways lateforrehearsals. Irecommendher tochoose the second solution.Since she isdefinitely going tobeout of practice,it?sbettertoask Jimtotake her place.Andsinceshe knowsJim?sproblem,she can urge Jimtoshowupontime forallthe rehearsals.It?sjustonly a week. 6.Using pointsand examples from the talk, explainthe two typesof motivation. In the lecture,the professortalksabout two typesof motivation: extrinsicmotivationandintrinsicmotivation.Extrinsic motivationis external.Apersonwith extrinsicmotivationperformsabehaviorinorder toget anexternalreward.For example,achildwhodoes somehousework doesn?treallyenjoy doinghousework.Shejustwantstoobtainsomemoney. Ifher parentsstopgivingher money,she might stopdoing thehousework. However, peoplewith intrinsicmotivationdo something out of pure pleasure.Theydosomethingbecausethey enjoy doingitorthey get asense of accomplishmentfrom it.For example,the professorgoes tothe gym several timesweek. She isnot going thereforMarathon training or anything.Shegoestherebecauseaftersomeexerciseshefeelsgoodabout herself.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO6
1.Talk abouta photograph orpainting you have seen thatwas memorable. Explain whatyou likedordisliked aboutit. Ican?tforgetthe photograph hung on the wall ofmy grandparents? apartment. It?s ourbigfamily photo.Itwas taken in one Spring Festival when all relatives gatheredtogether.It?sveryhardtouniteallthefamilymemberssincemyaunts andunclesallliveinanothercity.Usually,someunclesorauntswouldn?tcome back home to spend spring festival.Butat thattime, they all came back.Inthe photo Ican see myself standing atthethird row with my parents beside me and all my aunts,uncles and cousins standing in rows.In thefront row sitmy grandparents. Theywereveryhappy. Weallgot our hugesmilesonourfaces. Itwas an unforgettable moment and the photograph captured it.

2.Some people haveone careerthroughouttheirlives.Otherpeople do differentkinds ofwork atdifferent points in theirlives.Which do youthink is better? Explain why. Ithink having differentkinds ofwork atdifferentpoints in lives is better. Life hasdifferentstagesandineachstagepeoplemightwanttododifferentthings. Forexample,I have a friend who became a programmerwhen he just graduated fromthe college.Afterthree-yearsprogramming,he got bored with itand wanted to be adesigner.Then he changed his job to design the appearance ofcomputers.After four-year?s designing career,he suddenly wantedtobeawriter.Sinceheneverstoppedreadingandhelovednovels,he was good atwriting stories.Guesswhat? Now,he is a freelancerand has published several articles.He believes he has experienced enoughand wants to write something out.Life is along,long journey in which we goto many differentplaces and ineach placewe do differentthings. Ithink having only one careerthroughoutlife is better.Everyone can make accomplishments ifheorshe focuses on one thing for a long time.It?s the cumulativeknowledgethathelpsapersonbecomeexcellentinaspecificarea. Ifpeople always change jobs or careers,they can?taccumulate their knowledge.In other words,theycan?tbe experts orspecialists.Some ofthem may even be lostin society and don?tknowwhatthey are good at. Ihave a friend who always changed his jobs.He neverworked in a company forlonger than a year.He was asalesman,a teacherand an assistant.He still doesn?t whatto donow and isconsideringto change his job.

3.The woman expresses heropinion aboutthe proposal thatherfriend Tim made in hisletter to the newspaper.Stateheropinionabouthis proposal and explain the reasons she gives for heropinion. Timproposes to shorten the seminarto twohours because moststudents can?tconcentrate for three hours straightand students stop learningat the third hour. The woman in the conversation totally disagrees with the proposal. She says Timis nota typical student.He stays up late every nightand that?s why he can?tconcentrate in the seminar.Butmoststudents aren?t like him. They all come to seminars with good rests and preparation.Also,Timalways sleeps in the classes.He doesn?tknow thatthe third hourofa seminaris the mostimportantpart because that?s when students begin discussions and start to exchange ideas.Sothe lasthouris the mostworthwhile partof a seminar and shouldn?tbe canceled.

4.Using the example ofthe car advertisement,explain whatis meantby implicitmemory. Explicitmemories areconscious recollections whereas implicitmemories are notconscious.Butimplicitmemories still have effectson us.The professorin the lectureuses an example ofbillboard to explain implicitmemory.There are many billboards alongthe highway and whendrivers drive through,they see those billboards.Theydon?trememberall the billboardsbutthe billboards affectthem.Supposethereisacaradvertisementwithitsnamepantherabove its picture. A lotofdrivers passed itby. Later,when asked whetherthey rememberseeinganycaradvertisements,thedriverswillsaynobecausethey honestly don?tremember.They don?thave conscious memory of thepanther billboard. Butifasked to name an animal starting with a letter “P”, drivers will say “panther”.Sothecarbillboard had effecton them.










Brieflysummarizetheproblem.Thenstatewhichsolutionyourecommendand explain why. The woman?s studying group has gota problem.The members all become friends andthey all joke around instead ofstudying.The professor proposes two possible solutions.The first solution is tochange the time theymeet. Currently,they meeton Friday afternoons,butstudentsare exhausted at that time and they all wantto relaxand unwind atthe end of a week.Butthe womansayseveryonehasalreadygottheirownschedule,iftheychangetime, they may lose members.The second solution is to finda leader.The leader can settheagenda,email itto everyone else before the meeting and then make sureeveryone isfocused on the topicwhen they meet.Theprofessor says the woman is suitable to be the leader.Butitsounds like much work tothe woman.I would recommend the woman to takethe second solution.If she?s worrying aboutthe work,she can justbe a temporal leaderand laterlet othermembers to do the work.

6.Using points and examples fromthetalk, explain the difference between active and passive attention. Activeattention is thatwe intentionally pay attention to something,so it?s voluntary.Since itrequires efforts,itwon?tlastvery long.Passive attention is involuntary and lasts longerthan active attention.Inthe lecture,theprofessor usesabiologyclassasanexample.SupposeIamtheteacheroftheclassand the topic is aboutfrog. If Iwalk into the classroomand stand on the podium saying “Frog is kind ofanimal…”, the students will force themselves to pay attention tomywordsbutthis active attention won?tlastlong.Thestudents will be distracted soonerorlater.However,ifI take a live frog with me and show it to the students while talking aboutit, the students will be interested and will involuntarily pay attention to my class.So by taking something unexpected,I make the class engaging and tap into(utilize,take advantage of) the students? passive attention.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO7
1.Iffriends from anothercountrywere goingto spend time in your country, whatcity or place would you suggestthey visit? Using details and examples, explain why. Iwould suggestthemto visitChongqing.Ilived there for five yearsso Iam familiarwithit.Firstly,Chongqinghasauniquescenery.It?samountainouscity. Becauseofthisspecialterrain,thebuildingsandPedestrianMallsarebuiltina differentway from othercities.Forexample,thefourthfloorofone buildingmaybethegroundlevelof another one. Secondly, Chongqinghasmanykinds ofdeliciousfood.Hot potis like world-famous.Everyone in Chinaknows it originatefrom Chongqing. Besides, therearesome other famous foodsuchas KungPaoChicken and double-cooked porkslices.Anyway,ifone goes toChongqing, one will feel that every meal is a feast.

2.State whetheryou agree ordisagree with the following statement.Then explain yourreasons, using specific details in yourexplanation. Learning through online courses is more effective than learning in the traditional classroomsetting.Ithink learning in traditional classrooms is better. The reason whyIthink so is thattherearemoreinteractionsintraditionalclassroomsthaninonlinecourses. Studentscanhavediscussionsandtheyseeeachotherfacetoface.It?shighly probable thatsome ofthemwill become friends.While in the online courses, studentsdon?t knoweachother, theymissachanceofmakingfriends. Also, in a traditional classroom,ifastudentdoesn?tunderstanda concept oran idea,heor she canraisehandtoask theteacher directly. Whileinanonlinecourse, there is nochance for students toraise hands ortothrow outquestions immediately.Students in traditional classrooms notonly learn the academic knowledgebutalso learn basic interpersonalinteractions. Iprefer to take academic courses on the Internet.Since the courses are offered online,Idon?t have to livenearcampus.All Ineed is a computerand a well-connected Internet. Ican study athome and anywhere convenient. Besides,Idon?thave to worry aboutmy housing,nordo Ineed todrive back and forth. So itsaves me moneyand time. Also,it?s easierto record online coursessoIcanreviewthepartIdon?tunderstand. Withtherecordedcourses, Ican havea good review before final examination.

3.Thewomanexpressesher opinionof theuniversity'splan. Stateher opinion and explainthe reasons she gives forholdingthatopinion. The university isplanning to discontinue thesculpture course because students lack interestin itand the department?s only professoris retiring.The woman in the conversation thinksthe university has gotitall wrong.The low enrollmentin the sculpture courseis notdueto students? lack ofinterestbut to students? lack of time. Sculpture course is optional.The required courses such as paintingand drawing take much ofthe students? time.Besides,the woman thinks the university can hire a part-timeteacherto teach sculpture course. There are many professors who have secondary fields.Forinstance,many painting teachers arealso good sculptors.The woman is sure thatthese professorscan teach the sculpture course.

4.Using the example from the lecture,explain whatbehaviormodification is and how itworks. Behaviormodificationisaphenomenonthatindividualschangetheirbehaviors basedonwhattheyhavelearnedabouttheconsequencesofcertainbehaviors. The professoruses an example to illustrate the phenomenon.In the example, atthe beginning,the kids atschool don?tknow the rules ofclass. They may interruptthe teacher, walk around the classroom.The teachergets angry with them,sothe kids getpublished.They have to sitin theclassroomwhen everyone else is playing outside.They don?tlike this consequence.Theyknow thesebehaviorsgetthemintrouble.Sotheystarttoraisehand,sitquietly,andpay attention to the teacher.They getreward from doing so.The teachermay say thatshe is proud ofthemand maybe puthappy face stickerson their homework.Now thattheirbehaviors getgood reactions from teacher,the kids learn to always actlike this.

5.The speakers discuss two possible solutions to thewoman?s problem.Brieflysummarizetheproblem.Thenstatewhichsolutionyourecommendand explain why. The woman?s computeris broken anditwon?tbe back until the end ofnext week.Butit?s now the end ofsemester,all herpapers are due nextweek.The man gives hertwo possible solutions.The firstsolution is to go to computer club wherethere are lots of machines.Butthe woman thinks it?s so crowded and noisy thatshe can?tconcentrate.The second solution is to call the repair shop to ask ifthey canfixthe computerquickly and give itback toherat the beginningofnextweek.Then the woman will have enough time tofinish her paper.But the repairshop is closed today and tomorrow.It?ll be afew days before thewoman cantalk tothem. Iwould recommend herto choose the first solution.Since time islimited andit?s notsure whetherhercomputercan be fixed in time,using the computer centeris the only choice.Even though the computercenteris crowded andnoisy,it?s always possible to concentrate on work.

6. Using points and examples fromthe lecture,explain the twomajor factors ofproduct quality and how theirrole in consumerdecision making has changed. Whena purchaseris considering twoidentically pricedproducts,they make decisions according to the quality.There aretwo major factors ofproduct quality:reliability and features.Aproductis reliable when itworks the way we expect.Forexample,ifacardoesn?tworkthewayitshouldandit needsrepair all the time,itis not reliable.So reliability means the absence ofdefects and problems.However,ourconcernwith reliability is differentnow,manufacture standards are so highthatproducts are all very reliable.So reliability is nota deciding factoranymore.Instead,features are becoming more importantin making decisions.Features are extras and things aren?tnecessary.Features make a productcool and easierto use.For example,ina car, features are electric windows,airconditioningand stereos.Since reliability ofdifferent products are almostequal,people care more aboutthe features.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO8
1.Talk abouta time when a friend orfamilymemberhelped you inthe past. Describe how the person helpedyou.Then explain why this was important to you. When Iwas in the third summer vacation inthe college,I found a job in downtown. I livedoncampusat that timebut thecampusisvery far awayfrom downtown so Igot to find a placeto live nearby.Therewas one friend who studied in anothercollege located neardowntown.He called me to live with himin his dormsinceall his roommates were gone.He introducedme tohiscampusandtoldmewheretoeat,wheretobuynecessitiesandwheretowork out.I didn?thave to pay anything forthis housing service.Also,living in his dormsaved me a lot oftime. I shorten the travel time from2 hours to 20 minutes.

2.Some people enjoy taking risks and trying new thingsOthers arenot adventurous:they arecautious and prefer toavoid danger.Which behaviordo you think is better? Explain why. Iprefer to take risks and try newthings.I think taking risks is a way to improve oneself,a way to broaden one?shorizon.Forexample,ifColumbia hadn?t takenrisks,hewouldn?t havefoundtheNewWorld. If hehadn?t foundtheNew World,his horizon wouldn?thave been broaden so wouldn?totherpeople?s horizon atthattime.Also,trying new things is one ofthe bestways to learn. Take myselfas an example,Ididn?tlike reading novels until my junioryearin the collegeso novel was a kind ofnew thing to me at thattime. But I tried to read somenovels in my junioryear,and gradually Ibecame interested in reading novels.Later on,I evenstartedtowrite myown novels.If I hadn?ttried to read novels,Iwouldn?thave known how towrite my own novels.

3.The man expresseshis opinionofthe university?s plan.State his opinion and explainthe reasons he gives forholding thatopinion. The university?s planning to broadcastclassical music during mealtimes in cafeterias in orderthat students can relaxand communicate morewith each other.Theman in theconversation thinks it?s a bad plan.First ofall,he saysthatmost ofthestudentsaren?tlookingfor relaxinginlunchtime.They?drather study thereespecially when they have exams coming up orwhen they have manyassignmentsundone.Themusicwillbedistractingsothestudent?swon?t be able to concentrate.Secondly,most students don?tlike classical music.If the cafeterias play classical music,studentswill be more likely to puton their personal music devices to block outthe classical stuff.

4.Using the examplesof the peanutbug andthemorphobutterfly,explainthe conceptof revealing coloration. Revealingcoloration is a defensive strategyused by animals to protect themselves from predators.The professoruses two examples to explain this concept.The firstexample is peanutbug.The peanutbug?s back wings are usually closed and have brightcolorful spots on them.When peanutis attacked,it suddenly opens its back wings to show its brightcolors that surprise itspredators. So itreveals the usually hidden brightcolorinback wings to startle its predators.Then the peanutbug can escape.The second example ismorphobutterfly. Parts ofMorphoButterfly?s wings are very shiny. When the butterfly is resting,thewings are hidden.When the butterfly is attacked by birds,it flaps the wings to reflect flashes oflightthatcan make it hard for birds to catchthe butterfly. In otherwords,it reveals the brightcolor of its wings to confuse its predators. So theMorphoButterfly can getaway.

5.Briefly summarize the problemthe speakers are discussing.Then state which solution you would recommend.Explain the reasons foryour recommendation. The man has to take two courses tofulfill therequirementbut these two coursesarescheduledatthesametime.Intheconversation,theytalkedabout two possible solutions.The first solution is todo independentstudy in the Shakespeare course. He read texts,finish assignments on his ownand have discussions with the professor.Buthe?s afraid thathe won?tbe motivated.The second solution is to take the Shakespearecourse in anotheruniversity.Butit takeshimonehourtodrivebackandforththeuniversities.Iwouldrecommend he to take the Shakespeare course in the otheruniversity.Since he won?tbemotivated ifhe studies independently,this is a good way to motivate him.Although this will costhimsome time and money,he willfinish the course.

6.Using the points and examplesfrom the lecture,explain the two pricing strategies describedby the professor. The professortalks abouttwo approaches to make initial price ofproducts. One approach is to setthe initial price high followed bya lowerprice later, because companies wantto build a high quality image fornew products and products with high price are believed to have high quality.Companies can make profits from customers who are willing to pay high price to experience high qualityproducts, especially those innovative high-tech products such as video recorders,video cameras and even cellphones. Anotherapproach is to setthe initial price lowto undercutcompetitors.For example,ifa new computercompany wants to gainmarketshare,itsells computerinan affordable price.So the company can appeal to customers who wouldn?tbe interested to buy computers and those who wantto change brand.The company can make profits through selling accessories to its customers.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO9
1.Talk aboutan importantexperience thatyou recently had.Describe what happened and explainwhy itwas important to you. IrecentlyattendedaprayermeetingofBAHAI.Thehostisacouple.Theyhold the meeting attheirapartmentevery week. We prayed in the livingroom togetherand recited the scripture. Also,we all talked aboutourhappy events and unhappy events happened recently and exchangedourideas about everyone?sevents.Itwas importanttome because it?s the first time Iattended a small prayermeeting like thatand we talked withoutconcealment. It?s like a whole newexperienceto me. In addition,Imade some friends there. 2.Some people think thatfamilymembers are themost important influence on young adults. Othersbelieve thatfriends arethe most importantinfluence. Which do you agree with? Explain why. Ibelievefriends are the mostimportantinfluence.We all know thatone takes the behaviorofone?scompany.Friends are always ourcompanies.We play games together,keep secrets and talk anything we like.We share interests and hobbies.For example,many of myfriends like playing basketball because Ilike playing basketball very much. Ilearneda lotfrommyfriends,theirway of talking andtheirbehaviors.However,I rarelyspenttimewith my cousins or with my parents.Theymighthave some influence on me,but they aredefinitely notthe most importantinfluence.In a word,because weare closest to ourfriends,friendshave the mostimportantinfluenceon us. Ibelieve family members are themostimportantinfluence on young adults. Young adults need directions when they are growing up.Even though they spendmostofthetimewithfriends,theygetinstructionsfromfamilymembers, especiallyparents.Take myselfas an example,when Iwas the college,my fatheralways told me the importance of“How to studyby oneself.”He called me every week and gave me instructions.On the otherhand,even though I spentmuch time withmy friends playing video games orbasketball,Ididn'tfeel thatI was influenced by them.All they talked aboutwas how to play and how to getlaid and Ididn'tlike that. 3.The woman expresses heropinion ofthe university's new policy.State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives forholding thatopinion. Thebusiness apartmentwill now require allstudents tohave one semester work experience in a local company so that students can develop leadership and organizational skills and may secure permanentemploymentafter graduation.The woman in the conversation doesn?tthink the policy will help students.Firstly,the students don?tdo the work that candevelop leadership and organizational skills.Typically,studentsare theretodo basicjobs such as typing and filing.Secondly,thereare many otheruniversities in this area that have the same requirements sothere mustbe a lotof students holding

the same positions.So aftergraduation,the competition forbusinessjobs will actually befierce. 4.Usingtheprofessor'sexample,explainwhatanestablishingshotisandhow itis used. Establishingshotisanimageshownbrieflyatthebeginningofasceneinorder to communicate background information to viewers and establish mood or feeling ofthe scene.The professoruses amovie herecently watched as an example.Atthebeginning ofthe movie,You can see an image ofa city with tall buildings,skyscrapers.Inthecity the cars and signsare old-fashioned.It seems like the city is in the 1940s.Also,before the scene started, the city seemedgloomy.Itwasmostlydarkness,withlittlelightfromstreetlampsandit was raining,kind of foggy.These give viewers a dark, gloomy mysterious feeling.Sowhen detectives are talking in an office, the professorhad already known thatthe scene is a located in tall building,big city,sometime in the1940s andthe eventis dark,gloomy and mysterious.

5.Briefly summarize the problemthe speakers are discussing.Then state which solution you would recommend.Explain the reasons foryour recommendation. The womanhas to move outof herapartmentrightaway because there is something wrong with the waterpipe and it?sgoing to take abouttwo weeks to fixit.Also,the mid-termexams are coming up.The firstsolution is to stay at some friends? place. The woman can sleep on the livingroomcouch.Buttheir place has already gotfourpeople,it?ll be a little crowded.Plus,there will be many distractions.The second solution is live in a hotel nearcampus.She could geta room there.Buther budgetis very tightnow,even if the weekly rate is reasonable,it?llstill end upcosting hersome money.Considering the options and problems,I would recommend herto choose the firstsolution. Since her budgetis tight,living atthe friends? place can save hermoney. Concerningthe problemofdistractions,she can juststudy in classrooms and only sleep on the couch atnight.

6.Using points from the lecture,explain howthe passionplantand the potato plantdefend themselves from insects. The professortalks abouttwo differentways plants developto protect themselvesfrominsects.Thefirst way is use physical features.For example, the passionplanthas leaves with spiky hairs sticking out.The hairsare so numerous and densethatthere is no room forinsects to land.Since insects can?tland on the leaves,they can?teat the leaves.The second way is to usechemical defensives.Forinstance,potato plantreleases a kind of chemical wheneverinsects start eating its leaves.The chemical itreleases can discouragethe insects from wanting to eatmore,so thechemical makes insects feel full,and then insects stop eating the plant.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO9
1.Talk aboutan importantexperience thatyou recently had.Describe what happened and explainwhy itwas important to you. IrecentlyattendedaprayermeetingofBAHAI.Thehostisacouple.Theyhold the meeting attheirapartmentevery week. We prayed in the livingroom togetherand recited the scripture. Also,we all talked aboutourhappy events and unhappy events happened recently and exchangedourideas about everyone?sevents.Itwas importanttome because it?s the first time Iattended a small prayermeeting like thatand we talked withoutconcealment. It?s like a whole newexperienceto me. In addition,Imade some friends there.

2.Some people think thatfamilymembers are themost important influence on young adults. Othersbelieve thatfriends arethe most importantinfluence. Which do you agree with? Explain why. Ibelievefriends are the mostimportantinfluence.We all know thatone takes the behaviorofone?scompany.Friends are always ourcompanies.We play games together,keep secrets and talk anything we like.We share interests and hobbies.For example,many of myfriends like playing basketball because Ilike playing basketball very much. Ilearneda lotfrommyfriends,theirway of talking andtheirbehaviors.However,I rarelyspenttimewith my cousins orwith my parents.Theymighthave some influence on me,but they are definitely notthe most importantinfluence.In a word,because weare closest to ourfriends,friendshave the mostimportantinfluenceon us. Ibelieve family members are themostimportantinfluence on young adults. Young adults need directions when they are growing up.Even though they spendmostofthetimewithfriends,theygetinstructionsfromfamilymembers, especiallyparents.Take myselfas an example,when Iwas the college,my fatheralways told me the importance of“How to studyby oneself.”He called me every week and gave me instructions.On the otherhand,even though I spentmuch time withmy friends playing video games orbasketball,Ididn'tfeel thatI was influenced by them.All they talked aboutwas how to play and how to getlaid and Ididn'tlike that.

3.The woman expresses heropinion ofthe university's new policy.State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives forholding thatopinion. Thebusiness apartmentwill now require allstudents tohave one semester work experience in a local company so that students can develop leadership and organizational skills and may secure permanentemploymentafter graduation.The woman in the conversation doesn?tthink the policy will help students.Firstly,the students don?tdo the work that candevelop leadership and organizational skills.Typically,studentsare theretodo basicjobs such as typing and filing.Secondly,thereare many otheruniversities in this area that have the same requirements sothere mustbe a lotof students holding the same positions.So aftergraduation,the competition forbusinessjobs will actually befierce.

4.Usingtheprofessor'sexample,explainwhatanestablishingshotisandhow itis used. Establishingshotisanimageshownbrieflyatthebeginningofasceneinorder to communicate background information to viewers and establish mood or feeling ofthe scene.The professoruses amovie herecently watched as an example.Atthebeginning ofthe movie,You can see an image ofa city with tall buildings,skyscrapers.Inthecity the cars and signsare old-fashioned.It seems like the city is in the 1940s.Also,before the scene started, the city seemedgloomy.Itwasmostlydarkness,withlittlelightfromstreetlampsandit was raining,kind of foggy.These give viewers a dark, gloomy mysterious feeling.Sowhen detectives are talking in an office, the professorhad already known thatthe scene is a located in tall building,big city,sometime in the1940s andthe eventis dark,gloomy and mysterious.

5.Briefly summarize the problemthe speakers are discussing.Then state which solution you would recommend.Explain the reasons foryour recommendation. The womanhas to move outof herapartmentrightaway because there is something wrong with the waterpipe and it?sgoing to take abouttwo weeks to fixit.Also,the mid-termexams are coming up.The firstsolution is to stay at some friends? place. The woman can sleep on the livingroomcouch.Buttheir place has already gotfourpeople,it?ll be a little crowded.Plus,there will be many distractions.The second solution is live in a hotel nearcampus.She could geta room there.Buther budgetis very tightnow,even if the weekly rate is reasonable,it?llstill end upcosting hersome money.Considering the options and problems,I would recommend herto choose the firstsolution. Since her budgetis tight,living atthe friends? place can save hermoney. Concerningthe problemofdistractions,she can juststudy in classrooms and only sleep on the couch atnight.

6.Using points from the lecture,explain howthe passionplantand the potato plantdefend themselves from insects. The professortalks abouttwo differentways plants developto protect themselvesfrominsects.Thefirst way is use physical features.For example, the passionplanthas leaves with spiky hairs sticking out.The hairsare so numerous and densethatthere is no room forinsects to land.Since insectscan?tland on the leaves,they can?teat the leaves.The second way is to use chemical defensives.Forinstance,potato plantreleases a kind of chemical wheneverinsects start eating its leaves.The chemical itreleases can discouragethe insects from wanting to eatmore,so thechemical makes insects feel full,and then insects stop eating the plant.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO10
1.Talkaboutatimewhenyouaccomplishedsomethingyoudidn'tthinkyoucoulddo.What did you accomplish? Why didyou think you couldn't do it? When Iwas a sophomore, I took IELTS.I got8.5 in Listening section whichis almostthefull mark,9. Originally,Ididn?tthink Icould getabove 7 because I couldn?treally follow the speakers? speed and my vocabulary wasn?tbig.So I wasn?tconfident.ButI knew thatmy weak pointwas in listening section,so I listened to the IELTS recordingswheneverI had time. When Iwas walking along the street, I listened to the recordings.When Iwas relaxing,Ilistened to the recordings.When Iwas taking a nap,Ilistened to the recordings.Besides, Iboughtabookto enlarge my vocabulary.I thinkitwerethese efforts I paid thathelpedme get8.5.

2.Do you agree ordisagree with the following statement? Use details and examples to explain youranswer. Idon?tthink all childrenshould be required to learn a second language in school.Some children don?teven like to learn language.They are more interested in playing basketball,football andothersports.Even ifthey are required to learn a second language,they won?ttreatit seriously.Ihad many friends in juniorhigh who didn?tlearn language atall.Butthey could play basketball very well and maybe some ofthemcan become professionalplayers.There is no need to learn a second language to achieve theirgoal. Also,manyofthechildrenwon?thavechancetousethesecondlanguagethey learned atschool,because whenthey grow up their job doesn?tneed any foreign language skills.Forexample,many ofmyhigh school classmates now work as clerks in banks and theydon?tneedto use foreign language in their work.Still,they can do just fine. 3.Briefly summarize the proposal in the student's letter. Then state the woman's opinion aboutthe proposal and explain the reasons she gives for holding thatopinion. In the letter,the studentproposes to put the artworks inthe lobby atthe entrance to the studentcenter, because the centerhasmany students and is fullofnaturallight.Butthegirlintheconversationdoesn?tagreewithit.Forthe firstpointaboutmanystudents passing through studentcenter, she thinks the numberof students coming and going is huge,which could be distracting for people to view the artworks.The centeris always crowded with people.It?s hard to appreciate theartworks with so manypeople around. Forthe second point aboutnaturallight, shethinksit?snot verygood. Ifit?sasunnyday, it?llbe way too bright.Ifit?s acloudy day,it?ll be waytoo dark. Instead,the artworks need consistentlightlike the electric lightin an art museumbecause the electric lightis always carefully controlled and stays at a same level.

4.Using the examplesfrom the lecture,explain the conceptofentertainment merchandising. Entertainmentmerchandising is a marketingpractice using the brand or image fromone productto sell another.The professoruses two examplesto illustrate this practice.The firstexample is thatwhen he was a kid,his friends andhe liked a characternamed Action Hero andthey always watched theActionHeroprogram onTelevisionandplayedgamespretendingtobe the powerful hero.After atime, theystarted to see small hero figures in all the stores.TheyallwatchedtheTVshowsolongthatitwasnaturaltheywantedto buy the toys.The second example is thathis 7-year-old daughterand her friends like a cute little baby doll named Rosa.One dayhis daughtertold him thata newTV programwith Rosa as the main characterwould show every week.NaturallyShe and herfriends all started to watch the television show which was already popular,as popularas the toy doll.

5.Brieflysummarizethewoman'sproblem.Thenstatewhichsolutionyou would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation. The woman has a history paperdue tomorrow and she has been writing iton herlaptop,butthe electricity wentoutand the battery isrunning low.What?s worse,theelectricity won?tbe back before several hours.The mansuggests her togotoJeffersonCity. It?sgot electricityandthereislibrarywhereshecan pluginherlaptopandit?sonlyabout20minutesdrive.Butthenshehastopack up all herstuff and it?sraining outside.Then the mangives anothersuggestion that shecanjustgotoasktheprofessor foranextension. But thewomansays the professorsaid hedidn?tgrant any extensions when he assigned the paper. Well,Iwould recommend the girl to drive to Jefferson City.Though she has to pack herstuffand it?sraining outside,finding a place to finish herpaperis themostimportantthingtodo.Asastudent,shehastheresponsibilitytofinishthe homework.Accidentcaused by weatheris notan excuse fornot finishing homework on time.

6.Using the points fromthe lecture,explain why researchers think thatbabies may feel empathy. The professortalks aboutan experimenttesting babies'empathy. We all know thatifonebaby cries in a room, otherbabiesin the same roomwill cry. Originally,wethinkit?sbecauseofthenoiseofthecrying,whichmeansbabyis directlyinfluencedbythenoiseratherthanfeelconcernforotherbabies.Butin the experiment, the researchers played a tap recording ofa baby?s cry to anotherbaby,then of course theotherbaby cries.Then the researchers played a tap recordingof the baby?s own crying which is equally noisy; howeverthe baby didn?tcry.Sobaby cried notbecause ofthe noise.Itcould be thatthebaby feltempathy forthe otherbaby.Then researchers concluded thatit?s possible thatbabies feel empathy,concern,


新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO11
1.Talk aboutan interesting book you have read.Explain why you thoughtthe book was interesting. Give specific details and examples to explain your answer. Recently,I read an interesting novel named “Keep the aspidistra flying”which iswrittenbyGeorgeOrwell. Ithinkit?sveryinterestingbecausein thestorythe maincharacter?sexperienceissimilartomine.Themaincharacterwantstobe a poetwhile Iwant tobe a writer. He abandoned his well-paying job forhis dreamand Ialso quitmy jobfor my dream.He had a time when he was impoverished and Ialso experienced a time when Icouldn?tafford a lunch.He lives in a society where money talks and Ilive in a society where money is everything.So these similar experiences make me think the book interesting.

2.Some people think thatchildren should be allowed to watch whatever television programs they choose to.Others think thatparents should exercise control overthetelevision programs theirchildren watch.Which doyou agree with? Explain why. Ithink parents should exercise control overthe television programstheir children watch. It?s a way ofprotection,since many shows are full ofviolentor horrifyingscenes. Butchildrenarenotmatureenoughtobear thosescenes so they may feel terrified.Take myselfas an example,When Iwas 7-year-old,I waswatchingTValoneathome.Iaccidentallyranintoahorrormovieandwas frightened by the horrible zombies in the movie.They eathuman beings and tearbodiesinto pieces.I was shocked by the bloody scenes.From then on,I started tobe afraid of darkness.Every timeIwalked alongthe streetin the evening,Iwouldfeelazombiefollowingme.Ididn?tgetridofthebadinfluence from that movie until high school.

3.The woman expresses heropinion aboutthe university' s plan.State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives forholding thatopinion. The college is planning to renovate the dormitories in orderto attractmore students toremain oncampus.The woman thinks the plan is a mistake.The woman says that the constructions will create too muchnoise and will constantlydisturbstudentswhoarenowlivingoncampus. Soit?spossiblethat more students will choose to live off-campus.She also says that the new campus housing is going to cost more because the college plans to use the students? housing feestopayfor the renovations.So students won?tbe able to afford tolive on campus.They may still choose to rent an apartmentoffcampus.Sothecollegemaynotachieveitsgoaltoattractmorestudentsto remain on campus.

4.Explainwhy HenryDargerisconsideredan OutsiderArtist. Accordingto the reading passage,outsider artists workin isolationand don?t getformalartistic training and they also inventtheirown ways ofdoing things. Therefore, theirworkmay look strange and can be very different fromother artists?.Accordingto the professor,HenryDargerlived by himself,had no friends andthus worked in isolation.Also,He neverreceived any formal training and his work is very unique.Dargerhad a hard time painting figures buthe managed to come up with his own method.He cutoutpictures of children fromnewspapers and pasted them on the painting.So his painting looks a little strange.It?s more cluttered andmore crowded with details than otherartists? paintings.Also because the entire space is painted,Darger?s painting is a lotlongerthan other artists?

5.The students discuss a problemand twopossible solutions.Briefly summarize the problem.Then state which ofthetwo solutions youpreferand explain why. Theman has gota summer researchposition on campus buthe didn?tapply fora dorm roomfor the summer.And it?s too late to apply now.In the conversation,theytalk abouttwo possible solutions.The firstone is that the man can stay with his parents and commuteto campuseveryday. His parents will be happy to havehimhome and many old friends will come back home for the summervacation. Butit?s a little tiring to drive on the road.The second solution is to rentan apartmentnearcampus.Itsaves time and gas fee.But still the man has to pay for the rent.Well, I would recommend theman to choose the first solution.Since his parents are happy to live with himand he can meet many old friends,why notstay with his parents.Even ifit?s tiring to drive,he can save the money fortherent.

6.Using the points and examplesfrom the lecture,explain whatunity and contrastare,and how they makeinteriordesign more effective. Inthe lecture,the professorsaysan effective design needs to balance unity and contrast. An easy way to achieve unity is to bring togethersimilar elements.Acommonpracticeisbymatchingcolors. For example, wecanpick green and use lightshade green forthe walls ,dark shade green for the sofa, and green forthe rug.When elements match,theroomis unified and gives senses oforderand comfort.But too much unity will make a room boring.So we need contrast to break the unity.Contrast serves todisruptunity in a careful andintentionalway.In orderto create colorcontrast,we need to change colors now and then.For example,we could putlightred cushion on the dark green sofa.Contrastmakes things stand out. Green will look greener nextto the red.But too much contrastwill make a roomfeel dizzy and chaotic. So an effective designmustavoid too much unity and too much contrast.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO12
1.Whatisthemostefficienttypeoftransportationinyourcountry?Explainwhy you think itis efficient. Include specific reasons orexamples Ithink airplaneis the mostefficienttype of transportation in my country because it?s fast and comfortable. It only takes me threehours to flyfrom BeijingtoChongqing.Thissavesmealotoftime.IcangotoChongqinginthe morning and come back to Beijing in the evening.However,if I take train or bus,it?ll take me atleast20 hours.So it?s very fast totake planes. Also,every time I am on the plane, the flight attendantserves medelicious food and drink, all free ofcharge.Butin a train, the attendants aren?tvery hospitable and you have to pay forall thefood and beverage even though they aren?tofhigh quality.Sothat?s why I think taking plane is comfortable.

2.Somepeoplebelieveit'sessentialforaperson'seducationtolearntoplaya musical instrument. Others don'tbelieve music education is important. Which view do you agree with? Explainwhy. Ithink it?s essentialfora person?s education to learn toplay a musical instrument. There aretwo reasons why Isayso.First,learning to play a musical instrumentcan give a person a way to express emotion.Forexample, Ihave a sisterwho can play the piano.Every time shewas happyor depressed,she?dplaythepiano.Second,learningtoplayamusicalinstrument makes a person artsyordevelopa person?s artistic talent.Artisticpeople are more sensitive than normal ones.They canfeel something thatothers can?tfeel.They can sense the emotions from whatnormal people think is a normal scene.For example,Beethoven can compose his Moonlightatnight.But I don?tthink anybody can make amoonlightatnight.

3.The woman supportsthe proposal described in the article.Explain why she thinks itwillachieve the university's goals. The universityplans to expand college radios station?s broadcasting range so astoattractmorestudentstoapplytoitsprogramandtoprovidetheuniversity with an extra source of revenue.The woman in the conversation thinksthis change willwork.Shesays currently the radio station range is limited tothe campus.Ifthey expand the range,there?ll be more programs.Alsothey will reach a largeraudience and this will give students moreexperience in the real life broadcasting and putthemina favorable position to find jobs. Besides,the woman says this change will benefitthe whole university.Since herfriend?s university started a similarchange five years ago and make a lot ofmoney out ofcommercials.They use the money to offer more scholarship andfund projectstorenovate new facilities.

4.Describe whatsubliminal perception is and explain how the experiment discussedby the professorillustrates this phenomenon. Subliminal perceptionis a phenomenon thatthe perceptionofstimulus is just below the threshold ofconscious awarenessand itcan influence people?s thoughtand attitudes.The professorusesan experimentto illustrate this phenomenon.IntheexperimenttwogroupsofpeoplewereaskedtowatchTV. A picture flashed on the screen. Itappearsso fast that it?s barely noticeable. The picture is a boywith a birthday cake.But each group is shown to a slightly differentversion ofthepicture.One group isshown to a picture in which the boyisangryandtryingtothrowthecake.Theothergroupisshowntoapicture inwhichtheboyissmilingandtryingtoofferthecake. Later,thesetwogroups ofpeople were shown to a third picture in which the boy is holding the cake withoutanyexpressions.The people were asked to describe the boy?s personality.The result is thatthegroup that has seen the angry boy describehimnegatively,whereas the group thathas seen the smiling boy described himpositively. 5.The speakers discuss two possible solutions to thewoman's problem. Briefly summarize theproblem.Then state which ofthesolutions you recommend and explain why. The woman wonan award and isinvited to attend the award ceremony.But she?s gota philosophyexamthatis scheduled to end at the time when the ceremony begins.There are twopossible solutions. The firstoneis to attend the ceremony after taking the philosophy examsince these ceremonies never startontimeandgivelongintroductions.Soshewon?tmissanythingimportant. Butshe thinks it?s a bitrisky andshe doesn?twantto miss being there when they announce hername.The second solution is talk to the professorand reschedulethe exam. Butthe professoralways reschedule the examearlier which means less studying time forthe woman.I think the woman had better choose the first solution.Since reschedulingexamwill reduce herstudying time,thesecondsolutionwillprobablyharmherscore.Evenifit?spossiblethat she?ll miss the announcementof hername, she can still go to theaward after the exam. 6.Using the points and examplesfrom thetalk,explainhow substitute goods and complementgoods influence demand fora particularproduct The demand ofa productcan beinfluenced by the price ofa related product. The firstkind related products are called substitute goods,goods thatcan be substituted forone and another.They are interchangeable so the increase in the price of one productmeans the increase in the demand foranother.Forexample,butterand margarine are interchangeable.If the price of buttergoes

up,peoplewill buy margarine instead.So the increase inthe price ofbutter lead to the increase indemand formargarine. The second kind related products are called complementgoods,goods thatcan?tbe used withouteach other.They complementorcomplete each

other.Forexample,compactdiscs and disc playerare complementproducts since they should always be used together.So ifthe price ofeither productincreases,thedemand forboth will decrease.Ifthe priceofCD goes up,the demand forCD will go down.Since CD playercomplements CD,thedemand forCD playerwill go down too.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO13
1.Talk aboutagame,sport orothergroup activitythatis playedinyour country.Explainwhy you thinkthe activityisenjoyable. Basketballisonegroupactivitythatis playedinmy country.It?s enjoyable because peoplecanrelaxand get exercise fromplayingbasketball.Almost every communityinmy country has a basketballcourt and every afternoon adultsafterworkandchildrenafterschool cometoplaytogether.Adults playto relaxand to getrid ofthetiringwork inthemorning,whilesomekids come to playfor fun andexercise.Somekids enjoy throwing ballsintothe basket. Some enjoy runningaround,dribblingandchasingthe onewith theball. 2.Whenlooking forinformationforaresearchproject,somestudents preferto gettheirinformationmainly fromthe Internet.Others prefertomainly use printedmaterialssuch asbooks and academic journals.Whichdoyouprefer, andwhy? I prefer to use Internettolook forinformationfor thefollowing tworeasons. First,it?s very fasttofind theinformation fromInternet.Since now we have many search engines suchas Google andBing,wejust need toinputkey words and theresultswillbelistedon thescreen.Fromtheresults,wecan always find theinformationrelatedto theresearch project.Second,Internet has waymoreinformation thandoprintedmaterials.Nearlyallprinted materialsnowhavee-version online.Withmay scientificdatabases,wecan always findwhatwe need by title,authoror evencontent.So,whenwe are doingresearchproject, Internetis moreconvenientthanprintedmaterials. I?llchooseprintedmaterialsratherthanInternet.Eventhough Internethasalot ofinformation,Ican?t findany useful information.For example,whenIwas doingaresearch project aboutAsianHistory.Therewasn?tmuchrelated information availableonline.Alltheresultsfromsearch enginesordatabases onlygavemesomeintroductionsofAsianHistory.ButIneed todo deep research.SoIstopped using Internetandwenttolibrary tofindsome old printedmaterials.Guess what?Igotmany relevant booksandjournals.These printedmaterialsare old,sothey don?thaveeversionsonline.Butthey are precious,atleastformy researchproject. 3.Thewoman expresses her opinionaboutthe university'splan.State her opinion andexplainthereasons shegives forholding thatopinion. The universityis planning tobuildanewathleticstadiumin order to attract more topstudents and tostrengthenitsrelationshipwith thetown.Thewoman doesn?t thinkit?llwork.Firstly,thewoman thinks some oftheconditions on campus are too badto attracttopstudents.For example,sciencelabs have outdatedequipment,library not enoughbooksandstudentcenter being too small.Secondly,thewomansays thatsinceour teams always lose,peoplein the townrarely come towatch the games.Andit?simpossiblethattheteams improve overnight.Besides,addingseatswon?t helpeither.Peoplein the town won?tcometostadiumjustbecauseitis bigger.Sobuildingthisnewstadiumis not goingtoimprove therelationshipwiththetown.

4.Explainwhatis meant by "perceptualconstancy," usingthe examples providedby theprofessor. PerceptualConstancyis our abilitytorecognize thesame objectinmany differentcontexts, evenifthe objectmay lookdifferentindifferentcontexts. Theprofessoruses two examples toillustratethisability.Thefirst exampleis plate.Ifwe putaroundplatedirectlyatour face,itisa perfectcircle.Butifwe putitinahorizontal position,itis nolongeracirclebut anoval.Stillwe recognizeitas thesame plate.The oval oneis notadifferentobject.EvenifIt looksdifferent,westillperceiveitas thesame.Thesecond exampleis the professorhimself.Helooks biggertothestudentsinthe frontrowthanthosein the back row.Ifastudentsitsin thefrontrowtoday andtheninthe backrow tomorrow,thestudentwillstillperceivehimas thesame professor,evenifto thestudenttheprofessor?s sizehas changed.

5.Thespeakers discuss two possiblesolutions to theman?s problem.Briefly summarize theproblem.Thenstatewhichsolutionyourecommend and explainwhy. Themanis supposed todriveeveryonein theclubtoseean exhibition andhe borrowedhismom?s van.Buttheproblemis thatthevanbrokedown andcan?t berepairedintime.There aretwo possiblesolutionsto thisproblem.First,he canrentavan.But hethinksit?s alittlerisky.Because only afewpeoplein the clubagree tocontributesomemoney to thevan,it?s possiblethatthemanwill havetopaymostofthe bill.Thesecondsolutionistopostponethetrip untilhis mom?s vanis in goodcondition.Butthemansays everyonewillbe disappointedifthey find outthatthey can?t goto the exhibitionwhen they are ready.Personally,Iwould recommend theman torentavan.Sincesome of thestudents have alreadypromised tosplittherent,thosewho haven?treplied willdefinitelyagree tocontributemoney to thevan.Eveniftheman has to pay most ofthe bill, hehas topay because heis the president and hehas the responsibilitytocompletehis task.

6.Using theexamplesoftheleafyseadragonand thecuttlefish,describetwo kindsofcamouflageand the benefitstheyprovide. Someseaanimals havedevelopedcolors andshapes toresemble environmentalfeaturesin order toavoidpredators.For example,leafysea dragonhasleafyprotrusions sticking outlikearms.Its shape andcolor resemble thegreenseaplantssoitblendsinwell in the environment.Whenit is swimming throughgreenseaplants,predators havetroubleseeingit.But without greenplants,itscamouflagedoesn?t work.Another exampleiscuttlefish.Unlikeleafysea dragon,Cuttlefish?scamouflagecanworkanywhere. Itchanges color toblendinany environment. It has shifting pigments andcan changecolorinstantly.Ifitis swimming by thegreenseaplants,itscolorcan change togreen.Ifitis swimming by thebrownseafloor,itscolorchanges to brown.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO14
1. Peopleenjoyreading many differenttypesofbooks suchasmystery, biography, romance, etc. Ofall thedifferenttypesofbooks that thereare. What typedo you mostenjoy? Explain why. I enjoy biography most, becausereadingbiography tells mealifestory ofa greatperson.I gettoknowthe greatperson?sups anddowns duringhisorher lifeandhowhe orshemanaged togetthroughallthedifficulties.For example, thebiography ofSteveJobsrecounts howhewas kicked outofApple.But he continuedhiscareerinComputerScience and foundedPixarwhichcreated theworldfamous film,Toy.Besides,hewas invited back toApple andsaved Apple byintroducingIpod.Ispeciallyenjoy this part of hislife,his greatsecond-coming.Igaininspiration fromhis experienceand frommany otherbiographies andthat?s why I enjoy readingbiography most.

2.Doyouagreeordisagreewiththestatement? Oneofthebestways to learnis by makingmistakes. Usespecific examples and details tosupport your opinion. Itotally agreewiththisstatementthatmakingmistakes isoneofthe bestways tolearn.Throughmistakes,wecanlearnwhatwe don?t understand.After understandingthe things we don?t knowpreviously,weimprove. Likeinhigh school I haddifficultysolvingmath problems.ButI always remembered the problems Icouldn?tsolve.Afterasking teachers anddiscussingwith classmates,Icouldwork outtheseproblemseasily.ThenIimproved.Also, sometimesmakingamistakeislikelearningalesson. WhenI firstwenttoa westernrestaurant,I directly wentin tofindemptyseats.Fortunately,my American friend pulledme back and toldme thatIshouldwait untilawaiter comesbyandtakesmetotheseats.ImakeamistakebutI gainedknowledge.

3.Theman expresses his opinionabouttheproposal inthe newspaperBriefly summarize theproposal.Thenstate theman's opinion and explainthe reasons hegives for holding thatopinion. Thewriterproposes that universityshouldallowstudentsto eatinthe classroomso thatstudentscanconcentratebetter andcanhavein-class parties onthelastday ofclass.Theman doesn?t think theproposal is a good idea.Foritsfirstreason thatstudentscanconcentratebetter,Themansays it indeed helpsthepersonwho eatssnacks toconcentrate butothers willbe disturbedandinterfered by the eating noise.So otherstudentscan?t pay attentionwith alltheeatingnoisearound.Foritssecondreason,Themansays it?s not appropriate tohave partiesinthelastclass,becausethelastclassis veryimportant.Studentsdoreviews forthefinalexam.If they spendtimedoing other things,they won?t bewell-prepared.

4.Using theexample fromthelecture,explainthecomfortzonebias. ComfortZoneBiasisa tendency thatwe prefer toremainincomfortable, familiarsituations ratherthanenterinto new, unfamiliarones.Thereasonis thatwe naturally preferwhatwe already knowandwantto avoidrisks.The professor takeshisfriendas anexample to explaincomfortzonebias.His friendalways wantedto beafilmreviewer, becausehis friendlovedtowrite aboutmovies.Sowhenhis friend graduated,his friendlooked forajob as a filmreviewer.But hecouldn?t findone.Thenhe took aposition asa news reporter,investigatingstories andwritingabout events.Atfirst, hewasn?t sure hewould begoodatthis but headjusted, gainedconfidence andbecamea pretty goodreporter.Aftera fewyears,hewas offeredajob to beafilmreviewerandthenewjobwouldactuallypay himmore.Buthedidn?ttakeit.He turneditdown becausehe?d gotten usedtobeinga news reporter.Hedidn?t wantmakeachange becausechances are thatthe new jobmight notworkout.

5.Briefly summarize the problemthespeakers arediscussing.Thenstate whichsolutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthereasons foryour recommendation. Themanis worrying abouthishousingnextsemester, becausehis great roommateismoving offcampus.In theconversation,they talk abouttwo possiblesolutions.The firstoneis waitingtheuniversitytoassignanew roommate to him.Buttheman thinks the newroommatemay havea different study habit. Like,themanis used tostudyinglate atnight.Whatifthe new roommatelikes togo tobedearly.Thenthiswillthrowoff theman?s study schedule.Thesecondsolutionis toliveinahouse offcampus with other students.Butthe thingis thehouseis very faraway fromthecampus.The man has to get upmuch earlier togettocampus ontime.Inmy opinion,the man had betterchoose thefirstsolution,toletuniversity assigna newroommate for him.Chances arethatthe newroommate alsolikestostudylate atnight.Themanshouldn?t assume thatthe newroommatewillhavea completely differenthabit.Besides,living on campus is alotmoreconvenient thanliving offcampus. 6.Using theexamples oftheeeland theanglerfish, explain two types of adaptationsthathelp animals survivein the deepest parts ofthe ocean Theprofessoruses twoexamples toillustratetwo adaptations that help animalssurviveinthedeepestpartsoftheocean.The firstexampleisakindof eelfish.Thiseel fishhasbodyfeaturesthatallowittoeatpreylargerthanitself. It has anenormous mouth andastomach thatcan expand.Sowhenitcapturesabigprey,itgainsalotfood,alot ofnutrition.This allows eelfish to sustainverylongbeforeitfindanotherprey.Thesecondexampleisanglerfish. Anglerfish hasthe abilityto generatelight. Ithas alittlestructure onitshead which produceslightandglows inthe dark.Thelightis closeto thefish?smouth andmany otherfishesareattracted tothislight.So they swimstraight towarditandmakeit easier foranglerfish tocapturefood.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO15
1.Peoplemakefriendsinmanydifferentways.Whatdoyouthinkis agoodwayto makenewfriends?Usespecificdetails andexamplesinyourresponse. Ithinkattendinggroupactivityis agoodwaytomakenewfriends.Inagroupactivity, peopleusuallyhavesameinterests andtheyperform sometasks together,sothere?s a chancethatsomeofthegroupmembers needtocooperate. Throughcooperation,peoplestarttoknoweachotherandthenmakefriends.Forexample,Ialways play basketballwithstrangers.Atthebeginning,Idon?tevenknowmyteammates?names. Butafterafewhours'cooperation,webecomefriends andstarttotalkabouteach other.Sometimes,weevengotohaveamealafterplaying.Andactually,thisis howI makefriends.

2. Doyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement? It's importanttoremember andlearn fromthepast. Usedetails andexamples toexplain youropinion. Itotally agreewiththisstatementthatit?simportanttoremember andlearn fromthe past.Weallmakemistakes andweallhavetoremembermistakes. Becausemistakes tellus whatisn?t right.Forexample,whenIwas in thefirst gradeprimary school,Itook atoy car fromanotherstudentwithoutinforming him.Iwas tooyoung toknowthattakingthings fromothers withoutmentioning isn?tright.Thenmy teacherhelped the otherstudentfind this toy car and labeledme as a thieve.Ididn?t realize howserious this matterwas untilmy fathertoldme thatthis was humiliating.IsworetomyselfthatIwould never take anything fromothers withoutinformingthe owners.Ithink thisisa valuablelessonand I?llrememberitforever.

3. Themanexpresses his opinionabouttheproposal inthestudent's letter. Brieflysummarizethe proposal. Thenstatetheman'sopinionabouttheproposaland explainthereasonshegives for holdingthatopinion. Thewriter oftheletter proposes that university should paverunning trailsto increase theirsafety and alsomake themlook nicer.Themanin the conversation thinks the proposal is aterribleidea.As forthe thing about making trailssafer,themansays thewriter doesn?t think aboutthelong-term consequences ofrunningonahardsurface.It?s too hard onbones andjoints andcanlead toinjuries.Soit?s actually safertorunon thesoftsurface.About making trailslook nicer,theman doesn?t thinkpeoplewill likeit.Hesays the mainreasonwhy peopleenjoy the trails nowis that peoplecantakeabreak frombuildingsandstreetstofeelthe nature.Iftheuniversity pavethetrails,the trails willlook similarto buildingsandstreets.Thenpeoplewont? go thereany more.

4.Explainhowthe example fromthe professor'slectureillustrates the experimenter effect. ExperimenterEffect isa problemthatoccurswhenaresearcher?sexpectations affecttheoutcome ofthe experiment. In theexample,theresearcherwas giventwogroupsofmonkeys.Hewasaskedtotrainthemtopickupaballand putitinabox.Thenherecordedhow many hoursittook to train eachgroupof monkeys tolearnto doso.Beforeexperiment, theresearcherwas toldthatone groupis moreintelligentthan theother.But actually they are all thesame. What's surprisingis thatittook theresearchertwo-hourless time to train the supposedly moreintelligentgroupthanthesupposedlylessintelligentgroup. Thisis because theresearcherthought onegroupis smarter andwouldbe easier totrainsohesmiled to them, gave themencouragement and communicatedwiththemalot.However,theresearcherwasn?t very enthusiastic aboutthe other group,thesupposedlylessintelligentgroup.So theresearcher?s expectation actuallyinfluenced theresult oftheresearch. 5.Briefly summarize the problemthespeakers arediscussing. Thenstate whichsolutionyouwouldrecommend. Explainthereasons foryour recommendation. Thewomanisinachoirand thechoiris goingto haveaconcertinahour.All thechoirmembers arerequired towearwhiteshirts andblack pants.Butthe womanspilledthespaghettialloverherwhiteshirt andshe doesn?t havetime to buy anothernewone.Thereare two possiblesolutions.Thefirst oneis towear anothershirtthat?s not exactly white.It?salittlecreamcolor.Butshe won?t belookingexactly same as othersandsome audiencemay be able to tellthedifference.Thesecondsolutionistoborrowashirtfromherroommate. But herroommateis out oftown.And thewoman hates to take things without asking.Personally,Iwouldrecommend thewoman to borrowthewhiteshirtfromherroommate.Thewomancansendatextmessageorvoicemessageto herroommate toinformher.Sincetheconcertis going tostartinan hour,I thinkthewoman?s roommatewillunderstandheractionin this emergence. 6.Usingtheexamplesinthelecture,explainhowthepositionofbird's eyesis critical totheirsurvival. Theprofessor talks about howthe position ofbird?s eyes helpthemfindfood and avoidpredators.Some birdshave eyes thatface forward to theskull so thatthey canclearlysee andjudgedistance.They canfocus onthings with both eyesand accurately predictheight,widthand depth.For example, hawks position their eyesinthe front.They havesucha goodeyesightthatthey can spotatinymouseinafield fromhighin thesky.Whentheyspotamouse,they willswoop down andcatchit.Sotheplacement oftheir eyes helpthemfind food.Some otherbirdshave their eyespositioned oneachsideoftheskullin ordertoavoidpredators.Theireyeson bothsideshelpthemwatchfordangers. For example,whena duckis eating grassandinsects,itis constantlylooking outfordanger frombothsides.Ifa foxisapproaching fromeitherside,theduck willflyand escape.So theplacement of ducks'eyeshelp themavoid predators.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO16
1.Ifyoucould haveany job orcareeryouwanted.Whichwouldyouchoose andwhy? Givespecific detailsto explainyourresponse. IfIcouldhave any jobIwanted,Iwouldchoose to beawriter.Therearea coupleofreasonswhyIwanttobewriter.Firstly,beingawriterdoesn?tneed to go to officeora place fullofmany other people.Writers usually stay ata quiet placeandwrite articles orbooks.Ienjoy being alone,thinkingalone and writing thingsalone.EverytimeIamalone,Iwritestories.Secondly,Ilove the art oftellingstories. Writingstories not only pleases myself butmay entertain otherpeople,thereaders,as well.I especiallylikethesceneinwhich people laugh andthink when they arereadingmy stories.

2. Some peoplewho unexpectedly receivedalarge amount ofmoney spend iton practical things,whileothers spenditforpleasureonly.Which doyou thinkisbetter andwhy? Ithinkspendingit onpractical thingsis better.Spendinglarge amount of money for pleasureonlyisnotawiseway to handlemoney.It?llonly make peoplewanttospendmore becausehuman desireisinsatiable. Ifyoubuy a bighouse,therewillbeabiggerhouse.Ifyoubuy alargecompany,therewill bealargercompany.Sowiser peopleshouldspend themoney on practical things such assettingupa fund forcharity, helpingthosewho arein urgent needoffoodandsanitation,buildingschools forkidswholiveintherural areas andso on.Even openingabookstoreis betterthanjustspendingthemoney onlyforpleasure.

3.Theman expresses his opinionaboutthestudent's suggestions thatare madein theletter.Statetheman's opinionand explain thereasons hegives for holding thatopinion. Thewritersuggeststhat healthcenterhiremore doctors so that eachpatient receivesquality treatmentandthathealthcenteropen onweekendsin orderto treat peoplewho getsick over theweekend.Themanin theconversation doesn?tthink thetwosuggestionswill domuchgood.Asforthe firstsuggestion, themansays the healthcenteristiny.Itsuffers lackofspace.Unlessit builds more treat roomor offices, problems can?t besolved.Aboutthesecond suggestion,themansays moststudents aren?t hereonweekend.Therearejust notalotof people here.Most ofthemareintown.Plus,studentsleave more often onweekend.Allthesemean thatthereis notmuch demand for treatment onweekends.

4.Using theexample fromthelecture, explainwhatsocial loafingis and howit affects people's behavior. Social loafing happens whenindividualsinagroup performless wellthan they do on their own,whichleads toless personal efficiency.The professoruses a study toillustrate thisphenomenon.In thestudy, peoplewere asked topeel potatoes,to peel as many potatoes as possible atagiven amount oftime. Somechose towork alone andwere told thatthe number of potatoes each peeledwillberecord.Others chosetowork ina group andthey were toldthat onlythe totalnumber of potatoes peeledwould berecorded.Soitwasimpossibletotell how many one person had done.Then theresearchers compared the average number of potatoes peeledaloneand that peeled together.They found outthat peoplewhoworked as agrouppeeled significantly fewer potatoes than thosewhoworkedalone.

5. Thestudentsdiscuss two possiblesolutions to theman's problem.Briefly summarize theproblem.Thenstatewhich of thesolutions you preferand explainwhy. None ofthe bookstoresinthecampus areahas the book themanwants and it?lltakeabouttwoweeks to have the bookinstock.Buttheclass willbe discussing thebook nextTuesday.Thefirstsolutionis tobuy thebook onthe Internetand useRussiaorderdelivery.Butit?llcosttwice as muchmoney as it takes to buyoneina bookstore.Thesecondsolutionis tosharethewoman?s copy untilhecan geta bookfroma bookstore.Hecanread part ofthe book one day and then thewomancanread part ofthe bookanother day.Butthe manworries thathewon?t getthe bookback to herintime.I preferthesecond solution.Justlikethewomansays, aslongasthe twostudentskeepcareful, they won?t delayeachother.Furthermore,they only have toshare the book for twoweeks,sincebookstores willhavethe book in twoweeks.

6.Using pointsand examples fromthe talk, explaininternalandexternal locus ofcontrol. Theprofessor uses twointerviewees as examplesto explaininternaland external locus ofcontrol.In thefirst example,thegirlwho hasinternal locusof controlbelieves hersuccess and preparationare herresponsibilities.Soshe worked hard ahead of time.Ifshesucceed,shewillthinkits because ofher hardwork.Ifshefails,shewillbedisappointed and trytofigure out howshe canimprove forthenexttime.Another exampleisamanwho has external locusofcontrol.Hethinksinterviewers havemoreinfluenceonhisinterview, whichmeans his success dependsonluck.So hedidn?t work hard toprepare for theinterview.Heismorelikely to takerisks,interviewingjobs thatheisnot qualified for.Ifhe getsit, hethinksit?s becauseinterviewers are havinga good day.If hedoesn?tgetit,hewillblame theinterviewers andwon?t try tofigure out howhemight have done better.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO17
1.Talk aboutaspecialopportunity thatwas given toyou.Explainwhy the opportunitywas important. Iwas given anopportunitytostudyintheUSonesummer.This opportunityis veryimportanttome forseveral reasons.Firstly,itwas thefirsttimeIwent abroad.I hadimagined goingabroad eversinceIwas alittlekid.I never gota chance untilthat dayIreceivedacallfroman administratorinmy college tellingme thatIwas granted theopportunitytostudy abroadfor thesummer vacation. Secondly,Ilearnedand experiencedalotfromthis opportunity.In thisexchange program,Iwas assignedapartnerwhowas alsoacollege studentintheUS.Heintroducedme to his family,took me outtovalley faire andinstructedme howto use Linuxin thecomputerlab. 2.Statewhetheryouagree ordisagreewith the followingstatement.Then explainyourreasons, usingspecific detailsinyour explanation. Studentsshouldnotbeallowed to bringcellphones (mobile phones)into the classroom.Itotally don?tagreewith this statementthatstudentsshouldn?t beallowed to bringcellphonesinto theclassroom.Oneimportantpurpose ofcell-phoneis thatwecanreachanyoneat anytime anywhere.Ifstudents? parentsneedto informthemofsomeimportantthings andstudents don?thavemobile phones with them, parentswillhave tocome to theclassroomorcallothers toreach thekids.Thissoundsprettyinconvenientinamodern age.On theother hand, simply bringingcellphonesintoclassroomwon?t disturbotherstudents or interrupttheclass.Studentsjust need to turntheirsound offandmake the signal tovibration.Andifthey receivesome urgent phone-calls,they cango outtoreply.

3. Theman expresses his opinionabouttheupcomingchange.Statehis opinion andexplainthereasons hegives forholding thatopinion. Thelibraryis goingtochangebig,multipersonstudy tablesinto personal study cubiclesin order toeliminate noiseinthelibrary and accommodatemore students attendingtheuniversity.Themanintheconversation thinkstheuniversityis makingamistake.As for thefirstpurposetoreducedistraction, themansays ifthereis nomultipersontablesinthelibrary,therewillbeno placetogettogethertodogroup projects.He thinksinstead ofchangingtables, the universityshouldbuildmeetingrooms toreduce thenoiseinthemainlibrary hall.As for thesecondpurpose toaccommodatemorestudents, the mans says thelibrary hasno problemwith overcrowding.Heseesempty tablesallthetime and thewoman always takes awhole tableforherself.The man thinks it?llbeawaste ofmoney to build thecubiclessincethelibrary now is sufficiently big toholdmorestudents.

4.Explaintheconceptofritualization usingthe example of dogsdiscussedby the professor. Ritualizationis aprocessinwhich ananimal?sbehaviorthatoriginally serves a practicalpurposedevelopsinto one thatcommunicates aspecific message. Theprofessor usedog?s baring teeth as an example to explain theconcept. If dogs feelthreatened,they showtheirteeth,meaningstayaway.Before this dog?s behaviorbecomearecognizablewarning,its originalpurposeisto avoid bitingits ownlips.When dogssensedanger,they bite andinstinctively bare teeth toavoidbiting their ownlips.But otheranimals overtime noticethe teeth baringbehavioralways came beforeadog?s goingtobite.So they startedto readit asasignalto becareful.After this scenariorepeatedtime after time, dogsthemselvesstart tobeawarethatsimplybaring teethisenoughtoprotect themselves.So theyusethisbehavior asawarningsignaltocommunicate the possibilityto attackrather than actuallyattack.

5.Thespeakers discussestwopossiblesolutionstotheman'sproblem.Briefly summarizetheproblem.Thenstatewhichsolutionyourecommend and explainwhy. Themanjustgot his first draftof paperfromtheprofessorandhehastoreview allthecomments andwriteafinaldraft.Butthereis only one dayleft.The woman offers himtwopossiblesuggestions.Thefirstsuggestionisto ask the professor fora deadline extension.Sinceallthe otherstudents gottheirpaper a fewdays ago andonly theman got his paperjust now,the professorshould takesomeresponsibility forthis situation.Buttheman doesn?t wanttoseem pushy andoffensive.Thesecondpossiblesolutionis todohis bestwith the timeleft.Hecanfinishthe paperquicklyandwork hard.Since heis apretty goodstudent,hecangetapretty goodgrade.Buttherearetoomany commentsto deal with.IfIwere theman,Iwouldchoosethefirstsolution. Since thisis theprofessor?s fault,evenifit?llbealittle uncomfortable askingthe extension,it?s stillreasonableto doso.Thereis noneedtoworry about being offensive.Themanjust need to tell theproblemto the professorinthe firstplace.I?msure theprofessorwillunderstand. 6.Using pointsand examples fromthe talk, explaintheconcept ofdiffusion. Diffusionis acultureprocess whereby one group orsociety adopts another?s itemsuch as acustom,a type offoodor aninvention.Take themodern newspaperin theUSasan example,thecharacters onthe pagecame from anotherculturemany centuries ago,theprinting ofwords was inventedin Germany andpaperinChina.Theseinnovations weresharedacross culturesoveralongdistance andoveralongperiodsoftime.Besides,diffusionis sometimes selective.For example, peopleintheUSacceptthepractice of acupuncture, butfewofthemfullyunderstandit.Becausecultures tend to resistideasthatare toodifferentfromtheir own beliefsandvalues.Ifideas are closetotheirown,they willincorporate,absorbanddiffusethem.SoAmerican culture onlyacceptsthe practice ofacupuncture butnotthephilosophyof Chinesemedicine.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO18
1.Imagineyourlife tenyearsinthe future.Talk aboutoneway you think your lifewillbedifferentin tenyearsthanitisnow.Use details to explainyour answer. Iimagine mylifetenyearsinthefuturetobefree.Mylifewill be differentin one wayfromnowthatIdon?thavetobe tiedtoajob.Ican travel aroundtheworld, go anywhere,see differentthings,meet different people, broadenmy horizon and thus feeltheworld.Idon?t have toconfinemyselftojust oneplace.Ican go toFrance,SouthAfrica,SouthAmerica and IslandsinthePacific.In addition,Ican bea freelancer,live onmy royalties.Iwillhaveplenty oftime to write novels andreadallthemasterpieces.Thisis whatIimaginemy lifewill bein tenyears.

2.Doyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement?It is importanttolearnaboutothercultures.Use details andexamples to explainyour opinion. Itotally agreewiththis statement becausewecanlearndifferentperspectives fromothercultures.It?simportanttoknowdifferentperspectives to be reflective.For example,Iwentto theUSinmy sophomoreyear and found out thatmany studentsin theUSdon?t usetheirparents? money.They usuallywork in thesummer to earn tuitionfeesandlivingexpenses.However,most ofmy classmates includingme use parents? money without even thinkingabout it.Webelieve thatit?s our parents? obligationto pay forthecollege andgive us allowances.Ireflectedon thisissue andthoughtIshouldtake onthe responsibilities myself.ThenItook agovernmentloanto pay for thetuition fees andalso gotsome part-timejobs.Therefore,Ichangedmy perspective becauseIlearneda newonefromanotherculture.

3.Themanexpresses his opinionaboutthechange describedinthearticle. Breifly The universitychoir decidesto enter off-campus SingingCompetitorsinorder to betterits performance and helpthemusic programgrow.Themanin the conversationlikes thisplan.Firstly, hethinksthis changewillmotivate the singersin thechoir.Since otherschools? choirs arevery good,theuniversity choir has towork harder tocompete against them.So the universitychoirmay practicemore oftenthandiditbefore andthusbetterthe performance. Secondly,hesaysifthechoir goesto those off-campus events, therewillbe many studentslistening to themandifthestudentsfeel good,they may choose tocome to the universityandjoin theprogram.Therefore,themusic programwillgrow.

4. Usingtheexampleofthepronghorn andlion,explaintheconceptofarelict behavior. Relict behaviornolongerservesitsoriginalpurpose because ofchanged conditions.Itmightbe useful to theanimalwhen habitatwas different. Pronghornlives onopengrassy plains.Itis superfast,actually thefastest animal in thewestern hemisphere.Wheneveritspredators appear,it?s offina flash.Thereasonwhy itruns sofastis thatlongtime along,the grassyplain was different.Lionsused tolive there andchased pronghorns.Lions were much faster than bobcat,sopronghorn?s speedwas criticaltoitssurvival.But nowlions areextinct.They arenolonger thepredators.Becauseofthis conditionchange,pronghorn?s speeddoesn?tserveitsoriginalpurposeand thus becomes arelict behavior.

5. Briefly summarize the problemthespeakers arediscussing. Thenstate whichsolutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthereasons foryour recommendation. Themanwrote his paperlastnightbut heforgotto takeitwithhim.Thereare two possiblesolutions.Thefirstoneis todriveback tohis place andbringthe paperback.Since helivesoffcampus,if hehurries,hecanonly come back beforetheclassis over.Stillhe?ll miss partoftheclass.Thesecondsolutionis to talk totheprofessor andask herifit?s okaytosendthe paperlater byemail. Buttheprofessoralwaysstartsclasson time,themanwill only havechance to ask herwhen theclassisover.Iwouldrecommend theman to take thefist solution.Since theprofessoris strictwithlatesubmissions and hedoesn?t know whethershe?llallowhimtosubmitthepaperlater by email,it?s betterto drive home and bringthe paperback evenifhe?llmiss partoftheclass.

6. Using pointsand examples fromthelecture, explain howthe characteristics oftargetcustomers influencemarketingstrategy for products. Theprofessor talks abouttwocharacteristicsoftargetcustomers thatcan influencecompany?s marketingstrategy.Thefirstcharacteristicis age.Ifa companymakes toy cars,itstargetcustomers arekids.Itshouldadvertise on Television during thetimekids watch television.This makes sure thatthe advertisement reaches thekids sothecompany can getpeopleinthatage groupto buy toycars.Thesecondcharacteristicis geographical location where the targetcustomers live.Ifacompany wantstosellboats,itstarget customersmustlivenearoceanandlakes since only peoplelive nearwater need boats.So thecompany will advertiseincities and towns thatare near ocean andlakesinorder toreachitstargetcustomers and therefore tosell more boats.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO19
1. Talkaboutaskillor abilitythatyouconsiderespecially importantforastudentto have.Use details and examples to explain your answer. Theabilitytofindanswersoneone?sownis importantforstudents to have. Asweallknow, there aremany problemswecan?tsolvebysimplyaskingothers, classmates, friendsor eventeachers. Andsometimeswemeetaproblembutthereis no onearoundtoofferhelp. Sowehaveto findthe answers byourselves. Wecan useSearchEngines suchas googletoseeifanysimilarquestions havebeenasked. Wecanalso useInternetdatabasesuchas Wikipediatoseeifthereis anyrelevant items thatcan provideusefulinformationtoanswerourquestionsorto helpsolve problems. Inaword, theabilityto findanswers by oneselfis veryimportant.

2. Moreand morepeoplearebuyingitemsontheInternetand frommagazines orcatalogs. Other peopleprefershoppinginastore. Which do you prefer andwhy? Iprefertobuy thingsontheInternetratherthan doshoppinginastore. Firstly, it?sveryeasyto find thingson Internet. Youjusthavetoinputthekey words intosearchengineonaweb store, the resultswill belisted onthescreenimmediately.Then you picktheoneyou needand usecredit cardto paytheitem.Afterafewdays orso, theitemwillbedelivered directly to yourhouseor apartment. Secondly, Internethasmoreitems than does store. ManytimesIwalkinabookstore and walk outwithoutthebook Iwant. ButInevermeettheproblembuyingbooksonline.I can eitherbuybooks fromWeb bookstores suchas Amazon orbuysecond-handedbooks from individuals. So,thesearethereasonswhy Ichoosetobuy itemson theInternet.

3. Themanexpresses his opinion oftheuniversity?s plan. Statehisopinionandexplainthereasonshegives forholdingthatopinion. Theuniversityisgoingto makea25-dollarincreaseinstudentfeeforusingthecampusrecreation centerto upgradethefacilitysothatmorestudentswillusethefacility. Also, thedecisionis approvedbecause25dollaris areasonableamountofmoney.Themanintheconversationthinks it?s agreat idea. Firstly, hesayspeopledon?tgotherebecausethefacilityisoldandexercise equipmentbreaksdown. Ifthey upgradethefacilityand providenew equipment, studentswillget moreuseat it. It?snotgoodtojustlet itempty. Studentswillbestressed out ifthey don?tdoany exercise.Secondly,hesays 25dollars is notmuch, comparedtothemoneystudents spend onCDs and movies.Furthermore, it?sonechargeforawholeyear. Consideringthebenefits,this is not muchto pay.

4. Usetheexamplesfromthelecturetoexplaintheconceptofsocial learning. Social learningis away peoplelearnby watchingthebehaviorofothers. Ifthebehaviorleads to desirableresults,peoplewillimitateit.Ifthebehaviorleads to undesirableresult, peoplewillnotimitateit. Intheprofessor?s example, two kids, sister and brother areshopping withtheirmother. Ifthegirlwants atoyandaskshermothertobuyitforher. Butthemothersays no.Thenthegirl cries andscreams.Finallythemothergives inandbuysthegirlthetoy.Atthesametime, thelittle brotheris watchingall this. Next timeifhewants something, hewillcryandscream, which means heimitates thebehaviorsfromhis sister. Butifthemomdidn?tgivein,didn?tbuythegirlthetoy and didn?t letthegirlwatchTVprogram.Againtheboyiswatching. Next timeifhewants atoy, probably heisnotgonnacryandscream. Sincethebehaviordoesn?tleadtoadesirable consequence, theboy willnotimitatethebehavior. 5. Brieflysummarizetheproblemthespeakers arediscussing. Thenstatewhichsolution you wouldrecommend. Explainthereasonsforyourrecommendation. Thewoman?s gotascheduling problem. Thedaythewoman has beenassignedtoteachat the schoolintownwillbethesameday herChinesehistory coursemeets. Therearetwo possible solutions.Thefirstoneisto taketheChinesehistorycourseinanothersemester. Butthis courseis taughtbyavisiting professorwhois amazingandwillonlybehereonesemester. Anothersolutionis tochangeherteachingassignmenttoadifferentdaytoteach littlekids. Butshewants toteach old kids becausethat?s whatshewants todoaftergraduation. Iwouldrecommendthe womantotakethesecondsolution. Sincethevisiting professorwillonlybeherein onesemester andsheis planningto gotoChina, it?s importantto gripthisopportunity.Theremusthavesome otherways to gainexperienceofteaching oldkids buthavingaChinesehistorycoursetaughtbya Chineseprofessorisnotthateasy.

6. Usingtheexamplesofthealbatrossand fulmar, explain twospecialadaptations thathave developedto helpseabirdsfindfood. Theprofessortalks abouttwospecialadaptationsdevelopedto helpseabirds find food.Thefirst

adaptationis theLengthofwings.Usually,whenbirdsfly, they havetoflapwingsupand down and uses alotofenergy. Bualbatross, akindofseabird,has speciallylongwings thatenableitt

flywithoutmovingwingsupand down. Soitcan glideandfloatonthewind usinglittle energy. This is sobecausealbatrosshas tocoverhugeexpanseofoceantolocatefood.Another adaptation is acutesenseofsmell. Fulmar also has tofind foodscatteredintheoceananditsmainsourceof foodis tiny plankton. Fulmardevelops tinytubes insidenoseholeandthespecial tube-shape nostrilshelpthem to pickupthescentoffood. Plankton ishardtoseebut itgives sharp distinctive odor. So Fulmarcan findplanktonbysmellingthemeven fromfar away.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO20
1. Chooseaqualityyouthinkmakes someoneavaluablememberfateam.Explainwhyyouthinkitis

animportantqualityforateamorgroupmemberto have Ithinkavaluablememberofateamshouldbecooperative.Ifamemberis cooperative,heorshe willtakethegoaloftheteamasmaingoalnotthatofhis or herownas themaingoal.Soheorsheis willingtohelpotherteammembers,to talkwithothers, tosolveproblems withothers.OnceIattendedacomputer programgroup. Atthattimewehadfourmembersandonlyonedayleftbeforewehadtosubmittheprogram.Sowealldecidedtoga thertogetherandstayovernight, writingtheprogram,sharingideas,discussingandsolvingproblems.Thatwas the timeIfeltwewerelikeateam.


Somepeopleprefertolearnaboutcurrenteventsfromwatchingtelevision news programs.Others

prefertoreadaboutcurrenteventsinnewspaperoronthe Internet. Whichdoyouthinkis better:watchingthenews orreadingthenews? Explainwhy. Ipreferwatchingthenews toreadingthenewbecausewatchingthenews can providemewithmoredetails aboutwhathadhappened.Usuallyinthevideo,I canseethescene,seethepeopleandevenheartheirwords. Itseems asifI amin thescene.Besides,watchingthenews cangetmoreobjectiveinformation.Since thenews articlesinthenewspapershouldbeeditedorcensored, someimportant informationmaybeomitted.However,videos news bringmetothesceneand makemeoneofthewitnesses.Eventhough,somemightsayvideos canbe clipped,Ibelieveatthesamecensoringlevel,videoismoreobjectivethanwords.




heropinionandexplainthereasons shegives forholdingtheopinion. (题目并没有让我们总结阅读材料, 所以阅读内容可说可不说) Thegirldoesn?tagreewiththeuniversityontheplan.Firstly,shesays thatthe teachingbuildings aren?tjustusedforclasses.Theyarealsousedbyherevening studygroup. Thegroupholdmeetingsintheclassrooms.Nowthatit?s winterand cold,thestudygrouphas nowhereelsetogo.Secondly,shesays theuniversity shouldn?tdisruptthestudents? academicstudy.Therearemanyotherthings the universityshoulddo. Theuniversitycanreplacetheolddraftywindows thatare poorisolatedandalwaysletthecoldinclassrooms.Also, theoldbuildings arenot energyefficient.Soshethinks therearemanybasicimprovements theuniversitycandotomakedifferenceinthelong-

termandstillleavethemsomewhereto study.


Usingtheexamplegivenbytheprofessor, explainhowfranchisingworks.

Ifsomeoneopens astoreorrestaurant,heorshepays anestablishedcompanyto usethecompany?snameandsellthecompany?s products. This practiceis called franchising.Theprofessoruses anexampletoillustratethis practice.Inthe example,hewants toopenapizza restaurant.Hewants tobesuccessful,sohepays abigcompanythatowns achainofpizza restaurants calledpizzatowntouse thename,pizzatown.Sincepizzatownis alreadypopular,itwill surelysellwell. Sothenewrestaurantwillhavebetterchancetosucceed.Butinexchange, thenewrestaurantshouldfollowthepizzatown?s standardpractice,sellingpizzas likepizzatown?s pizza,makingstorelooklikepizzatown,andadvertisinglike pizzatown.Sothereis notmuchfreedom.Butthethingis theysellalotofpizza. 5. Briefly summarizethewoman?s

problem,thensatewhichsolutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthereasonsforyourrecommendation. Thewoman?s supervisor,ProfessorGreen,is goingtoFranceforasemester,butshestillneeds alotofhelpforherproject. ProfessorGreen?s suggestionis that professorBakercanhelpwoman.Butthewomandoesn?tknowprofessorBakerat allandprofessorBakeris specializedinanotherarea,sotheyarenotexactlythebestmatched.Anothersolutionis thatthewomancanhave ProfessorGreen?s advicelongdistance.ProfessorGreencanlookatthewoman?s datathrough emails.Buttherewillbenoonesupervisingthewoman?s experiment.Inmy opinion,Iwouldrecommendthewomantotakethefirstsuggestion.Evenif professorBaker?s expertiseis notthewoman?s studyarea,as agreatbiologist, professorBakeris stillabletoadvisethewomanandmaygivehernew perspectives. 6. Usingpoints andexamplesfromthetalk,describethetwodefensemechanisms

mentionedbytheprofessor. Theprofessorsays whenpeopleexperiencedifficultsituations,theymay feel helpless andhavepsychologicalpain.Inordertopsychologicallyprotect themselves theywillunconsciouslyusedefensemechanisms.Forexamplea womanhas apetdogforalongtime.Butonedaythedogruns away,shelooks everywhereandjustcan?tfindhim.Shefeelshelpless andsad.Thefirstdefense mechanismtodealwiththepainisfantasy.Shewilluseimaginationtoinventa happystoryinhermind.Inthestoryanicefamilyfoundthedogandfeedshim wellandthedogis playing,runningaround,havingfunsoshedoesn?thavetofeel sad.Anothermechanismis sublimation.Sublimationturns negativeemotionsinto somethinguseful,practical.Thewomanmaystartadogtrainingschooltoprevent otherpeopledogsfromrunningaway.Sobyusingsublimationshe redirects her negativefeelingintoapositive,constructiveactivity.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO21
1. Talkaboutanimportantnews eventthathappenedrecentlyinyour

country.Describetheeventandexplainwhyitwasimportant. Recently, therewas anews aboutalittlegirlrunoverbyavanandwithin7 minutes,18peoplewalkedbywithoutgivingahand.Finallyshewas savedbya scavenger.Thenewsis veryimportantbecauseitshows thatoursocietyis apathetic.Peoplearen?twillingtohelpothers andtheyfeartohelpothers. Thisis pathetic.Thisnews sparkedanawfullotofdiscussions onthe Internetand increasedthepublicawareness ofanissuethatwearegraduallylosingourvirtue. Ourvirtuehas beensappedbyourapathy.Whatshouldwedotosavethe societyandsaveourselves?


Doyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement: Yourfriends arethe

mostimportantinfluenceinyourlife.Usedetails andexamples toexplainyour opinion Iagreewiththestatementfriends arethemostimportantinfluenceinmylife. Firstly,Ilearnedhowtobesociablefromfriends.WhenIfirstenteredacompany, Iwas aloner.Ididn?tunderstandthebasicsocialrules.Oneofmyfriends,Lillian, gavemealotofadvice abouthowtobehaveinfrontoftheboss andwhattosayinfrontofcolleagues.Secondly,friends aremygoodlisteners.Manytimes Ifelt helpless andpainfulbecauseofsomefrustrations,Iwenttomyfriends.They would sitinfrontofme,listeningtomycomplaints orswearwords andthencomfortedme.Thesearethethings thatneithermyparentsorotherrelatives can giveme.


Thewomanexpresses heropinionabouttheuniversity?s plan.Briefly

summarizetheplan.Thensateheropinionabouttheplanandexplainthe reasons shegivesforholdingthatopinion. Theuniversityis planningtosenddailye-mailtoall students sothattheycangetinformationaboutcampus events andactivities everyday.Thewomanthinksit?sagreatidea.Firstofall,thewomanthinks theweeklynewspaperis notup-todate. She readsiteveryMonday,butshe?llforgetaconcertonThursdayorafilmon Wednesday.Shealsosays thattheemailcanserveas anremindersoifanyevent gets cancelled,peoplewillknowandwon?twastetimegoing.Secondofall,the womansays everyonechecks emailonceadayandiftheyincludecafeteriamenu intheemaileveryday,peopledefinitelywillreadit.

4. ofeffect.

Explainhowtheexamplefromthelectureillustratesthetechniqueof questioningawareness

Byaskingastudentaquestionthatdraws attentiontothenegativeeffectofthe student?s behavior,teachers canleadthestudenttodiscontinuethedisruptive behavior.Thisis calledquestioningawareness effect. Theprofessoroncetaught kids andhehada rulethatstudents shouldraisehands andwaittobecallednametoanswerquestions.Butsomekidshadtroublefollowingthis rule.ForexampleastudentnamedSarahdidn?traisehandtoanswerquestions,whichisfrustrating forotherkids.Oneday,whenshecalledout, theprofessoraskedheraquestion: “Sarah,Doyourealizedwhenyoucalledoutanswers withoutraisinghands,you arenotbeingfairtootherstudents.”Theprofessordidn?tstoptowaitforher answerbutcontinuedteachingtheclass.SohedrewSarah?s attentiontothe negativeeffectofherbehaviorbyaskingthis question.Afterthat,shedidn?tcall outanswer andstartedtoraiseherhandlikeeveryoneelse.


Briefly summarizetheproblemthespeakersarediscussing.Thenstatewhich

solutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthe reasonsforyourrecommendation. Thewomanhas beenrehearsingforaplay.Butthereis aguynamedBillwho can?trememberhislines.Thewomanisnotsurewhetherhewillbe readyforthe openingnight.Therearetwosolutions discussedintheconversation.Thefirstone is toreplacehimwithanotheractorwhocanplaythepart. Butthewomanworries thatremovingBillwillhurthisfeelings.Thesecondsolutionis tospendtimewith Bill,workwithhimtohelphimrememberlines.Butthewomanhas otherpartsof theproductiontotakecareof.Personally,Irecommendthewomantotrythe secondsolutionfirsttoseeifBillwillimproveunderherhelp.MaybeBill?s got some realproblems rememberingsomelines ormaybeheisjustnervous and forgetfulonthestage.Sofindproblemsfirstandthendecidewhethertoreplace himornot. 6. Usingpoints andexamplesfromthetalk,describetwochanges thatoccurred aftermachines

begantobeusedformanufacturinggoods. Thefirstchangeis thatthecenterofproductionmovedfromhomes tofactories. Taketheproductionofclockas anexample,traditionallypeoplehadmadeclocks byhandathome.Butwhensteam-poweredmachines wereinventedandusedto weaveclock, theclockproductionbecamemorequicklyandefficiently.Sothe makingofclocks shiftedfromhomemadebusiness tofactoryproduction. Anotherchangeis thatcities startedformingaroundfactories.Forexample,ifa clockfactorywas builtinasmallvillage,thefactorywouldhirealotofruralworkers. Sotheworkers startedtocongregate

inthevillage.As a result,thevillage gotbigger andbigger andeventuallygrewtoacity.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO22
1.Talkaboutonewayyourpersonalityhas changed sinceyouwereachild.Use examples anddetails toexplainyouranswer. Onwaymypersonalityhas changed sinceIwas achildis thatIbecamehonest.WhenIwas alittlekid,Ialwaysliedtomyparents becauseIdidn?twantthemtoknowthat Istolemoneyfromthem,didn?tdohomeworkwellandplayedvideogames outside. OnceIstolefiveyuanfrommymomandusedthemoneytoplayvideogames.Also,I waslateforschool.Onthatday,Iliedtomyteacherandmyparents.EvenifIwasn?t caughtbyanyone,Istillfeltguiltyoflying.Ifoundthatoneliemakesmanyandthat oncepeople realizedthatIhadliedtothem,theystartednottobelieveme.Ifeltsad aboutmyselfatthattime.Gradually,Istartedtoholdthebeliefthathonestyis thebest policy.

2.Doyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement.Childrenshouldbe required tolearnpractical skillsinschool,suchas cookingorpersonalfinance,inadditionto academicsubjects. Itotallyagreewiththestatement. Schoolisn?tjustaplaceforkids tolearnmath, physics orchemistry.Childrenneedtolearnsomepracticalandusefulskills.Like,if childrencanlearncookingatschool,theynotonlylearnthebasicsurvival skillbut alsoaskillthatcanhelpthembecomemoresociable.Inaparty,childrencancookfor friends.Athome, childrencancookforparents andrelatives.Also,ifchildrencan learnpersonalfinanceatschool,they?lllearnhowtobudgettheir allowanceand developagoodhabitofspendingmoney.Therefore,Ithinkchildrenshouldbe requiredtolearnpractical skills.




theplan.Thenstateheropinionabouttheplantheexplainthe reasons shegivesfor holdingthatopinion. Theuniversitydecides toletcurrentstudents leadthecampus tours forsecond-school students becausethestaffoftheadmissions officehavenotenoughtimeandthe currentstudents canofferanuniqueandvaluableinsighttothevisitors. Thewomanintheconversationthinksit?s agoodidea.Firstly,shewenttoadmissionoffice severaltimes.Everytimeshewentthere, thestaffwereverybusy,runningaround likecrazy,handlingtons ofpaperwork,doinginterviews andreceivingphonecalls. Secondly,shethinks currentstudents willbe reallygoodatthis.Unlikethestaff,currentstudents cananswerquestions concerningpracticalthings suchas whichdorm isnosier,whichdormis thequietestandwhichcafeteriais recommendable.Their pointofviewwillbeveryhelpful.

4.Explainhowtheexamplefromtheprofessor?slectureillustrateirrationalcommitment. Theirrationalcommitmentis atendencytocontinueaprojecteveniftheprojectis morelikelytofailthansucceed.This tendencycanbeespeciallystrongwhenpeople feelthatothers arejudgingthesuccess orfailureoftheirprojects.Intheprofessor?s personalexample,hewantedtobuyanoldhouse. Buthis wifesaiditwasinnogood conditionanddidn?twanttobuyit.Heconvincedhis wifetobuythehouseand decidedtofixthehousebeforetheylivein.However,houseturnedouttohavemany problems,theprofessorhadtospendhugeamountofmoneytofixthedamagedroof andelectricalproblems.Thenhis wife remindedhimofherearlierdoubts. Buthe becamemoredeterminedthanever.Eveniftheproblemofthehousegotworseand tookmoremoneytofix,hejustkeptgoing,becausehedidn?twanthis wifetothink hewas wrongfornotfollowingheradvice.Inotherwords, hedidn?twanthis wifeto judgehis success orfailure.

5.Briefly summarizetheproblemthespeakers arediscussing.Thenstatewhich solutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthe reasonsforyourrecommendation. Thewomanspiltsomesouponthe researchpapersheis goingtohandinintheclass. Therearetwopossiblesolutions discussed.Thefirstoneis tohandinthepaperlike this andexplaintotheprofessorwhathappened,sincethepapercanstillreadandwill dryout. Buttheprofessoris strictaboutthelookingofpaper.Thesecondsolutionistogotocomputerlabtoprintanewcopy.Butshewillhavet owaitinalineandso shewillprobablybelatefortheclass.Andtheprofessoris strictaboutlateness too. I wouldrecommendthegirltochoosethesecondsolutionbecauseshecanhaveanew copyofthepaperandevenifshewillbelatefortheclass,sheshows theprofessor thatshecares aboutthelookingofthepaperandthatbecauseoftheaccident, the latenessis somehowinevitable.

6.Usingtheexampleofthemole,explaintwodifferenttypes ofunderground adaptation. Theprofessortalks abouttwophysicaladaptations ofmoleforlivingunderground. Oneadaptationis usedtodealwiththechallengetomoveunderground.Moleshave widesuperstrongfrontfeetwithbigclaws thatallowmoles todigthroughthedirt andsotomovethroughthick,densesoilefficiently. Usingtheshovellikefrontfeet, themoleloosens upthesoilandthrowthedirtbehindasitmovesforward.Another adaptationis usedtoprotecttheirsensitiveparts ofbody.Moleshavedevelopedthe hairymembraneontheirtinyeyes.Thehairymembranecanpreventparticlesfrom goingintomoles?eyes,themostsensitiveparts.AndSowhenmoleis digging throughthedirt,dirtparticles willjustslidebyitseyes.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO23
1. Therecanbeseveraladvantages tospendingtimelivinginanothercountry.

Talkaboutoneadvantageandexplainhowlivinginanothercountryprovides that advantage.Usedetails andexamplesinyourresponse.Oneoftheadvantages tospendingtimelivinginanothercountryis tolearnanew perspective. Differentcountryhas differentcultures.Differentcultureviewsthings differently.Forexample,IoncelivedinUnitedState.AlmostallI experiencedtherearedifferentfrommyexperienceinmyhomecountry.College students intheUSearnlivingexpenses andtuitionfees bythemselves whilethose inmycountryrelyontheirparents.Theirwayoflivingis alsodifferentfromours.Theyusuallyliveoff-campus anddrivetoschool.Weliveoncampus andwalkto classroom.Theydon?talways eatincafeteriabecausefoodthereis alittle experience, whilewealways eatincafeteriabecausefoodthereis theleast expensive.Somanydifferentthings cometogethertohelpmeformanew perspectivetowardcollegelife. 2. Somepeopleenjoyspendingtheirfreetimealoneinactivities suchas reading, with



otherpeople.Whichdoyoupreferandwhy? Iprefertospendfreetimealonedoingactivitieslikereading,thinkingandwriting. Ivaluemyfreetimeverymuchbecausethat?s thetimeIcandowhateverIlike.I like readingandwriting.Byreadingbooks,somemasterpieces,IfeellikeIam talkingwiththosegreatauthors andmasters.I enjoygreatstories suchasRobinsonCrusoe,Boy?slifeandCatcherintheRye.Bywriting,Icantakedown themeaningfulmoments andthoughtsinmylife.Also,Icanwritemyownstories. EverytimeIworkoutastory,Ifeelgreatandeagertoletothers readit. Through readingandwriting,Icanbetterunderstandmylife.OnlybystayingalonecanI read,writeandthink.


Thewomanexpresses heropinionabouttheplanannouncedinthearticle.

Briefly summarizetheplan.Thenstateheropinionabouttheplanandexplainthe reasons shegivesforholdingthatopinion.Campus newspapereditors havemadethedecisiontoeliminatetheinternational news sectionbecauseothernewssources canprovidebetterinternationalnews coverage.Also, thespacewillbeusedas acalendarpagecoveringevents and activities aroundcampus.Thewomanthinksit?s the rightthingtodo. Herreason is thathardlyanyone reads theinternationalnews sectionandstudents already knowaboutthemajorstoriesfromlocalpaperandInternetbeforetheyreadthe section.Soshethinks thecampusnewspapershouldsticktothecampusnews. Hersecondreasonis

thatrightnowinformationiseverywhereoncampus,in differentbuildings orinthestudentcenter. Withthenewcalendar,students can cutitout,carryitaround,andknowwhat?s takingplaceandwhenandwhere.


Usingtheexamplefromthelecture,explainhowpeople?sbehavioris affected byreferencegroups.

Referencegroups aregroupsofpeopleweadmire.Wetendtoimitatetheir behavior andattitudes.Theprofessoruses his ownlifeexperiencetoillustratethis phenomenon.Whenheentereduniversity,hemadefriends withartstudents. The artstudents always dressedcasually.Theyworet-shirts,jeans and sneakers.The professorthoughttheywerecoolsohealsostartedwearingt-shirts,jeans and sneakers.Butaftergraduation,theprofessorgotajobinChicago.Whenhisco-workers andhegatheredforaconcertorabaseballgame,hefoundoutthat theyalldressedupalittlebit.Themanwouldwearanicepairofpants andthe womanwouldwearfashionabledress.Andhestartedtothinktheselookreallyclassyand sharpandbegantowearlikethem.Sohis referencegrouphas changed fromtheartstudentstohis co-workers. 5. Briefly summarizetheproblemthespeakersarediscussing.Thenstatewhich

solutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthe reasonsforyourrecommendation. Thebus schedulehas changed.Butthemanhas totakeabusfromcampus tohis jobintown.Becausethebus heusedtotake is goingtoleaveearlier,hecan?tget thereintime.Therearetwopossiblesolutions discussedintheconversation.The firstsolutionis totalktoboss andchangetheworkhourstolateatnightsothathe cancatchthelaterbus.Butifheworks lateatnight,hewillbetiredintheclass earlynextmorning.Thesecondsolutionis toridebiketowork. Itonlytakes15mins.Butthemanis worryingthatinbadweather, ridingbikewillbe inconvenient.IfIweretheman,Iwouldchoosethesecondsolution,sinceitonly takes 15mins togettowork. Also,hecangetexercisefromridingthebike.Plus, noteverydayhasbadweather.Eveniftheweatheris bad,hecanreadtheweather forecastand shiftworkhours aheadoftime. 6. Usingtheexamples oftheVenusflytrapandthesundew,describetwoways thatcarnivorous plants

gettheirnutrients. Inthelecture, theprofessortalks abouttwoways carnivorous plants capture insects.Thefirstwayis activetrap. For example,Venusflytraphas someparts thatcanmovetocatchthepreyIts leaves arehingedinthemiddleandthetwo partsoftheleaveslooklikeamouth.Alsoitsleaves havesweatnectaronthemtoattracttheinsects.Wheninsects areattractedbythenectarandlandontheleaves, theleaves spring shutandform littlecages.ThenVenusflytrapcandigestthe insects andgetnutrients.Thesecondwayis passivetrap. For example,the Sundewplanthas nomovingparts.Italsohas sweetnectaronits leaves.Butits leaves arefulloflittlehairs.Wheninsectslandontheleaves,hairs canproduce superstickygluesubstance.Sotheinsects getstuckontheleaves andthen Sundewplantcandigesttheinsects andabsorbnutrients.

新托福 TPO 口语参考答案——TPO24
1.Talkaboutapopulargatheringplaceinyourtownwherepeopleliketogo.Describetheplaceandexplain whypeopleenjoygoingthere.(2011.5.13; 2009.10.24) Inmytown, thepublicparkis thepopulargatheringplace.Thereareseveralreasons whyit?s popular.Thefirstreasonis thattheparkhas averybigsquarewheresenior citizens gonearlyeverydaytodosomephysicalexercise.Icanseethemeveryday afterdinner,theydancetogetherenergetically.Anotherreasonis thatthereis a beautifullakebesidethepark,andyoungpeople,especiallythosefromtheuniversity, liketositonthebank,enjoyingtheviewandhavingsometalk.Iftheweatherisfine, beautifulyounggirls andhandsomeboys canbeseensitsidebyside.

2.Doyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowingstatement?Students benefitmorefromclasses withalargenumberofstudents thantheydofrom smaller classesUsespecificexamples anddetails tosupportyouropinion Idon?tagreewiththis statement. Ibelievestudents benefitmorefromsmallclasses thanfromlargeclasses..Firstofall,therearemanystudentsinalargeclass andit?s usuallyinabiglecturehall.Teachers orlecturerswillalwaysfocus ontheirowntopic. Therearen?tas manyinteractionsinitasinasmallclass.Insmallclasses,studentsareallowedtomakediscussions.Also,student s cangetmoreattentionfromteachers andthushavemoreopportunities tovoicethemselves.Secondly,inalargeclass,if thereis apointastudentdoesn?tunderstand,he orshemightbeleftbehind,whilein asmallclass,teachers giveattentiontoeverystudent,sonoonewillbeleftbehind.

3.Thewomanexpressesheropinionaboutthestudent?s proposal.Stateheropinionandexplainthe reasons shegivesforholdingthatopinion. ThestudentproposestoclosetheCampus Coffeehousebecausestudents usually don?tuseitandthefoodinthecoffee houseis notgood.Thewomaninthe conversationdoesn?tliketheproposal.Shesays thegoodthingabouttheCoffee Houseis thatit?s nevercrowded. Soit?s agreatplacetostudy.Shealways reads a bookorworksonapaperinit.Sheevenprefersittothelibrary.Plus,students caneat whiletheystudythere.Shealsosays thatthoughthefoodwasn?tgreat,it?s alotbetter now.TheCoffeeHousehas gotanewmanager.Lastweekshewentthereandthefoodwas

delicious.Besides,thenewmanagerhas addedalotofreallyhealthyfood and snack.

4.Usingtheexampleofthemacawfromthelecture,explaintheconceptofaflagship species. Aflagshipspeciesis aparticularspecies thatrepresents athreatenedhabittothe generalpublic.Theprofessortakes Macawas anexampletoexplaintheconcept. Macawis abeautifulbirdandhas colorfulfeatures.Itlivesinthe rainforestandreliesonthetrees forfoodandnesting.Butthetrees havebeencutdown.Somacawanda lotofotheranimals areintrouble.Thepopulations ofanimals drasticallydeclined. Thenagroupofpeopleusedmacawtorepresentthethreatenedhabitat. Theyspread thewordabouthowmacawneededthehelpanddistributebooks withmacaw?s pictures totheschoolandothercommunityplaces.Afterthat, alotofpeoplestarted totakeactions andcontributemoneytohelpsetupaprotectedland,aspecialarea wherenoonecouldcutdownthetree. So, thenumberofmacawandotheranimals increase.

5.Briefly summarizetheproblemthespeakers arediscussing.Thenstatewhich solutionyouwouldrecommend.Explainthe reasonsforyourrecommendation. Thewomanjustmovedintoanewplacetolive.Buttheproblemis thatthenew doesn?thaveanInternetconnection.Shehas todoresearchandemailpeople everyday.Therearetwopossiblesolutions tothisproblem.Thefirstsolutionis tocall Internetcompanies toinstallInternet.Butit?s costly,thewomanhas topayforthe serviceeverymonth.Thesecondsolutionis tousethecomputercenteroncampus. The Internetthereisfree.Butthewomandoesn?thaveclasses oncampus everyday andthecomputercentercangetcrowdedsometimes.Iwouldrecommendthewoman totakethefirstsolution.Evenifinstallingthe Internetwillbecostly,it?s absolutely worthit.Sinceshehas todoresearchandemailpeopleeveryday,shemustneeda stableandhandyInternetconnection.After all,computercenteris oncampus andit maybecrowded. 6.Usingtheexamplesfromthelecture,discusstwotypes ofnarratorsthatanauthor offictionmightuse. Theprofessortalks abouttwotypes ofnarratorinfiction.Thefirsttypeis anobjective narrator. Anobjectivenarrator candescribewhatthecharacters doandsay.For example,ifamanandwomanis abouttotakeatrip, theonlyinformationwegetfromtheobjectivenarratoris whatthecharacters saytoeachotherandtheiractions suchas gettingonatrainandlookingoutthewindow.Itforces the readertofillinthe informationandtodecidewhattheconversationmightmean.Thesecondtypeis an omniscientnarrator. Anomniscientnarratorknows everythingaboutthecharacters.In theexampleabove,theomniscientnarratorknows notonlywhattheysayanddo,but alsowhattheyarethinking.Like,itmaytellus thatthemanis nervous becausehe hasn?tseenhisfriendinalongtimeandheis worriedaboutwhetherhis wifewilllike hisfriend.

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