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高考英语情景交际讲解(表格解析)超级详细!!


高考英语语法专题讲解(情景交际) (一)高考英语情景交际考点:交际最基本的要求是:委婉、有礼、得体、连贯、符合文化习惯。 一、问候:(介绍、告别) 在 日 常 交 谈 中 , 英 国 人 彼 此 见 面 常 常 喜 欢 以 “Good morning/afternoon/evening. 中西对 Hello/Hi.”打招呼;并且喜欢以谈论天气(Nice day, isn?t it

?) 作为交谈的开始;美国人见 比 面常常问身体等;而中国人却常问“吃过饭了吗?” a. 见面问候:Good morning/afternoon/evening. Hello/Hi. b. 代向某人问候:Best wishes/regards to...=give one's regards to sb = give one's best wishes to sb = give one's best love to sb = give one's best regards to sb. c. 替某人向……问好: say“Hi”/“Hello”to sb from sb = give one's regards to sb. Please remember me to.... 回答用语: ----I will. Thanks. d. How do you do? (初次见面通常用语) ---How do you do? 基本用 How are you? (比较熟悉的人之间用语) ---Fine, thank you, and you?/Very well, thank 语 you. How are you getting along with...? (你近来...可好?) --Every is fine! How are you doing? (您工作还顺利吧?) --- I'm just great! How is everything? (一切还好吧?) ---Very(quite)well,thank you! How is your vacation/holiday(s)/Christmas Day/weekend? (假期怎么样?) --- Not bad! What's up? (近来可忙?) ---Couldn't be better, thank you! What's going on? (近来可好?) --- Just so so. (一般; 还可以) 1. “Hello” 既可用于问候,有时也用于引起对方注意,打电话或叫人,多在熟人之间 使用,而“Hi”的用法比“Hello”更随便,口语中多见。 2. Hello! Hi! 和 是互相熟悉的人之间的招呼语, 比较随便, 一天中任何时候都可以用。 有时,后面还可加上对方的名字,以示亲热。Good evening! 一般用于晚上(通常是 九点以前). 需要注意的是, 不可用 Good day 来打招呼。 Good morning! 省略 good 时, 也可用来打招呼,但一般用于比较熟悉的人之间。 注意要 3. “How are you?” 则用于询问对方身体情况答语可根据实际情况,如:“Fine/ Very 点 well,thank you.” 注意: (very) good 不能用来表示身体健康. 假如身体确实不太舒 服并想让对方知道,不妨说 Not too well, I'm afraid. 4. 对于不认识的人,想要他/她停下的说法:Hey, Sir/ Madam! Just a moment, Sir/ Madam. 5. 与英美人见面寒暄时,不应问及他(她)的年龄、婚否、收入等个人隐私情况。 ★ 介绍 基本用 语 a. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms/Comrade.... May I introduce you to...? I?d like you to meet.... b. How do you do? Nice/Glad/Pleased to see/meet you. Nice meeting you… c. My name is.... I?m a(student/teacher, etc.). May I know your name? Margaret, can you introduce me to her? Let me introduce you to others. Meet my sister Cathy. Bill, this is Tom. Hi, I'm Susan, this is my calling card. “Nice to meet you.”与 “Nice to see you.” 有一点区别。前者的意思是初次见面(认识你 很高兴)被人介绍相识后的寒暄用语。后者与前者在意思上相同,但是用于熟人之间 (一段时间未见面后再次相遇)两者回答用语与问候语相同。 Nice to meet you.主要表示初次见面时的问候,而 Nice meeting you.则是初次见面分手 时的用语。 难点:“ Nice to meet you.??为初次见面时的礼貌用语; ”Nice meeting you.??为初次见面 后的告别语。
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注意要 点

★ 告别 中西对 比 客人要走, 中国人会极力留客; 留不住也会送客很远很远; 嘴里说: “慢走!”,客人要走, 英美人决不留客, 通常一句“Good-bye!”出门一概不理! 对于客人到访, 时常要表示感 谢: Thank you for coming. 1. 直接的告别话语有:Good bye! (Bye bye! Bye!) See you (tomorrow)! See you later! So long! Farewell! Good night. 2. 委婉的告别辞有: I'd like to say goodbye to everyone. I'm calling to say goodbye. I?m afraid I must be leaving/off now. I think it?s time for us to leave now. 3. 其他带有祝愿以及叮嘱等的告别辞有:I'll look forward to seeing you soon. Let's hope we?ll meet again. Hope to see you again. Drop in anytime you like. a. Good night./Night!只限于晚上告别或上床睡觉时使用。 b. Have a nice day!限于白天告别时用 (如早餐后家人互相道别)。 c. 告别前通常要说一两句客套话, I'm afraid I must be off (going) now. 长久告别时, 如: 还可同时表达希望今后多联系 (Keep/Get in touch),要对方保重身体 (Take care),问 候对方家人 (Please send my best wishes/regards to your family.)等。 d. 难点: “See you. ”道别时用语.同 Good-bye.但有别于 You see,“你知道”.如:You see , everything has two sides.而 Take care 也是道别是用语,但表示“多保重”

基本用 语

注意要 点

二、邀请(约会) 西方人在发出“邀请”前常有一个引子,尤其在客气的场合,如可先这样问一下对方是 否有空: Are you free this evening? 而 Would you like to...和 I'd like to invite you to...的句 式较为客气,带有商量、询问的口气,多用于不知对方能否接受邀请的场合。 a. 接受他人邀请时通常还要表示一下感谢。常用: Yes, I?d love to. Yes, it?s very kind/nice of you; Yes, with pleasure. b. 如果是稍有保留地接受,可这样说:I will if I can. 中西对 It's very kind of you to invite me, but I'm not sure if I can come. 比 c. 拒绝他人的邀请一般不直接说 No, 而要婉言谢绝(通常会说明理由) ,并要声明自 己是愿意接受“邀请”的,但因某种原因不能接受,并表示歉意或感谢。常用: I?d like to, but I?m too busy. / I?m sorry I can?t, but… I really enjoy it, but I?ve got to go now. I wish I could accept your invitation, but I?m afraid I don?t have time to go. Thank you for your kindness, but I?ve got an appointment at that time. a. Will/ Would/ Can/ Could you come to...? Would you like to… I'd like to invite you to...& b. Yes, I'd love/ be glad/ happy to(...). Yes, I'd like to. / I'll be glad to. Of course. I'll be 基本用 glad to. 语 Oh yes, thank you. Yes, it's very kind/nice of you. OK. Thank you very much. Yes, great. Sure, why not? Sure. That's a good idea. Yes, with pleasure. c. I'd love to, but.... I'm sorry, but I can't.
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★ 约会: a. Are you/Will you be free this afternoon/tomorrow? 基本用 How about tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening? Shall we meet at 4:30 at...? 语 b. Yes, that?s all right. Yes, I?ll be free then. c. No, I won?t be free then. But I?ll be free.... d. All right. See you then. 1.-- Are you free next Wednesday evening? I want to go to the cinema with you?-- Yes, I'd like to. 2.-- When shall we meet, today or tomorrow? -- I don't mind. Either time is OK. 交际例 3.-- Are you free later today? -- Sorry, I'm free every day except today. 句 4.-- Are you free this afternoon? -- Oh no. Will this evening be all right? 5.-- Would you like to join us? (喜欢和我们一起吗?) Shall we dance?(我们可以跳个 舞吗?) 三、感谢和应答: 1. 在英语文化中人们常常通过赞扬来鼓励某些合乎自己心意的行为, You did a good 像 job! Well done, everyone. You look nice. That's a beautiful shirt you're wearing. You are very clever. 而对他人的赞美,最普通、常用的答语是“Thank you.”而在中国的文化 中,人们面对夸奖,常说“您过奖了”、 “哪里,哪里。”(“Where, where?”)以表示 谦逊。 2. 英国人收到礼物时,通常都会当着送礼人的面打开礼物,同时会说一些喜欢或赞美 的话以表示谢意,送礼人此时常常附和说: “I'm glad you like it.” 而中国人往往说一 中西对比 些谦让的话“您太客气了。”“您这样做太破费了。”等。若用此表达方式对待英国人, 对方肯定会觉得你不喜欢或对他的礼物不屑一顾。 3. 在西方, 别人给你做事、帮忙,别人向你问候或祝贺,别人给你鼓励或赞扬时, 不 能直接说 No,而应该说 Thank you。 4. 当别人问你要不要喝茶或吃点什么东西时,你若要喝或吃应说 Yes, please,若你不 想吃或喝应说 No,thank you.或 No,thanks. 5. 没得到或不需要对方的帮助可以说:Thank you all/just the same. Thank you anyway。 a. Thank you (very much)./ Thanks (a lot)./ Many thanks. /Thanks for.... It's very kind of you to…. b. Not at all. / That's all right. / You're welcome. /That's OK. / It's a pleasure/ (It's) My pleasure。 Don't mention it. I'm glad you like it. It's really nothing at 基本用语 all. 感谢:Thank you. Thanks. It?s very kind /nice of you. 回答:Not at all. It?s/That?s all right . You?re welcome. It?s a pleasure . My pleasure .That?s OK. Don?t mention it. 难 点 : “My pleasure.?? 同 ”It?s a pleasure.?? 是 感 谢 应 答 语 译 作 “ 不 用 谢 ??; 而 ”With pleasure.??是请求应答语译作“乐意效劳,非常愿意?? ★ 祝愿、祝贺和应答:

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A. 对于他人的祝愿、祝贺,英美人表示感谢(Thanks)。 B. 和大家同庆同欢乐, 回答用: The same to you / You, too. C. I?m glad to hear that. 用于向对方主动告知的喜事表示祝贺或“附和”. D. 西方人喜欢收到礼物时当场打开并大加赞赏说: Wonderful! Beautiful! What a nice / / 中西对 present! / How nice a gift!并表示感谢! 比 E. 允许去玩乐说: Have a nice/good/pleasant/ wonderful time. / Have fun! 玩得开心点! 尽情去玩吧! F. 为人送行用: Have a good trip. / Have a pleasant journey. / Good luck with your trip! Good trip to you! Nice journey to you! 祝旅途愉快!祝一路顺风! 1. Best wishes to you! I wish you good health. Good luck and success to you! Wish you success! May you success/ succeed! 基本用 2. Merry Christmas! Happy birthday to you! / Happy New Year! 语 3. Congratulations (on…)! Well done! Good luck with…/ Good luck to you! 4. Enjoy your vacation! Enjoy your stay in China. 祝愿:Good luck! Enjoy yourself! Have fun! Congratulations. 应答:Thank you. The same to you . You, too. 注 意 要 难点: Well done!干得好,真棒!用以赞扬对方做得好。Congratulations!祝贺对方已取 点 得成功。 “Good luck ! 祝愿对方交好运, ?? 反语为: Bad luck!或 Just my luck! ”Have fun!??祝愿对方玩得开心,同 Enjoy yourself.

四、道歉、遗憾和应答(责备和抱怨; 提醒) 中国人喜欢反复强调自己的谦意,并喜欢用“非常抱歉”、“深表歉意”等表示程度 倾向的语句,而英美人士则不同,对于因客观原因而造成的过失或差错,不必主动工 过分向对方表示歉意。 如一定要向对方道歉, 说声 sorry 即可, 一般不用 very , terribly , 中西对 truly 等表示程度的词。因为在美国,过分的道歉或自责反而显得不太诚恳,令人感到 比 虚假或另有用心。 对于不能去做或已经发生的不幸的事情, 西方人表示遗憾说: What a pity/ shame! 表示同情说: I'm sorry to hear that. Bad luck! 1. (I'm)Sorry./ I'm sorry for/about…/ I'm sorry to do sth. / I'm sorry to have done sth… 2. Excuse/ Pardon me ( for… ) 3. Please forgive me for... (请原谅…) 4. sb. be afraid that… 5. What a pity/shame! / It's a pity that… A. It is not important. That's OK. That's all right. It's quite all right. Never mind. It doesn't matter (at all). Not at all. It's nothing. /That's nothing. (没关系) 基本用 Please don't worry. It's nothing to worry about. Not to worry. Don't mention it. 语 It doesn't really matter. Please think nothing of it. Let's forget it. / No harm done. B. That's not your fault. It's not your fault. It was me to blame. (这是我的错) It was all my fault to have done... (这都是我的错…) That's okay. Don't let it bother you. (没事,别想的太多了) We really didn't mean that at all. (我们真的没有那样的意思) Excuse me 通常用于下列情形:需要打断别人谈话或工作时;有求于他人时;因故 注意要 需要暂时离开时;就某事表示不同意见时;自己的言行将会影响他人时。 (即:说或做 点 可能令人不悦的事情之前使用以引起别人注意) 。注意: 打扰别人,意为“劳驾”;请求
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别人让路;向别人问路,打听消息,意为“对不起,请问…”。 回答时说:“Yes?”; Sorry 用于说话人做了错事或无意中与别人发生冲撞时于事后向他人表示歉意; 也 可表示因不能满足他人要求或请求而表示歉意。 “I beg your pardon.”用来表示听话人未能听清楚他人所说的话,而希望说话人重复 所说的话时的礼貌用法,“没听清话语, 而要麻烦再说一遍.”。 I?m sorry to hear it/ that. 则是对说话者本人或近亲属已经发生的不幸, 进行安慰。 道歉:What a pity/ shame . I?m sorry. 应答:It?s /That?s all right .It doesn?tmatter. Never mind . Forget it . That?s OK. 难点:“Forget it.?? 共有三种意义: ① 休想,不可能。You expect Tom to come earlier .Forget it, he always comes late. ② 没关系,别在意。I?m terribly sorry for having broken your mirror.Forget it . ③ 别提它了, 表不原重复所说之话。 What were you saying just now? I didn?t hear. Oh, nothing ,forget it. Get it .明白了 Make it.干成,做成. Take it.拿去吧。 ★ 责备和抱怨 西方人说话比较直率。对于别人的打扰,自己受到的不公平待遇会以“提醒”、“明确表 中西差 示”等方式说出来,但是不会不留面子。一般对责备与抱怨,人们通常的反应是表示抱 异 歉(I?m sorry)与愿意接受。 A. 英语中责备与抱怨的话通常有:What on earth is the matter here? (到底发生了什么 事?) I'm afraid I have a complaint to make about the service. (我对你们的服务有意 见。) You ought to be ashamed of what you've done on me. (你应为你对我所做的事感到 羞愧。) Why on earth did you say such a silly thing to me? (你对我说这种蠢话究竟是什 么意思?) You ought to be careful enough next time. (你下次再不能这样粗心了。) 基本用 It's no nice of you to behave like that. (你那样做太不像话。) 语 I am ashamed of you. 我为你感到羞耻。 You can't do that to me. 你不能这样对我。 Why can?t you do something about it? How dare you do that? 你怎幺敢这样做? Can't you see? 你难道没看见吗? What do you mean by doing so? 你那样做是什 幺意思? What on earth is the matter? 究竟发生了什幺事情? Why didn't you tell me the truth earlier? Didn't I tell you to be here on time? 难道我没叫你准时到这里吗? B. I?m sorry to have said that, but.... It's my fault,I am to blame. 这是我的过错, 我该 罚。 It's none of your business. 你不要多管闲事。 ★ 提醒: 基本用 Don?t forget to.... Don?t you remember the days when...? 语 Make sure that everything is OK now. I must remind you of… Be careful! 考点:Mind your step/ head! Wet floor!、Look out!、Be careful!、Don?t touch!、Take care! 难点:“Look out!??警告对方有危险,英语解释为 warn somebody they are in danger ."Take care ”警告对方做事要小心,英语解释为 warn somebody to do something carefully,还可作 道别时用语, 译为“请多保重??.与 look 相关的交际用语还有:Just have a look.随便看 看.Look what you ?ve done! 看看你干了些什么!
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五、禁止和警告 日常生活中, 人们经常会碰到“禁止”“警告”的场合, 如在博物馆里的 No Touch (请 勿触摸展品) ;影剧院里、公共汽车上的 No Smoking (不许抽烟) ;公园里座位旁边 的 Wet Paint (油漆未干) ;交通要道处的 No Parking (禁止停车)等。 在正式场合,提醒对方注意,语气一般较为婉转,如:Please be sure to come earlier tomorrow. 当对方处于危险状态而没有注意到时,你应该及时提出警告以防不测。如情况危 基本常 险,就用简短有力的祈使句。如:Take care! / Watch out! / Be careful! / Stop! 识 接受了别人的警告必须向对方表示感谢并简要说明理由, 甚至道歉。 禁止和警告通常是在一种紧急的语境中发出的,而且语言要简洁,因此祈使句是 常见的表达方式。禁止和警告这一功能有时相当于威胁,但口气强弱有所不同。 表示禁止时常用:You mustn't / You can't (不行) 。 表示警告时常用和:Take care. / Be careful! / Look out! / Mind out! 小心 Watch out! 当心! 等。 You can't / Mustn't do …… If you ……, you will …… You had better not do …. Don't smoke. No noise, please. No + doing… Be sure not to do… Look out!(紧急) / Take care!(提醒注意) / Be careful! Look out for…/ Be careful with… 基本用 Make sure you lock the door when you leave! Mind the wet paint! 语 Mind your own business! 别管闲事! Watch out where you are walking. No way. / OK,I will. / Sorry,I won't. 1.-- Don't climb that ladder! It's broken. -- OK. Thank you. 2.-- Look out! There's a car coming. -- Oh, thank you. 交际例 3.-- You mustn't play on the street. It's dangerous. -- No, we won't. 句 4.-- Don't touch the machine when it is working. -- No, I won't. Thank you. 5.-- You are not allowed to smoke here. -- Oh, I'm sorry.

六、请求、允许(提出帮助; 提出建议和忠告、 ): a. May/ Can/Could I...? I wonder if I could/ can.... Do you mind if I do..? /Would you mind if I did…? b. Yes/Sure/Certainly. Yes, (do) please. Of course (you may). Go ahead, please. (有 基本用语 请!) That's OK/all right. Not at all. With pleasure. 很乐意. c. I'm sorry you can't. I'm sorry, but.... You'd better not. All right./ OK.

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▲ 对 Would/Do you mind if…的回答。(首先要根据情况回答“是否介意”。如果真的介 意, 都要委婉拒绝。不介意的答语:No, of course not. / Certainly not. / No, go ahead. / Not at all. 介意的答语:I'm sorry you can't. / Sorry, but it's not allowed. /You'd better not. I would rather you didn't… / I'm afraid… ▲对 I wonder if I could/ can 的回答: 允许 Sure, go ahead./ Yes, please do. / Yes. Of course. Certainly. 不允许 I'm sorry, but…/ I'm afraid not./ No, please don't. / You'd better not. 1.-- Please let me help you. -- No, thanks. I can carry it. 2.-- Can I see your licence please? -- OK. 3.-- May I call you James? -- Of course, if you wish. 交际例句 4.-- Could I borrow a pen please? -- Of course. With pleasure. 5.-- Excuse me. May I use your dictionary? -- Yes, here you are. 6.-- May I ask you several questions? -- Yes, of course. 请求:May /Can /Could I…? Would /Do You mind…? 应答 肯 定 : Yes/Sure/Certainly.Yes,please.Of course( not) ,you may/can. Take your time. Yes ,help yourself .Go ahead, please .Not at all .That?s OK /all right .Not in the least .Not a bit. 否定:I?d rather you didn?t .You?d better not. I?m sorry you can?t. 难点:“Take it easy.??安慰对方不要生气、紧张不安,即 to tell someone to become less upset or angry; ”Take your time.??同 no hurry .安慰对方不要急,慢慢来,即 to do something slowly without hurrying; “Sure, go ahead .??当然可以,干吧、做吧、说吧等,即 to tell somebody they can do something ; ”Yes ,help yourself.??同意对方使用,让对方自己动手 注意要点 取,英语解释为 take something you want by yourself. Not in the least.一点也不.如 : --I hope you don?t mind my turning on the radio . --Not in the least. 请求和应答 请求:Can/Could/ Would you please…? 应答:No/ Less noise ,please .What for? 难点:与 what 相关的交际应语:“what for??? 相当于“why???表??为什么??,还可表示??为 何??,即 for what purpose ; “Guess what!?? ??你猜猜发生了什么事???用于说出令人感到惊 讶的事情前;而“What?s up ???表示“What?s happening ???译作:有啥事? “So what??? 表 示“是··又怎么样??;??那有什么了不起?? “与我有什么关系?? “What?s wrong??? 表焦虑; ·· ·· “What a shame!?? 表遗憾; “What is it??? 是什么; “What about…??? 表劝告或建议; “What a surprise !??表惊讶. ★ 提供(帮助等)和应答 1. 发现陌生人或不太熟悉的人有困难,一般用下列句子主动提供帮助。 Can I help you? / What can I do for you?/ Is there anything I can do for you? Do you want me to call you a doctor? / Let me carry the luggage for you. Would you like some coffee? 基本常识 2. 如果是熟悉的人或朋友,可直接问对方需要什么帮助。 Would you like me to get you a book? / Do you want me to call you a taxi? If you don't mind, I'll go and buy them for you. / Here, take my umbrella. 3. 不需要别人帮助时,还是得先表示谢意。Please don't worry. I can manage it myself. Please don't bother .Thank you all the same. No, thanks. 1. Can / Could / Shall I help you? 2. Would you like me to…? 基本用语 3. Do you want me to…? 4. Would you like some……?
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Thanks. That would be nice/fine. / That's very kind your help. /Thank you for your help. Yes, please. / Here, take this/my… (接受帮助) No, thanks/thank you. No, thanks/thank you. I can manage it myself. Thank you all the same. That's very kind of you, but… ★ 提出建议和忠告 以建议或者劝告的形式要某人做一件事,不同于直接命令,因为说话人只是提出 建议,而把做与不做的决定权留给听话人。 中西差 对于他人提出的建议和忠告,若认为可以接受,要表示赞赏或感谢。 异 对于他人提出的建议和忠告, 我们不能使用汉语式的表达“我同意”(I agree。 )因 为,英语中的 I agree(with you)一般用来表示“同意对方的观点、看法等”。 1. I advise you (not) to do … / you'd better (not) do … / I suggest that you (should) do … / Why not do … / Why don't you do …; How/ What about doing…/ Shall we…?/ Let?s… 2. Yes, I suppose so. / Yes, I certainly will. / Yes, but don't you think …? 基本用 That's great. Good idea. / That's a good idea. / Why not? 语 3. That's impossible, but thank you all the same.这不可能,但还是要谢谢你的。 It's not our fault. I'm afraid I can't do that. 这不是我的错,恐怕我作不了主。 I'm afraid I can't follow your advice. / I'm afraid not. 七、表达感情: A . Expressing anxiety (焦虑) 1. What's wrong? / What's the matter ( with you )? / Is there anything the matter? 2. Oh, what shall I / we do? 3. Oh, what shall I/we do? We were all anxious about.... B . Expressing surprise (惊奇) 1. Really? / / Is that so? (是真的吗?) Oh dear?/ My God! (哦, 我的天) 2. Good heavens! My Goodness! / Goodness! / Thank Goodness! ( “庆幸”自己没遭遇不 幸) 3. I can hardly believe my ears. 难点:Guess what!“你猜猜发生了什么事!”用于说出令人感到惊讶的事情前。What? 则表对方介绍一种情况,说话者觉得难以置信,希望对方重复部分内容。No wonder. 基本用 表因果,前一原因导致后来结果,译作“难怪,不足为奇??。How come ?“怎么会呢?” 语 表惊讶。如:How come you are still here ? I thought you had left. How?s that?询问对方是 否满意,译作“怎么样??? 如:Come up ! How?s that ? Can you see it clearer now ?还表 示”“那是怎么回事? 如:I,m sorry I can?t go with you . How?s that? Haven?t we fixed it? 考点:That?s nice /wonderful/great/lovely! How nice/wonderful! I?m glad/pleased /happy to… 难点:I?m glad to hear that.此句是考查热点,表高兴或喜悦。如:--I had a really good weekend at my uncle?s. --Oh, I?m glad to hear that. C. Expressing pleasure (喜悦) 1. I'm glad / pleased / happy to… 2. That's nice / wonderful / great. 3. Hopefully tomorrow will turn fine. 八、肯定与不肯定(同意和不同意、可能与不可能) 对某件事情的真实性是否肯定,是否有把握,在英语中常用 sure, certain, doubt 等 中西对 词或 may , might , must 等情态动词表达。may , might 具有试探性,must 表示一种逻 比 辑推断的必然。此外,为了增强客气的口吻,表示不肯定时可以伴随一些表示遗憾、 担忧或歉意的表达方式。
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基本用 语

注意要 点

a. I?m sure(of that). I?m sure(that)... It is certain that… (不能说 it is sure that…) b. I?m not sure(of that). I?m not sure whether/if.... I doubt if.... There is no doubt about it. I have no doubt about it 对此事我敢肯定。 Not a hope. 不可能。 No chance at all. 一点也不可能。 out of the question. 不可能 Yes, certainly. / No, certainly not. / Yes, it sure / certainly is. / No, it certainly isn't. ? 考点:Perhaps/Maybe. It?s hard to say . I have no idea . It depends. It?s up to you . No chance. Not as far as I know . That?s right. ? 难点:It depends.“视情况而定??,表目前尚不确定,待情况发展而定。I have no idea .” 不清楚、 不知道??, 表说话者对此事不曾知晓。 --Has Bob finished his homework? 如: --I have no idea . It?s up to you.“你看着办吧??,表说话者无所谓或无权作出决定,靠 对方自己作出决定。

★ 同意与不同意: 同意和不同意是肯定和否定的另一种形式,但表达的不是某个事实的正确与否,而 是对它的判断和意见。 中西文 西方人如果对一令人不愉快的意见表示同意时, 可能加上一些表示遗憾之类的词语 化对比 更为合适。 对某件事的真实性是否有把握,可以用委婉的语气进行推测。 a. 表同意: Certainly/Sure/Of course. No problem. Yes, please. Yes, I think so. That?s true. All right/OK. Good! / Excellent! / That's fine! What a good idea! That?s a good idea.... 基本用 It?s a good idea that.... I/We agree (with you). That's the right thing to do! 语 b. 不同意: No, I don?t think so. I?m afraid not. I?m afraid I (really) can?t agree with you. It's not very nice. I don't think that is a good idea. Do you think that is a good idea? Personally, I feel that it's unwise. What a terrible idea. What a terrible thing to do! c. No way! Exactly (说得对. 正是) 1.-- I think the shop is closed at this time of day. -- No, I think it's open. 2.-- I think foreign languages are more interesting than science. -- I really can't agree with you. I prefer science. 交际例 3.-- I think I shall read a book instead. 句 -- Good idea. That's much better than watching a bad TV Programme. 4.-- I think Chinese is more popular than any other subject. -- Maybe. But I prefer art. 5.-- Don't think in Chinese when you're speaking English. -- You are quite right. 同意:Certainly /Sure/Of course/Exactly .No problem.Yes ,please.Yes,I think so .All right OK.It?s a good idea.Sounds good. I couldn?t agree more .I will.With pleasure. Sure, go ahead. Yes, help yourself. I dare say, .I should think so. If you like, Why not? So it is. 不同意:No. I don?t think so.I?m afraid not. No way. Far from it. Forget it. No chance.?难点: 注意要 No way.没门儿:No chance.决不可能,即说话者确信某事不可能发生;I couldn?t agree 点 more .我非常赞成或我再同意不过了。比较级用于否定句中表最高级。又如:It can?t be better/worse. Far from it. 远不是,差得远呢,表远非达到某种程度,视具体语境,译 法灵活。如:Do you think he is a good worker ?Far from it. “I will.??表允诺、同意,译 作”我会的??。如:--Do you remember me to your wife ? --I will. I should think so.表强烈 赞成,译作“当然??.I should think not.与之相反译作”当然不??。如: --I?m not going out tonight. --I should think not, you?re always busy.
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★ 可能与不可能: a. He can/may.... It is possible that.... It is likely that.... b. He may not.... Sb. is not likely to do/ that …(不能说: sb is possible to do/ that…). c. It looks as if / though it might rain later. It appears to me that we?ll have to go on foot. d. We?ll probably do …. / I doubt if …. 基本用 e. That?s / It?s quite impossible / It?s very unlikely. That?s hardly possible. 语 That?ll never happen . / Probable not. f. Perhaps/Maybe. It's up to you. (由你决定) It depends. (看情况再 说) It's hard to say (难说). I can't decide. (我拿不定主意)。 九、征求或表达意见(预见、猜测和相信;意愿与希望) : 在表明自己对事物的判断时,好坏要明确,是非要分明。尤其在对方干得比较出 色时,要多加鼓励。如:Well done! Good job! Quite perfect! 等。 如果要陈述自己的某些观点时, 英语中一般要使用一些较委婉的短语, 如: my In opinion (依我看);As I see it (在我看来) ;So far as I know (据我所知) ;Personally 中西文 speaking (就我个人而言) 等。 化差异 在中国的文化背景里, 陈述自己的看法、观点之前,常常这样说:依本人之愚见、 我谈一点不太成熟的看法、 跟大家交换一点肤浅的认识、 我发言的目的是抛砖引玉等。 如果直译过去,西方人会大吃一惊,他们认为:既然是“未成熟的”、“肤浅的”,为何 不以后再谈, 现在不是没必要吗?既然是砖, 又何必要抛呢?因此。 在跨文化交际中, 切忌用词的过分谦虚或委婉。 1. What do you feel like doing? I feel like … 2. Personally, I?d rather (not) + 原形动词 / I?m ready to do 很乐意干…… 3. What would you like to do? I?d like to … 4. —What do you plan to do? —I?m planning to do…/ I want ( intend, wish, plan ) to do… 5. What is your opinion of…? =What do you think of…? = How do you like…? = How do you find…? 你觉得 ……怎么样? (用于询问对人或事物的喜欢程度、态度、看法等) 6. Yes, I quite agree with you about that. You are quite right here. I have no objection. There is no doubt about it. I think this one will do. I rather doubt that. (我非常怀 疑。) 基本用 I don't quite agree with you. I?m against it. (我不十分同意你的意见,我反对。) 语 That's where I disagree with you. My own view exactly. (这正好是我的观点。) I don't think it's very practical. (我不认为这很实际。) 7. I bet. 我敢断定。 It's hard to say. 这很难说。 I can't decide. 我拿不定主意。 ▲ 口语中,在上下文明确时,常用省略句表达自己的意见。如: 肯定: I believe so. 否定: I believe not./ I don?t believe so。 类似用法的词还有:suppose, think, fear, expect, imagine 等 注意对比:hear, hope, be afraid 否定形式只有:I fear not. I hope not. I?m afraid not. 没有: I don?t hope so.
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★ 预见、猜测和相信: 1. I guess that …… / I believe …… / It seems that …… / It seems to sb that ……/ It looks as if …… It looks as though …… 基本用 2. She must have done…… 当时她一定是…… / It certainly is. / I believe what you 语 said. Do you think I'd believe a story like that? / How is that possible? You're not serious, are you? You must be joking. /Don't be silly. / I think it's hard to believe. — Is that true? — Maybe, I'm not sure. — Will he come? — Perhaps not. — Can you play basketball with me now? — I'm afraid not. I'll have to finish my 交际例 homework first. 句 — May I borrow your bike?— Certainly. / Sure. — Can you dance? — I certainly can. / I sure can. ★ 意愿和希望 ◆ What would you like … 一般用于服务员询问客人想吃点什么,主人询问客人想吃点 基本常 什么,或在商店购物时,售货员询问顾客想要买什么。 识 ◆ What would you like to do? 表示询问对方想要做什么。 a. I?m going to.... I intend/mean/plan to.... I?d like to.... I (do not) want/hope to.... 基本用 I feel like doing (going out for a walk). I?m ready to.... I would rather not tell you. 语 b. I want/hope/wish to.... I wish that.... I would like to.... ? 考点:I hope so /not. I would rather not tell you .I believe so /not. I guess so/ not. 意愿预 ? 难点:I(don?t) guess/ believe/think /suppose so /not.但不可说 I don?t hope so. 见 十、职责:(求救) 在提示对方的职责中常用情态动词 must, should, need, have to, had better, ought to, don't have to 以及 be supposed to do, be necessary to do 等。 Please leave it alone. 请别理它 。 基本用 — Must I be present at the meeting at 7 o'clock? 我必须 7 点到会吗 ? 语 — No, you needn't . You may come at around eight. 不,不必要。你可以 8 点左右 来。 — Do I have to return the dictionary before Friday? 周五前我必须归还词典吗 ? — No, you don't have to . 不,没必要。 ★ 求救: 基本用 a. Help! Thief! b. What?s the matter? 语 十一、打电话 1 打电话人自我介绍:用英语打电话时,开头打招呼的第一句话通常是 Hello,然后便 自报姓名,再告知想与谁通话。Hello! (it?s) Mike (here). / Hello! This is Mike (speaking). 2 打电话人要某人接电话-: 需要证实对方的身份时, 不能说 Are you...?或 Who are you? 中西对 May/ Can/ Could I speak to Kate, please? /Is that Kate? /Is Kate in/ at home? /Who's 比 that? 3 本人接电话: Hello, 8244011. /Good morning. This is Kate (speaking). /Yes, speaking. a 接电话时,第一句招呼语可以是 Hello, 也可以视情况说 Good morning!紧接着再报 自己的电话号码或姓名,也可报单位名称。不打招呼,直接介绍自己,再问对方是谁
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基本用 语

打电话

也可以。 b 问对方是谁时可以这样说:Who's calling?/Who is that speaking? /Is that Mike speaking/calling? 4 代接电话人叫某人接电话时: 先对打电话的人说: Hold on please. / Just a minute please. 然后叫人接电话: You are wanted on the phone./ There's a call for you./For you. 1. Can/ Could/ Would you ring up/ call/ call up…? 2. The line's busy. I can't get through. I'll try again later. 3. Can I take a message (for you)? Will/ Would you give a message to…, please? 4. Can you ask … to ring me back, please? I'll ask … to call you back. 5. He/She isn't here right now. 考点:Is that… speaking? Hold on,please。 Just a minute,please. Hello,who is it /that 〈speaking〉?Hello ,this is …speaking。 There?s no Pippa here. Speaking. 难点: 熟练掌握打电话用语.指对方时用指示代词 that/it.指说话者本人时用指示代词 this. 打电话用语还有:Are you there?你还在接听吗?Suppose you ring me up.你给我打电话好 吗?等等.

十二、问时间和日期 (谈论天气) 1 . What day is ( it ) today? 2. What's the date today? / What date is it? 基本用 3. Excuse me, what time is it by your watch? 语 4. It's Monday/Tuesday… It's January 10th. 1.-- Hi, Mary. What time is it now? -- It's about three. 2.-- What day is it today? -- It's Wednesday. 3.-- Excuse me. Could you tell me what time the plane leaves? 交际例 --Certainly. It leaves at ten in the evening. 句 4.-- What's the time? My watch has stopped. -- Let me see. It's five to ten. 5.-- Excuse me. Have you got the time? -- Yes, it's six twenty. 6.-- Excuse me. Could you tell me the time? -- Oh sorry, I don't have my watch with me. ★ 谈论天气 (Talking about the weather) a. What?s the weather like today? How?s the weather in.../ today? 基本用 ---It?s rather warm/cold/hot...today, isn?t it? ---Yes, it is./ Yes, isn?t it? (注意答语) 语 b. It?s fine/cloudy/windy/rainy.... It?s getting cold/warm.... It?s a beautiful day today. 1.-- It's a fine day for a walk. -- Yes, the air is nice and clean. 2.-- Oh dear! It's very cold today. -- Yes, you need to wear warmer clothes. 3.-- What's the weather like today? -- It's fine. 交际示 4.-- What's the weather like in your country now? -- It's very hot. 范 5.-- Lovely weather, isn't it? -- Yes, isn't it? 6.-- I missed the weather report this morning. Did you hear it? -- Yes. It said partly cloudy today, with a strong wind from The northwest. 十三、语言困难(Language difficulties) 1. 没听清楚请求重复: Pardon?/ I beg your pardon?/ Sorry. Would you please say that again?/ Would you please say that more slowly? 基本用 Would you mind repeating that? What do you mean by…in Chinese? 语 2. 询问是否听清楚:Is that clear? / Have I made myself clear?/ Do you see what I mean? 3. 澄清错误: I?m sorry I?ve made a mistake. I?m sorry, I should have said… What I mean is… That?s not what I meant. I?ll try to explain that again.
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1.-- I don't quite follow you, Mr Green. Will you please say it again? -- OK. 2.-- Do you follow what I'm saying? -- Sorry, I can't follow you./ I didn?t quite catch you. 交际例 3.-- I beg your pardon. Will you say it again? -- All right. 句 4.-- Will you say it again more slowly? I can't follow you. -- OK. 5.-- Will you please repeat what you've just said? -- OK. I'll repeat what I have said. 6.-- I'm sorry, I don't understand French. Do you speak English? -- Yes, I do. 十四、身体健康与看医生 西方人听到自己的亲人、朋友或熟人等谈到有关身体健康的问题时,如:“I think I 中西对 have a bad cold.” 如果听话人与说话人是朋友或同事, 通常回答: “I'm sorry to hear that.” 比 或“You'd better see a doctor.” 但如果是说给医生,医生则不能用上述答话,而需用“Take it easy.”来回答。 医生用语: 1. What can I do for you? / What was the matter? / What's the trouble? 2. Does it hurt here? / It's nothing serious. / Let me examine you. / Take this medicine three times a day. / And I advise you not to do … 3. Drink plenty of water and have a good rest. / You'd better have a good rest. 4. Show me your tongue. / Stick out your tongue. / Did you cough much? / Fortunately, you only have the flu (流感) . / You'll have to be hospitalized (住院) . 5. How long have you been like this? / Well, let's see. Open your mouth and say “ah”. Keep warm and don't catch cold. / You'll be well soon. 基本用 病人用语 语 1. I've got a pain (cough, headache, toothache). / I don't feel well. / There's something wrong with…. / This place hurts. / I feel a great pain here. / I feel dizzy (头晕). / I don't feel like eating anything. / I have a sore throat (喉咙痛) and my chest hurts. / It started bothering me yesterday afternoon. / I feel hot and feverish. / I'm aching all over. / I've been losing sleep. / My whole body feels weak. / I've lost my voice. / My ears are ringing, and my cheeks burning. / I feel a pain in my left leg. 2. I took some medicine last night, but they didn't help. / Doctor, please give me an examination. / I've had my temperature taken. I indeed have a fever. I was hot and cold by turns. (忽冷忽热) 十五、问路 用英语问路、指路的方法。 Asking Directions: Can you tell me the way to…? How can I get to…? ★ Excuse me, Where is…? Where is the nearest…? 基本句 Which is the way to…? 型 Giving Directions: ★ Go straight ahead till you see… down this street till you get to… through the gate and you will find the entrance to… ★ about…yards/metres down this street. It's

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1. 一般先说 Excuse me:Where is the nearest station? Which is the way to the station? Can you tell me how I can get to the station? Could you tell me how to get tot the station? How far is it to the station? Could you tell me the way to the station? 等。 基本用 2. 常用的提供信息的用语有:Go along / down,Walk down / along this road / street… 语 Take the first / … turning on the left (right) Turn right / left at the first……crossing. Go on until you reach the end of the road. It's between A and B. It's in front of / behind / near to B You can't miss it. You can find it.等。 十六、Taking Meals (就餐) a.主问客: What would you like(to have)...? Would you like something(to eat/drink)? Would you like some more...? How about some more…? 基本用 b.主请客: Help yourself to some.... Let me give you… Make yourself at home. 语 c.答语: I'd like.... Cake/Two eggs..., please. Yes, please. Thank you. I've had enough. I'm full, thank you. Just a little, please. No, thanks. ★ Finding a table for dinner 找餐桌: A table for four, please. 请安排一张四人用餐的桌 子。 ★ Seating the diner 给就餐者安排座位. 1) Could you follow me, please? 2) You can sit where you like. ★Asking if the diner is ready to order 询问就餐者是否准备点菜了 1) Are you ready to order, sir? 2) Can / May I take your order now? 现在可以请您点 菜了吗? ★Asking what the diner would like to have 询问就餐者想吃什么 1) Do you want anything to start with? 开始先来点什么?And what to follow? 接下 来要什么? 2) Anything else? 别的还要什么? 3) And any vegetables? 要点些蔬菜吗?3) Anything to drink? ★Finding out what the restaurant has today 了解餐馆今天有什么菜肴 1) Could we see the menu, please? 请给我看看菜单好吗?2) Let's have a look at the menu first. 交际句 3) What do you have today for breakfast? 4) What's special for tonight? 今晚有什么特 型 色菜 ? ★Ordering a meal 点菜 1) All right. I'll order the same. /Same again please. 行, 我也点 同样的菜 。 2) And two coffees with cream after that, please . 那以后请来两杯加油咖啡。 3) Bring me two beers, please. 4)Get me some chicken salad , please . 请个我来点鸡 肉色拉。 5) I'd like to try the chicken, please. 6) Let us have seafood for a change. 我们来点海味 换换口味吧。 ★Asking how the diner would like something 询问就餐者对菜肴有什么要求 1) Do you like your tea strong or weak? 您喜欢茶浓点还是淡点? 2) How do you like your coffee? 你喜欢什么样的咖啡? 3) How would you like them prepared / done? 你喜欢怎么个做法 ? ★Expressing hospitality 表示殷勤款待 1) Another piece of fried steak? 再来一块炸牛排好吗?2) Do have some more, there's plenty left. 3) Eat a little fish, please. 4) Have some and I'm sure you'll like it.
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注意要 点

★Responding to hospitality 对殷勤款待的应答 1) All right, but only a small piece. 好的,不过只要一小块。2) I don't feel like any, thanks. 3) I am quite full. / I've had more than enough. / I've had too much already. / No, thanks. I just couldn't eat any more. / No, thanks. I don't drink any wine. / No, thanks. I' m getting full. ★Paying the bill 付帐 1) Can I have the bill, please? 请把帐单给我好吗? 2) Give me the bill, please. 请把帐单给我。 3) It's my treat this time. I'll pay. 今天我请客,我来付帐。 4) Let me pay this time. You can pay next time. 5) Let's go Dutch this time. 这次我们各付各的。 6) Waiter! The bill, please. 服务员,结帐。 Help yourself to some… I?m full, thank you. Just a littleplease .Yes, I?d like a drink .Yes ,sir ? 难点: “Yes,sir??? 是应答语,用于应答呼唤或表示在关注倾听对方,不必作出回答,可译 作语气词”哎??而“What???则表对方介绍一种情况,说话者觉得难已置信,希望对方重复部 分内容,译作”啥??.

十七、购物 1. What can I do for you? 2. May/Can I help you? 3. I want/I'd like… 4. How much is it? 5. That's too expensive, I'm afraid. 6. How many/much do you want? 7. What colour/size/kind do 基本用 you want? 语 8. What colour do you prefer, black or blue? 9. Would you mind if I try this one on? 10. How much is it worth? /How much do you charge? How much do you ask for it? /How much shall I pay for it? OK. I'll take it. (好. 我买) (三)交际用语中容易混淆的词语 “这是我的荣幸/不客气”,用于别人对你表示感谢时的回答。(=My It?s a/ my pleasure. pleasure.) 1 With pleasure. “我很乐意(帮你)”。表示同意对方的请求, 并且自己将付出行动。 Help yourself. Yes, please. Go ahead. Go on. Come on! Hurry up. Good luck. 3 Congratulations! Have fun! Best wishes, “自便!/ 自己来吧”。表示同意对方的请求,让对方行动。 “请!”表示允许对方做请求之事. “请…”。表示同意并鼓励对方去做请求之事. “继续(在进行做或谈论的事)! ” “来! ”“加油” ----鼓励对方来参与某事. “赶紧; 快点!”----催促对方快点行动. “祝你好运”,是当对方参加某项活动,如考试、比赛时,向对方表 的祝福语。 当对方做某事取得了成功或结婚、生子、晋升等时候的用语. “玩得开心点!”表示允许对方去“吃喝玩乐”。 一般用于信的结尾处表示对对方的祝愿。 (注: 当对方出外旅行时常说 Good/Nice trip to you!“祝你旅途愉快”)
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2

What?s (going) on? What?s for?

What?s up?

What if … So what? 4 What is ...like? How is ... like? What... look like? Of what? How come? Why not? What is it about? Never mind.

“怎么了? 这里发生什么事了?”/“有什么节目?上演什么电影?” (询 问情况) 。 表目的和用途,一般翻译成 “为了什么? 用来做什么; 干嘛?” why: 表原因, 一般都要用 because 来回答. “怎么了?”“有什么事吗?” What's up?口语中使用广泛, 如有人叫住你 或登门访问,而你不明白对方的来意时就可以说“what's up?” (有 什么事?有何贵干?) 年轻人也常用“what's up?”来打招呼。 比如, Olli 碰到一个朋友说“Hey, Olli!”Olli 则回答“Hi! Jason, What's up?”表 示“你最近怎么样啊/有什么事吗?” “= What will or would happen if...?如果(假如)...将会怎么样?” “那又怎么样的?” (表示出“无所谓”的样子) “情况怎样”, 多指天气或气候。 “像什么样, ”/ 什么模样, 怎样的” 指 人或物。” 就某人、某地和某物的外观询问对方的看法, 可以用来询问变化的 事物,如暂时的情况,情绪等, 还常用来问候别人的健康。 “…外表如何?” (问外表长相.) “怎么啦?怎么回事?” “怎么回事?怎么搞的?为什么?怎么会这样?”通常用在你觉得奇 怪而问为什么的时候。 当你不愿回答别人的某个问题时也可说“How come?”意思是“Why do you ask that? It's none of your business”。 “干吗不?/为什么不呢?”, 表示同意对方的建议. (注: Good idea: 用于赞同别人的计划或主意.) 这是关于什么的? (问内容) “没有关系, 不要记在心上” 。用于接答歉意.但用 Never mind.作答 时有时可表达说话人多少有点不高兴或无可奈何的意味。 1. 用于回答感谢,意为“不用谢;不客气”。 2. 用于回答带有感谢性质的客套话。 意为“没什么; 哪里哪里”。 如: A:You are very kind. 你真好。 B:Not at all. 没什么。 3. 用于回答道歉,意为“没关系”。 4. 用来表示否定(是 No 的加强说法),意为“一点也不:完全不”。 如: A:Are you busy? 你忙吗? B:Not at a11.一点不忙。 a.“不必在意”“算了吧,忘了吧” 用来接受别人做错事的道歉 b. “算了吧,想都别想.” 用来拒绝对方你认为不合理的请求、建议 等。 用于赞同对方的意见、建议或邀请,译为“好”、“行”,“可以”。 也可用于对别人的安慰,表示“没关系”、“不要紧”等意思 1. 对别人致谢的回答,“不用谢;别客气”。=That's OK. / Not at all. / You're welcome 等. 2. 对别人致歉时的回答,“没关系;不介意”, =It doesn't matter.或 Never mind. 3. 在海关、 哨卡等场所, 检验人员对出入人员的证件和包裹检查后, 发现无可疑情况,常说 That's all right, 其含义是“可以;没有问 题”。
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5

Not at all.

Forget it!

All right.

6 That?s all right.

That?s right. Take it easy. Take your time. 7 It?s up to you. It (all) depends. Bad luck! What a pity! 8

“正确;对”,用于表示对某一事物的肯定,即同意对方的观点或意 见。在口语中,可直接用 right 作答。 “慢点、放松些、沉住气, 别紧张, 慢慢来.”表示安慰对方“不要过度 紧张”。 “别着急,慢慢来”,表示允许对方“慢慢做, 不用着急啊”。 “你抓主意! 你决定! 你说了算!” “这要看情况而定” “真倒霉!真不走运!”用来同情或安慰对方。

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10 11 12

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“真遗憾!多可惜!”用来感慨“伤心遗憾的往事,或面对眼前可望而 不可及的事情”。 I?m sorry to hear that. “听到这消息,我很难过。”用来同情或安慰对方说话者。 “真的吗? 是吗?” 只是用来表示惊奇的情感色彩, 并无安慰对方的 Really?/ Is that so? 意思。 表示惊奇的还有: 感谢可用于得到别人的帮助、受到别人的赞赏、接受别人的礼物和 Thank you. 祝愿以及谢绝别人的好意等多种场合。 I?m glad you like it. 用来回答 “送礼后对方表示的感谢, 或吃饭后客人表示的感谢.” I?m glad to hear that. “听到这消息我很高兴。”用来向对方谈到的喜事表示祝贺. Do you really mean it? “此话当真?” I can?t believe it. “难以置信”; “我相信不是/ I believe not. Believe it or not. “信不信由你” 不会…” Of course not. “当然不…” I would rather not “我宁愿不…” “太好了,太棒了”,表“当你的朋友在某方面取得成功或成就时,向 That?s something. 他表祝贺”; That?s the case. “情况就是这样”.相当于 Exactly: “正是如此”. Mind your own business! “别管闲事!” (用来警告对方) It?s none of your “不关你事!” business. I?m easy. “随便!” 用来答感谢和道歉: —Thank you very much. —Don't mention it. 别 客气。 Don?t mention it. I'm sorry to have troubled you. — Don't mention it 没关系.=Think nothing of it)

(四)情景交际注意点 1. 忌上词下用 上词下用指的是答句部分延用了题干句子的重点词、信息词,按表层意思似乎合情合理,但往 往为错误的“虚 像”,需经进一步分析后才能确定正确选项。 —I wonder if I could use your telephone. —________. (1996 上海 27) A. I wonder how B. I don?t wonder C. Sorry, it?s out of order D. No wonder, here it is 2. 忌中文思维 掌握英汉两种语言和文化之间的相同和相异之处,对于准确解题至关重要。我们解题失误之一是 按汉语的表达方式和结构去套英语,去选答案.
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—Do you think it?s going to rain over the weekend? —_______________. A.I don?t believe B.I don?t believe it C.I believe not so D.I believe not 3. 忌直接回绝 这主要是指在对方要求得到帮助,提出请求或邀请时,回答过于直接,不够委婉,尽管从语义角 度分析是没毛 病的,但不符合英语国家的交际习惯。应该要注重礼貌和合作优先原则在作否定回答时,为了表 示礼貌和委婉, 通常要用一些委婉词,如 but, I?m afraid, I?m sorry, thanks, please, had better 等 4. 忌答非所问 a. 要掌握常用的功能意念会话项目,特别是一些口语式的固定搭配; b. 二、要理解对话交际场合和交际意图,理出答题思路 5. 要弄清言语含义 1)Do you think our basketballers played very well yesterday? — _________. A. They were not nervous at all B. They were still young C. They played naturallyD. They couldn?t have done better 2)I think you should phone Jenny and say sorry to her.— ______. It was her fault. A. No way B. Not possible C. No chance D. Not at all (五)分类考点讲解 考点 1 习惯应答类 许多情景对话中使用的是英美人的习惯用语。问候、告别、打电话、问路、看病、购物等常见 的交际话题均有其较为固定的套语;感谢、道歉、祝愿、请求亦有其固定的应答用语。对于这类题 目,我们要遵循他们的习惯进行回答。如: 1.常用于感谢的应答用语有:You are welcome./Don?t mention it./It is my pleasure(My pleasure)./Not at a11./That?s all right./I?m glad(happy)that…/I?m glad you like(enjoy)it. 2. 常用于道歉的应答用语有: Never mind. doesn?t matter. /It /Not at a11. /That?s all right. /That is nothing. 3.常见的祝愿和祝贺用语有:Good luck!/Best wishes to you./Have a nice time./Wish you a pleasant journey./Congratulations!/Merry Christmas!/Happy birthday to you.而应答用语有:Thank you./The same to you./You too. 4. 接受请求和邀请的应答用语有: With pleasure. be happy(glad)to. /I?d /Yes, help yourself. /No problem./Good idea/Sounds good/Why not?拒绝请求和邀请的应答用语有:Sorry,but…/I?d rather you…/Thank you,but…/No way!/Forget it。 5.其他场景习惯应答用语考生也应注意。问候的应答用语 有:How do you do./Fine,thank you.介绍的应答用语有:Very glad(pleased)to see you.接电 话的习惯用语有:This is Li Ming speaking.道别的习惯用语有:Bye./So long./See you later.服 务人员的应答用语有:Yes,Sir./Yes,Madame./Take your time. 考点 2 破交际定势类 汉语和英语在交际文化方面有许多共同之处, 但也存在诸多差异。 这些差异往往是考查的重中 之重。 我们要力求用英语思维, 避免母语交际定势的干扰, 要根据英语的文化交际习惯来应答。 如: 当中国人听到对方夸奖或赞美自己时,习惯上要说些表示谦虚的话;而英美人则不同,他们总是先 接受对方的夸奖,再表示谢意。如: 一 You?ve given us a wonderful Chinese dinner,Mrs.Wang.王太太,您给我们提供了一顿极好 的中式晚餐。 I?m glad you enjoyed it.我很高兴你们喜欢。 典例:——Thank you very much for the gifts you sent me. ——_________.
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A. No thanks B. I?m glad you like it C. Please don?t say so D. No, it?s not so good 解析:答案为 B。本题所提供的情景是一方收到对方送的礼物之后表示感谢,四个选项中只有 I'm glad you like it 符合西方人表达的习惯。而 A、C、D 三个选项均带有明显的汉语思维痕迹,极 易产生干扰。 考点 3 语言结构类 这类题要求考生根据对话情景和所掌握的正确语言结构来做出选择。以习惯用法和变异句(如 省略句)居多。如当说话人对刚刚提出的说法或意见持肯定态度时,可以说:Yes,I think(suppose, believe)SO. /Yes, I?m'afraid SO. 对刚刚提出的说法或意见持否定态度, 则说: I don?t think(suppose) No, so./No,I don?t believe so./No,I believe(suppose)not./No,I hope not./No,I am afraid not.“Do you mind…?”常用于表示请求对方允许。如果同意,则用“No,go ahead./No,of course not./No, not at a11.”等来回答;如果不同意,可用“I?m sorry I do.”来回答。 考点 4 情景用语类 根据不同的交际情景, 说话者会采用不同的交际用语来表达自己的态度和情感。 如表示不肯定 或没把握,人们会说:I am afraid that…/It depends.表示不耐烦和催促的用语有: Well,well./Come on./Hurry up!表示惊奇和有把握的用语有:No wonder…/No doubt…如: 一 What do you want to do next?We have half an hour until the basketball game.接下来你准备做 什么?在篮球赛之前我们还有半小时。 一 It?s up to you.Whatever you want to do is fine with me.这取决于你。你想做什么我都同意。

(六)分词讲解 A.回答感激/致歉 回答 thank you 1.It's a pleasure. 2.You are welcome. 3. My pleasure. 4. Don?t mention it 回答 thank you 和 sorry Not at all. OK. It?s nothing. problem. That?s all right. Forget it. That?s No 回答 sorry 1. It doesn?t matter. 2. Never mind.

B. Never mind 意为“没关系”?“不要紧”,常应用于下列场合: 1) 回答对方的致歉 —I?m sorry. I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food. —Never mind. You can have ours. 2) 回答对方的求助? —Sorry to trouble you. —Never mind. What can I do for you? 3) 安慰对方? —Did you watch the baseball match yesterday? —No, I missed it. By the time I got there, it had already finished. —Never mind. It was a boring match. 4)用来谢绝别人的提供,意为:不用啦;别费事啦。 —Can I help you with it? 要我帮你做这事吗? —Never mind. 别费心啦。 C. don’t mention it 1. 用来回答感谢或类似于感谢的句子,意为:不用谢;不客 气;不要这样说;哪里哪里。 A:Thank you very much. B:Don?t mention it. A: film was wonderful. Thank you for inviting me. The B: Don?t mention it. I?m glad you enjoyed it. 2. 用来回答道歉,意为:没关系。
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A:I apologize for what I said. B:Don?t mention it. D. Forget (about) it 1. 用来回答感谢,意为:算不了什么,不用谢了。 A:Thanks a lot. B:Forget it. 2. 用来回答道歉,意为:没关系 A:I?m sorry for what I said. B:Forget it! I don?t remember anyway. 3. 表示不想提及或无关紧要,意为:忘了它吧;别提了; 别放在心上 A:How much do I owe you? B:Forget it. 4. 表示不愿重复说过的话,意为:没什么;别提了。 A:Sorry, what did you say? B:Oh,forget it. 5. 表示否定,意为:不行; 休想; 不可能; 别抱什么希望。 A:I?ll take the small truck. B:And leave me to drive the other one? Forget it. E. not really 1. 表示轻微的否定,意为“不很”。 A:Do you want to come along?B:Not really. 2. 表示怀疑或不相信,意为“不会吧”“不见得”“不会是真的吧” A:They got married last month. B:Not really. 3. 表示语气很强的否定,意为“真的没有”“的确没有”。 A:Did you watch the news on TV last night? B:Not really. F. come on (1) 用来表示请求、鼓励、劝说等,意为:来吧;行啦。 Come on, Bill, you can tell me, I won?t tell anybody. (2) 用来催促别人快走(做),意为:快点。 Come on, it?s getting dark. Come on, Mr. Wang is waiting. (3) 表示责备或不耐烦,意为:得啦;行啦;够啦。 Come on, don?t sit there dreaming. Oh, Jane, come on, for goodness? sake. (4) 用于挑战或激怒对方,意为:来吧;好吧;试试吧。 Come on! I?m not afraid of you. (5) 用于体育竞赛等场合鼓励队员,意为:加油。 “Come on! Come on! ” shouted the audience again and again. (七)语特殊答语 1. No way. 没门, 决不可能 No problem. (回答请求) 没问题 No comment. 无可奉告 No wonder. 难 怪 2. Forget it 忘掉它吧,算了吧 Got it. 懂了,知道了 I mean it.我是认真的 That?s it.正是这样,这才 是要点 3. With pleasure.非常愿意(It?s ) my pleasure.不用谢 4. Not likely!不可能;不行 Not in the least.一点也不 Far from it.一点也不 Not really.不全是,不很; 不会吧 Not exactly!不很;不完全如此 5. Come on.催促,鼓励;算了吧,得了吧 6. Why not?好哇,干嘛不(同意建议)Help yourself.随便吃,自己拿,取 7. How come?怎么会呢?(惊讶)So what?那又怎样?What for?为了什么 What if? 如果。。将会 。 怎样? 8. It?s a deal.成交 It?s a bargain.便宜货 Let?s go Dutch. AA 制 It?s my treat.我请客
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9. I can?t agree more.完全同意 It depends.看情况,视…而定(It?s) up to you.由你决定 Absolutely.完全 可以 By all means.尽一切可能 Go ahead.开始吧,请吧 10. Take it easy.别急,别烦恼 Take your time.慢慢来 11. It?s nothing./Think nothing of it.没什么(回答感谢) 12. Never mind.不要紧,没关系;不用担心 It doesn?t matter.没关系,不生气,不介意 13. Me too.我也是 Me neither.我也不是 14. It?s a piece of cake.小菜一碟 15. Cheer up.振作些 16. Cheers./Drink to one?s health.(为健康)干杯 17. Better play it safe 慎重,别冒险 18. You can?t be serious! Are you kidding?开玩笑 19. Pardon me.对不起 20. Just in case.以防万一 21. Yes?我在这儿,有什么事? A : Waiter! B: Yes, sir?真的吗?是吗?(继续)说呀! A :Just then a heavy rain poured down.正在那时,忽然大雨倾盆。 B: Yes?是吗?(后来怎样了呢?)对不对?是不是?好不好?如:Let?s go out for a walk,Yes? 出去散步好不好? 22. So far so good.目前为止,一切都好 23. That?s not like him.那不像是他的风格 24. It?s better than nothing.总比什么都没有好 25. Good luck.祝你好运 Just my luck.真倒霉,真不走运 26. You bet!当然 27. Drop me a line.写信给我 28. I?ll keep my ears open.我会留意的 29. You?re the boss.听你的 30. If I were in your shoes.处在某人的位置;如果我是你的话

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