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英语:2010届高考复习名词性从句讲练学案


2010 届高考复习名词性从句讲练学案
在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Noun Clauses) 名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复 。 合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又 可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 一、主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 it 代替,而本身放在句 子末尾。 It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而 it 引导的强调句 则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词 that。被强调部分指人时也可用 who/whom。例如: It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. It is in the morning that the murder took place. It is John that broke the window. 用 it 作形式主语的结构 (1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … It is an honor that It is common knowledge that (2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that… It is strange that… (3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… It happened that… It appears that… (4) It + 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that… 据报道… 似乎… 碰巧… 似乎… 很自然… 奇怪的是… 事实是… …非常荣幸 …是常识

It has been proved that… It is said that… 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况: (1)if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。

已证实… 据说…

(2)It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week. That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said. (3)It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (4)It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not. Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter. (5)含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如: Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? Is that will rain in the evening likely? 4. what 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而 that 则不然。例如: 1) What you said yesterday is right. 2) That she is still alive is a consolation 二.宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如: I heard that be joined the army. (2) 由 what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如: She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me. (3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如: She told me that she would accept my invitation. 2. 作介词的宾语,例如: Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another.

3. 作形容词的宾语,例如: I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. 注意:that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语: anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的 that 从句的看作原 因状语从句。 4. it 可以作为形式宾语 it 不仅可以作为形式主语, 还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾, 特别是在带复合 宾语的句子中。 例如: We heard it that she would get married next month.

5. 后边不能直接跟 that 从句的动词 这类动词有 allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive 等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用 that 引导的宾语从句。如: I admire their winning the match. I admire that they won the match. 6. 不可用 that 从句作直接宾语的动词 有些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that 从句“结构中,常见的有 envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate 等。例如: He impressed the manager as an honest man. He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. 7. 否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等,其后的宾语从 句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。例如: I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 三. 表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。 可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。引导表语从句的 that 常可省略。另外,常用的还 有 the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如: 1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is why we can’t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

四. 同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由 that 引导,例如: 1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. 2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语) ,而同位语从句中的 that 是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从 句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如: 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。(第 ) 一个 that 引导的从句是定语从句,that 在从句中作宾语) 2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。(同位语从句,that 在句 ) 中不作任何成分)

自测题 He asked _____ for the violin. A. did I pay how much C. how much did I pay B. I paid how much D. how much I paid

2.They want to know _____do to help us. A. what can they C. how they can B. what they can D. how can they

3. _____ you have done might do harm to other people. A. That B. What C. Which D. This

4.These photographs will show you _____. A. what does our village look like

B. what our village looks like C. how does our village looks like D. how our village looks like 5. _____ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. A. Anyone C. Whoever B. The person D. Who

6.It made many countries angry _____ the NATO, without the permission from the UN, started a war in Yugoslavia because of the problem of Kosovo. A. when C. that B. because D. if

7.It is not _____that this situation will continue very long. A. alike C. likely B. like D. the like

8.Computers can only give out _____ has been stored in them by man. A. that C. what B. which D. everything

9.We all heard the news _____ the Chinese Women Volleyball Team had won the match. A. which C. in which B. that D. when

10.There is a police car in front of our neighbour’s house. What do you suppose_____? A. is happen C. would happen B. has happened D. did happen

11.Energy is _____ makes things work. A. what C. anything B. something D. that

12.This is just _____they are mistaken. A. when C. where B. what D. which

13.Why he fell ill suddenly was _____ he was caught in the rain yesterday. A. because B. since C. that D. only because

14.I don’t think the question of _____ they are old or young is important.

A. which B. whether

C. how D. why

15.I’ll make _____ to all that you were once a sailor. A. known C. then known 16. _____ was not our concern. A. No matter he might pass the examination B. Whether he passed the examination or not C. Though he might pass the examination D. He passed the examination 17.Do you believe _____ he will win? A. that C. if B. whether D. what B. knowing D. it known

18.I have no doubt _____ it is true. A. that C. if 19.I don’t think _____. A. that is true he’ll go there himself B. it true that he’ll go there himself C. that he will true go there himself D. this is true he’ll go there himself 20.Do you know _____ get three gold medals? A. how Tim could C. how was Tim able to B. how Tim was able to D. how could Tim B. whether D. what

21.They expressed the hope _____ they would come over to visit China again. A. which C. whether B. that D. for which

22.The reason why I didn’t finish my homework was _____ my schoolbag with all my textbooks in it. A. because I lost C. for I lost B. because of losing D. that I lost

23.The reason for his success is _____ he worked hard. A. why B. that

C. what

D. because

24.I wonder _____ with his study. A. what he is getting along B. that he is getting along C. if he is getting along D. how he is getting along 25. I’m thinking _____ I should do next. A. that C. of what B. what D. in what

26.We’ll never give in _____ they may do or say. A. although C. no matter how B. despite D. whatever

27.His grandfather was among the first to settle in _____ is now a famous place. A. what C. which B. it D. where

28.-What is Einstein’s most famous theory? -_____. A. We call the Theory of Relativity B. That we call the Theory of Relativity C. What we call the Theory of Relativity D. We call it the Theory of Relativity 29.There’s no doubt _____ your book will be well received. A. that C. when B. whether D. where

30.You can depend on _____ promise he makes. A. all C. whatever B. what D. which

31.The fact _____ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that C. why B. what D. which

32.The mountain is no longer _____ in used to be.

A. which C. as

B. that D. what

33.Jack said _____ to meet the American friends. A. which he pleased C. that he was pleased B. he is pleased D. what he was pleased

34.He was always thinking of _____ he could help others. A. that C. whom B. how D. which

35. _____ they are most interested in is _____ they can produce more and better cars. A. That, that C. What, how B. What, that D. That, whether

36.-Do you remember _____ he came? -Yes, I do. He came by car. A. when C. where B. how D. that

37. _____ colour printing was invented by the Chinese as early as the 10th century? A. Do you think that is true B. Do you think it true that C. Is that true D. Is that said 38.His suggestion _____to see the exhibition interests every one of us. A. that we go C. whether we should go 39.Have you any idea _____? A. how fast does light travel B. how does light travel fast C. how fast light travels D. light travels how fast 40.-What about seeing a film? -The point is _____we’ll have enough time. A. that B. if B. which we should go D. we went

C. whether

D. when

41.What a pity _____ is _____ you didn’t arrive by daylight. A. there ; because C. he ; when B. it ; that D. that; for

42.-I believe _____ you’ve done your best and _____things will improve. -Thank you. A. that ; 不填 C. what ; 不填 B.不填 ; 不填 D. 不填 ; that

43.Please give the book to _____ wins the first price. A. who C. whoever B. when D. whomever

44.The fire destroyed _____ was in the building. A. all C. that B. what D. which

45.The question came up at the meeting _____ we had not enough money to do the research. A. whether B. that C. when D. if

46. _____ Jean didn’t pass the last English exam was quite beyond everyone’s expectation. A. Why B. How C. Whether D. that

47. _____ is worth doing well. A. Whatever is worth doing at all B. That’s worth doing at all C. What’s worth doing it at all D. Whatever is worth doing it at all 48.-Do you know _____ it is from here to the railway station? -Yes. About 5 miles . A. what distance C. how long 49.-What is not yet decided so far? -_____. A. Cash crops will be produced next year B. If cash crops will be produced next year B. how far D. how distant

C. That cash crops will be produced next year D. What cash crops will be produced next year 50.Though _____ he said was of little help to me, I thanked him all the same. A. what C. that B. which D. who

参考答案 1-5 16-20 31-35 46-50 DBBBC BAABB ADCBC DABDA 6-10 21-25 36-40 CCCBB BDBDC BBACC 11-15 26-30 41-45 ACCBD DACAC BDCBB

强化练习 1.____he does has nothing to do with me. A. whatever = no matter what//anything that B. No matter what C. That D. If 2. The manager came over and asked the customer how____ A. did the quarrel came about C. had the quarrel come about 3. Energy is ____makes thing work. A. what B. something C. anything D. that B .the quarrel had come about D. had the quarrel come about

4. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as 5. This is ___the shenzhou V Spaceship landed. A. there B. in which C. where D. when

6. They have no idea//don’t know at all____. A. where he has gone C. which place has he gone B. where did he go D. where has he gone

7. The doctor did a lot to reduce the patient’s fear ____he would die of the disease. A. that B. which C. of which D. of that

8. The order came ___the soldiers ____the small village the next morning. A. that ;had to leave B. that; should leave

C. /; must leave

D. when; should leave

9. ___is no possibility ____Bob can win the first prize in the match. A. There; that B. It; that C. There; whether D. It; whether

10. The question came up at the meeting_____ we had enough money for our research. A. that B. which C. whether D. if

11. Is _____he said really true? A. that B. what C. why D. whether

12.____the meeting should last two days or three days doesn’t matter. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Where

13. It worried her a bit _____her hair was turning grey. A. while B. if C. that D. for It remains to be seen

14. _____more countries can use natural energy in the future remains to be seen. whether …. A. Whether B. This C. who D. If

15.____he will go to work in a mountain village surprises all of us. A. What B. That C. Whether D. If

16. ____you don’t like him is none of my business. A. What B. That C. Who D. How

17.____all the inventions have in common is ____they have succeeded. A. What; what B. That; that C. what; that D. That ; what

18. ____appeared to me that he enjoyed the food very much. A. What B. It C. All that D. That

19. It is widely ______that smoking can cause cancer. A. believed B. think C. say D. hoped

20. ____caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where

21. ____he always serves the people very well is known. A. What B. That C. Which D. Who

22.____has passed the test will get a prize . A. Whoever B. No mater who C. Whomever D. Who

23.Is____ true that the famous scientist will give us a lecture next week?

A that

B it

C his

D he

24.It has not been decided ___ they will leave for New York. A. when B why C that D what

25. Obviously___ we do morning exercises every day ___ us good. A. that do B. if; do C what; does D. that; dose

26 It is said____ ____ was all ___ he said. A that; that; that B what; what; what 27___ gets home first is to cook the supper. A. Who B Whom C. Those who D. Whoever C that; which; what D that; that; which

28___ moved us most was___ he liked after the old man for more than twenty years. A. That; that B. What; that C What; what D. That; what

29.___ you did it is not known to all. A. Who B. What C. How D. Which

30.___ you do should be well done. A How B. That C. Whatever D Why

31. The reason why I plan to go is___ she will be disappointed if I don’t. A. because B. that C. thanks to D. what

32. What time do you think__? A. will Tom come back C. is Tom coming back B. Tom will come back D. can Tom get here

33. The teacher said that light___ faster than sound. A. Has traveled B. traveled C. had traveled D. travels 34..___ is still a question___ will win. A. It; that B. It; who C. That; who D. This; that

35. If you know___ it was that wrote A Tale of Two Cities, raise your hand. A. whom B. which C. who D. that

It was Dickens that wrote …. Who was it that wrote 36. In some countries,___ are called “public schools” are not owned by the state. A. that B. which C. as D. what

37. Thinking___ you know___ in fact you don’t is a terrible mistake.

A. that; that

B. what; what

C. that; what

D. what that

38. Whether ways will be found to stop pollution or not is just___ worries the public. A. why B. which C. that D. what

39. Why don’t you bring___ to his attention that you are too busy to do it? A. that B. what C. that D. it

40.___ David says sounds right to Helen. That’s why she has made up her mind to leave with him___ happens. A. whatever; whatever C. No matter what; No matter what 41. That is___ I was born and grew up. A. There B. in which C. where D. the place B. No matter what; whatever D. Whatever; however

42.___ she was invited to the ball made her very happy. A. What B. That C. When D. Because

43.___ we are doing has never been done before. A. That B. What C. Which D. Whether

44.---Have you found your book yet? ---No, I’m not sure___ I could have left it. A. whether B. where C. when D. why

45. The doctor couldn’t answer the question___ the patient could survive that night. A. if B. that C. whether D. what

46. I firmly believe___ he said at the meeting was right. A. that B. which C. that what D. what that

47.---What were you trying to prove to the police? ---___ I was last night. A. That B. When C. Where D. What

48. I think, though I could be mistaken, __ he liked me. A. who B. which C. that D. what

49. At the meeting, we discussed___ we should employ more workers. A. if B. whether C. that D. /

50. After___ seemed like hours he came out with a bitter smile. A. which B. it C. what D. that

51.___ has a good education can apply for the job.

A. Who

B. Whoever C. Anyone

D. Whoever

52.___ is hard is to do good all one’s life and never do anything bad. A. He B. It C. That D. What

53.___ worries me is___ we’re going to pay for all this. A. It; that B. That; how C. What; how D. As; that 54.___ is said that paper was invented in China. A. As B. Which C. It D. That

55. Many people thought little of me, but I did what___. A. I thought I was right C. I thought was right B. I thought it was right D. I was thought right

56. The manager has decided to put___ he think is energetic, clever, and has good sense of duty in the position of the leadership of the company. A. those who B. anyone C. whomever D. whoever

57. Scientists believe native Americans arrived by crossing the land bridge that connected Siberia and___ more tan 10,000 years ago. A. this is Alaska B. Alaska is now Alaska C. is now Alaska D. what is now Alaska

58. Please tell me___ you would like to have your coffee--- black or white? A. what B. where C. which D. how

59. My mother asked___ with me. A. what was the wrong C. what matter was B. what the matter was D. what was the matter

60. Some of the scientists held the point___ the book said was right. A. what what B. what what C. that that D. that what

参考答案 1—5 ABABC 6—10 AABAC 11—15 BBCAB 16—20 BCBAA 21—25 BABAD 26—30 ADBCC 31—35 BBDBC 36—40 DCDDA 41—45 CBBBC 46—50 CCCBC 51—55 BDCCC 56—60 DDDDD


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