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高考英语语法重点归纳


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高考英语语法重点归纳

一、名词 【知识精讲】 名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词。 专有 表示某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如 Beijing,China 等 名词 可数 普通 名词 名词 不可数 名词 个体名词 集体名词 物质名词 抽象名词 表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun 表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family 表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air 表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work

一、 名词的数 在熟悉可数名词单数变复数规则的基础上,突出以下几点: 1. 以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词(多为学科名词), 如: physics, linguistics, mathematics, politics, statistics, news , the United States 2. 抽象名词表示具体或特定的事例时也可作可数名词,单数前面应有不定冠词。如: (1) pleasure, surprise, help, success, failure, danger, difficulty, wonder 等意为“...的人 / 物”。 如:The meeting is a success. (2) worry, honor, disaster, rain, snow, fog, wind, gas, fire, crop, coffee, tea, food 等不可数名词,指“一种”、“一 场”及“多种”、“多场”时,可以有其单、复数形式。如:There have been strong winds over the last two months. (3) a need, a discovery, a love, a good time, a collection of, a knowledge of, a history of, a population of, an area of, an understanding of 等已形成固定形式。如:He has a good practical knowledge of computer science. 3. 表示一类事物的总称的名词,不能加-s ,如: machinery, furniture, equipment, technology, luggage, baggage, homework, evidence 4. 一些名词单数和复数形式表达不同的意思,如: chicken 鸡肉 / chickens 小鸡; fish 鱼肉 / fishes( fish )各种鱼; paper 纸 / papers 试卷; water 水 / waters 水域, room 空间/ rooms 房间 5. 只有复数形式的名词,如: glasses (眼镜),trousers, clothes,scissors 等,注意加单位名词的用法:a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 6. 一些名词形式上虽是单数,但表示的是复数含义,如:

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people , police, cattle, staff, public, the +adj., the + 分词;(表示一类人) 7. 以复数形式出现,表达复数含义,如: belongings, surroundings, earnings, savings, shoes, socks, goods, thanks, congratulations, funds, pains, arms, troops 8. 集合名词看成一个整体时,谓语用单数,若侧重各个成员,则用复数,如: audience,class,couple,crowd,family,group,government,public ? ? The average family is a great deal smaller than it used to be. My family are going with me.

9. 单复数同形的名词,如: fish, deer, sheep, youth, Chinese, Japanese, means, species, crossroads, series, works, li(里), yuan(元), mu (亩)等 ? How many deer are there in Dafeng now?

10. 合成名词构成复数时,通常只将里面所含的主体名词变为复数,如果没有主体名词,则将最后一个部 分变为复数,如: sons-in-law, passers-by, story-tellers, breakfasts, housewives 11. 不规则名词的“数”,如: woman -women, child-children, ox -oxen, tooth -teeth, goose -geese, foot -feet, mouse -mice, phenomenon-phenomena, analysis-analyses, 12 .专有名词的“数”,如: 史密斯一家人 the Smiths 两个玛丽 two Marys 13. 非名词类词汇的“数”,如: 缩写,数字,字母的复数常用加?s 的方法来构成 three a?s; two but?s; in one?s twenties; in the 1980?s(1980s) ? ? Nothing is in good order but at sixes and sevens. 乱七八糟 You mightn?t as well use so many and?s in your conversation.

14. 注意以下名词为不可数名词: advice, baggage, change(零钱), equipment, furniture, fun ,hair, homework, information, luggage, money, news, progress, traffic. 二、 名词所有格 英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格, 1. 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加"'s",如:

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the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。 2. 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。 3. 复合名词和短语的所有格在最后的词后面加's, 如: her brother-in-law's bike, someone else's keys a day or two's rest 4. 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。 John's and Mary's rooms(两间) John and Mary's room(一间)

5. 在表示店铺或教堂,诊所的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常省略它所修饰的名词,如:在诊所 at the doctor?s 在我姐家 at my sister's 6. 双重所有格,of +名词's 结构表示全体中的一部分,如:a friend of my father's , works of Lu Xun's 注意:当 of 之前的名词是 picture, portrait 等词时含义不同 ? ? This is a picture of my friend's. 这是我朋友收藏的一幅画 This is a picture of my friend. 这是我朋友的一张照片

三. 名词作定语 1. 一般用单数形式,如: a stone bridge, a meeting room, morning exercises, a shoe shop 2. 个别名词用复数作定语,sports, sales, clothes, goods, arts, customs 等,如: sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室 a goods train 货车 talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系 customs house 海关 3. man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。如: a woman teacher, men workers, women teachers, gentlemen officials 4. 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。如: two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路

two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

二、冠 词 【知识精讲】 一、不定冠词(a/an) 1. 泛指某一类人或事物,相当于 any。 A square has four sides.

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2. 用于某些物质名词前。 a coffee 一杯咖啡; a tea 一杯茶;a heavy rain 一场大雨; a strong wind 一种强烈的信念 3. 用于专有名词前表示某一个。 a Mr. Green ; 一位格林先生 a Mary; a Shakespeare of China 中国的莎士比亚 4. 用于某些固定结构中。 once upon a time , have a rest , take a bath , in a hurry , all of a sudden , as a matter of fact , It?s a pity that… . 5. 用于双重修饰结构中:so / as / that / too / how + adj. + a / an + n. 。 He is so good a teacher that all of us like him. 6. 冠词放在 quite, many, such, what 等词之后。 It is such an unusual work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. 7. 用在事物的“单位”前,如价格、速度、比率的名词前,表示“每一”。 Take this medicine three times a day. 8. 用于同源宾语中: die a … death ; dream a … dream ; fight a …fight ; sleep a … sleep; live/lead a … life; smile a …smile 二、定冠词(the) 1. 特指某人或物,用于区别同类中的其他人或事物。如: Is this the book you are looking for? 2. 特指世界上独一无二的事物或自然现象。但 space 表示“太空”,nature 表示“大自然”,均不能与冠词连 用;但具体的天体前通常加定冠词。如: the stars,the moon,the sun,the universe 等。 3. 双方都知道或者在文中第二次提及的人或事物。 We are living a happy life. The life we are living is happy. 4. 用于表示方位的名词前。 the east, the left, the south 5. 用于序数词或形容词的最高级之前,以及对两人或事物进行对比时起特定作用的比较级前。 the tallestboy He is the taller of the two brothers. 6. in + the + 数词复数式。如:in the early 1920s 7. the + 比较级 + …, the + 比较级 + …:; 越…; 就越… 。如:

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The harder you study English, the more progress you will make. 8. the +姓氏复数:如 the Greens, 格林一家 9. the + adj.; the + 分词。如:the rich 富人; the living 生者; the sick 病人; the unemployed 失业者; the ugly 丑的东西 10.by the + 单位名词。如 by the hour,按小时计 11.v. + sb. + prep. + the +人体各部位。如: A stone hit John on the head. 12.play + the + 乐器名称。如:play the piano.弹钢琴. 13.用在惯用语中。例如: in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday, in the dark, the next morning, in the sky (water,field,country) in the middle (of), in the end,

in the rain, in the distance,

on the whole, by the way, 三、零冠词:

go to the theatre

1. 零冠词的基本用法:一般性的泛指,甚至表抽象意义。 2. 复数可数名词、不可数名词前不用冠词,表示泛指; 如:Horses are useful animals. (思考: A horse is useful. / The horse is a useful animal) 3. 称呼语或表示头衔的名词前不用冠词; ? ? We made him president of USA. Who?s this, Mother?

4. 球类运动、棋类运动和“三餐”前不用冠词; 如:Have you had supper? 5. 表示季节、月份,星期或含 day 表节日的名词前不用冠词; 如:March, Christmas, Women?s Day … (但是:the Spring Festival ……) 6. 前面已经有人称代词、指示代词或不定代词作定语的名词前不用冠词; 如:his book; that cat; any people…… 7. 在交通工具、学科名称的名词前不加冠词。如: by car, by bus, by bike, by train, on foot ,Chinese, English literature 8. 某些习语,固定短语或固定结构中不用冠词。 ? husband and wife, knife and fork, face to face, side by side ……

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? ? ?

to church, at home, at night, at school, go to school, in hospital, at table …… Child as he is, he knows a lot of English. At last, she turned doctor. (但是:She became a doctor.)

三、代词

代词是用来指代人或事物的词。代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词\ 疑问代词、不定代词、连接代词、关系代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。连接代词和关系代词 本章不做将讲解,参见其它章节。 一人称代词 人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。 数 人 第一人称 第二人称 格 称 主格 I you he 第三人称 she it 宾格 me you him they her it them 主格 we you 宾格 us you 单数 复数

(1).人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下 4 中情况: ①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中,或在这种句子中与动词不定式连用,常用宾 格。 ●—Does any of you know where Tom lives? —Me. ●What! Me (to)play him at chess? No! ②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数和格在意义上一般要保持前后一致。 ●The thief was thought to be he.(the thief 是主格,故用 he 代替) ●They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。(me 是宾格,故用 her 替代) ③在比较级的句子中 than、as 后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me(I).但在下列句中有区别。 ●I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her. ●I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him, too. (2).两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则为:

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①在并列主语中,“I”总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 三 一(人称)。宾格 me 也一样。 ●You ,she and I will be in charge of the case. ②第三人称,男女两性并用,男先女后。 ●He and she still don?t agree to the plan. (3)几个人称代词的特殊用法。 ①we/you(口语)常用来泛指一般人。 ②she 可以代表国家、船只、大地、月亮等。 ●The “Titanic”was the largest, wasn?t she? 二.物主代词 表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性 类 别 数 人 称 第一人称 第二人称 单数 第三人称 my your his her its 第一人称 复数 第二人称 第三人称 our your their mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs 形容词性物主代词 名词性物主代词

?.形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语。例如:用作主语、宾语和表语。 ● Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语) ● I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作宾语) 三.反身代词 ?反身代词可以作主语、宾语、表语或宾语的同位语。 ?反身代词和某些动词连用,构成固定短语。 enjoy oneself, feel oneself, make oneself at home, help oneself to ?反身代词还可用于某些成语中。 for oneself 为自己或独立地,of oneself 自然地,自动地 by oneself 独自地,in oneself 本身性质。

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四.相互代词(each other, one another) 相互代词无人称、数和格的区别,在句中作宾语。其所有格分别为 each other?s 、one another?s ,作定语。 一般来说,each other 指两者之间,one another 指三者或三者以上之间,但现在区分已不明显。 五.指示代词(this, that , these, those, such, same) 指示代词具有形容词和代词两种词性,在句子中可以作主语、宾语、定语或表语等。 ?.指示代词 this 和 that 的区别。 ①this (these)一般指时间或空间上较近的人或物;that(those)常指时间或空间较远的人或物。 ● This is my desk and that is yours. ● In those days they could not go to school. ②this 常指后面要讲到的事物,有启下的作用;that 则指前面讲到过的事物,有承上的作用。 ● I want to tell you this:the English party will be held on Saturday afternoon. ● He hurt his leg yesterday. That?s why he didn?t come. ③this 在电话用语中作自我介绍,that 询问对方;this 和 that 可以当副词用,意思相当于副词 so。 ● You have changed that much. ?.such 和 same 的用法。 ①such 指“这样的”人或事,在句中作主语或定语。 ● Such was the story. ● We have never seen such a tall building. ②same 指“同样的”人或事,其前面要用定冠词 the,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语. ● The same can be said of the other article. 另一篇文章也是同样的情况。(主语) ● Whether he can do it or not,it is all the same to me. 他是否能做这事,对我来说都一样。(表语) 六.疑问代词(who,whom,which,what,whose) ?.疑问代词在句中作主语、宾语、定语和表语。 who was her husband? (主语) What do you want? (作宾语) ?.which 与 who、what which 表示在一定范围内,而 who、what 则无此限制。 ● I found two books on the desk.Which is yours? ?.注意下列疑问词的使用与汉语的差别。

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What?s the

Population… ? 人口是多少? Distance…? 距离是多少? Price…? 价格是多少? Address…? 住在哪里? Attitude…? 态度怎样?

七 .不定代词 不定代词主要有:all、each、every、both、either、neither、one、none、little、few、many、much、other、 another、some、any、no 等。还有由 some、any、no 和 every 构成合成代词,不定代词具有名词和形容词 的性质,并有可数和不可数之分,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、同位语、定语、状语等,但 every、 no 只能作定语。下面介绍几组主要不定代词的用法与区别。 ?.some 与 any 一般用法:some、any 可与可数名词单数、复数及不可数名词连用。some 一般用于肯定句,any 多用于疑 问句、否定句或条件句。 ● He has some Chinese paintings.(定语) ● Some like sports,while others like music.(主语) ● Ask me if you have any questions.(定语) ● I don?t know any of the students.(宾语) 特殊用法: ①any 用于肯定句表示“任何”的意思。 ● Any child can do that.(定语) ● You may take any of them.(宾语) ②some 用于单数可数名词前表示“某一”。 ● Smith went to some place in England.(定语) ③在期待对方回答 yes 时,some 用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。 ● Would you like some bananas?(邀请) ● Mum,could you give me some money?(请求) ④some 用于否定句表示部分否定。 ● I don?t know some of the students.(宾语) some 和 any 在句中还可作状语,作副词。some 意为“大约”相当于“about”,而 any 可修饰比较级,常用于否

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定句或疑问句中,表示程度,意为“稍,丝毫”。如: ● There are some 300 workers on strike. ● Do you feel any better today? ?.one,both,all ①one 作主语、宾语、表语或定语,可以指人或物,表示“一个”的意思,其复数为 ones,指人时,其所有格 是 one?s,反身代词是 oneself. ● One should try one?s best to serve the people.(主语、定语) ● This is not the one I want.(表语) ②both 用作主语、宾语、定语和同位语,可以指人或指物,表示“两者都”的意思。 ● This maths problem can be worked out in both ways.(定语) ● Both of the boys are here.(主语) ● We both are students.(同位语) 注意: a.both 用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否定时,用 neither。如:Both of us are not teachers.我们俩并 不都是教师。 ● Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。 b.both 不能放在 the、these、those、my 等之后,而应放在它们的前面。如:Both my parents like this film. Both the /these boys are tall. ③all 用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语,指“全部的”、“整个的”,可与可数或不可数名词连用,除少 数情况外,一般不与单数可数名词连用,与名词复数连用时,表示“所有的”、“全部的”,指三个或三个以 上的人或物。 ● All the schools are flooded.所有的学校都被淹了。 ● I told him all about it. 我把一切都告诉了他。 ● That?s all for today.今天就在这儿。 ● They have all been to Xi?an.他们都去过西安。 注意:all 用于否定句,表示部分否定,完全否定用 none。如: ● Not all the ants go out for food.(or:All the ants don?t go out for food.)并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。 ● None of the money is mine.这钱一分也不是我的。 ?.none 和 nothing,no one no one 单独使用,只指人,没有限定的范围,不能与 of 连用,常用来回答 who 的提问; Nothing 单独使用,用于指物,没有限定的范围,不能与 of 连用,常用来回答 what 的提问;

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None 强调数量,既可以指人又可以指物,有限定的范围,能与 of 连用,常用来回答 how much、how many 的提问。当上下文中含有“many,much,some,any”等表数量概念的词时常用 none。 ● None of us will belive in such a person.我们没有人会相信这样一个人。 ● He has many friends,but none can really help him when he is in trouble.他有很多朋友,但是当他处于困境中 的时候,没有一个朋友能真正帮助他。 ● ---Who told you the news?谁告诉你这消息的? ---No one.I read it on the newspaper.没有人告诉我。我在报纸上读的。 ?.each 和 every each(各个),指两个或两个以上的人或物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。every(每 个) , 指三个或三个以上的人或物, 侧重整体, 在句中只能作定语。 另外, every 可用于[ every other (或 every +数词 ) + 名词 ]的结构中,表示"每隔……"之意思: every other day 每隔一天 every three years 每隔三年 every third year 每隔三年 every other line 每隔一行 every ten miles 每隔十哩 ● Every student it our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”) ● Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体) ● Each of them has been there.(主语) ● The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook.(宾语) ● We each got a ticket.(同位语) ?.either 和 neither either 是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修饰或代替单数可数名词,neither 是“两者中没有一个”的意思,可以 修饰或代替单数可数名词,它们可在句在作主语、宾语或定语。如: ● Here are two pens. You may take either of them.(宾语) ● Neither boy knows French.(定语) ● The little girl can write with either hand. 小姑娘哪只手写字都行。(作定语) ● ——Would you prefer tea or coffee,sir? 先生,你喝茶还是咖啡? ● ——Oh,I don?t mind. Either will do. 噢,无所谓。随便哪一种都行。(作主语) ● You can come on Saturday or Sunday. Either day is OK for me. 你可以星期六来也可以星期天来。对我来说 哪一天都可以。(作定语) 注意: ①either 也作副词,其意为“也”,用于否定句的句末。He doesn?like tea, and I don?t either.

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②either 与 or 构成连词,意为“不是……就是……”或“要么……要么……”。He is either Japanese or Chinese. ③neither 用作副词,意为“也不”,即“not…either”。He can?t do it, neither can I. ④neither 可与 nor 构成连词,意为“既不……也不”。Neither he nor you are a student. ?.other 和 another, the others 和 others the other 单独使用,表示“两者中的另一个”;也可用于“the other + 复数可数名词”的结构中,表特指,意为 “其余(他)的……”;the others 表示“其他的人或物”。“others 及 other + 复数名词”表泛指,意为“其他的 (别的)人或物”。这些词语在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。如: ● He got two books; one is a textbook, the other is a novel. ● Five of the pencils are red, and the others(the other pens)are yellow. ● Some are singing, while others are dancing. another 修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为“(三个或三个以上的)另一个”,不能指两者中的另一个,在句中 可作宾语和定语。 ● This coat is too dark. Please show me another.(宾语) ● Please give me another book.(定语) 注意: another 可跟基数词+复数名词,意为“再,又”。如:Please give me another ten minutes. one … another(a second)… a third…the other…意为“一个……一个……一个……一个”用于三者或三者以上 单数的排列。 some…others…others…,意为“一些……一些……一些”。 替代词的用法 代词 it 与替代词 one,ones,the ones,that,those 的用法区别: ?.it 指代前面提到过的同一事物。 ?.one 替代单数名词,表示同类异物,泛指;其复数形式为 ones。 ?.the one 替代前面的单数名词,表示特指,等于不定冠词+名词。其后往往带定语;the ones 为其复数形 式。 ?.that 既可以替代单数可数名词,也可以替代不可数名词,也指代同类异物,但表特指,等于限定词+名 词。若替代单数可数名词时,相当于 the one,其后往往带后置定语。 ?.those 替代复数名词,相当于 the ones。 ● Your story is interesting ,but I don?t like it. ●I haven?t got a computer. I want to buy one next year. ●The population in China is much larger than that in Japan.

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●The conditions are like those in the real spaceship. ●There is only one watch of this type in the shop. so I want to buy it for her. it 用法

一、it 作人称代词的用法 ?. 指事物 作为人称代词,it 可以除人以外的一切事物或动物。如: ● I dropped my watch and it broke. ● It?s hard work, but I enjoy it. ● “Where is the dog?” “It?s in the bedroom.. ” ?. 指人 it 指人主要用于指性别不明的婴儿或用于确认某人的身份。如: ● Is it a boy or a girl? ● There is a knock on the door. It must be the postman. 【说明】在答语中,常用来指本人,如说 It?s me。 ?. 代替某些代词 代词 it 还可用于代替指示代词 this, that 以及复合不定代词 something, anything, nothing 等。如: ● “What?s this?” “It?s a new machine. ” ● Nothing is wrong, is it? 二、it 作非人称代词的用法 ?. 基本用法 it 作非人称代词的用法,主要用于指时间、距离、价值、天气、气候及温度等自然现象。如: ● It?s too late to go there now. ● It rained all day yesterday. ● It can get very hot here. ?. 用于某些句型 ● It?s time for sth. 该做某事了。 ● It?s time to do sth. 该做某事的时候了。 ● It?s time for sb to do sth. 某人该干某事了。 ● It?s (about / high) time + that-从句. 某人该做某事了。(从句谓语用过去式,有时也用“should+动词原形”) ● It was (about / high) time + that-从句.(从句谓语动词用过去完成式)

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● It?s the first (second) time + that-从句. 某人第几次干某事。(从句谓语用现在完成时) ● It was the first (second) time + that-从句.(从句谓语用现在完成时) It?s + 时间段 + since-从句. 自从……有一段时间了。 It?s + 时间段 + before-从句. 过多长的时间才…… 三、it 用作形式主语 ?. 基本用法 当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作句子主语时,为保持句子平衡,通常把真正的主语放在句末,而 在句首使用形式主语 it。如: ● It?s very important to remember this. 记住这一点很重要。 ● It?s hard work climbing mountains. 爬山是费劲的事。 ● It?s unknown when he will come. 他什么时候来还不知道。 ?. 用作形式主语的的重要句型 ① It + be + adj. for (of) sb to do sth 某人做某事…… ● It is hard for him to make up his mind. 他很难下定决心。 ● It was foolish of her to say such a thing. 她说那样的话,真是太蠢了。 【说明】 介词 of 与 for 的区别是: of 用于指某人的性格、 属性、 特征等, 介词 for 表示对象, 意为“对…… 来说” ②.It takes sb + 时间段 + to do sth. 某人做某事花了……时间 ● It takes years to master a new language. 要花多年的时间才能掌握一门新的语言。 【说明】此句型可以有以下多变种变体:It took me an hour to write the letter. =The letter took me an hour (to write). =I took an hour to write the letter. 我写这封信花了一个小时。 ③.It is up to sb to do sth. 该由某人做某事 ④.it looks(seems, appears, happens, occurs) that [as if]… 似乎…… ⑤.If it were not for… / If it hadn?t been for… 若不是因为…… ● If it were not for their help, we couldn?t have got over the difficulties. 要不是他们帮助, 这些困难我们不克服 不了的。 四、it 用作形式宾语 ?.基本用法 当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作宾语且其后跟有宾语补足语时,通常会在宾语补足语前使用形式 宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末。其基本结构为“动词+it+宾语补足语+不定式(动名词或从句)”。这类动词 如:Find ,think ,feel, imagine, believe, consider 如:

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● I find it difficult to do the job well. 我发现做好这件事不容易。 ?. 用作形式宾语的几个特殊结构 ①.动词+ it + that-从句。如: ● You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。 ● Rumor has it that the defence minister will soon resign. 据传闻,国防部长不久就要辞职。 【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 have, take, put, like 等。 ②.动词 + it + when (if)-从句。如: ● I dislike it when you whistle. 我不爱听你吹口哨。 ● We really appreciate it when she offered to help. 她来帮忙了,我们十分感激。 ● I?d prefer it if I didn?t have to do so much work. 要是我不必做那么多工作,好就太好了。 【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, appreciate, prefer 等。 ③.动词 + prep + it + that-从句。如: ● See to it that you?re not late again. 注意千万不要再迟到。 【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 see to, look to, insist on, stick to, depend on, answer for 等。 ④.动词 + it + 介词短语+ that-从句。如: ● I owe it to you that I am still alive. 多亏有你我才仍然活着。 ● I took it for granted that he would help us. 我认为他会帮助我们的。 【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 take it for granted, bring it to sb?s attention, owe it to sb 等。 四、数词 3、序数词:表示顺序的数词叫序数词。

1、 英语的序数词基本变法: (1) 一般在基数词后加 th,(2)-ve 结尾的改为-fth,(3)-ty 结尾的改为-tieth,(4)熟记特殊词。 2、序数词如下:

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1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

※first ※ second ※third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeent h eighteenth nineteenth 20th 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth one undredth

21st 22nd 23rd

twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third

35th

thirty-fifth

101st

one hundred and first

1000th→one thousandth, 1000000th →one millionth., 第 703→the seven hundred and third, 第 5480→the five thousand four hundred and eightieth. 3、注:(1)两位以上的序数词仅个位数部分用序数词,其余部分仍用基数词。如:thirty-sixth, (2) 使用序数词时一般加定冠词 the. 如:I‘m in the third grade. (3) 序数词作“几分之几”讲时,有复数形式。如:1/5→one fifth ; 2/3→ two thirds ; 4/7→ four sevenths ; 1/2→ a half ; 1/4→a quarter ; 3/4→ three quarters ; 50%→ fifty hundredths ( fifty per cent). 4、数词的用法: 1、表示年份:2002: twenty thousand and two ; 1976 : nineteen seventy-six. 2、表示日期: 12 月 1 日: Dec.1st 或 the first of December;2002 年 11 月 8 日: Nov. 8th, 2002. 3、表示时刻: 5:15→ five fifteen 或 a quarter past five ; 8:30→ eight thirty 或 half past eight ; 10:45→ ten forty-five 或 a quarter to eleven. 4、表示编号:Room 105→Room one 0 five; Bus No.13→Bus Number Thirteen; P.5→Page Five; Tel.No.7658659→Telephone Number seven-six-five-eight-six-five-nine 5、小数的读法:5.7→ five point seven, 0.16 →zero point one six. 6、 “半”的表达: 1/2→half, 半小时→half an hour, 1.5 小时→one and a half hours 或 one hour and a half. 7、序数词前面加 the 时,表示顺序,加 a/an 时表示“再一、又一”。如:The third lesson is rather difficult.(第 三课相当难)/ Shall we read the text a third time?(我们把课文读第三遍,好吗?)

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五、冠词
1、冠词分类及读法: 英语中冠词有不定冠词和定冠词两种,常放在名词的前面,用来限定名词的意义,起泛指或特指的作用。 定冠词 the 读法:单独念时读[Ti:],在句子中常发[Ti ](元音之前)或者[T[](辅音之前); 不定冠词 a/an 的读法:单独念时读 [ei ]/[An ];在句子中常发 [[]/[[n]。 2、不定冠词 a / an 的用法: 不定冠词 a / an 用在单数名词的前面,a 用在辅音开头的词前面; an 用在元音开头的词的前面。 不定冠词的基本用法: (1) 表示某一个人或东西,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:There is a dog lying on the ground.(有一只狗 躺在地上。) (2) 表示某类人或事物,以区别于其他种类。如:A elephant is much stronger than a man.(大象比人强壮 多了。)(不能译为:一头大象比一个人强壮。) (2) 表示某类人或事物中的任何一个。如:He is a teacher of English.(他是英语教师。) (4) 表示“一”这个数量。如:There is a table and four chairs in that dining-room.(在那个餐厅里有一张 桌子和四把椅子。) (5) 几个用不定冠词的习语:a bit(一点), a little(一点), a few(几个), a lot (许多), a kind of(一种), a pair of(一副、一双), a number of(大量的), a piece of (一张、一片), half an hour(半小时), have a good time(玩得开心), have a cold(感冒), make a noise(发出嘈杂声), have/take a (rest 等)(休息)一会儿,等 等。 3、定冠词 the 的用法:定冠词 the 用在可数名词的单数或复数或不可数的名词前面。 定冠词的基本用法: (1) 表示特指的人或事物。如:The man with a flower in his hand is Jack..(手上拿着一朵花的男人是杰 克) (2) 指谈话双方都熟悉的人或事物。如:Look at the blackboard,Lily.(莉莉,请看黑板。) (3) 复述前面提到过的人或事物。如:There is a man under the tree. The man is called Robert.(树下有个 人, 那个人叫罗伯特。) (4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。如:The earth turns around the sun.(地球绕太阳旋转。) (5) 用在表示方位的名词前面。如:There will be strong wind to the south of the Yangtze River.(长江以南 地 区将会刮大风。) (6) 在序数词和形容词最高级的前面。 如: Who is the first one to go?(谁第一个去?) / Of all the stars, the

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sun is the nearest to the earth.(在所有的恒星之中太阳离地球最近) (7) 常用在乐器名称的前面。如:He began to play the violin at the age of 5.(五岁时他开始拉小提琴) (8) 用在江河、海洋、山脉等名称的前面。如:I have never been to the Himalaya Mountains.(我从来没 有去过喜马拉雅山) (9) 用在含有普通名词的专有名词的前面。如:He is from the United States of America.(他来自美利坚合 众国) (10)用在姓氏之前表示一家人。如:The Greens are going to Mount Emei next month.(下个月格林一家要 去峨眉山) (11)same 之前一般用 the。如:Lucy and Lily look the same.(露西和莉莉看上去长得一样) (12)几个用定冠词的习语: at the same time (与此同时),make the bed(铺床),in the end(最后),all the time(一 直),by the way(顺便说一下),on the way(在路上)等等。 4、一些不用冠词的情况: (1) 专有名词和(第一次使用)一些不可数名词时前面通常不用。如:China is a very large country.(中国 是个大国) / Man needs air and water.(人类需要空气和水) (2) 名词前已有指示、 物主或不定代词作定语时不用。 如: My pen is much more expensive than yours.(我 的钢笔比你的昂贵多了) (3) 周名,月名或季节名前一般不用。如:He was born on Monday, February 18,1995.(他出生在 1995 年 二月十八日,星期一) / They usually plant trees on the hills in spring.(春天他们通常在山上植树) (4) (第一次使用)复数名词表示人或事物的类别时不用。如:Men are cleverer than monkeys.(人比猴子 聪明) (5) 三餐饭前不用。如:We have breakfast at home and lunch at school.(我们在家吃早饭,在校吃午饭) (6) 节、假日前一般不用。如:On Children‘s Day the boys often get presents from their parents.(在儿童 节,这些男孩经常得到父母的礼物) (7) 球类名词前不用。 如: The children play football on Saturday afternoons.(孩子们星期六下午踢足球) (8) 城市的重要/主要建筑物名称前不用。如:They are now at People‘s Cinema.(他们此刻在人民电影 院) (9) 一些习惯用语中不用。如:? at / to / from / out of / after / for school; ? in / to / for / after class; ?in / to / out of / into bed; ? after / at/ from / out of / to work; ? at / to sea; ? in / from / down / to town; ? at / from home; ? at / for / to breakfast/lunch/supper; ? at night/noon/midnight; ? on foot; ⑴ go to school/bed; ⑵ on top of; ⑶ in front of; ⑷ on show/display/duty/watch; ⑸ in / out of hospital; ⑹ at all; ⑺ on/in time; ⑻ at first/last/once; ⑼ in Chinese/English,etc.; ⑽

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take care of

六、形容词、副词
1、形容词:用来说明或修饰名词、代词的词称为形容词。 1、形容词的句法作用:作句子中名词的定语、句子的表语以及宾语补足语。 2、形容词在句子中的位置: ?作定语时放在名词的前面,且音节少的词放在音节多的词之前。如:a big yellow wooden wheel(一 个黄色的大木轮) ?作表语时放在连系动词之后。如:The price sounds reasonable.(这个价格听起来算是合理) ?作宾语补足语时放在宾语之后。如:We must try our best to keep our environment clean.(我们必须 尽力保持我们的环境清洁) ?后置的情况: ①修饰复合不定代词时放在代词之后。如:Something serious has happened to him.(他发生了严重 的事故) ②与表示“长、宽、高、重、老、远离”的词连用时形容词后置。如:He‘s 1.8 metres tall.(他身高 1.8 米。)The moon is about 380,000 kilometres away from the earth.(月球离地 38 万公里) 3、有关形容词的用法辨析: ? whole 与 all: 记住两个词序: ① the whole + 名词; ②all (of) the + 名词。 如: He was busy the whole morning.(整个早晨他都很忙) / He can remember all the words he learns.(他能记住学过的所有单词) ? tall 与 high, short 与 low:指人的个子时用 tall 与 short;指其他事物时一般用 high 与 low。如: He‘s very tall/short.(他个子高/矮) / Tall trees are standing on both sides of that avenue.(大道的两侧有 高大的树木) / A few people live on high mountains.(少量的人住在高山上) ? real 与 true: real 一般指东西的真假,译为“真的”; 而 true 则指事情或消息的可靠性,译为“真实的”。 如:This is a real diamond(钻石) and it‘s very expensive.(这是货真价实的钻石,非常贵) / --Is that true?—Yes. I heard it with my own ears.(那真实吗? 是的,我亲耳所听) ? interested 与 interesting 的区别: interesting 指人或东西“有趣的”,作定语或表语,而 interested 则表示 人对别的事物“感兴趣的”,只能作表语。如:The man is very interesting and all the children like him. (这个人很有趣,孩子们都喜欢他)/ This book is interesting and you can really enjoy yourself.(这本书很 有趣,你会真正获得享受) / I am interested in science.(我对自然科学感兴趣) ? such 用法: such + a(n) + 名词(单数)(+that 从句)。如:I have never seen such a foolish(愚蠢的) boy.(我从来没有见过这么蠢的男孩) / He had such a terrible accident that he could never forget it.(他

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遭遇了这么可怕的事故,他永远也不会忘记) ? good 与 well: 表示“好”时,作定语或表语用 good,作状语用 well; 表示“(身体)好”时用 well.如: Doing sports is good for us.(进行运动对我们有益) / Study well and make progress every day.(好好学习,天天 向上) / --How are you?—I am very well.(你好吗?我很好。) ? nice 与 fine:的区别:nice 表示令人愉快的,可以指东西、人物外表等;fine 一般指身体或天气好。 如: Let‘s go and share(分享) the nice cake.(我们去分享那块美味的蛋糕吧) / She is a nice girl.(他是个 漂亮的姑娘) / What a fine day!(多好的天气!) /He‘s fine recently(最近).(近来他身体不错) ? too much 与 much too:too much 表示“太多的”,修饰事物数量;much too 表示“太过,过分”,修饰形 容词或副词。如:I am full because I have had too much rice.(我饱了,因为我吃了太多的米饭) / That coat is much too dear.(那件大衣太贵了) ? quick、 fast 与 soon: quick 与 fast 基本同义,quick 往往指反应速度快,fast 往往指运动速度快,而 soon 则表示时间上很快即将发生。如:After a quick breakfast, he hurried to school leaving his bag at home.(匆匆地吃过早饭,他朝学校赶去,却把书包忘记在家) / A train is much faster than a bus.(火车比 公共汽车快得多) / His father will be back to China very soon.(他父亲很快就要返回中国) ?lonely 与 alone:lonely 是表示心理活动的形容词,意思是:“孤独的,寂寞的”,作定语或表语;alone 的 意思是: “独自的,单独的”,指无人陪伴,仅作表语,(作为副词的 alone 可作状语)。 如: He lives alone but he doesn‘t feel lonely.(他一人独住,但是并不感到孤独)/ He is a lonely person. You can not easily get on well with him.(他是个孤独的人,你要和他相处好实在不易) ⑴ other 与 else 的区别:两个词都可以作形容词,但是用法不同,other 放在名词前;else 修饰不定代词、 疑问词、little、much,后置,另外,or else 表示“否则”,是连词。如:The other students are on the playground.(其他学生在操场上) / Who else can work out this maths problem?(还有谁能解出着道数学 题?) / This is nobody else‘s money. It‘s mine.(这不是别的什么人的钱,是我的。) / Do you have anything else to say for yourself?(你还有什么要为自己说的吗? ⑵ special 与 especial 的区别:表示事件不同寻常、过分或特殊时,两个词可互换,但 special 较为常用。 另外,special 还可以表示特别的目的。如: She pays (e)special attention to clothes.(她非常注重着装) / These are special chairs for small children.(这些是专门给小孩子的椅子) ⑶ gone、lost、missing 的区别:gone 表示“丢了,没了”,含一去不复返的意思,也可以表示“死了”,作表语 或宾补,不可以作定语;lost 表示“丢失”,含难以找回的意思,可作定语、表语或宾补;missing 表示“失 踪了,不见了”,强调某人物不在原处,可作定语、 表语或宾补。 如: My fever(高烧) is gone, but I still have a cough.(发烧消退了,但我仍然咳嗽) / The parents found the lost child at last.(家长终于找到了迷路的 孩子) / My dictionary is missing.Who‘s taken it away?(我的字典不见了,谁拿走了?) / For more

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detailed information(详情) of the missing girls, please visit our website(网址).(如果想知道失踪女孩们 的详情,请访问我们的网站) ⑷ living、alive、live、lively 的区别:四个词都来源于动词 live“生活、居住”。 living 读[?liviN]有三个意思:①“活着的、现存的”,作表语或定语,②“一模一样的、逼真的”,③相当于 lively,意思是“强烈的、活泼的”; live 读[laiv],指东西“活的”,可以替换为 living; alive 读[[?laiv]作表语,指人“活着的”,如果作定语,则放在名词的后面; lively 读[?laivli]有三个意思:①有生气的、活泼的、快活的,②(色彩)鲜艳的,③生动的、真实的。 例如:A living language should be learned orally(口头上).(活的语言应该从口头上学)(被动句) / We have a living hope that you will succeed.(我们强烈地希望你能成功) / Is she still alive?(她还活着 吗?) / They are the happiest children alive.(他们是活着的最开心的孩子) / This is a live fish.(这 是条活鱼) / A live wire(电线) is dangerous.(有电的电线是危险的) / She is as lively as a kitten(小 猫).(她像小猫一样可爱) / He gave a lively description of the football match.(他生动地描述了那场 足球赛) ⑸ sick 与 ill 区别: sick 和 ill 都表示“生病的”,但是,sick 可以做定语、 表语,而 ill 只能做表语。 如: He has been ill/sick for a long time and he is very weak now.(他病了很久,现在非常虚弱) / Vets help treat sick pets and most of the pets‘ owners like them.(兽医帮助诊治患病的宠物,很受宠物主人们的喜爱) ⑹ the poor(穷人们) / the rich(富人们)等用法: “the+形容词”这一结构可以表示一类人物,复数含义。 如: We must try our best to help the poor.(我们应该尽力帮助穷人们) / The rich never know how the poor are living.(有钱人哪知穷人怎么过日子) 2、副词:用来说明事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式等含义或说明其它形容词或副词程度的词叫做副 词。 1、副词的分类:(见下表) 频度副 时 间 副 词 词 today, tomorrow, once, yesterday, now, twice, 词 here, there, very, too, 地点/方位副 程度副词 词 well, hard, alone, quite, once, soon, just, usually, above, outside, how, so, fast, why, either, 词 how, where, when, too, also, nor, so, as, on,off, 方式副 疑问/连接副 其他副词

home, below, enough, rather, anywhere,

then, early, late, always,

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tonight, long, already, yet, before, ago, later, ever

often,

in, inside, out, much, just, together, whether nearly, only suddenly, however, etc.

yes, no, not, neither

sometime back, up, s, never, down, almost, away, off, far, hardly, as long as (seldom), near, nearby, 等, ever, wherever everywhere, even, all, a little, a bit 的副词 where, why, how when, perhaps, certainly, -ly 结尾 关系副词 maybe,

since after, whenever first, someday, sometime, last,

2、副词在句子中的位置以及作用: ?作状语: ① 时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before、later、yet 等一般放在句尾,already、 just 一般放在动词的前面。如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我们明天要去参观长城) / They have already been to the UK twice.(他们去过英王国两次) / Soon the lost boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路) ② 频度副词:一般放在 be 动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但 sometimes、often 等还可以 放在句首或句尾,usually 可放在句首,once 可放在句尾,twice、 three times 等一般放在句尾。 如: Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch at the factory.(工人们 通常在厂里吃午饭) / Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次) ③ 方式副词: 一般放在行为动之后,suddenly 可以放在句首、 句尾或动词之前。 如: Old people can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快) / Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看见了一丝亮光) ④ 地点副词: 一般放在句尾,但 here、 there 还可放在句首。 如: There you can see thousands of bikes running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动) / The frightened wolf ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回) ⑤ 程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注 意,enough 总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面;only 位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词 的前面。如:I nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎 把那事全忘了) / It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不 能相信我的耳朵) / She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站

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赶上了首班车) ⑥ 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何时何地出生?)/ Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡 蛋上?)/ How do you do?(你好!) ⑦ 连接副词: 用来引导主语从句、 宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。 How I am going to kill the cat is still a question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) / He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不 知道第二天怎样做那事) ⑧ 关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once lived.(这就是张先生曾经住过的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法) ⑨ 其它副词:too“也”,用在句尾;also 放在动词前;either “也不”,放在句尾;nor“也不”,放在句 首;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;on/off“开/关”放在动词之后;not 放在 be 之后、助 动词之后、不定式或动名词之前;maybe/perhaps 放在句首;certainly 放在句首或动词之前。 如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去了) / Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里) / --Tom doesn‘t have a computer. –Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。) (2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在 be 等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I‘m very sorry he isn‘t in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20 years.(我离开家乡有将近 20 年了) / Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那边) (3)作定语:时间副词(如 now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。如: People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚 宴) / Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪 20 年代那儿的女人过着可 怕的日子) (4)作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) / Father kept him in and doing his lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业) [注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。 如: He wrote down the word.(他 写下了那个词。)→He wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。) 3、有关副词的重要注释: ? as…as…常构成一些词组:as soon as…(一旦…就…), as well as…(同样), as+形容词/副词+as

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possible(尽可能……地)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to Beijing.(请你一到北京就给我 写信。)/ Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as possible.(高小姐尽快地赶到了校门口。) [注释] “as long / much as + 名词”可以表示“长达/多达…”的含义。如:The house costs as much as five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花费高达 50 万元。)/ They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long as two weeks.(他们呆在山洞里长达两周。) ? later、after、ago、before 的用法:①“一段时间+later/ago”分别表示“(多久)以后/以前”,主要用于 过去时态。②“after/before+某个时刻”分别表示“在某时刻之后/之前”,此时两个词是介词。③ago 与 before:ago 只能用于过去时,before 用于完成时。如:He had an accident a week ago.(一周前出 了一个事故)/ Some years later, the boy became a very famous singer.(数年后这个男孩成了著名的歌 唱家)/ Have you been there before?(你从前到过那儿吗?)/ After a few years he gave up smoking.(过 了几年他戒了烟。) ? above、below、over、under 的用法:在上下方用 above 和 below,在高低处用 over 和 under.如: The stars are high above in the sky.(星星高挂在空中) / A plane flew over quickly.(一架飞机从头顶 飞过。) 当 above、below、over、under 是介词性质时,意义相似。 ? too、also、either、nor 的用法:too(“也”)用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开;also(“也”) 用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前;either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开;nor(“也不”)用于倒装 句句首;如:Are you American,too?(你也是美国人吗?)/ He is not happy and I am not happy, either.(他不愉快,我也不。) / He didn‘t watch the football game. Nor did I.(他没有看足球赛,我也没 有。)/ You can also find the market is very good.(你还可以发觉那个市场很好。) ? enough、too、so、very、quite、very much 的用法: enough (“足够,十分”)放在形容词或副词之 后;too(“太”)、very(“非常”)、quite(“相当”)、so(“如此地”)等放在形容词或副词之前,very much(“非 常”)放在动词之后。 如: It‘s too/so/very/quite expensive.(它太贵/那么贵/非常贵/相当贵。 )/ I don‘t like sweets very much.(我不很喜欢糖果) [注意] very 与 much 的区别:very 修饰形容词、副词的原级和现在分词形容词,much 修饰形容词和 副词的比较级;much 还可以修饰疑问句和否定句中的动词,very 不可以。如:He is very stupid.(他 很笨)/ The film was very moving and everyone swept.(电影非常动人,大家都哭了)/ You must work much harder or you will fail to enter the good school.(你得学习更努力,不然你考不进那所好学校)/ I don‘t like him much.(我不太喜欢他) ? sometimes、 sometime、 some times 、some time 的用法:sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、 sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 some times(数次)表示次数、some time(一些时间)表示一段时

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间。如:Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains.(他们有时徒步旅行到山里去)/ I will stay here some time.(我会在这儿呆些时候的。)/ I will meet your father sometime.(我什么时候要见见你的父 亲。) ? how、what 用于感叹句的用法:对句子中的形容词或副词感叹时用 how,对人或事物(可能含有形 容词作修饰语)进行感叹用 what. 如:What a fine day (it is) today!(今天天气真好!) / How difficult (the problem is)!((问题)真难呀!) ? already、yet 的用法:在完成时中,already 一般用于肯定句,yet 一般用于否定句和疑问句。如: Have you done it already?(你已经做好了?) / I have not had my breakfast yet.(我还没有吃早饭呢。) ? hard 与 hardly 的用法:hard 作为副词意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”,hardly 是否定词,意思是:“几乎 不”,一般与情态动词 can/could 连用。 如:They study English very hard.(他们英语学得很刻苦)/ You can hardly see a person spit in a public place.(在公共场所你几乎看不到一个人随地吐痰) ? like...very much、like...better(=prefer)、like...best 的用法:三个短语分别表示“非常喜欢”、“更喜 欢”、“最喜欢”。如:I like baseball very much.(我非常喜欢棒球)/ Do you like butter better than cheese?( / They like hamburgers best. ⑴“quite/what+a+形容词+名词”的用法:记住:①quite/such/what...+a+形容词+名词;②too/so/how+形 容词+a+名词;③rather+a+形容词+名词 = a+ rather+形容词+名词。如:I have never seen such a strange guy(家伙).(我从未见过这样奇怪的家伙) / It is quite a nice day for a walk.(这真是散步的好 日子) ⑵ how 的几个短语:how often“多常,每隔多久”,用于一般时态,对表示频度的词语进行提问; how soon“多久以后”,用于将来时态; how long“多久”,用于过去时、完成时或其他时态; how many times“多少次”,用于过去时或完成时,对总计次数进行提问; how much“多么,多少”,对程度进行提 问,也可以对数量(不可数)或金钱进行提问。 如: How long have you been like this?(你这样已经多久 了?)/ How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次脸?) ⑶ much、more 与 most 的用法:这三个词除了是形容词作名词的修饰语之外,还是程度副词,much 表示“很”,修饰原级形/副,more 表示“更”用来构成多音节形/副的比较级,most 表示“最”用来构成多 音节形/副的最高级。 此外,much 也可以修饰比较级形/副。 如: This park is much more beautiful than that one.(这个公园比那个漂亮多了)/ It is the most instructive film I have ever seen.(这是我看过的 最有教育意义的电影) ⑷ no more、no longer、not...any more、no...any longer 的用法:表示时间,可以用 no longer、not...ny more、no...any longer,而且 no longer 只能放在谓语动词之前;表示程度,可以用 no more、not...any more.如:He no longer lived there.(他不再住在那里) / Tom wanted no more cakes.(他不想再要蛋糕)

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/ He didn‘ t smoke any more/longer.(他不再抽烟) ⑸ 被动语态中,方式副词一般放在 be 与谓语动词之间。如: The runner was badly hurt.(赛跑运动员 受了重伤) / English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英语说得很广泛) ⑹ too...to...与 so...that...的问题:副词 too/so 后面跟形容词或副词,to 后面跟动词,that 后面跟从句。 Too...to... (“太.……以致不……”)是否定的结构,用于简单句;so...that...(“如此…以致…”)是肯定结 构,用于复合句。如:The child is too young to join the army.(这孩子年龄太小还不能参军)/ He is so strong that he can lift the heavy box.(他这么强壮,搬得动那个重箱子。) ⑺ 既是形容词也是副词的单词有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much, all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight 等等。如:It was a long holiday.(那是个长假)/ He stayed there very long.(他在那儿呆了好久)/ Think hard then you will find a way.(好好想你就会找到办法)/ He is a very hard(难对付的) person.(他是个难玩的家伙) ⑻ farther 与 further 的用法区别:表示地点、方向或距离时两个词同义,意思为“更远、较远”,但是 further 还表示“更多、进一步、额外”等意思,此时不能换为 farther. 如:They decided to go farther/further the next day.(他们决定第二天走得再远些)/ This problem will be further discussed.(这个问题还要进一步讨论)/ Every one of them had their further studies after they left college.(他们每个人大学毕业后继续进修) ⑼ rather 与 quite 的用法区别: 同 very 一样,两个词都表示形容词或副词的程度,quite 表示“不到最高 程度但是比预料的好”,rather 比 quite 更接近 very 的含义,含有令人惊讶的意思。见下图对“nice”程 度的描绘: not nice (fairly) nice quite nice rather nice very nice

如:It‘s quite a nice film.(这是部好片子)。(可能意味着不是一部最好的电影) / It‘s rather a nice film.(这是部很不错的电影。)(意味着比大多数电影都好) [注意]注意 quite 与 rather 后面的次序词序。 ⑽ maybe、possibly、perhaps 的区别:maybe“可能、也许”,比另外两个词更不正式、更随便、可能 性不大;possibly“可能地、或者、也许”,可能性较大,在否定句和疑问句中表示“无论如何”; perhaps“可能”,较为常用而且正式,可能性也不大。如:You could put it over there,maybe.(也许你可 以把它放在那边) / I couldn‘t possibly have finished such a long book in such a short time.(我不可能 在这么短的时间内完成这么长的一本书)/ I thought perhaps it was the letter you have been expecting.(我以为那也许就是你期盼的信件) (21) most、mostly 的区别:most 作为形容词和名词时意思是“大多数的、大部分的”,作为副词时意思

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为“最,十分、很”;mostly 仅为副词,意思为“主要地、多半地、大部分地”。如:I was at home most of the time when I was free.(我有空时大部分时间都在家)Most children are naughty.(大部分的孩子 都淘气)/ This is the most exciting part of the film.(这是电影中最令人兴奋的部分)/She is mostly out on Sundays.(星期天她一般不在家) (22) (be) worth、(be) worthy of 的区别:worth 一般被看作是介词,后面接名词或者动名词,用主动表示 被动含义,还可以用副词 well 修饰;worthy of 表示“值得的、配得上的”,后面跟动名词的被动形式。 如:What is worth doing at all is worth doing well(凡是值得做的,就值得好好去做). / The house is worth ¥300,000.(房子价值 30 万元)/ This book is well worth reading several times.(这本书值得好好 读几遍)/ It is a thing worthy of being seen.(这是一个值得看的东西) (23)almost、nearly 的区别:两个词意思相近,都表示“几乎、将近”,大多数情况下可以互换,与否定词连 用时用 almost 不用 nearly. almost no 相当于 hardly any(几乎没有)。 如: He had done almost nothing today.(他今天几乎没有干什么) / We are almost/nearly there.(我们几乎就到那里了)/ Almost nobody/Hardly anybody understood his words.(几乎没有人懂他的话) (24) a bit 与 a little 的区别:这两个名词短语经常当作副词使用,修饰形容词或副词的原级或比较级,可 以互换,语气比 rather 弱。如:This digital camera is a bit(a little) expensive.(这台数码相机有点贵)/ It is a little(a bit) colder than yesterday.(今天比昨天冷了点) 另外,a little 可以直接加不可数名词,a bit 则采用“a bit + of +名词(不可数或可数名词复数)”的形 式。如:I have got a bit of a cold.(我有点感冒)/ Go and get a little water for me, please.(请你去给我 搞点水来) [注意] not a bit(=not at all)意为“根本不”,而 not a little 则意为“非常,不是一点”。 3、形容词、 副词的原级、比较级和最高级 1、分类:形容词和副词有原级、比较级和最高级三级。 原级变为比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。 2、规则变化: (1)单音节和部分双音节形容词和副词,在原级的后面加上 er,est 构成比较级和最高级。 a)直接加 er,est : b)以重读闭音节结尾的,要双写最后一个辅音字母,后加 er,est: c)以辅音字母+y 结尾的,先把 y 改为 i 再加上 er,est: (2)两个音节或两个以上的音节的,在原级前加 more / most. 3、不规则变化: 原级 比较级 最高级

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good 好的 better 更好的 well 好;(身体)好的, bad,badly 糟糕的,糟糕地 ill(身体)不舒服的 many 许多的(可数) more 更多的;更 much 许多的(不可数);非常 little 少的 far 远的;远地 further 进一步的(地) 4、形容词和副词的原级、比较级和最高级的用法: (1)讲述某人/物自身的情况时,用原级。基本句型是: 主语(sb./sth) + 谓语动词 + (very/too/so/quite/rather…) + 形容词/副词原级 +…. 如:He is very old now.(他现在很老了) / They ran quite fast.(它们跑得相当快) / The weather looks rather bad.(天气看上去相当糟) / I am so happy!(我是如此的快乐) ☆表示两者之间没有差别时,使用句型: 主语(第一个人物) + 谓语动词 + as + 形容词/副词原级 + as + 第二个人物 +…. 如: He is as excited as his younger sister.(他和他妹妹一样兴奋)/ Lily rode her bike as slowly as an old lady.(莉莉骑车像老太太一样慢)/ They picked as many apples as the farmers (did).(他们摘的 苹果和农民一样多) ☆表示第一个人比不上第二个人时,使用句型: 主语(第一个人物) + 谓语动词(否定式) + as / so + 形容词/副词原级 + as + 第二个人物+…. 如: He is not so / as excited as his younger sister.(他没他妹妹那么兴奋) / Lily did not ride her bike so / as slowly as an old lady. (莉莉骑车不像老太太那样慢) / They didn‘t pick so / as many apples as the farmers (did). (他们摘的苹果不如农民多) (2) 讲述两者有差异,第一个人物超过第二个人物时,用比较级。基本句型: 主语(?A?)+谓语动词+(much/a little/even/still)+形容词/副词比较级+than+第二个人物(?B?)+…. 如:A modern train is much faster than a car.(现代的火车比轿车快多了) / This book didn‘t cost me more than that one.(这本书花费我的钱不比那本多) 讲述两者有差异,第一个人物不及第二个人物时,用比较级。句型是: 主语(?A?) + 谓语动词 + less+ (多音节形/副)比较级 + than + 第二个人物(?B?) +…. furthest 最深刻的(地) less 更少的 farther 更远的;更远地 least 最少的 farthest 最远的;最远地 most 最多的;最 worse 更糟糕的,更糟糕地; worst 最糟糕的,最糟糕地; (身体)更不舒服的 (身体)最不舒服的 best 最好的

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如:I think English is less difficult than maths.(我认为英语不比数学难)/ Do you think it less important to learn a foreign language?(你认为学外语不那么重要吗?) (3)讲述某人/物是一群之中最突出的一个时,用最高级。句型是: 主语(sb./sth) + 谓语动词 +(the) +形容词/副词最高级 +in / of …. 如:The Changjiang River is the longest in China.(长江是中国最长的河流) / He jumped (the) highest of the three (boys).(三个男生中他跳得最高) 4、关于比较等级的重要注释: 1、 以上六个句型中,如果动词是及物或不及物动词,则后面用副词; 如果后面是连系动词,则后面用形容词。 如:This car is the fastest of the four.(形容词)(这辆汽车是四辆之中最快的)/ This car runs (the) fastest of the four.(副词)(这辆汽车是四辆之中跑得最快的) 2、“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越……”。如:The weather is getting warmer and warmer.(天越来越温 暖了) 3、“the+比较级…,the+比较级…”表示“越…就越…”。如:The more trees we plant,the better it will be.(我 们栽的树越多,情况就会越好)/ The harder you try,the greater your progress is.(你越是努力,进步就越大) 4、一般的形容词或副词的比较级前面可以加 much/a little/even/still,而表示数量的 more 之前还可以加 some/ any/ no/ one/ two/ many/ several/ a lot 等词。如:It is much colder today than yesterday.(今天比昨 天冷多了)/ Would you like some more coffee?(你还要些咖啡吗?)/He did not eat any more.(他没有再吃) 5、more than / less than 分别可以理解为“多于/少于”,相当于副词,more than=over; less than=under.如:I lived in New York for more than four months.(我在纽约生活了四个多月) 6、 “one of the +最高级+名词(复数)”整个短语为单数含义,谓语要用单数形式。 如: One of the oldest houses has been burnt in a fire.(最古老的一幢房子在一场大火中被烧毁了) 7、 “Which / Who+动词+形/副,□,□or□?”句型中,如果有两个选项,形/副用比较级,如果有三个选项,形/副用最 高级。 如: Who has more books, Lin Tao or Han Mei?(林涛和韩梅谁的书最多?)/ Which is the heaviest,a pig,a horse or an elephant?(猪、马、象哪个最重?) 8、上下文中含有 both/either/neither/two/twins 等表示两个事物的词时,用比较级,而且往往还要加 the;含 有 all/none/no one/ every 等表示三个或三个以上事物时,用最高级。如: --Do you like the smaller one?—Neither.(小一点的那个你喜欢吗?一个都不喜欢)/ --Which do you like best? –All of them!(你最 喜欢哪个?全部。)

七、介词
1、介词的主要用法: 介词是一种虚词,不能独立使用。介词之后一般有名词或代词(宾格 )或相当于名词的其他词类、短语 ..

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或从句作它的宾语,即构成介词短语。有些介词是由两个以上的词构成的短语介词,如:out of(从…中 出来), because of(因为), away from(距离…), on top of(在…顶上), ever since(自从…), next to(在…隔 壁), according to(根据…), in front of(在…前方)等。 2、介词的分类表: (见下表) 地点(位置、范围)介词:above 在…前, about 在…附近, across 在…对面, after 在…后面, against 倚着..., along 在…近旁, among 在…中间, around 在…周围, round 在….周围, at 在…处, before 在...前, behind 在... 后, below 低于..., beside 在...旁边, between 在...之间, by 在...旁, down 在...下面, from 来自..., in 在...里面, inside 在...里面, near 靠近..., of 在...之中, on 在...上面, out of 在...之外, outside 在....外面, over 在....上方, under 在...下方, up 在...上面, on top of 在...顶部, 在...的中间, at the end of 在...的末端,等等。 方向(目标趋向)介词:across 横越..., against 对抗..., along 沿着..., around 绕着..., round 环绕..., at 朝着..., behind 向…后面, etween…and…从…到...,by 路过/通过..., down 向…下, for 向..., from 从/离..., in 进入..., into 进入..., inside 到...里面, near 接近..., off 脱离/除..., on 向...上, out of 向...外, outside 向....外, over 跨过..., past 经过/超过..., through 穿过..., to 向/朝..., towards 朝着..., on to 到...上面, onto 到...上面, up 向...上, away from 远离... 时间介词:about 大约..., after 在…以后, at 在… (时刻), before 在…以前, by 到…为止, during 在…期间, for 有…(之久), from 从…(时)起, in 在(上/下午);在(多久)以后, on 在(某日), past 过了…(时), since 自 从…(至今), through 贯穿…(期间), till 直到…时, until 直到…时, to 到(下一时刻), ever since 从那时起至 今,at the beginning of 在...开始时 ,at the end of 在...末 , in the middle of 在...当中 ,at the time of 在...时 方式介词:as 作为/当作..., by 用/由/乘坐/被..., in 用…(语言), like 与…一样, on 骑(车)/徒(步),通过(收 音机/电视机), over 通过(收音机), through 通过..., with 用(材料),用(手/脚/耳/眼), without 没有… 涉及介词 : about 关于..., except 除了…, besides 除了…还... for 对于/就…而言, in 在…(方面), of…的,有 关..., on 关于/有关..., to 对…而言, towards 针对..., with 就…而言 其它介词: 【目的介词】 for 为了..., from 防止…, to 为了… 【原因介词】 for 因为..., with 由于…, because of 因为... 【比较介词】 as 与…一样,like 象…一样,than 比...,to 与…相比, unlike 与…不同 【伴随/状态介词】 against 和…一起(比赛),at 在(上班/休息/上学/家,etc.),in 穿着…(衣服/颜色),into 变成...,on 在(值日), with 与…一起,有/带着/长着..., without 没有/无/不与…一起 3、介词短语的句法作用: 介词短语相当于一个形容词或副词,可用作状语、定语和表语。如:The man came <down the in front of 在...前, close to 靠近..., in the middle of

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stairs>.(状)(那个人走下楼来)/The woman <with a flower on her head> is from the countryside.(定)(头上 戴花的妇女来自乡下)/The teacher is now with the pupils.(表)(老师现在和学生在一起) 4、介词短语在句子中的位置: 介词短语做状语时,如果表示时间/地点,可以放在句首或句尾,如果表示方向/方式/伴随/涉及/原因/目的/ 比较,一般放在句尾; 介词短语作表语时放在连系动词之后;介词短语作定语时,只能放在被修饰的名 词之后。如:He wanted to find a good job in Shanghai the next year.(状语)(他想来年在上海找份好工 作)/ They searched the room for the thief.(他们在房间里搜索小偷) / The letters are for you.(表语)(信是 给你的)/ Have you seen a cat with a black head and four white legs?(定语)(你看见一只黑头白腿的猫了 吗?) 5、重要注释: ? this / that / these / those / last / next / a / every / each 等词构成的时间短语,前面不用任何介词。如: Every year travellers from abroad come to visit Pingyao.(每年都有国外的游客来游览平窑镇)/ He had a bad cold that week.(那个星期他患重感冒) ? for 有时用来引出动词不定式的逻辑主语,常翻译成“对于…而言”。如:It‘s too hard for me to finish the work in only one hour.(让我在区区一个小时内完成这项工作太难了)/ The house is big enough for 10 men to live in.(房子够大的可以容 10 个人住) ? of 有时用来表示后面的人物正好是前面的表语的逻辑主语。 如: It‘s very nice/kind of you to do so.(你 这么做真是太好了) ? 介词有时会与它的宾语分离,而且宾语前置。 ① 当宾语是疑问词时。Who are you talking about?(你们在谈论谁?) ② 宾语在从句中当连接词时。He has a younger brother who he must take good care of.(他有 一

个需要他照顾的小弟。) / Do you know who our teacher is talking with over there?(你知道我们的老 师在那边和什么人谈话吗?) ③ 动词不定式作定语且该动词为不及物动词,后面有介词。I finally found a chair to sit on.(我 找到了一张椅子坐。) (5) 记住一些固定词组:arrive at/in(到达…),on foot(步行),not…at all(根本不),to the north of(在…以 北),in the east of(在…的东部),in the night(在夜间),at night(在晚上),be afraid of(害怕…),be full of(充 满/ 装满….),be filled with(充满/ 装满….),be good/bad for(对…有益/有害),be made of(由…做成),be made from(由…制造),play with(玩耍……),look out of(朝…外面看),at the end of(在…末梢/结束时),by the end of(不迟于…/到…末为止),with the help of 或 with one‘s help(在…的帮助下),look after(照 料…),look for(寻找…),on a bike(=by bike)骑车, help sb. with(帮某人做…),get on (well) with(与某人相 最终

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处[融洽]),等等。 6、某些介词的用法辨析: ? 时间或地点介词 in、on、at 的用法区别:表示时间时, in 表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示 在一段时间之后), on 表示在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at 表示在某个时刻或者瞬间; 表 示地点时, in 表示在某个范围之内, on 表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at 则表示在某个具体的 场所或地点。如:He was born on the morning of May 10th.(他出生于五月十日的早晨)/ I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning.(我通常在早上的七点钟起床) / His glasses are right on his nose.(他的眼镜 就架在他的鼻子上)/ He is at the cinema at the moment.(此刻他正在电影院) ? after 与 in 表示时间的用法区别:“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在…时刻之后”常用于一般时态; “in+(一段时间)”表示“在(多久)之后”,常用于将来时态。如:He said that he would be here after 6: 00.(他说他六点钟之后会来这儿)/ My father is coming back from England in about a month.(我父亲大 约一个月以后从英国回来) ? since 与 for 表示时间的用法区别:“since+(具体时刻/that-从句)”表示“自从…起一直到现在”,“for +(一 段斶间)”表示“总共有…之久”,都常用于完成时态;如:Uncle Li has worked in this factory since 1970.(李叔叔自从 1970 年起就在这家工厂工作了)/ Uncle Li has worked in this factory for over 30 years. (李叔叔在这家工厂已经工作了 30 多年) ? by、in 与 with 表示方式的用法区别:都可以表示“工具、手段”,但是 by 主要表示“乘坐”某个交通工具 或“以……方式”,在被动句中可以表示动作的执行者;in 表示“使用”某种语言/文字,with 表示“使用” 某个具体的工具、手段。如:We see with our eyes and walk with our feet.(我们用眼睛看东西,用双脚 走路)/ Please write that article(文章) in English.(请你用英语写那篇文章)/ Let‘s go to the zoo by taxi.(我们打的去动物园吧。)/ It was written by Lao She.(那是老舍写的) ? about 与 on 的用法区别: 都可以表示“有关…”,但是 about 的意义比较广,而 on 主要表示“有关…(专题 /课程)”。如:Tom is going to give a talk on the history of America.(汤姆要作一个美国历史的报告)/ They are very excited talking about the coming field trip.(他们兴致勃勃地谈论着即将来到的野外旅 游) ? through 与 across、 over 的用法区别: through 指“穿过…(门洞/人群/树林)”; across 和 over 可以指“跨 越…(街道/河流)”,可互换,但是表示“翻过…”时只能用 over. 如:Just then a rat (鼠)ran across the road.(就在那时一只老鼠跑过路面)/ There is a bridge across/over the river.(河上有座桥)/ They climbed over the mountain and arrived there ahead of time.(他们翻过大山提前到达了那里)/ The visitors went through a big gate into another park.(参观者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园) (7)as 与 like 的区别:两个词都表示“像……”,但是 as 译为“作为……”,表示的是职业、职务、作用等事实,

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而 like 译为“像……一样”,表示外表,不是事实。如:Let me speak to you as a father.(我以父亲的身份 和你讲话。)(说话者是听者的父亲) / Let me speak to you like a father.(让我像一位父亲一样和你讲 话)(说话者不是听者的父亲) (8)at the end of、by the end of、to the end、in the end 的用法区别:at the end of…既可以表示时间也可以 表示地点,译为“在…末; 在…尽头”,常与过去时连用; by the end of…只能表示时间,译为“在…前; 到… 为止”,常用于过去完成时; in the end 与 at last 基本等义,表示“终于、最后”,通常用于过去时;to the end 译为“到…的终点为止”,前面往往有表示运动或连续性的动词。 如: By the end of last term we had learned 16 units of Book III.(到上学期期末我们已经学习了第三册 16 个单元)/ At the end of the road you can find a big white house with brown windows.(在路的尽头你能找到一幢有棕色窗户的白房子)/ They left for Beijing at the end of last week.(上周末他们动身去了北京)/ In the end he succeeded in the final exams.(他最终在期末考试中考及格了)/ We should go on with the work to the end.(我们应该把工 作干到底)/ Follow this road to the end and you will see a post office.(沿这条路走到底就能看见一家邮 电局) (9)for a moment、for the moment、in a moment、at the moment 的区别:for a moment“一会儿、 片刻”(=for a while),常与持续性动词连用;for the moment“暂时、目前”,常用于现在时;in a moment“一会儿、 立即、马上”(=soon; in a few minutes),一般用于将来时;at the moment“此刻,眼下”(=now),用于现在 进行时。如:Please wait for a moment.(请稍等)/ Let‘s leave things as they are for the moment.(暂时就 维持现状吧!) / I‘ll come back in a moment.(我过会儿回来)/ I am very busy at the moment.(眼下我很 忙) (10)but 的问题:用介词 but 引出另一个动词时,要注意:如果前面有 do,后面就用原形动词,前面没有 do 时,后面的动词要加 to。如:I could do nothing but wait.(我什么也做不了只能等) / They had no choice(选择) but to fight.(他们没有选择只有战斗) (11)in front of 与 in the front of: in front of“在…的前面”, 与 in the front of“在…的前部”。 如: A car was parking in front of the hall.(大厅跟前停着一辆汽车)/ In the front of the hall stood a big desk.(大厅前 部立着一个大讲台) (12)except 与 besides 的区别:except“除了”,表示排除掉某人物,即不包含;而 besides“除了”则表示包含, 即“不仅……又……”。如:Everyone went to the Palace Museum except Tom.(除了 Tom,大家都去了故 宫博物院)(Tom 没有去故宫)/ Besides Chinese he also studied many other subjects.(除了汉语之外,他还 学其他许多功课)(“汉语”也是他学的功课之一)、

八、动词

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1、动词的分类: 类 别意 义 例 句

含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句子 中能独立作谓语。 实义动词

She has some bananas. 她吃些香蕉。 They eat a lot of potatoes. 他们常吃土豆。 I‘m reading an English book now. 我现在正看一本英文书。

本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必 须和表语一起构成谓语。 连系动词

His father is a teacher.他父亲是教师。 Twins usually look the same. 双胞胎通常看起来一样。 The teacher became very angry. 老师变得很 生气。

本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主 助动词

He doesn‘t speak English. 他不说英语。

要动词一起构成谓语动词,用来表示否定、 We are playing basketball. 我们在打篮球。 疑问、时态、语态或其它语法形式,助动词 Do you have a brother? 你有兄弟吗? 自身有人称、单复数和时态的变化。 本身有一定的意义,不能独立作谓语,只能 和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人 情态动词 的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和单复 May I smoke here? 我可以在这儿抽烟吗? 数的变化,有些情态动词有过去式。 ★重要注解: (1) 关于实义动词: ① 英语的实义动词又可分为及物动词和不及物动词两大类: 后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。 ② 有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive,hall 等。 有些动词通常用作及物动词。如:say, raise, lay, find, buy 等。 ③ 大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study, sing 等。 ④ 有些动词作及物动词与作不及物动词时的意义有所不同。如:know, wash 等。 ⑤ 有些动词常和介词 、副词或其它词类一起构成固定词组,形成短语动词。如:listen,reply,wait,look. (2) 关于连系动词: ① 连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。 We must go now. 我们现在得走了。 You can keep the books for two weeks. 这些书你可以借两个星期。

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② 常见的连系动词有:be、become、look、feel、sound、smell、taste、seem、turn、grow、get、 go、 fall、sit、stand、lie 等。 ③ 有些连系动词来源于实义动词,意思也跟着变化:look(看→看起来)、feel(感觉、摸→感到)、 smell(闻、嗅→闻起来)、taste(尝→尝起来)、turn(翻转、转动→变得)、grow(生长→变得)、get(得 到、到达→变得)、go(去→变得),所不同的是,作为实义动词时,后面不能跟形容词。 [注释] become、get、go、be、grow、turn 的用法区别:become 表示“变成”,比较正式,通常不用将来时表示 动作已经完成。get 也表示动作已经完成,但是更加口语化,通常表示温度、时间、岁数等变化。go 表 示“变得”,常见于某些短语中,后面常有形容词 bad、blind、hungry 等。be 表示“是、成为、当”,多用 于将来时、祈使句或不定式中。grow 表示“变得”,常指逐渐的变化,表示身高、岁数的增长。turn 表 示“变得”,指变为与原先不同的情况,通常指颜色等变化。如:I was caught in the rain and I became ill.(我淋雨感冒了)/ He has got rich.(他变富了)/ He will be a scientist in the future.(将来他将成为科学 家)/ My little brother has grown much taller in the past year.(在过去的一年里我的弟弟长得高多了)/ The sandwich has gone bad.(那块三明治已经变坏)/ Her face turned red after her mother criticized(批 评) her.(妈妈批评了他以后他的脸变红了) (3) 关于助动词: ①常见的助动词有:用于进行时和被动语态的 be (am, is, are ,was, were, been, being ) ;用于完成时的 have(has,had,having) ;用于将来时的 shall (should) ; will (would)和用于一般时的 do(does,did) . ②助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助 动词也可作情态动词。如:shall, will, should, would. (4) 关于情态动词: ①常见的情态动词有:can (could) ,may (might), must ,shall (should), will (would), dare (dared) , need 等, 另外,have to、had better 也当作情态动词使用。情态动词后面必须加动词的原形。 ②can 表示体力、脑力方面的能力或客观的可能性。口语中, 在询问或说明一件事可不可以做时,常用 “can”代替“may”。情态动词“can”的过去式是“could”,否定式是“cannot”通常缩写成“can‘t”,“could”的 否定式是“could not”,通常缩写成“couldn‘t”。如:Can I help you?(要帮忙吗?)/ He can swim.(他会游 泳)/ That can‘t be Mr Li.(那不可能是李先生) ③ may 表示允许、 请求或可能性,用 may 提问时,肯定回答一般用 Certainly 或 Yes,you may.;否定回答一 般用 can‘t 或 mustn‘t. 如:May I ask you a question?—Certainly.(可以问你一个问题吗?当然可以)/ You may go now.(现在你可以走了)/ It may be in your pocket.(它可能在你的衣袋里) ④ must 表示“必须”、“一定”的意思。表示“必须”时否定形式是 mustn?t;表示“一定”时,否定形式是

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“can?t” 如:We must be very careful when we cross the road.(我们过马路时一定要非常小心)/ It must be Jack.(那准是杰克)/ I haven‘t seen Kate today. She can‘t be here.(我今天没有看到过凯特,她不可能 在这里) [注意]用 must(必须)进行提问时,肯定回答用 must,否定回答用 needn‘t;用 must(一定)进行提问时,肯 定回答仍用 must,但是否定回答用 can‘t.如:Must we clean the room before we leave? –Yes,you must. 或 No,you needn‘t.(我们走之前必须要打扫房间吗?是的,必须打扫。 / 不,不需要。 ) / Must she be in the romm? –Yes,she must.或 No,she can‘t.(她一定在房间里吗?是的,一定。/ 不,不可能在。) ⑤ “have to”表示“不得不”、“必须”。We‘ll have to leave now for it is very late at night. have to 的疑问形式是:助动词+…+have to,否定形式是:助动词+not+have to 或者用 needn‘t.如:Do you have to stay until 8 o‘clock?(你得呆到 8 点钟吗?)/ You don‘t have to do so.(=You needn‘t do so.)(你不用这么做) ⑥ shall 在问句中,可表示征求对方意见,与第一人称连用; 在陈述句的第二、 三人称的主语后或表示“命 令”、“警告”、“允许”等。如:Shall we go to the zoo this weekend?(我们这个周末去动物园好吗?)/ He shall bring his own book next time.(他下次必须带自己的书来) ⑦ should 可表示“劝告”、“建议”、“惊奇”等意思。We should speak to old people politely.(我们应该礼貌 地对老人讲话) ⑧ will 表示“意愿”、“决心”等意思,一般与第二人称连用。如:Will you please close the door for me?(请 你替我把门关上好吗?)/ I will teach you a lesson.(我要教训你一顿) ⑨would 表示过去的“意愿”、“决心”等。He would sit near the fire every time he returned home.(每次他 回到家中总要坐在火炉边) would 也可以表示现在的情况,表达说话人向对方提出的要求,语气比“will”婉转、客气。在日常会话 中,“我想要…”通常用“I would like to”或“I should(I‘d) like to”来表示。如:Would you like to have a rest at the moment?(你现在想要休息一下吗?) would 还可以表示过去经常发生的事情。 如: Every year parents would tell their children about the boy who would save his people.(每一年父母们总是向孩子们讲述这个将会拯救他的人民的男孩的 事) ⑩ need 表示“需要”,用于疑问句或否定句。“need”作实义动词时,在肯定、否定、疑问句中都可以用。 如:He needn‘t do it in such a hurry.(他不需要如此匆忙地做这件事)/ He needs some help.(他需要一 些帮助)/ He doesn‘t need to bring his football socks then.(那么他就无须带上足球袜了) ⑴ dare 是“敢”的意思,用法几乎与“need”完全相同,即在疑问句和否定句中,可以作情态动词,后面用不 带“to”的动词不定式。在肯定句中和实义动词一样,后面的动词不定式要带“to”。How dare you say I

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am a fool?(你竟敢说我是个傻瓜?)/ He didn‘t dare to touch the red button.(他不敢触碰那个红色的按 钮) ⑵ ?d better (do)(“最好是”)一般也当作情态动词使用,否定式是:‘d better not (do). 如:You‘d better sit here and say nothing.(你最好坐在这儿不讲话)/ You‘d better not speak because he is sleeping.(你最好 不要讲话因为他正在睡觉) 2、动词词形变化一览表: (1)规则动词变化表:

原形动词结尾情况 规 一般情况 s,x,ch,sh,o 结尾 则 辅音字母+y 结尾 变 重读闭音节一元一辅 结尾 化 不发音的 e 结尾 ie 结尾 不 规 则 变 化

现在时单三人称 +s +es y→i,+es +s

现 在 分 词 +ing +ing +ing 双写辅音字母,+ing

过去式和过去分词 +ed +ed y→i,+ed 双写辅音字母,+ed

+s +s have→has;be→is

去掉 e,+ing ie→y,+ing (无)

+d +d (见不规则动词变化 表)

注意:①在加 ing 或 ed 时动词如果以“r”结尾,尾音节又重读的动词,“r”应双写。 ②s/es 的读音规则:在清辅音后读[s];在浊辅音后和元音后读[z];在[ s ]、[ F]、[z]、[tF]、[dV] 后读[iz]. ③ed 的读音规则:在清辅音后读[t];在浊辅音后和元音后读[d];在[t]、[d]后读[id]. (2)不规则动词变化表:( 原形 → 过去式 → 过去分词) be(am,is) be(are) beat become begin blow was were beat became began blew been been beaten become begun blown lose make may mean meet mistake lost made might meant met mistook meant met mistaken lost made

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break bring build buy can catch choose come cost cut dig do draw drink drive eat fall feel find fly forget freeze get give go grow hang have(has) hear

broke brought built bought could caught chose came cost cut dug did drew drank drove ate fell felt found flew forgot froze got gave went grew hung/hanged had heard

broken brought built bought

must pay put read ride

must paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set should shone showed shut sang sank/sunk set slept smelt spoke spent spilt spoilt stood swept swam shone shown shut sung sunk/sunken set slept smelt spoken spent spilt spoilt stood swept swum paid put Read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set

caught chosen come cost cut dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen felt found flown forgot/forgotten frozen got given gone grown hung/hanged had heard

ring rise run say see sell send set shall shine show shut sing sink sit sleep smell speak spend spill spoil stand sweep swim

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hide hit hold hurt keep know lay learn leave lend let lie

hid hit held hurt kept knew laid learnt/learned left lent let lay

hidden hit held hurt kept known laid learnt/learned left lent let lain

take teach tell think throw understand wake wear will win write

took taught told thought threw understood woke/waked wore would won wrote

taken taught told thought thrown understood woken/waked worn

won witten

3、be(“是/存在”)动词的各种时态变化: 一 般 现 在 时 I am…. You are.… He/She/It is…. We/You/They are…. 一 般 过 去 时 I was…. You were.… He/She/It was…. We/You/They were…. 注意:句型变化时, 否定句在 am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 后面加 not,而且 not 都可以缩写为 n?t (am 后面 not 不可以缩写); 疑问句将 am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 提前到句首。 一 般 将 来 时 (I 等各人称) will be…. I am He/She/It is We/You/They are 过 去 将 来 时 (I 等各人称) would be…. I was He/She/It was We/You/They were going to be… going to be… 现 在 完 成 时 I have been…. You have been…. She/he/It has been…. We/You/They have been…. 过 去 完 成 时 I had been…. You had been…. She/he/It had been…. We/You/They had been….

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4、其它谓语动词(主动语态)的时态变化一览表: 现在 一 般 现 在 时 时态 动词用原形(单三 谓语动 加 s / es) 词构成 (问句和否定句借 用助词 do / does) 过去 一 般 过 去 时 时态 动词用过去式 谓语动 (问句和否定句借 词构成 用助词 did) were were 5、八种时态的具体用法: (1) 一般现在时 表示现阶段经常或习惯发生的动作或存在的状态,或说明主语的特征。 ① 一般现在时句子中常有的时间状语:often,usually,sometimes,always,every (day 等), once/twice,a (week 等), on (Sunday 等),never,in the (morning 等)。如:They go to the Palace Museum once a year.(他们每年去一次故宫)/ They often discuss business in the evening.(他们 经常在晚上商谈生意) ② 表示客观真理、 事实、 人的技能或现在的状态时句子里一般不用时间状语。 如: The earth turns round the sun.(地球绕着太阳转)/ Light travels faster than sound.(光传播比声音快) ③ 表示十分确定会发生(如安排好的事情)或按照时间表进行的事情,用一般现在可以表达将来,句 子中可以有将来时间。如:The train for Haikou leaves at 8:00 in the morning.(开往汉口的列 车上午 8 点开车) ④ 在时间状语从句中(以 when, after, before, while, until, as soon as 等引导)和条件状语从句中(以 if,unless 引导),用一般现在时代替一般将来时,句子可以有将来时间。如:Please ring me up as soon as you arrive in Germany.(你一到德国就给我打电话) / If it rains tomorrow,we will have to stay at home.(如果明天下雨我们就只好呆在家) ⑤ 一般现在时用于倒装句中可以表示正在发生的动作,动词以 come, go 为主。如:Here comes the bus. (车来了) / There goes the bell.(铃响了)。 ⑥ 一般现在时常用于体育比赛的解说或寓言故事中。Now the midfield player catches the ball and was +动词-ing would + 动词原形 was +going to+动词原形 had +过去分词 过 去 进 行 时 过 去 将 来 时 过 去 完 成 时 am is are +动词-ing will + 动词原形 am is are +going to+动词原形 have +过去分词 has 现 在 进 行 时 一 般 将 来 时 现 在 完 成 时

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he keeps it. ⑦ 人的心理活动和感官动作一般用一般现在时而不用现在进行时表达,常见动词有:like, love, hate, dislike, want, wish, hope, think(认为),understand, remember, forget, mean, need, hear, feel, see. 如:I think it is going to snow.(我想天要下雪了)/ I really hope you can enjoy your stay here.(我真的希望你愉快地呆在这儿) (2) 一般过去时 表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,这种动作或状态可能是一次性,也可能经常 发生。 ① 表示过去具体时刻发生的一次性动作时,时间状语有:at (eight) (yesterday morning),(ten minutes) ago, when 引导的时间状语从句。如:I got up at 6:00 this morning.(我是早上六点 钟起床的)/ Little Tom broke the window at half past nine this morning.(小汤姆今天早上九点半 把窗子打破了)/ When he went into the room,he saw a stranger talking with his father.(他走进 房间时发现一个陌生人正和他父亲谈话) ② 表示过去一段时间内不知何时发生的一次性动作时,时间状语有:yesterday, last (year 等), in (1998 等)。如:He came to our city in the year 2000.(他 2000 年来到我们市) ③ 表示过去一个阶段中经常发生的事情时,时间状语有:last…, in…, from…to…, for(10 years),often,usually, sometimes, always, never 等。如:Mr Jackson usually went to evening schools when he was young. / Every day he went to the rich man and borrowed books from him. ④ 讲故事、 对过去经历的回忆、 双方都明白的过去事件等一般用过去时,而且经常省略时间状语。 如:I happened to meet Rose in the street.(我正好在街上遇到露西) (3) 一般将来时 表示将来某一时刻或经常发生的动作或状态。 ①一般将来时的时间状语有:tomorrow,this (afternoon),next (year),one day,now,soon, someday,sometime, in the future, when 引导的从句等。 ② 用 will 构成的将来时,表示动作与人的主观愿望无关。“shall”用于第一人称,“will” 用于所有人称。如:I will graduate from this school soon.(我很快就要从这所中学毕业了)/ You will stay alone after I leave.(我走了之后你就要一个人过了) ③ “am/is/are going to+动词原形”表示打算或准备要做的事情,或者主观判断即将要发生的事情, 而“am/is/are to +动词原形”表示安排或计划中的动作。 如: A man told them that the woman was to give birth to the special baby.(有一个人告诉他们那个妇女就会生下那个特别的男孩)/ It‘s going to rain soon.(天快要下雨了) ④ 表示一个人临时决定要做某事,可以用 will 表达。如:I will go to the lab to get some chemicals(化学药剂). So please wait until I return.(我要到化学实验室去取些药品,请等我回头)

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⑤ 现在进行时、一般现在时也可以表示将来。(见相应时态) ⑥ shall 和 will 在口语的一些疑问句中相当于情态动词。Shall 一般与第一人称连用,will 与第二 人称连用。如:Shall we go to the zoo next Saturday?(我们下周六去动物园好吗?)/ Will you please open the door for me?(替我把门打开好吗?) ⑦ “be to +动词原形”表示按照计划将要发生的事情。如:An angel came to tell her that she was to have this special boy.

(4)现在进行时 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作或是现阶段正发生而此刻不一定在进行的动作。 ① 现在进行时由“助动词 be (am is are ) +现在分词”构成。 ② 现在进行时的时间状语有: now, this …, these…等,但经常不用。 如: What are you doing up in the tree?(你在树上干什么?)/ I am writing a long novel these days.(我最近在写一本长篇小说) ③ 表示即将发生的动作,一般指近期安排好的事情。常见的动词有:come, go, stay, leave, spend, do 等。如:I‘m coming now.(我就来)/ What are you doing tomorrow?(你明天干什么?)/ He is leaving soon.(他就要走了) ④ 表示频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与 always 等频度副词连用,以表示赞扬、不满或讨厌等感 情色彩。如:He is always borrowing money from me and forgetting all about it some time later.(他老是向我借钱,过一些时候就忘得一干二净) 初一: 1.— Where is your mum? — She _______ at the kitchen.

(5)过去进行时 过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作。 ① 过去进行时由“was(第一、三人称单数)或 were(第二人称单数和各人称的复数)+现在分词”构 成。 ② 过去进行时的时间状语有:then, at that time, this time yesterday, at (eight) yesterday (morning),(a year) ago, 以及由 when 引出的时间状语从句。如:He was cooking supper this time yesterday.(昨天这个时候他正在做晚饭)/ The little girl was playing with her toy when I saw her.(我看到小女孩的时候她正在玩玩具) ③ 用于宾语从句或时间状语从句中,表示与主句动作同时进行而且是延续时间较长。 句子中通常 不用时间状语。如:She was it happen when she was walking past.(她路过时看到事情的发生)/

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They sang a lot of songs while they were walking in the dark forest.(他们在黑暗的森林里走时 唱了很多歌) ④ 也可以表示过去一个阶段频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与 always 等频度副词连用,以表示赞 扬、不满或讨厌等感情色彩。如:He was always borrowing money from me when he lived here.(他住在这里时老向我借钱)

(6)现在完成时 现在完成时表示一个发生在过去的、对现在仍有影响的动作,或表示开始在过去,并且 一直延续到现在,甚至还可能延续下去的动作。 ①在完成时由“助动词 have (has)+动词的过去分词”构成。 ②表示发生在过去的对现在仍有影响的动作时,时间状语有:already, yet, just, once, twice,ever, never,three times, before 等。如:I have never seen such fine pictures before. (我以前从来没有看 过这么好的画)/ He has just gone to England.(他刚去英国) ③表示在过去开始一直延续到现在(可能延续下去)的动作或状态时,时间状语有:for (two years),since 1990, since (two weeks ago)和 since 引导的状语从句。如:I have been away from my hometown for thirty years.(我离开家乡有 30 年了)/ Uncle Wang has worked in the factory since it opened.(自从这家工厂开张,王叔叔一直在那儿工作) ④口语中 have got 往往表示 have(有)的意思。如:They have got thousands of books in their library.(他们图书馆有上万本书) ⑤have been to 与 have gone to 的区别: have gone to(“已经去了”)表示人不在这里,have been to(“去 过”)表示人在这里。如:--Where is Mr Li? –He has gone to the UK.(李先生在哪里?他去了英 国。)/ --Do you know something about Beijing? –Yes,I have been to Beijing three times. (你知道北 京的情况吗?是的,我去过那里三次。) ⑥在完成时中,一个瞬间性动词(一次性动作)不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,此时须将该瞬间动 词改为延续性动词或状态动词。具体变化见下表:

瞬间性动词的完成时 have has (had) (already) gone to… → come to… left…

延续性动词或状态动词的完成时 have has (had) been in / at … been here been away from… for (two years) since (1990)

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arrived… died begun ended bought... borrowed… joined… 或者使用下面这个句型:

been in… been dead been on been over had… kept… been in …

It is / has been + (多久)+ since + 主语(人)+谓语(过去时)+……+过去时间状语 [注意] 在其它的时态中也存在类似问题,记住,关键是:瞬间动词不能和表达一段时间的状语连用。 如:How long may I keep the book?(这本书我能借多久?)(句子中 keep 取代了 borrow) (7) 过去完成时 过去完成时表示过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的动作。简言之, 过去完 成时所表示的时间是“过去的过去”。 ①过去完成时由“助动词 had+动词的过去分词”构成。 ②过去完成时时间状语有:by (yesterday), by then, by the end of (last…)或者由 when,before 等引出 状语从句。 有时句子中会有 already, just, once, ever, never 等词语,也会有 for… 或 since…构成的 时间状语。如:They had already finished cleaning the classroom when their teacher came.(当老师 来的时候他们已经打扫完了教室)/ The woman had left before he realized she was a cheat.(在他发 觉那个妇女是个骗子时她已经走掉了) ③过去完成时常用于宾语从句中、 after 引导的从句中,或者从句是 before 引导的主句中。 如: After I had put on my shoes and hat,I walked into the darkness.(我穿上鞋子戴上帽子走进了黑暗之中)/ He said that he had never seen a kangaroo before.(他说他以前从来没有见过袋鼠) (8) 过去将来时 过去将来时表示在过去预计将要发生的动作或存在的状态。 ①过去将来时由“助动词 should(第一人称)或 would(第二、三人称)+动词原形”构成。在美国英语 中,过去将来时的助动词一律用“would +动词原形”。 ②过去将来时常由于宾语从句中,时间状语有:later, soon, the next (day). ③在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中不可以使用过去将来时,而应该使用一般过去时。如:He promised that he would pay me a lot if I helped him with the project.(他答应付给我许多钱如果我 帮助他搞那个项目)/ Every time when he was free,he would sit down and read some books.(每次只 要他有空他就会坐下来看看书)

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④表示纯粹的将来时用 would 或 should,表示打算或主观认为的事情用 was/were going to (+动词原 形)。如:She told me she would be 18 the next month.(她告诉我她下个月就 18 岁了)/ She told me that she was going to have a walk with her pet dog.(她告诉我她打算带她的宠物狗去散步) ⑤过去将来时还可以表示一个过去经常性的动作。 如: When it rained in the day, he would bring an umbrella with him.(白天下雨时他会随身带一把雨伞) (9)现在完成进行时:现在完成进行时指一个从过去就开始一直延续到现在并由可能继续下去的动作,它 具有现在完成时和现在进行时双重特征,结构是:“have/has + been +动词的现在分词”。如:I have been swimming in the cold water for about two hours.(我已经在冰冷的水里游了将近两个小时)/ How long have you been waiting here?(你在这里一直等了多久?) 6、被动语态: (1)被动语态定义:被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,用来说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。如果主语 是 动作的执行者(即某人做某事),便叫主动语态; 如果主语是动作的承受者(即某事被做),便叫被动

语态。主动与被动的区别不是词序的区别,而是主语与谓语意义上的区别。在英语中只有及物动词和 一些相当于及物动词的词组才有被动语态的形式。 (2)英语中被动语态由“助动词 be +动词的过去分词”构成。助动词 be 有时态、人称和数的变化。被动 语态后的 by 短语有时可省去。具体结构见下表: 现在时态 一般现在时 am 谓语动词 构 成 is are +p.p. 现在进行时 am is are +being+p.p. 一 般 将 来 时 will + be+p.p. am is are 过去时态 谓语动词 were 构 成 were [注] p.p.表示过去分词。 (1) 被动语态的用法: ① 不知道谁是动作的执行者(即不知道谁做)时用被动语态,省略 by 短语。如:A man was killed in the accident.(一个人死于事故)/ This window was broken yesterday.(这扇窗子是昨天被打破的) ②不说或者众所周知是谁做时,用被动语态,省略 by 短语。如:Rice is also grown in this place.(这个 were +being+p.p. was +going to+be+p.p. 一般过去时 was 过 去 进 行 时 过 去 将 来 时 would +be+p.p. 过去完成时 had +been+p.p. +going to+ be + p.p. 现在完成时 have(has) +been+p.p.

+p.p. was

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地方也种水稻)/ A railroad will be built here in three years.(三年之后这里将要修建一条铁路) ③强调动作的承受者,句尾加 by 短语。 如: It was written by Lu Xun.(它(书)是鲁迅写的)/ A pet dog is never killed by its owner.(宠物狗是不会被主人宰杀的) (2) 主动语态如何改写为被动语态:

主动句:

主语(人/物) + 谓语(及物动词) + 宾语(人/物) + 其他 + 状语 (动作的执行者) (各种时态形式) (动作的承受者)

被动句: 主语(人/物) + 谓语(及物动词) + (动作的承受者) (be +过去分词)

by

+人 / 物

+ 其他 + 状语

(动作的执行者)

(3) 注意点: ①“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”改为被动时,可以用间接宾语做被动句的主语。如: His teacher gave him a dictionary.→He was given a dictionary by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→ 他得到老师一本字典) 也可以用直接宾语做被动句的主语,但是需用 to 或者 for 引出原句的间接宾语。 如: His teacher gave him a dictionary.→A dictionary was given . to him by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→一本字典由老 . 师送给了他)/His father made him a kite.→A kite was made . for him by his father.(他的父亲给他做 . . 了一个风筝→一个风筝由他的父亲做给了他) ②“动词+宾语+动词原形”改为被动时,动词原形前要加 to.如:The boss made the poor man work 12 hours a day.→The poor man was made . to work 12 hours a day.(老板让这个可怜的人一天工作 12 小 .

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时→这个可怜人被迫一天工作 12 小时) ③“动词+…+介词”改为被动时,介词一般在原位不动。如:The girl takes good care of her little . . brother.→The girl‘s little brother is taken good care of by her.(女孩照顾小弟弟→女孩的小弟弟由她 . . 照顾着) ④“be+过去分词”未必表示被动语态,而可能是系表结构。如: He is pleased / worried / tired /…….(系表)(他高兴/焦虑/疲劳……) He was hit / knocked down / told / shot / …….(被动)(他被击中/撞倒/关照/射中……)

7、动词的非谓语形式:动词不做谓语时的固定形式。 (1)动词的非谓语形式包括动词不定式、动名词和分词三种形式;其中分词又包含现在分词和过去分词两 种形式。它们在句子中不能单独作谓语。 (2)动词不定式: ① 形式:动词不定式基本形式由“不定式记号 to+动词原形”构成。它的否定形式只要在“to” 前面加 上“not”。它的疑问形式是:“wh-疑问词+to+动词原形”。*它的被动形式:“to be +过去分词”。* 它的完成形式:“to have +过去分词”。 ② 动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,即可以在句子中作主语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和 宾语补足语。但不定式也保留动词的某些特征,即不定式后面可以跟宾语、表语和状语。动词不 定式加上相关成分就构成不定式短语。 ③ 动词不定式可以放在谓语前句子作主语。但是通常将作主语的动词不定式或不定式短语放在谓语 后面,而在主语位置用“it”作形式主语(有时在不定式的前面还会用 for sb.表示不定式的逻辑主语)。 如:To help animals is helping people.(帮助动物就是帮助人)/ It is very difficult (for us) to learn Chinese well.((对于我们而言)学好汉语是非常的困难)/ It took me half an hour to work out this problem.(解出这道题花了我一个小时的时间) ④ 动词不定式可以作谓语动词(及物动词)的宾语。 [A] 及物动词+不定式一般形式: +不定式 谓语动词(vt.) (作宾语) [说 明]

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want(想) / try(试图) / decide(决定) / would like(想要) / hope(希望) / love(喜爱) / learn(学 会) / afford(提供) / agree(同意) / fail(失败、未 能) / mean(意味着) / prefer(宁愿) / wish(希望) help(帮助) begin(开始)/ start(开始)/hate(憎恨) forget(忘记) / remember(记得)/ like(总爱) + to (do)

(无)

to 可以省略 也可跟动名词,意义变化不大 也可跟动名词,意义变化较大

如: I would like to have a rest at the moment.(我现在想休息一下)/ They began to search the room for the thief.(他们开始在屋子里搜寻小偷)/ He liked to have a swim in the pool near his house.(他喜爱 在靠家的水塘里面游泳)/ When did you learn to speak English?(你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ Don‘t forget to close the door when you leave.(你离开时别忘了关门 [比较] He forgot to turn off the light.(他忘了关灯.) (没关)/ He forgot turning off the light.(他忘记关过 灯.)(关了) / Please remember to ring me up.(记得给我打电话.)(还没打电话) / I remember calling you yesterday but you forgot.(我记得昨天给你打电话了,但是你忘记了.)(打过电话) [B] 及物动词+疑问词+不定式: 谓语动词(vt.) tell (告诉) / show (显示) / know (知道) / ask (问) / find out (发现) / understand (明白) / wonder(疑惑) / learn(学会) / forget(忘记) / remember(记得) / teach sb.(教某人) / discuss(商讨) + +wh-疑问词+不定式 (作宾语) what where how who which …… 如: He does not know which one to take.(他不知道该选哪个)/ Tell me how to get to the station.(告诉 我怎么样去火车站)/ She asked me what to do for today‘s homework.(她问我今天家庭作业做什 么)/ Can you teach me how to search the internet?(你能教我怎样上网吗?) [C] 不定式作宾语而后面又有宾语补足语时,通常用 it 代替作形式宾语,而不定式则后置。如: I found it not very easy to learn to ride a bike.(我发现学骑车不很容易) ⑤ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作定语,放在名词或代词后面。 [A] 记住下面的一些结构: + to (do) [说明] 不定式疑问 形式还可以 作句子的主 语、表语等。

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被修饰部分 a key a box give her a book

+ 不定式(作后置定语) to lock the door to hold these things to read to (do)? to go. to do? to eat. to say. to drink?

汉 语 意 思 锁门的钥匙 装这些东西的箱子 给她一本书读 有…要(做的)吗? 是走的时间了。/ 该走了。 你有工作要做吗? 我要点儿吃的。 我没有话要说。 你要点儿喝的吗?

Is there any (+名词/代词) It‘s time Do you have any work I‘d like something I have nothing Would you like something

[B] 在这种情况下,如果不定式动词是不及物动词,则后面必须加介词。如: They could not find a place to live in.(他们找不到住的地方)/ Please give me a chair to sit on.(请 给我一张椅子坐坐)/ He has got a writing brush to write with.((他找到了写字的毛笔) ⑥ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作状语,有下列几种情况: [A] 放在不及物动词(come, go, stop, finish, wait 等词)的后面。如:He came to see her yesterday.(他 昨天来看望她)(表示来的目的)/ I stopped to have a rest.(我停下来休息一会儿)(表示停下来的目 的) [B] 放在完整的谓语之后(即“谓语+宾语”、 “谓语+宾语+补语”、 “动词+表语”之后)。 如: We cleaned the room to let him play in it.(我们打扫了房间以便让他在里面玩)/ I opened the window to see more clearly.(我打开窗子以便看得更清楚点儿) [C] 有时表示目的的不定式短语可以放在句首。 如: To arrive there on time,I got up one hour earlier than usual.(为了按时到达,我们比平时早起了一个小时)(表示早起的目的) [注意] stop to do 与 stop doing 的不同。如:They stopped to have a look.(他们停下来看看)(不定式 作“停下来”的目的状语)/ They stopped looking out of the window and began to listen to the teahcher.(他们停止向窗外望,开始听老师讲课)(动名词作宾语,表示“停止”的内容) ⑦ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作表语,限用于连系动词之后。如:My job is to keep the goal.(我的工作 就是守住球门) ⑧ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。 + 宾语 谓 语 动 词(vt.) (人 / 物) (作宾语补足语) +不定式

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ask(请) / tell(关照) / teach(教) / want(想要) / would like(想要) / get(让) / help(帮) / invite(邀请) / like(喜欢) / warn(警告) / make(使得) / let(让) / hear(听) / see(看) / feel(感觉) / watch(观看)/ have(使得) / help(帮助) 如:Mum asked me to help her with the cooking.(妈妈叫我帮助她做饭)/ I would like you to see my parents.(我想要你见见我的父母)/ The boss often made the workers work 14 hours a day.(老板 常让工人们一天工作 14 小时)/ Now let me hear you play the violin.(现在让我来听你拉小提琴) [注意] help 之后做宾补的不定式符号 to 可以省略;hear / see / feel / watch 之后的宾补用不定式与 现在分词时,含义不同,需特别注意,(参见现在分词部分)。试比较: I heard her crying when I walked past.(我路过时听到她正在哭)(指当时瞬间的情况) I sat near her and heard her sing the new song.(我坐在她附近听她唱新歌)(指整个过程) (3)动名词 ① 动名词由动词原形加词尾“ing”构成。动名词有动词的特征,可以跟宾语,可以被状语修饰;它也有 名词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)等。动名词加相关词语(宾语或状语等) 构成动名词短语。 ② 动名词可以作主语。一般可用 it 作形式主语而将动名词短语后移。如:Learning English all by yourself is not so easy.(自学好英语不那么容易)(=It is not so easy learning English all by yourself.) ③ 动名词可以作宾语。 [A] want / need 之后用动名词时,含有被动意思。如:Your car needs reparing badly.(你的车急需修 理。)(被修)My hair needs cutting.(我要理发。)(头发被理) [B] remember / forge / stop / finish 之后用动名词时,与用不定式含义不同。如:I forgot to write a letter to him.(我忘了给他写封信)(根本没写) / I forgot writing a letter to him.(我忘了给他写过 信)(写了却忘了) / They stopped to look back.(他们停下来向后看)(停下的目的是向后看) / They stopped looking back.(他们停止向后看)(不向后看了) [C] enjoy / mind / keep / hate/ go 等词一般用动名词作宾语。 如: Do you mind my closing the door?(把 门关上你介意吗?)/ She hates travelling by air.(她讨厌坐飞机旅行)/ They went swimming every afternoon.(他们每天下午去游泳)/ I enjoy walking around the town.(我喜欢在镇上转悠) [D] like / love / start / begin / learn 后面用动名词时,与用不定式意思相近或相同。如:We began to +sb. / sth. + (do) +sb. / sth. +to (do)

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study English when we were at primary school.(我们在小学时就开始学英语了) / We began studying English when we were at primary school. (我们在小学时就开始学英语了) ④ 动名词可以作表语,此时特别注意不要与现在进行时混淆。如:My job is putting these parts together.(我的事情是把这些部件拼起来) / I am putting these parts together.(我正在 把这些部件 .. 拼起来) ⑤ 动名词与现在分词构成相同,但是含义不同,动名词主要表示事情,而现在分词则主要表示进行着 的动作。如:Eating too much is not good for your health. (动名词短语,作主语) / Seeing is believing.(动名词短语,分别作主语和表语) / He ran after a moving bus and got onto it.(现在分词, 作定语) / His father saw him sitting on some eggs.(现在分词,作宾补) (4)分词: 包含现在分词和过去分词。(高中学习重点) ① 主要区别:现在分词一般有主动的意思或表示动作正在进行的意思;过去分词有被动或动 作已 经完成的意思。分词可以有自己的宾语或状语。 ② 分词或分词短语在句子中作定语、状语和复合宾语等。 [A] 作定语:分词作定语时,一般要放在修饰的名词之前,分词短语作定语时,则要放在所修饰的名 词之后。 如: I have got a running nose.(我流鼻涕) / The woman running after the thief shouted very loudly,―Stop the thief!‖(跟着小偷追的妇女大喊:捉小偷!) / Yesterday I met a man called Mr. Black.(昨天我遇见了一个名叫布莱克先生的人)/ He only gave me a broken glass,so I was very angry with him.(他只给了我一个坏玻璃杯,所以我很生他的气) [B] 现在分词可以作下列动词的宾语补足语。(参考不定式作宾语补足语) 谓语动词(vt.) keep(保持) / see(看到) / hear(听到) / watch(注意到) / feel(感觉到) 如:Mum kept me working all the week.(妈妈让我一个星期都在工作)/ When I entered the room,I saw Jack eating a big pear.(我进入房间时看到杰克正在吃一只大梨子)/ In the dark I felt something very cold moving on my foot.(黑暗之中我感到有个冷的东西在我的脚上移动) [C] 现在分词可以作状语,表示伴随情况。如:She came into the classroom,holding a pile of papers in her hand.(他走进教室,手上抓着一沓纸)/ I am very busy these days getting ready for the coming oral test.(这些日子我正忙着准备即将来到的口语考试) [D] 过去分词可以作表语,放在连系动词后面,但要注意不要与被动语态混淆,“主系表”主要表示状 态,而被动语态则表示动作。常用过去分词作表语的结构有:be worried (焦虑) / be pleased (高 sb./sth. (do)ing 宾语 宾语补足语

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兴) / be tired (疲劳) / get dressed (打扮好) / get lost (迷路) / get caught (遭遇) / beome frustrated (沮丧) / become intereted in (对…感兴趣)等等。例略。 [E] 过去分词可以作宾语补足语。如:I had my hair cut this morning.(今天早上我让人给我理了 发)(注意:have sth. done 表示动作由别人来做,而 have done sth.则为现在完成时的结构,两个 结构不可以混淆) 8、动词用法辨析: (1)“Why not+动词原形+…?”(干嘛不……?)是简略句,完全形式是:Why don‘t you +动词原形+…?如: Why not go and have a look?(干嘛不去看看?)/ Why not try it once again?(为什么不再试试?) (2) seem(好象)的用法:记住几个结构:①sb./sth. + seem + (to be+)形容词+…;②sb./sth. + seem + like +…;③sb/sth + seem + to (do);④It seems that + 从句。如:He seemed (to be) very happy when he was called by the headmaster. (被校长叫到名字时他好象很开心) / It seems that nobody else could do such a foolish thing except Jim. (除了吉姆好象没有什么人会做出如此愚蠢的事情来) (3) be afraid(害怕)的用法: 记住几个结构: ①be afraid of sth; be afraid of (doing); ②be afraid to (do); ③ be afraid that+从句。如:She is a little afraid of snakes.(她有点怕蛇)/ Don‘t be so afraid to stay at home alone at night.(别害怕晚上一个人在家)/ I‘m afraid that somebody will take his place because of his serious mistakes.(恐怕有人要取代他了,因为他犯了那么大的错误) (4) be sorry(抱歉)的用法:记住几个结构:①be sorry for (sth); ②be sorry for (doing sth); ③be sorry to (do); ④be sorry that+从句。如:I am very sorry for keeping you waiting so long.(不好意思让你久等 了)I am sorry to trouble you.(对不起,麻烦你了)/ I am sorry (that) he isn‘t here at the moment.(恐怕他 现在不在) (5) be sure (确信)的用法: 记住几个结构: ①be sure of (sth); ②be sure to(do); ③be sure that+从句。 如: She told me many times that she was sure to come.(她给我讲过多次她一定会来的) / Are you sure of your answer?Maybe it‘s wrong.(你对你的答案有把握吗?也许是错的。 )/ I am sure that Dad will help me with the job.(我确信爸爸会帮着我做这件事情的) (6) make 与 do 的用法:一般情况下表示进行活动或者做工作用 do,表示创造建构某事物用 make. 如: I don‘t know what to do.(我不知道该干什么)/ I‘m not going to do any work.(我不准备做什么)/ My father and I once made a boat.(我和我爸曾经做过一只船) 此外还要记住一些固定说法:do good / harm / business / one‘s best / a favour…… make a decision / an effort / a mistake / a noise / a phone call / money / war / the bed / sure,... (7)put on、wear、have…on、be in、try on、dress 的用法:put on 强调“穿、戴”这个动作过程,wear 则 表示“穿着、戴着”这一状态,have+衣物+on 主要表示状态,be in(+颜色/衣物)也是表示一个状

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况,dress(+人)表示“给…人穿衣”。 如: Please put on your new shoes.(请穿上你的新鞋)/ The twins are wearing the same clothes.(双胞胎穿着相同的衣服)/ Today she has an overcoat on.(今天她穿着一件 大衣) / Do you know the woman who is in black?(你认识那个身穿黑衣的女人吗?)/ Dad is dressing Tom now.(爹正在给汤姆穿衣) [注意]dress 与 wear 或 put on 的区别:wear 或 put on 常用衣物作宾语,而 dress 常用人作宾语。表示 给自己穿衣时常用“get dressed”或“dress oneself”表达。be dressed in 与 wear 基本同义。dress up 意 为“穿上盛装、乔装打扮”。如:Could you dress the baby for me?(你能替我给宝宝穿衣吗?)/ He is eight but can‘t dress himself.(他八岁了,还不会穿衣服)/ She was dressed in a red coat.(她穿着一件红 上衣)/ Do I have to dress up to go to Jim‘s party?(我得穿上好衣服去参加吉姆的聚会吗?) (8)like、love 与 enjoy 的用法: 三个词都含有“喜欢”的意思,但是,like 和 enjoy 后面跟动名词,love 后面一 般跟动词不定式 love to do sth.。like 后面有时跟动词不定式,表示一种习惯或嗜好(往往与具体的时 间或地点有关)。 enjoy 后面还可以加名词、 反身代词,表示“享受…乐趣; 玩得开心”。 如: Do you like shopping?(你喜欢购物吗?)/ He likes to have a swim when he gets home every afternoon(习惯,与 具体的时间有关).(每天下午放学后他总爱游个泳)/ They love to sing foreign songs.(他们喜爱唱外 国歌曲)/ Did you enjoy yourself at the party?(在聚会上你玩得开心吗?)/ He enjoys living in China.(他喜欢在中国生活) (9)study、learn 的用法: study 主要表示“学习、研究”,指过程;而 learn 主要表示“学会”,指结果。表示 “学”时可以互换。如:How many subjects do you study?(你学多少门课程?) / Have you learned it yet?(这个你学过了吗?)/ How long have you studied/learned English?(你学英语多久了?) learn 还可以表示“听说”,如:He learned the musician himself was in town.(他听说音乐家本人就在 城里) (10)think、want、would like 的用法:三个词都含有“想”的意思,但 think 指“思考、考虑”,want 指“想要、 愿望、企图”,would like 指“想要”,think 后面一般跟介词短语或从句,want 和 would like 后面跟名词 或动词不定式。如:Do you think that China will become a developed country in 40 years? (你认为中 国会在 40 年后成为发达国家吗?)/ I am thinking of the money I once lent to Li Min.((我正在想着以 前借给黎敏的钱)/ What do you really want to say?(你到底想干什么?)/ Which of these cakes would you like (to have)?(这些饼子中你想吃哪些?) (11)look for、search…for、find、find out 的用法:前面两个词语表示动作过程,后面两个表示结果,look for 指“寻找”不见的或丢失的东西,但还没有找到;search…for…指“为找…而搜寻…”;find 指“找 到”了东西;find out 主要指“查明一个事实真相”。如:Hey, Monkey, what are you looking for in the cupboard?(嘿,猴儿!你在厨子里面找什么呢?)/ Have you found the lost key to your car?(你找着丢

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失的车钥匙了吗?)/ The soldiers were searching the room for the spy when they heard a loud noise.(士兵们正在房间里面搜寻间谍突然间他们听到了衣声巨响)/ Let‘s try to find out who broke the window.(让我们查查谁把窗子打破了) [注解] find 的几个结构:find sb. sth“为某人找到…”,find sth./sb. + adj./n.“发觉某人是…”,find it +adj. + to do…(或+宾语从句)“发现(做……)如何”。 如: His mother found her daughter a very clever girl.(他 的母亲发现她的女儿是个聪明的女孩)(名词作补语补足语) / You can easily find it not good for your health to eat cold food.(你很容易就会发现吃冷食对你的身体是不利的) (12)listen to、hear 的用法:两个词与听觉有关,listen to 指“听”这一过程,hear 指“听到”这一结果。如: Are you listening to me, Jim? Yes, I have heard your words. (吉姆,你在听我说吗?是的,你的话我全 听见了) (13)look、see、watch、read 的用法:四个词均与眼睛有关,look 指放眼去“看”(不管是否看得到),指“看” 的过程;see 指“看见”这一结果,有时 see 还引申为“明白”,表示“看”时后面加“电影”等词,see the film/film ;watch 指专注的看,含有“注视、监视”之义,后面常跟“电视、比赛”等词;read 限制为看 书面材料,译为“看、阅读”,后面跟“书、报纸、杂志”等词。如:What are you looking at?(你在看什 么?)/ Please look at the blackboard. (请看黑板)/ Let me go to see the film, mum, will you? (妈妈,让 我去看电影吧,好吗?)/ He won‘t feel well until he finishes watching the football match. (要看完了足 球赛他才会感觉好些)/ Reading gives us knowledge.(阅读给我们知识) (14)hear、hear of、hear from、learn 的用法: hear“听说”,后面可以跟名词、代词、从句表示听见的内 容,hear of“听说”,后面跟人,指对某人有耳闻但没有见过面;hear from“收到……的来信”,后面加人; learn“听说、得知”,后面跟从句,含义与 hear 相似。如:I hear Mr Green is coming to see us tonight. (我听说格林先生今晚要来看望我们)/ Have you ever heard of the man who once went to the Himalaya Mountains? (你是否听说过那个去过喜马拉雅山的人?)/ How often do you hear from your father? (隔多久你收到你父亲的信?)/ He learned the musician himself was in town.(他听说音 乐家本人就在城里) (15)speak、talk、say、tell 的用法:四个词与“说”有关。speak“讲话、发言、演说”,是不及物动词,涉及 人时要加介词 to,speak 作及物动词时后面跟语言名称;talk“谈话、闲谈”,是不及物动词,涉及人时 用介词 with、to 等,涉及事情时后面跟介词 about 等;say 是及物动词,后面跟名词、代词、从句等, 表示说的内容;tell 是及物动词,后面首先要跟人,然后再跟从句或者介词短语等。如:Do you speak English? (你讲英语吗?)/ Who spoke at the meeting? (谁在会上发了言?)/ Our teacher is talking to Lin Tao‘s parent. (我们的老师正在跟林涛的家长讲话)/ Can you say it in English? (你能用英语说出 它吗?)/ Please tell me something about the strange flying object. (请跟我讲讲那个奇怪的飞行物的

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事情吧) (16)be able to(do)、can 的用法:can 是情态动词,有许多含义,表示“可能、可以、会”等意思,只有①现在 式 can 和过去式 could 两种形式;be able to 表示能力上“会”,有多种时态形式,to 后面跟动词原形, 有时可以与 can/could 互换。 如: Can you speak English? (你会说英语吗?)/ He couldn‘t(wasn‘t able to) swim when he was 12. (他十二岁时不会游泳) 表示成功的做了某事时,只能用 be able to.如: He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out. (17)there be、have 的用法:两个词都可以译为“有”,但是,have 表示的是“拥有”,主语必须是人或者物; there be 表示“存在”的概念,主语在 there be 之后。 如: How many brothers and sisters do you have? I have only one brother. (你有多少兄弟?我只有一个兄弟。)/ How many chairs and desks are there in their classroom? There is none. (他们教室里有多少张桌椅?一张也没有。) [注解]there be sb./sth doing 与 there be sb./sth to do 有所不同:用 doing 表示一个正在发生的事情, 而用 to do 则表示尚未做的即将要做的动作。 如: Look! There is a dog lying on the stairway. / Take your time. There is nothing for you to do tonight. (18)borrow、lend、keep 的用法:表示“借”的三个词,borrow“借进”、lend“借出”都是一次性动作,不可以 和表示一段的时间状语连用; keep“保存”用来表示借一段时间。 如: I have lost the book I borrowed from my teacher. What can I do? (我丢掉了从老师那里借来的书)/ How long have you kept my dictionary,eh?For more than two months! (呃,我的字典你借了多久了?两个多月了!) (19)bring、take、carry、send、lift 的用法:bring 指从远处“拿来”,是从别处把东西带到这里来,如: Can you bring me that glass? 你能给我拿那个杯子吗?;take 指从面前“拿走”,把人或物拿到别处, 不是说话的地方, 如: Please take the letter to the post office .; carry 指一般的搬运, 不涉及方向; send 主要指“送、派遣、寄”;lift 指把东西由低向高“提起、拎起”。例略。 (20)hope、wish 的用法:两个词都表示“希望”,但是,hope 表达有把握或信心实现的事情,后面直接跟动词 不定式或者宾语从句,不可以跟动名词或作宾语补足语的不定式; wish 表达实现的可能性不大的事情, 后面跟名词、宾语从句(用过去时)或者作宾语补足语的不定式。如:We all hope to see him very soon. (我们全都希望尽快见到他)/ I hope it will be fine tomorrow so that we can go out. (我希望明天天好,这 样我们就能出去了。)/ How I wish it was not raining at the moment!(我多么希望此刻不在下雨!)(事 实上天正在下雨,虚拟语气) (21)take、spend、pay、cost 的用法:①看主语 ②看结构 spend 的宾语通常是金钱或时间,句型: sb.+(spend)+时间/金钱+on sth / (in) doing sth. ;

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take 的主语通常是事情,句型: sth./It + (take)+sb.+时间+to do… 。(如果是动作则常用 it 作形式主语 将动词不定式后移); cost 的宾语通常是时间、金钱、力气,句型: sth. +(cost)+sb.+时间/金钱/力气. ; pay 的宾语通常是金钱,句型: sb.+(pay)+金钱+for+事物. 如:She spent the whole night reading the novel. (她花了一个晚上看那本小说)/ This job will take me two days.=It will take me two days to do the job. (做这件事情要花我两天的时间)/ How much does a house like this cost? (像这样的房子要花多少钱?)/ I paid him twenty dollars for the book.. (我花了 20 元从他那儿买了书) (22)begin、start 的用法:begin 在大多数情况下可以替代 start,(反义词是 end),后面接不定式或动名词时 区别不大,但是 start 还可以表示“开始、出发、启动”,反义词是 stop;某事停止后再重新开始一般用 start.如:When did you begin/start to learn English? (你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ They started getting in the crops after the rain stopped. (雨停后他们开始收割庄稼) / This time he could not start his car. (这次他没法启动他的汽车) (23)arrive in/at、reach、get to 的用法:arrive 是不及物动词,到达具体地点(单位,学校,家,车站)时后 面加介词 at , The new teacher arrived at our school . We arrived at the station just now,到达一个大的地 方(国家、地区、城市)时后面加介词 in,如:We arrived in Paris yesterday, arrive 后面可以直接跟地 点副词 here/there/home 等; get 表示“到达”时是不及物动词,涉及地点(无论大小)时后面加 to,get 后面 可以直接跟地点副词 here 等;reach 是及物动词,后面直接跟地点名词。如:He arrived in San Francisco last Sunday. (上个星期天他抵达旧金山)/ How did you get there in the night? (你是怎样在 夜间到达那里的?)/ We hurried all the way and reached the station just five minutes before the train left. (我们一路狂奔在火车启动前 5 分钟到达车站) (24)be made of、be made from、be made into、be made in、be made by、be made for 的区别:be made of 指从制成品中可以看得出原材料,而 be made from 则指从制成品中看不出原材料,口语中都可以换成 be made out of。 be made into 表示“被制成……”,be made in 表达被制造的地点,be made by 表达制造 的人,be made for 表达被制造的目的。如:This kind of paper is made from bamboo. (这种纸是由竹子 生产的)/ The desk is made of wood and metal. (桌子是铁和木头打的)/ A lot of paper has been made into paper birds. (许多纸被折叠成了小鸟)/ Computers are made in these cities. (计算机是在这几个城 市制造的)/ This kite was made by Uncle Wang. (这个风筝是王叔叔做的)/ A big bag was made for me to hold my waste things.(一只大包做好了让我装废物) (25)be used for、be used to、used to、get used to 的区别:be used for + 名词/代词或动名词, be used to + 动词原形,表示两个短语意思相近,表示“用于…”。 used to + 动词原形,表示“过去常常”,否定式可以

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是“didn‘t use to”也可以是“usedn‘t to”;get/be used to + 动名词,表示“习惯于….”。如:A knife can be used for cutting things.(刀可以用来割东西)/ A knife can be used to cut things.(刀可以用来割东西)/ He used to borrow novels from the library when he was at school. (他上学时常常在图书馆借书)/ He is used to getting up early in the morning. (他习惯早起)(注意:be used to 表示“被用作”和“习惯于”的区 别) (26)beat,win 与 lose: beat (打败),后面跟“人”,而 win(赢得),后面跟“比赛、 竞赛”等。 如: Who won at last? (最后谁赢了?)/ Class Three beat us 5-0. (三班以 5∶0 打败了我们)/ I am sure to win the match. (我一 定能赢得比赛) 而 lose 则表示“输了”,常用句型:lose sth. to sb. 如:Unluckily we lost the match to Class Three. (不幸 的是我们比赛输给了三班) (27)grow、plant、keep 的区别:plant 着重讲“栽、种植”这个动作,grow 则指种植以后的“栽培”、“管理”, 而 keep 则主要指“喂养”、“赡养”一个人或者动物。如 :He grew vegetables in his garden. (他在园子 里种菜)/ I planted ten trees last year,but four of them died. (去年我栽了 10 棵树,但是死了 4 棵)/ Old women enjoy keeping cats or dogs to kill the time. (老年的妇女喜欢养猫养狗打发时间) (28)fall 、drop 的区别:fall 指东西由高处向下坠落,不及物动词;也可以作连系动词,意思是“变得,进 入某种状态”。drop 表示物体由高处往低处落下,不及物动词; 或让物体落向低处,及物动词。 如: The man fell off the tractor and hurt himself. (那个人从拖拉机上摔下来跌伤了)/ Soon after they touched the pillows they fell (系动词) fast asleep. (他们头挨枕头不久就睡着了)/ He felt as if he had to drop maths.(他觉得似乎要放弃数学)/ He dropped a letter into the mail-box.(他向邮箱里丢了一封信) (29)join、join in、take part in 的区别:join 多指参加组织、团体、党派等,后面跟人时表示和某人一起 参加某项活动;join in 指参加某项游戏或活动;take part in 多指参加群众性的活动、运动、会议等。 如: He joined the army in 2001.(他 2001 年参军)/ They joined me in congratulating you.(他们和我一起 向你祝贺)/ Do join us in the game.(千万参加我们的比赛) / He took an active part in the students‘ movement in the 1940s.(在二十世纪 40 年代他积极参加学生运动) (30)beat、hit、strike 的用法区别:beat 指“连续不断地打击;(心脏的)跳动”;hit 指“一次性地撞击、命 中”;strike 与 hit 基本同义,还可以理解为“划(火柴)、给……深刻的印象”。如:The man looks dead, but his heart is still beating weakly. (那个人看上去死了可心脏还在微弱地跳动) / He hit the ball so hard that it flew over their heads and fell into the lake. (他踢球的劲太大球飞过他们的头顶落入水中) / He went into the room and struck a match(火柴). (他走进房间划着了一根火柴) (31)carry on、 carry out 的区别: carry on 表示“进行、 继续”; carry out 表示“执行、 贯彻”。 如: I will carry on the work. (我会继续工作)/ I have some difficulties in carrying out his orders. (对于执行他的命令我

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有问题) (32)be amazed 与 be surprised 的区别:be amazed“感到惊讶”,指人对某个不可能(可能是自认为的)发 生却实际发生了的事情感到极其的讶异;be surprised“感到吃惊”指人对突发的事件感到惊讶。如: When he dived deep into the sea, he was amazed at the colours of all the beautiful coral reefs. (他深潜 到海中时被所有美丽的珊瑚礁惊呆了)(原先可能想不到世上会有这么美的珊瑚) / He was very surprised when he heard a loud noise from inside the room. (听到房间里传出一个很大的声音他非常 地吃惊)(突然传出来的声响) (33)warn 的用法:“warn sb. of/about sth”意思是“针对…而警告某人”;“warn sb (not) to do sth”意思是 “告戒某人(不)要做某事”;“warn sb. + that 从句”意思是“警告某人说……”。如:They warned the passengers of thieves. (他警告路人小心窃贼) / I warn you that you will fail in the coming exams if you are still so lazy. (我警告你: 如果你还这么懒在即将来到的考试中你会不及格的。 ) / He was warned not to go out in the late night. (他受到警告不要在深夜出去) (34)think of 与 think about 等短语的区别: think of 表示“考虑、 思念、 认为、 想起、 建议”等; “think about” 表示“看待、 认为”, 表示对某事的看法; “think much /highly /a lot of”表示“高度评价…”; “think over” 表示“仔细考虑”;“think out”表示“想出”。如:The headmaster thought highly of this boy. (校长高度 地评价了这个男孩) / We‘re thinking of going to France for our holiday. (我们在考虑去法国度假的事 情) / Think it over and you will have a way. (仔细考虑就有办法) / I cannot think of his name. I forgot it. (我想不起他的名字我忘了) / -What do you think about his composition? -Very good! (他的作文你 觉得怎么样? 很好。) (35)agree with/ agree to / agree on 等词语用法:“agree to+动词”表示“同意做某事”,“agree with + sb./观 点”表示“赞同…的观点”/ agree about 表示“对…话题有相同看法”/“agree to +建议”表示“同意”某人的 建议,agree to your advice,“agree on + 决定”表示“赞成某人的决定”, agree on your decision。例略。 (36)deserve(应该,应得)的用法:deserve 后面可以加不定式,也可以加名词或动名词。如:They had tried their best and they deserved to win. (他们尽力了该赢。) / The little boy always made troubles around and deserved beating. (小男孩总是处处惹麻烦活该被打) / The girl did a good deed and deserved praise. (女 孩做了好事应该受到表扬)

九、连接词 1、连词的含义:连接 词与词、短语与短语、或引导从句的词叫连接词。 2、连词的分类:连词分为并列连接词和从属连接词两种。

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1、并列连接词连接并列的词、短语、从句或句子。常见的并列连接词有:and(和),but(但是),or(或者, 否则),nor(也不), so(所以), however(然而,无论如何),for(因为),still(可是),as well as(也),both..and...(... 和...), not only ...but also...(不但…而且…), either… or…(或…或…),neither… nor…(既不…也不…) 等。 2、从属连接词用于引导从句,常见的从属连接词有: when(当…时候), while(正当…时候), after(在…之后), before(在…之前), since(自从), until(直到), although/though(虽然), if(假如), as(如…一样;由于), as …as…(和…一样), as far as(就…而言), as long as(只要), as soon as(一…就…), even if(即使), because(因为), unless (除非), than(比…), whether (是否…), in order that…(为了), so…that…(如此…以致), so that…(以便), now that…(现在既然), by the time…(到…时候), every time…(每当), as if…(仿佛),no matter when(或 whenever)(无论何时),no matter where(或 wherever)(无论在哪里)等。 [辨析] (1) because、as、since、for 的用法:because(因为)表示原因的语气最强,常表示必然的因果关系,从句 一般放在主句后面;另外,回答 why 的问句只能用 because. as(因为)表示一般的因果关系,语气比 because 弱,说明比较明显的原因,它引导的从句可以放在句首也可以放在句尾。since(既然)表示对方 已经知道、 无需加以说明的原因或事实。 for(因为)是并列连词,语气较弱,用来补充说明理由或提供一 种解释。如:He is not at school today because he is seriously ill.(他今天没有上学因为他病得厉害) / As all of you have got here, now, let‘s go to the zoo. (既然大伙儿都到了我们就去动物园吧) / I will ask Lin Tao to go with me since you are very busy. (既然你很忙我就叫林涛和我一起去吧) / We must be off now for the match starts at 7:00.(我们得走了因为比赛在七点开始) (2)if、whether 的区别:表示“是否”时,if 和 whether 同义,引导宾语从句,另外,whether 还可以引导主语 从句、表语从句(以及同位语从句)等名词性从句或者让步状语从句;而 if 还可以表示“如果”,引导条 件状语从句, (主句与从句遵循主将从现的原则)。如:I don‘t know if/whether he will arrive on time. (我不知道他是不是会按时到达)/ I will ring you up if he arrives on time.(如果他按时到达我会给 你打电话的) [注意]下列情况只能用 不能用 if : ①引导主语从句,②引导表语从句,③引导从句作介词宾语, ...whether . . . . . . . .... . ④引导不定式短语,⑤引导让步状语从句,⑥在动词 discuss 之后,⑦在 wonder / not sure 之后,⑧在 if 与 whether 含义易混时。如:Whether it is a fine day next Sunday is still a question.(下个星期天是不 是个好天还是个问题)(引导主语从句) / Please ask him whether to go there with a raincoat or not.(请 问一下带不带雨衣去那儿)(作动词的宾语) / Hainan is the place to be, whether it‘s summer or winter. (海南是个该去的地方无论冬夏) (引导让步状语从句)/ Please let me know whether you need my help.

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(请告诉我你是否需要我的帮助)(引导宾语从句)(如果换成 if 则还可能表示“如果你需要我的帮助 请告知”) (3)while、when、as 的用法区别:while 常表示一个较长的动作,它引导的从句动作与主句的动作是只 能是同时发生的、是平行的;when 可以表示较短的动作也可以表示较长的动作,主句和从句的动作 可以同时发生也可以先后发生; as 与上两词同义,可替换 while 和 when, 表示主句和从句的动作同时 发生,常译为“一边……一边……”。如:Please do not trouble me while I am writing my homework.(我 写作业时请不要打扰我)/ I‘ll go home when I have finished my job.(我干完了活儿就回去)(不是同 时发生)/ They were running quickly across the road when they heard the sound of a truck coming.(他 们正快速地穿过马路忽然听到了卡车开来的声音)/ As we walked in the dark street, we sang songs and talked loudly.(当我们在黑洞洞的街上走路时我们高声地唱歌说话) (4)till/until 与 not…till/until 的区别: 前者表示一个延续性的动作,后者表示一个才开始的动作。 如: I will stay here and watch the baby until you return.(我会呆在这里看着娃娃直到你回来)(stay 这个动作一 直进行到你 return) / They won‘t go on working until they get what they think is reasonable.(他们要到 获得了他们认为合理的东西时才会继续干下去的) 另外 till 与 until 基本可以互换,但是在句首时只能用 until,不能用 till. 如:Until the last minute of the match we kept playing.(我们坚持到比赛的最后一分钟)/ Not until he had finished his work did he go home.(直到做完工作他才回家) (倒装句) (5)though 与 although 的区别: 两个词都表示“虽然”,均不可以与 but 同时使用,但在句中可加 still 或 yet 连用。although“尽管、 虽然”仅作连词,比较正式,一般可以换为 though; though“虽然、尽管、即使”, ①还可以与 even 连用(=even if),表示“即使、纵然”,②作副词时意思是“然而、不过”,不能放在句首。 ③although 不能放在句末,though 则可以,用“,”隔开。如:He passed the exams although illness prevented him from going to classes. (尽管疾病使他无法上课但是他还是通过了考试) / she won‘t leave the TV set,even though her husband is waiting for her for the supper.(她不愿离开电视机虽然丈夫在 等她吃饭)/ It was a quiet party. I had a good time, though.(这是个不热闹的聚会尽管如此我还是玩 得很开心) (6)prefer to…rather than…与 prefer…to…的区别:prefer to…rather than…后面都是用动词原 形,prefer…to…都是用动名词或名词。如:I prefer English to Japanese.(与日语相比我更喜欢英语)/ I prefer to learn English rather than learn Japanese. (与日语相比我更喜欢学英语)

十、简单句
1、简单句的特点:简单句通常只由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成。

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2、简单句的种类:简单句一般分为陈述句、疑问句、感叹句和祈使句四种。 3、陈述句: 用来说明一个事实的句子叫陈述句。它有肯定式和否定式两种形式。 ▲陈述句的肯定式: He is a middle school student.(他是个中学生)/ I have a hammer in my hand.(我 手上有把锤子)/ She teaches us geography.(她教我们地理)/ The new play was good enough and everybody enjoyed it.(新的话剧非常好大家都喜欢) ▲陈述句的否定式: 1)谓语动词如果是 be 、助动词、情态动词时,在它们的后面加“not”。如:My brother is not a teacher. (我的弟弟不是教师)/ He does not have a cousin.(他没有堂兄弟)/ I will not go there tomorrow. (明天我不去那儿) / My mother is not cooking a meal in the kitchen. (我母亲现在不在厨房里做饭) / You must not make such mistakes again.(你不该再犯类似错误了) / We haven‘t discussed the question yet(我们还没有讨论那个问题呢). 2)谓语动词如果没有上述词语而是其他动词时,须在它的前面加 do not(don‘t).如: I don‘t know anything about it.(此事我一无所知) / Li Ming does not feed pigs in the countryside.(李明不在农村 养猪)/ We didn‘t expect to meet her right here.(我们没指望着在这里见到她)/ We didn‘t have a meeting yesterday afternoon.(昨天下午我们没有开会) 3)如果“have”作“有”讲,也可以在它后面加 not 构成否定式,其形式与 have got 的否定式相同。 如:I haven‘t (got) any brothers or sisters.(我没有兄弟姐妹) have 的否定形式: ① 当表示“有”的意思时, 可以采用以下三种形式: have+not; do not+ have; have+ no+ n. 如: I have not enough food to eat.= I do not have enough food to eat. =I have no enough food to eat. ② 当 have 为助动词时,用“have+ not”结构。如:I have not been toShanghai。 ③ 当 have 既不表示“有”,也不作助动词用时,用“do not+ have”结构。I didn?t have breakfast this morning. 具体到反义疑问句中,则遵循以下原则: a.当 have 表示“有”含义时,反意疑部问部分可以用 have 形式,也可以用 do 形式。例如: He has a book in his hand, hasn't he? He has a book in his hand, doesn't he? b.当陈述部分的动词是 have“有”的否定形式时,反意疑问部分是用 have 形式还是用 do 形式,取决于 陈述部分的动词形式。例如:

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You haven't a car, have you? You don't have any money with you, do you? c.当 have 不表示“有”含义而表示其他含义时,反意疑问句则必须用 do 的形式。例如: We had a good time in the vacation, didn't we? He has his breakfast at seven everyday, doesn't he? You have to get up early tomorrow, don't you? [注意] ①句子中如果有 all、both、very much/well 等词时,用 not 一般构成部分否定,如果要完全否定,则通常 使用 none、neither、not…at all 等;All of them went there.→None of them went there.(他们全都 去了那里→他们全都没去那里) ②句子中含有 little、few、too(太)、hardly、never、neither、nor、seldom 等词时, 则视为否定句。 如:Few people live there because life there is very hard.(几乎没有人生活在那里因为那里的生活 太艰难了) ③陈述句(主语+谓语+其他)在口语中可以直接表示疑问,表示惊讶或明知故问。 如: That‘s your boss? (那就是你的老板?! ) ④陈述句一般情况下应使用正常的语序, 即:主语+谓语+其他。但是有时会倒装,详见“倒装句”。 ⑤所有的从句一律使用陈述句语序,即在连接词后采用“主语+谓语+其他”的顺序。如:The old man told me that he would live here for ten more years before he returns home. (老人告诉我说他还要在 这儿住几年然后回家)/ Could you tell me who you saw at the party last night?(能告诉我在聚会上 你都看见了谁吗?) 4、疑问句: ▲一般疑问句:提问所述情况是否符合事实,要求用是还是不是,对还是错(用“yes”或“no”)来回答 的疑问句叫做一般疑问句。 1)一般疑问句构成:句中谓语动词是 be、情态动词时,则将它们(提前)放到主语前面。 (即把主语和 be,情态动词调换位置) ,即“be/情态动词+主语+----”如:Is he an engineer?(他是工程师吗?)/ Have you got today‘s newspaper? (你有今天的报纸吗?) (特殊情况) / Shall we go to see a film this evening? (我们今晚去看电影好吗?)/ Can you explain it ?(你能解释它吗?)/ Is there any fish for supper?(晚饭有鱼吗?)/ Would you like to go out for a walk?(你想出去散步吗?) 谓语动词如果没有上述词语而是其他动词时, 则在主语前面加助动词 do / does / did, 原来的谓语 动词改为原形,即“do+主语+动词原形”。如:Do you get up at six every morning?(你天天早晨六 点起身吗?)/ Does she study hard?(她学习努力吗?)/ Did you go there yesterday?(昨天你去那

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儿了吗?) 2)一般疑问句的回答: 一般疑问句通常用简略形式来回答。如: Will you join us in playing basketball?(你加入我们打篮球好吗?)—Yes, we will.(是的我们会。 ) / —No, we won‘t.(不我们不会。 ) Have you got today‘s newspaper? (你有今天的报纸吗?) —Yes, I have (是的有。 . ) / —No, I haven‘t. (不没有。 ) 回答时所用的时态应和问句里的时态一致。 [注意] 回答 must 或者 may 开头的疑问句要小心,参见情态动词有关内容。 3)一般疑问句的否定结构:be/助动词/情态动词+not+主语+---- 或:be/助动词/情态动词+主语 +not+----如: Will he not come?=Will not he come?(他难道不来吗?)/ Isn‘t your sister a Party member?=Is your sister not a Party member?(你的姐姐不是党员吗?)/ Don‘t you like the play?=Do you not like the play? 否定疑问句并不单纯的表示提问,它常带有强烈的感情色彩,而且完全式比简略式所表达的语气 更强烈: ①常带有惊异,责难或赞叹的语气,如:Haven?t you read the newspaper? 你没看过这份报纸?② 有时暗示提问者期待着肯定的回答, 如: Shouldn?t we start now? 我们是不是该动身了? Wasn?t it an interesting film? 那部电影不是很有趣吗? ③有时表示邀请或建议,如:Wouldn?t you go with me? 你不和我一起去吗?Won?t you have a cup of coffee? 你不喝杯咖啡吗? 注意: 这种否定结构的疑问句的回答与汉语的习惯不同。 如果回答是肯定的,就用“yes+肯定结构”; 如果回答是否定的,就用“no+否定结构”。(情况与反意问句类似。)如: Can‘t he answer the question? (他不能回答这个问题吗?) —Yes, he can.(不,他能回答这个问题。) —No,he can‘t. (是的,他不能回答这个问题。)(不管怎

么问,如果事实上是“是的”,则用 yes,如果事实上“不是,不能做某件事的”,则说“no”。 ▲特殊疑问句:询问其语句中所缺失的部分,或者说,是要求得到暂时不知道的信息:什么,哪里,怎 么样,多少,等等。 特殊疑问句是提问实质内容的(要求得到有实质内容回答的,而不简单的回答是否)。特殊疑问词,就 是用来代替句子中缺失的东西——你要询问的东西的。 What + Who + is it? is your teacher?

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从这里也看到了,不管从语法角度,还是实际理解角度,如果单是后面的一般疑问句,它是不完整的。 1)特殊疑问句结构是:疑问词+ 一般疑问句+-----? 疑问代词 除 who 以外的疑问代词短语 疑问副词 如: What do you want? (你要什么?) / Who(m) are you looking for ? (你在找谁?) / Whose magazine is this? (这是谁的杂志?) /Which class are you in? (你在哪班?) / When did you get up this morning? (你今早什么时候起身的?)/ Where have you been?(你到哪儿去了?)/ Why did he go to bed so early?(他为什么这么早睡觉?)/ How did you go there?(你是怎么去的那儿?) 非重点,可以省略:但是,―who‖引出的询问主语或主语部分相关词的特殊疑问句的结构与陈述句 词序相同:如:Who is dancing over there?(谁在那边跳舞?) ,Who dances best in your class? 班 级里谁跳舞最好? 有时―what‖,―which‖,―whose‖也可以引出与陈述句词序相同的特殊疑问句。 如: What is on the wall? (什么东西在墙上?/墙上有什么?) / Which is yours? (哪个是你的?) / Whose book is in your bag? (谁的书在你的书包里?) (谓语动词是 be 时) [注意]从陈述句改为特殊问句时,先将剔除掉划线部分的句子改为一般问句,再将(划线)提问部分更 改为疑问词置于句首,特别要注意助动词的使用!如果只对主语或主语的修饰词提问,那么只需要 将疑问部分改为疑问词即可。 2)常用疑问代词和疑问副词: 疑问代词: who, whom, whose, which, what, 疑问副词: when, where, why, how, how 构成的短语:how many (多少个) (独立用;或跟可数名词), how much (多少) (独立用;或跟不 可数名词), how old (多大年纪), how far (多远), how often (多常),how long (多久,多长), how soon (多久以后),how many times (多少次),等等。 3)特殊疑问句有时也用否定式。如:Why don‘t you ask Jim instead?(常缩略为 Why not…?) (你为什 么不转请 Jim 呢?) 4) 特殊疑问句疑问部分有时可以有两个以上的疑问词。如:When and where were you born? (你是 何时何地出生的?) 5) 疑问词如果是介词的宾语, 则该介词可以在句首,也可以在句尾。 如: What do you want a computer for? = For what do you want a computer? (你干嘛要一台电脑呢?) +一般疑问句+?

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▲反意疑问句: 反意疑问句表示对陈述句所说的事实提出相反的疑问,要求对方用“yes”或“no”来进行 回答。 1) 构成:陈述句+附加问句。由两部分组成:前一部分是陈述句,后一部分是疑问句,它是由 be ,have, 助动词或情态动词+主语构成。如果陈述句是肯定结构,反意疑问句须用否定结构;反之, 陈述句如果是否定结构,反意疑问句须用肯定结构。反意疑问句的两部分, 必须保持人称和 时态的一致;反意疑问句的回答有时会和汉语不同。 陈述句部分 肯定陈述句 否定陈述句 附加问句部分 否定的简短一般问句 肯定的简短一般问句 词;否则就使用 do/does//did. 如:He is old, isn‘t he? (他老了不是吗?) / The man went away, didn‘t he? (那个男人走开了不是 吗?) / He isn‘t old, is he? (他不老是吗?) / He never went there, did he? (他从没有去过那里 是吗?) 2) 反意问句的回答: 无论哪种形式的反意问句,回答时要遵循:“Yes,+肯定式”或者“No,+否定式” 如:The man went away, didn‘t he?(那人走开了,不是吗?) ——Yes, he did.(是的,他走了。)/ No, he didn‘t.(不,他没有走。) The man never went there, did he?(这人从来不去那里,是吗?) ——Yes, he did.(不是呀,他去的。)/ No, he didn‘t.(是呀,他不去。) 特殊句型: 1.祈使句。 祈使句后一般加上 will you 或 won?t you 构成反义疑问句, 用 will you 多表示“请求”, 用 won?t you 多表示提醒对方注意。例如: let 引导的祈使句有两种情况:①let?s---,后的反义疑问句用 shall we 或 shan?t we。如:Let?s go home, shan?t we? 回家吧, 好吗?②let us/me--- 后的反义疑问句用 will you 或 won?t you。 如: let me have a try, won?t you? 其他祈使句都用 will you 或 won?t you 回答。 2.反意疑问句的陈述部分含有由 un-, im-, in-, dis-, 等否定意义的前缀构成的词语时,陈述部分要视为肯定 含义,问句部分用否定形式。 ①Your father is unhappy, isn?t he? (不能用 is he?) ②The man is dishonest, isn?t he? (不能用 is he?) ③It is impossible to learn English without remembering more words, isn?t it?(不能用 is it ?) 3.反意疑问句的陈述部分带有 little, few, never, hardly, seldom,not,no,nobody,nothing, none, neither 等否定 注 意 点

当陈述句部分含有“是”动词、(“有”动词)、 情态动词和助动词时,简短问句中沿用该

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意义的词时,问句部分用肯定式。如: ①She never tells a lie, does she? (不用 doesn?t she?) ②He was seldom late, was he?(不用 wasn?t he?) 4.反意疑问句的陈述部分为 I am……时,问句部分虽然也可用“am not I”,但习惯上用 aren?t I?表示。如: I am a very honest man, aren?t I? 5.反意疑问句的陈述部分为 I(We)第一人称 think(believe, suppose, consider) + that 从句时,问句部分的动 词及主语与 that 从句内的动词和主语保持一致。如:①I think that he has done his best, hasn?t he? ②We think that English is very useful, isn?t it? (不用 don?t we?) 6.反意疑问句的陈述部分为 I(We) don?t think(believe, suppose, consider)+ that 从句时, 从句为否定意义, 问 句部分的动词和主语仍与 that 从句保持一致且用肯定式。 如: ①I don?t think that you can do it, can you? (不 用 do I?) ②We don?t believe that the news is true, is it? (不用 do we?) 7.反意疑问句的陈述部分为非第一人称主语+ think(believe, suppose, consider) + that 从句时, 问句部分的动 词和主语与陈述部分的主句动词和主语保持一致。如: ①They all think that English is very important, don?t they? (不用 isn?t it?) ②He didn?t think that the news was true, did he? (不用 wasn?t/ was it?) 8.反意疑问句的陈述部分为主语+said( told, reported, asked……) + that 从句时, 问句部分的动词和主语与陈 述部分的主句动词和主语保持一致。如:①They said that you had finished your work, didn?t they? (不用 hadn?t you) ②Kate told you that she would go there, didn?t she? (不用 wouldn?t she?) 9.陈述部分的主语为不定代词 something, anything, nothing, everything 时,问句部分的主语用 it。如: ①Something is wrong with the computer, isn?t it? ②Nothing has happened to them, has it? 10.陈述部分的主语为不定代词 somebody(someone), anybody(anyone), nobody(no one), everybody(everyone),no, none, neither 时,问句部分的主语用 he 或 they(通常用 they),这时问句动词的数 应和 he 或 they 一致。如:①Someone has taken the seat, hasn?t he? ②Everyone has done his best in the game, haven?t they? 11.陈述部分为 Let me……时, 问句部分习惯上用 shall I? 或 will you?形式。 如: Let me have a try, shall I?(will you?) 12.陈述部分为 Let us……时,问句部分习惯上用 will you?形式。如:Let us stop to rest, will you? 13.陈述部分为 Let?s……时,问句部分习惯上用 shall we?形式。如:Let?s go home together, shall we?

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14.陈述部分用上述情况以外的祈使句时,问句部分一般用 will you?形式表示请求,用 won?t you?形式表 示委婉请求或邀请(即两种情况都可出现,不必遵循前否后肯或前肯后否的原则)。如: ①Do sit down, won?t you?/ will you? ②You feed the bird today, will you? ③Please open the window, will you?(won?t you?) 15.陈述部分为否定祈使句时,问句部分一般用 will you?形式。如:Don?t make any noise, will you? 16.陈述部分为 There (Here) + be + 主语时,问句部分用 be+there(here)?形式。如: ①There are two cakes on the plate, aren?t there? Here is a story about Mark Twain, isn?t here? 17.陈述部分用 had better +原形动词表示建议时,问句部分用 hadn?t +主语?形式。 ①You?d better tell him about the matter, hadn?t you?②We had better do it by ourselves, hadn?t we? 18.陈述部分用 used to +主语时,问句部分用 didn?t + 主语?或 usedn?t +主语?形式。 ①He used to live in the country, didn?t he?/usedn?t he? ②They used to be good friends, didn?t they?/usedn?t they? 19.陈述部分用 must(may, might) + have + V-ed 表示推测时,若句中带有明显的过去时间的状语,问句部分 动词用过去时形式。如: ①He might have forgotten his pen in the classroom yesterday, didn?t he? (不用 mightn?t he?/ hasn?t he?) ②You must have got up late this morning, didn?t you?(不用 mustn?t you?/haven?t you?) 20.陈述部分用 must(may, might) + have + V-ed 表示推测时,若句中没有带明显的过去时间的状语,问句部 分动词用现在完成时形式。如: ①Everyone must have known the death of the waitress, haven?t they? (不用 mustn?t they?) ②You must have worked there a year ago, didn?t you?(不用 mustn?t you?/ haven?t you?) 21.陈述部分的主语为从句时,问句部分的主语一般用 it 代替,如: ①What he said is true, isn't it? (不用 didn?t he?) ②Where we will build the dam has not been decided yet, has it? (不用 won?t we?) 22.陈述部分的主语为动名词或不定式时,问句的主语用 it 代替。如: ①To do one good deed is easy for a person, isn't it?②Skating is your favorite sport, isn't it? 23.陈述部分的主语是不定代词 one, 反义疑问句的主语可以用 one, 也可以用 you。 如: One should be ready to help others, shuldn?t one? ▲选择疑问句:提出两种或两种以上情况,需要对方作出选择回答的疑问句叫选择疑问句。 1) 构成:(1) (2) 一般疑问句 + or + 第二选项? 特殊疑问句 + 第一选项(+ 第二选项)+ or + 第三选项?

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2)选择疑问句的结构与特殊疑问句相同,即要具体回答,不可以用 yes / no 回答。如: Is your friend a boy or a girl? –A girl. (----你的朋友是男孩还是女孩?----是女孩。) / Which do you prefer, coffee or tea? –Tea, please. (---你要哪一样咖啡还是茶?----请来茶吧。) / Which do you like best, singing, dancing or skating? --Dancing, of course. (----唱歌、跳舞和溜冰你最喜欢哪样?----当 然是跳舞啦!) 5、祈使句:祈使句用来表示请求、命令等。它的主语 you 往往不说出。 ▲祈使句的肯定式: 动词(原形) + 其他 如:Please give me a hand. (请帮忙) / Shut up! (住嘴!) 如: Please don‘t talk in low voices. (请不要低声讲话。 )

▲祈使句的否定式: Don‘t +动词原形 + 其他 / Don‘t look back! (不要掉头看。)

[注意] 以“let‘s”引出的祈使句的否定结构,“not”应放在“let‘s”后面。如:Let‘s not trouble him. (我们不要 打扰他。) 肯定祈使句前可以用助动词来加强语气。如:Please do help me! (请千万帮帮我。) 6、感叹句:感叹句用来表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情。句末常用“!” ▲对含有形容词的名词短语感叹的结构通常是: What + (a /an) + (形容词) +名词+ 陈述句结构(主谓语) ,用来强调句子中的名词,如:What a good, kind girl (she is)! (她是多么善良的好女孩!) / What bad weather (it is)! (天气真糟糕!) ▲仅对形容词或副词进行感叹的结构通常是: How + 形容词/副词 + 陈述句结构(主谓语) ,用来强调句 子中的形容词、副词或动词。How carefully the old man walks! (这老人走路真小心!) / How delicious the food is! (这食品真好吃!) / How beautiful! (真美呀!) ▲有时,陈述句、祈使句、疑问句、一个词或词组,也带有一定的感情色彩,也可以成为感叹句,此时未必 使用感叹句型。 He is sitting on a tiger‘s back! (他坐在老虎的背上! ) / A nice shot! (漂亮一击! ) / Good goal! (好球!)

十一、句子成分:主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语
1、主语: (1)由名词、代词(人称代词用主格)、动词不定式、动名词等充当,说明动作是“谁”发出的,主语是句子 陈述的对象,说明是谁或什么,表示句子说的是“什么人”,或”什么事“,如“我写字”中的“我”,做 出写字这个动作。“写”则是谓语,“字”是宾语,是接受谓语“写”这个动作的对象,因此是宾语。如: The painter painted a very nice picture. (画家画了一幅漂亮的画。 ) / They fought against SARS bravely. (他们勇敢地与非典搏斗。) / To see is to believe. (耳听为虚眼见为实). / Helping animals is to help

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people. (帮助动物就是帮助人类。) (2)动词不定式或动名词做主语时可用 it 代替,而不定式或动名词移至表语或宾语之后。如:It is very comfortable to have a Class A seat during the long journey. (在长途旅行中能有个甲等座位简直太舒 服了。) / Eating too much is bad for your health.(=It is bad for your health eating too much.) (吃得太多 对你的身体不利。)(比较好看,避免头重脚轻) (3)口语中常见主语或“主--系”省略: (It is) nothing. ((那)没有什么。 )/ (It) doesn‘t matter. ((那)没有关系。 ) / (I) thank you. ((我)谢谢你。) (4)反意问句的附加问句,主语必须是代词:The man looks worried, doesn‘t he? (这个人看上去很着急 不是吗?) / Tigers are dangerous animals, aren‘t they? (老虎是危险的动物不是吗?) (5)祈使句一般省略主语。 加主语时往往用来指定某个人。 Keep the keyboards clean, children. (孩子们请 保持键盘的清洁。 ) (省略了主语) / You go there and fetch me a glass of water. (你去给我弄一杯水来。 ) (6)主语一般在句首,但在问句中会处于第二位和句尾;倒装句及 there be 句型主语在动词之后。如: Computers are made in this factory. (计算机生产于这家工厂。) / Where are they? (他们在哪儿?) / Does the boy like staying home? (这个男孩喜欢呆在家里吗?) (7)主语与谓语必须保持单、 复数的一致, 而谓语与表语或宾语之间没有这一要求。 Neither Jim nor Rose has passed the exam. (Jim 和 Rose 都没有通过考试。) / The Chinese people are a hardworking and brave people. (中华民族是一个勤劳勇敢的民族。) (8)主语可以由从句充当,详见“主语从句”。

2、谓语:是对主语动作或状态的陈述或说明,指出“做什么”,“是什么”或“怎么样”,在主语后接宾语,又 称受词,是一个动作的接受者。 (1)由“不及物动词”、“及物动词+宾语”或“系动词+表语”等构成,说明主语所表示的人物“干什么”或“怎 么样”。如: He travelled in space for the first time .(他首次在太空旅行。) / Who teaches you English this year?(今 年谁教你们的英语?) / The pizza has gone bad. (那块烤馅饼已经变坏。) / (2)谓语动词必须反映出人称、单复数、时态等信息,谓语动词往往由下列词语依序排列构成:[情态 动词]+[时态助动词](现在完成时)+[语态助动词](如被动语态)+[主要动词](不一定全 部出现)。(见动词的时态和语态构成表) 记住:谓语部分第一个动词往往是变形动词。如: I am sorry I am making so much noise but I have to. (对不起我发出了太大的声音但是只能这样。) / He can‘t have finished reading the 800-page-long novel. (他不可能读完了那本长达 800 页的小说。 )/ Something must be done to stop the fowl flu from spreading out. (该采取措施防止禽流感蔓延。)

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(3)谓语动词切忌用“行为动词1 + 原形动词”、“be + 原形动词”。 记住使用下列正确形式: ①情态动词+原形动词。如:You‘d better go over the lesson.(你最好复习这一课。) ②shall/ will/ would+原形动词。如:They should have been there once.(他们应该去过那儿。) ③be+现在分词或者过去分词。如:What are you doing this evening?(今晚你打算做什么?)---表示 一般将来时/ Many trees have been cut down since 1970s.(自从20世纪70年代大批树木被砍伐。) ④have+过去分词。如:Many trees have been cut down since 1970s.(意思同上) ⑤一般时问句和否定句中:do/does/did+原形动词。如:He does not enjoy himself very much.(他日 子过的不好。 )/ Did any of you see dinosaur eggs?(你们当中有谁见过恐龙蛋吗?) ⑥行为动词1+行为动词2 (不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词等形式)。如:He made up his mind to be a vet. (他拿定主意要做个兽医。 ) / Feeling good about yourself is essential to feeling good about life.(自尊自爱是享受生活的根本。 )/ They wake up the other family members, calling,―Merry Christmas!‖ (他们叫醒家庭的其他成员,呼喊着: 圣诞快乐! ) / The kings of ancient Egypt had strong tombs built for themselves.(古代的埃及国王让人给他们自己修建坚固的坟墓。 ) (4)不可用形容词、名词、代词、副词、介词短语等独立作谓语,必须在此之前加连系动词。 (5)谓语动词单复数形式:单数形式的动词有:is,was,has,does以及“动词+s”;复数形式的动词有: are,were,have以及动词原形。其他动词不分单、复数。 谓语部分第一个动词的形式 一般现在时be(是)动词; 现在某些时态和语态的助动词be 一般过去时be(是)动词; 过去某些时态和语态的助动词be 一般现在时have(有)动词; 现在完成时态的助动词have 一般现在时行为动词和助动词do 实意动词和连系动词的一般现在 时动词(否定和疑问句除外) 其他各时态语态的谓语动词 单数形式 am (单一); is (单三); was (单一); were (单二); was;(单三) have (单一); have (单二); has (单三); do (单一、单二); does (单三) 原形动词(单一、单二); 动词+s /es (单三) 单复数形式相同 do 原形动词 have were are (单二); 复数形式 are

记住:主语、谓语单复数必须保持一致。(参见“4、名词或代词作主语时和谓语之间的单复数的一 致问题:”) Air and water is necessary to us all.(空气和水对于我们大家是必不可少的。) (6)一般问句和反意问句的回答不使用行为动词,应该使用“是”动词、情态动词、助动词(be,will,have,do

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以及变形)。如:The Olympic Games is held every other year, isn‘t it? ----Yes, it is.(奥运会每两年举办 一次,是吗?----是的。) 3、宾语:又称受词,是指一个动作(动词)的接受者。宾语分为直接宾语和间接宾语两大类,其中直接 宾语(经常指被做的人)指动作的直接对象,间接宾语说明动作的非直接,但受动作影响的对象。一般而 言,及物动词后面最少要有一个宾语,而该宾语通常为直接宾语,有些及物动词要求两个宾语,则这两个 宾语通常一个为直接宾语,另一个为间接宾语。 (1) 由名词、代词(人称代词要用宾格)、不定式、动名词、(宾语)从句充当,表示动作的承受者是“谁”或者 是“何物”。 如: The angel also came to Joseph and told him the same thing.(那个天使同样来到约瑟夫 面前并且告诉他同样的事情。)(代词和名词充当两个宾语) / He told me that the company could not afford to pay him so much money.(他告诉我说公司付不起他那么多的钱。) (不定式作宾语) / They enjoy watching football games so much that they often forget their lessons. (他们如此喜爱看足球以至于 常常忘记了他们的功课。) (动名词作宾语) / I think to be a children‘s doctor is very rewarding.(我认为 当个儿童医生是很值得的。) (从句作宾语) (2) 只有及物动词或介词才有宾语,不及物动词没有宾语,如果涉及到事物,则必须在不及物动词后面加合 适的介词。Listen to the radio. (listen 不是及物动词,故加 to。) / Can you hear anything exciting?(你能 听到什么令人兴奋的消息吗?) (3) 宾语一般放在及物动词或介词的后面,但是在疑问句中,如果宾语是疑问词,则宾语要放在句首。介词 的宾语如果是疑问词,则可以放在介词后或句首。如: What did he see? (他看见了什么?) / What does he write a letter with? (他用什么写的信?) / With what does he write a letter? (他用什么写的信?) (4)“动词+副词+宾语”结构中,如果宾语是代词,则代词必须放在“动”“副”之间。如:Please put the shoes away. (请把鞋子收起来。 ) / Please put away the shoes. (请把鞋子收起来。 ) / Please put them away. (请 把它们收起来。) (5) 动词后面跟双宾语时可以采用两种结构: ①动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(物)。如:He often gives me some help. (他常常帮我。) ②动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语。注意,一般情况介词用 to,但动词是 make, buy, borrow 时,介词用 for.如: Please make me a kite. (请给我做个风筝。)或 Please make a kite for me. (6) 在“动词+宾语+宾补”结构中,如果宾语是不定式、动名词、宾语从句,则常用 it 做形式宾语,而将实际 的宾语移到补语后面去。如:I found the job rather difficult. (我发觉这个工作相当难做。) / I found it rather difficult to do the job. (7) 宾语可以由从句充当,详见“宾语从句”。

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4、表语: (1) 说明主语的身份、性质、状况等含义的成分,通常由形容词、副词、介词短语、名词、代词等充当。 如:He became a doctor after he left high school.(高中毕业他当上了医生。) / The rubber wheels are over there.(橡胶轮子在那边。) / He does not feel like eating anything today because he has caught a bad cold.(他今天不想吃任何东西因为他得了重感冒。) / Who is it?(谁呀?) (2) 表语只能放在连系动词(如:be,look,become,turn get,grow,feel,seem) 之后,对表语进行提问的句子除 外。 (3) 代词做表语一般用主格,口语中常用宾。如:It‘s I. (It‘s me.)是我。 (4) 只能作表语的形容词有:sorry,afraid,alone,asleep,awake,ill,well,sure,interested 等等。He was terribly sorry for his carelessness.(他很为他的粗心而歉疚。 ) / Please make no noise here; the baby is asleep.(请 不要发出响动,婴儿正熟睡呢。 ) / I am only interested in sitting in a boat and doing nothing at all!(我只 是对独坐孤舟无所事事感兴趣。) / I am not alone in thinking so.(并非只有我才这样想的。) (5) 表语也可以由从句充当,详见“表语从句”。

5、定语: (1) 修饰名词或代词的成分,常由形容词、名词(含所有格)、代词(物主、指示、疑问、不定)、介词短语、 不定式(短语)充当,在初三阶段还学习了定语从句做定语的知识。如:Put it in the top drawer.(把它放 在最上层的抽屉里。) / France and Switzerland are European countries. (法国和瑞士是欧洲国家。) / His mother and father are both college teachers.(他的父母都是大学教师。) / This is the day that I can never forget in my life.(这是我一辈子难忘的日子。) (2) 单词做定语时一般放在被修饰的名词前面,而且有一定的次序: 冠词/ 物代 a the my his … 年龄/形状/ 色彩 大小/温度 old,young,… long,short, round, square… big, large, small, little… hot, cold, warm, cool… (3) 时间副词(now,then,today,yesterday,...)、地点副词(here,there,back,in,out,home,...作定语时放在被修饰 red, yellow, blue, … Chinese, English, American, … 来源 材料 wooden, woolen, glass, silk, paper … 用途 meeting, tennis, sports, reading, swimming, … 词(中心词) box, shoes, room, pig … 质地/ 目的/ 被修饰的名

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的名词后面。如:I could not find my way out, so I stayed there all along. (我找不到出去的路,所以就 一直呆在那儿。) (4) 介词短语修饰名词时只能放在名词的后面:The monkey in the cage was caught yesterday. (笼子里的 猴子是昨天逮着的。) (5) 形容词修饰复合不定代词时,往往后置。如:He remembered everything unusual. (他记得所有不寻常 的事情。) (6) 定语还可以用从句充当,详见 定语从句。 (7) 注意:由于定语属于修饰性的成分,因此它常归入主语、宾语、表语之中,不作为句子的主要成分。

6、状语: (1) 说明动作“何时”、“何地”、“如何”发生,或者说明形容词或副词的程度,一般由副词、介词短语、不 定式、状语从句等充当。如:I was not born yesterday.(我又不是昨天才出世的娃娃。 )/ For many of these families a college education was something new.(对其中的许多家庭来说,大学教育是件新 事物。 )/ He woke up to find his house on fire.(他醒来发现房子着火了。) / You cannot leave until your work is finished.(在你的工作被完成以前你不能离开) (2) 副词作状语位置较为灵活,详见《六· 2》“副词在句子中的位置以及作用”;介词短语作状语,位置基 本固定,详见《七· 4》“介词短语在句子中的位置”;不定式作状语,一般表示目的、结果,详见《八· 7》 “动词的非谓语形式”;从句作状语,详见《主从复合句》的“状语从句”。 (3) 多个状语相连时,一般先单词、后短语,先地点、后时间,先小概念、后大概念。如:He went ouf of the room at a quarter to 23:00 last night and then disappeared into the dark.(他昨夜 22 点 3 刻从房间里出 来,然后消失在黑暗之中。) / (4) 状语还可以用从句来充当,有时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、结果 状语从句、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句等。详见“状语从句”。 (5) 注意:由于状语属于修饰性的成分,常归入谓语,因此不作为句子的主要成分。

7、宾语补足语: (1) 补充说明宾语的动作、状态的成分为宾语补足语,常由名词、形容词、动词非谓语形式(不定式、现 在分词、过去分词等)、介词短语等充当。如:Call him Jim, please. (请叫他 Jim。) / I tried my best to make him happy. (我竭尽所能让他开心。 ) / Ask her to come to dinner tomorrow. (请他明天来。 ) / He let the smaller animals bring food to him. (他让小动物们给他带食物来。) (2) 部分表示位置、方向的副词也可以作宾语补足语。如:Let him in, I tell you! (我跟你说,让他进来!)/

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Please put it away. (请把它收起来。) (3) 不定式或分词作宾语补足语的情况,详见《八· 7》“动词的非谓语形式”相关内容。

十二、简单句五种基本句型:
句子包含主要句子成分(主语、谓语)和次要句子成分(表语、宾语、宾语补足语),按照动词的性质将英 语简单句划分为以下五种基本句型: 1、基本句型的词序: 主谓句型:S-Vi。 主系表句型:S-Vlink-P 主谓宾句型:S-Vt.-O 主谓双宾句型:S-Vt-O 间宾-O 直宾 主谓宾补句型:S-Vt-O-C 2、划分符号(没有统一规定,仅供参考): 主语: 谓语: 宾语: 表语: 定语:( 状语:[ 宾补: 〈 ) ] 〉

3、例句:Jim is working [very hard] [now].(他现在正非常努力地工作。 ) She is young. (她年轻。 ) It looks like rain. (天看上去要下雨。 )

The boy [always] kicked the dog [with his feet]. (这男孩老是用脚踢那只狗。 ) He has [never] bought me a toy [since last year]. (从去年起他没给我买过一个玩具。 ) He felt something (cold) <moving up his leg>.(他感到有个冰冷的东西顺着腿上爬。 ) 4、英语词类与句子成分关系图: 句子成分 主语* 词类或短语 名词 代词 形容词 数词 时态语态形式 动 动词不定式 动名词 动词现在分词 词 动词过去分词 √√√ √√√ × √ × √√ √√ × × × × × × √√√ × × × × √√√ √√√ × √ × √√ √√√ × × √√ √√ √√√ √ × √ √ √ √ √ √√ √√√ √√√ × √ √ √ √ × × × × × √√ × √√ √√ 谓语 宾语* 表语* 定语* 状语* 补足语 √ × √√ √ × √√√ × √√√ √√ 宾语

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副词 介词短语

× ×

× ×

× ×

√ √√

√ √

√√√ √√

√ √

[注释] 1、 “√”表示某种词类可以充当某个成分, “√√”表示某种词类经常充当某个成分, “√√√”表示某种 词类最经常充当某个成分。 “×”表示某种词类不能充当某个成分。 2、“ * ”表示该成分可以由从句充当,如主语从句、宾语从句、状语从句等。

十三、并列复合句
1、基本概念: 并列复合句是由两个或两个以上并列而又独立的简单句构成。两个简单句常由并列连接词连在一 起;但有时不用连接词,只在两个简单句之间用一逗号或分号。 2、常见的并列句: (1) 用来连接两个并列概念的连接词有 and , not only…but also…, neither…nor…等,and 所连接的前 后分句往往表示先后关系、 递进关系。 前后分句的时态往往保持一致关系,若第一个分句是祈使句, 那么第二个分句用将来时。 (2) 表示在两者之间选择一个, 常用的连接词有 or,otherwise,or else,either…or…等,前后分句的时态 往往保持一致关系,若第一个分句是祈使句,那么第二个分句用将来时。 (3) 表明两个概念彼此有矛盾、相反或者转折, 常用的连接词有 but,yet,still ,however 等,前后分句时 态一致。 (4) 说明原因, 用连接词 for ,前后分句时态一致。 (5) 表示结果,用连接词 so, 前后分句时态一致。

十四、主从复合句
1、概念: 主从复合句由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。 主句为句子的主体,从句只用作句子的一个次 要成分,不能独立成为一个句子。从句通常由关联词引导,并由关联词将从句和主句联系在一起。如: While the grandparents love the children, they are strict with them.(爷爷奶奶们很爱孩子,同时对他们 也严格要求。) / It seemed as if the meeting would never end.(看起来会议没完没了。) / Hurry up, or (else) you'll be late.(快点, 要不然就来不及了。) / However I cook eggs, the child still refuses to eat them.(不管我用什么方法煮鸡蛋,小孩还是不肯吃。) 2、分类: 从句按其在复合句中的作用,分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、定语从句和状语从句等。 (参见 以下各条) 3、各从句在句子中的位置以及用法:

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(1) 表语从句:在句子中作连系动词的表语的从句,它位于主句中的系动词之后。 例如:That is why he did not come to school yesterday. / It is because you are so clever. (2) 宾语从句:在句子中作及物动词或介词的宾语。 ①基本形式: (主句+)连词+从句主语+从句谓语+... ② 关于宾语从句连词的选择: 若从句来源于一个陈述句,那么,连词用 that,在口语中 that 可以省略; 若从句来源于一个一般疑问句,连词则用 if 或 whether; 若从句来源于一个特殊疑问句,则连词就是疑问词(如 what,who,where,when 等) 例如:They believe that t

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