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北大模联PKUNMUN2015 学术标准手册


Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015

? ? ? ? ? ? Academic ?Standard ?Handbook ?
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versity ?National ?Model ?United ?Nations ?Conference ?for ? High ?School ?Students ?2015 ? ?

2015 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会 学术标准手册

Academic Standard Handbook

PKUNMUN 2015

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015

编订人员:
杜金雨(秘书长,北京大学外国语学院 2012 级本科生) 毛思源(副秘书长,北京大学国际关系学院 2012 级本科生) 樊仁敬(学术总监,北京大学社会学系 2013 级本科生) 刘欣羽(学术总监,北京大学经济学院 2013 级本科生) 唐忆村(学术总监,北京大学元培学院 2013 级本科生) 付肖依(技术总监,北京大学基础医学院 2013 级本科生)

特别鸣谢: ?
封面设计 李尽沙 (北京大学艺术学院 2011 级本科生)

特别说明:
“北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会” ,会 议 名 称 、活 动 标 志 由 北 京 大 学 所 有 ,未 经 允 许 ,不 得 用 于 与 本 会 议 无 关 的 活 动 或 其 他 商 业 性 目 的 的 组 织 或 活 动 。 本 手 册 及 相 关 材料版权归北京大学模拟联合国协会所有,未经允许,不得以任何方式出版。如引用, 须注明出处。

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目录 ?
前 言 ? ? 学 术 标 准 手 册 使 用 说 明 ........................................................................................................... 5 ? 第一部分 会议规则与流程 ................................................................................................................... 6 ?

1. 会 议 流 程 参 考 标 准 .................................................................................................................. 6 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)议事规则 ............................................... 8 ? 总 则 ........................................................ 8 ? 第 一 章 会 场 和 人 员 .............................................. 8 ? 第 二 章 会 议 .................................................... 9 ? 第 三 章 代 表 权 利 与 义 务 ......................................... 14 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)议事规则示意图 ................................. 16 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)用语范例 ............................................. 17 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)快速规则流程参考 ............................. 19 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则 ............................................. 20 ? Rules and Procedures .............................................................................................................................. 20 ? Introduction to the Staff........................................................................................................................... 20 ? The Process: Committee Session............................................................................................................. 21 ? Quick Reference Guide ........................................................................................................................... 28 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则示意图 ................................. 30 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)用语范例 ............................................. 31 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会特殊委员会学术标准 ............................................................. 32 ? 一 、 联 合 国 历 史 安 全 理 事 会 ( HSC) 特 殊 规 则 说 明 ..................... 32 ? 二 、 联 合 国 儿 童 基 金 会 ( UNICEF) 特 殊 规 则 说 明 ..................... 32 ? 三 、 国 际 法 庭 ( International Court of Justice) 特 殊 规 则 说 明 ............ 35 ? 四 、 联 合 国 能 源 机 制 ( UN-ENERGY ) 特 殊 规 则 说 明 ..................... 40 ? 五 、 欧 洲 理 事 会 ( European Council) 特 殊 规 则 说 明 .................... 43 ? 六 、 联 合 国 新 闻 部 /非 政 府 组 织 年 度 会 议 ( DPI/NGO) 特 殊 规 则 说 明 ....... 44 ? 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会危机处理学术标准 ................................................................. 47 ? 一 、 危 机 的 定 义 与 特 点 .......................................... 47 ? 二 、 总 则 ...................................................... 47 ? 三 、 人 员 及 职 责 ................................................ 48 ? 四 、 危 机 内 容 与 流 程 ............................................ 48 ? 第二部分 会议文件 ............................................................................................................................... 49 ? 一 、 ? 二 、 ? 二 、 ? 三 、 ? 四 、 ? 第三部分 立 场 文 件 Position Paper ......................................................................................... 49 ? 工 作 文 件 Working Paper ....................................................................................... 53 ? 决 议 草 案 Draft Resolution ..................................................................................... 55 ? 指 令 草 案 Draft Directive ........................................................................................ 62 ? 修正案 Amendment ............................................................................................... 62 ? 模拟联合国会议学术准备指南 ......................................................................................... 64 ? 一 . ? 背 景 指 导 文 件 阅 读 指 导 .................................... 64 ?

第 一 节 准 备 阶 段 ........................................................................................................................... 64 ?

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二 . 资 料 检 索 指 导 .............................................. 66 ? 第 二 节 会 议 阶 段 ........................................................................................................................... 77 ?

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前言 ? ? 学术标准手册使用说明 ?
亲爱的各位代表: 大家好! 这本《学术标准手册》 (Academic Standard Handbook) ,旨在为所有参会代表提供一个更加 明确、清晰、完整的会议学术标准,以利于代表们更有效地学习规则、利用规则、理解掌握模联 会议的学术规范。 本《学术标准手册》继承了往届会议的主要学术思想并有所修订整理,是 2015 年北京大学 全国中学生模拟联合国大会官方指定的唯一学术标准。会议期间,与学术相关的所有问题,均以 本手册作为依据。若出现本手册未涉及问题,本届大会组委会具有最终解释权。1 本手册第一部分为 “规则概述” , 主要为各委员会的会议进程分别提供中英文双语参考标准, 以有利于会议在相对稳定、客观的环境下进行。代表应充分熟悉此部分内容,作为正式会议过程 中的重要辅助。在第一部分中还包括特殊委员会 HSC(历史安全理事会) ,ICJ(国际法庭) ,EC (欧盟欧洲理事会) ,UNICEF(联合国儿童基金会) ,DPI/NGO(联合国新闻部非政府组织年度 会议) ,UN-ENERGY(联合国能源机制)的特殊规则。在 2015 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合 国大会上, 共有五个创新委员会, 它们或贴合联合国实际工作机制, 在原有议事规则上进行调整, 或别出机杼,打破固有讨论格局,它们分别是:UNICEF(新规则) ,UN-ENERGY(新委员会新 规则) ,EC(新委员会新规则) ,而 ICJ 和 DPI/NGO 则是在 2014 年 ICTY 和 NGO 的成功尝试下 进行调整完善的重要改进。这些委员会凝聚了组委会和主席团的智慧与努力,也见证了 PKUNMUN 不断的探索与创新。 第二部分为文件写作指导,主要介绍了立场文件、工作文件、决议草案、修正案和指令草案 的标准格式和写作方法,并分别附有中英文范例。本部分采用了双栏介绍方法,代表们可以在左 栏阅读范例的过程中,在右边一栏查看相关说明解释并写下自己的心得体会。 第三部分是本届大会组委会精心撰写的模拟联合国会议学术准备指南,包括文件检索技巧、 背景文件阅读指导以及正式会议参会准备指导, 希望这份指南能对各位代表的会议准备有所帮助。 本手册虽然汇集了往届大会的学术成果, 并在此基础上进行了一定程度的修改和完善, 但仍 不可能达到尽善尽美, 组委会真诚地希望通过各位代表出色、 专业的表现, 能使 《学术标准手册》 更科学、更完善。

北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会 二零一四年十月

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《学术标准手册》的所有内容将根据每年大会的委员会设置等具体情况作出修订和增补,请以当年组委会发布 的学术标准为依据。

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第一部分 ? ? 会议规则与流程 ? 1. 会议流程参考标准
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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会共有 6 次分组会议,其中,第一、三、五、六次分组会 议总时间分别 180 分钟,第二、四次分组会议总时间为 210 分钟。会议总时长约为 1140 分钟, 约 19 小时。 大会的常规委员会将分别经过: 各国代表阐述本国立场——开始形成国家集团——开始撰写 工作文件 —— 在工作文件的基础上进一步讨论 —— 国家集团基本确定 —— 开始撰写决议草案 ——在决议草案的基础上进一步讨论——投票表决, 共八个阶段。 这八个阶段始终在六次分组会 议的“正式辩论”和“非正式辩论”中交替进行。其中: 分 组 会 议 ( 一 ) : 共 180 分 钟 属于会议开始阶段,主席团与各国代表、各国代表之间都需要相互熟悉,于是,在第一次分 组会议上,各国的主要任务往往是进行本国基本立场的阐述,并且在倾听别国立场的同时,与本 国立场进行比较,初步确定有共同合作基础或合作意向的国家,以便会议的下一步讨论。 分 组 会 议 ( 二 ) 与 分 组 会 议 ( 三 ) : 共 390 分 钟 属于会议的前期,也是会议进程中最关键的一个时期。在第一次分组会议讨论的基础上,初 步形成了国家集团, 一个国家或由几个国家组成的国家集团开始在共同利益的基础上撰写工作文 件,并对工作文件进行充分的讨论。一般来讲,在这一阶段,议题会被分割成为几个小问题进行 逐一的讨论和解决。 分 组 会 议 ( 四 ) : 共 210 分 钟 属于会议的过渡期, 在这个时期, 很多份工作文件会被更充分地讨论, 国家集团也更为明显, 各国的根本利益也逐步显露,如果会议进程较快,会进入到决议草案撰写环节。 分 组 会 议 ( 五 ) : 共 180 分 钟 属于会议的末期,国家集团根据工作文件撰写决议草案,并对决议草案进行充分讨论,提出 相应的修正案。 分 组 会 议 ( 六 ) : 约 180 分 钟

说明:此部分仅为大会流程的参考标准,是理想状态下模拟联合国会议的进程,具体的会议进程会根据会场实 际情况有所变化。

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属于会议的结束阶段, 各国家集团将在会议进入最后的投票表决前进行最后的磋商。 最终通 过对决议草案进行投票的方式作出决议。

2. 会议流程示意图

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)议事规则 ? 总 则

1. 本议事规则由二零一五年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会制定,适用于“二零一五 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会”常规委员会(中文)。 对于其他模拟联合国会议,若无特别说明,该规则流程将不具有约束作用。 2. 本规则流程在其所能适用的范围内具有约束力。 3. 本规则流程最终解释权属于北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会。

第一章 会场和人员
4. 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会由若干委员会构成,每一委员会分别占有一间会场;在 正式会议期间, 一间会场一般情况下只能包括本委员会的成员以及主新闻中心驻会记者。 每一委 员会都由主席团、代表和会场志愿者组成。 5. 主席团是一个委员会的管理团队,但他们不能参与一个议题的讨论,也不能达成会议共识。 主席团只是一个经过特殊训练的会议组织者, 而不是会议进程的领导者。 主席团成员均为北京大 学模拟联合国协会会员,主席团成员在会议期间将分别扮演以下三种角色: (1)会议指导:监督并确认会议是否按照模拟联合国的规则进行,并负责文件审批、回答代表 提出的问题, 同时也有权在其认为适当的时机对会议做出学术上的指导, 但这一指导以不打断会 议的正常进行为准则; (2)主席:主持一个委员会的会议并协调主席团内部事务; (3)主席助理:主席的协助者,进行点名、会议记录、计时等。 (4)代表是指获得邀请参加北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会的中学生;代表将扮演其代表 国家的外交官参与相应委员会的讨论;在正式会议期间,代表需尊重其他参会者、遵循主席团引 导。若代表对主席团的决定持有异议,可在休会期间向组委会提出。 (5)志愿者负责协助主席团的工作,如进行意向条传递、会议文件的印发等。志愿者应按照会 议时间安排,准时到岗,认真履行职责。志愿者同时有权拒绝履行不合理的工作要求。 6. 代表座位的安排取决于各国名称的拼写,特别是首字母。在各分组会议之前,主席团将随机 选择一个起始字母以排列座次。 例如, 主席团选择了 C, 那么将从 C 字母开始一直排列座位至 Z,

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然后从 A 开始排至 B,以此类推。座位的排列从一个会场的最左前排列到最右后。主席团在除 特殊情况下不会更改座次, 代表没有权利在未得到主席允许的情况下更换座位。 除非有个人特权 问题,代表不得在未经主席允许的情况下,私自离开座位。 7. 国家牌是代表在会场内出席与采取行动(如投票、动议等)的唯一凭证。在会议期间,如果 代表在采取行动时未举起国家牌, 主席团不会接受其行动要求。 国家牌将由主席团在会前摆放在 相应国家代表的座位处。

第二章 会议
第一节 点名
1. 会议开始时,主席将请各位代表就座,并保持安静。主席宣布会议开始,并由主席助理按 A 到 Z 的顺序点国家名。当被点到时,代表应举起国家牌并喊“出席”。点名结束后,主席助理将宣 布该分组会议的国家出席数、符合法定国家数 与否、简单多数、2/3 多数以及 20%出席数。 2. 在主席助理点名时未出席代表需通过意向条向主席表明已出席会议,主席助理将在当前发言 结束后宣布该代表之出席并修改简单多数、2/3 多数和 20%出席数。 3. 简单多数、2/3 多数和 20%出席数的计算方法分别为: (1)简单多数:所有出席代表数乘以百分之五十之后加一,并向下取整; (2) 2/3 多数:所有出席代表数乘以二除以三,并向上取整; (3)百分之二十数:所有出席代表数乘以百分之二十,并向上取整。
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第二节 正式辩论
4. “确定议题”结束后,会议将进入“正式辩论”阶段;在一个终止辩论的动议被通过且所有决议草 案及其非友好修正案都被投票表决之前, 正式辩论都将以在“确定议题”环节中被确定的议题作为 讨论的主题。 5. 正式辩论的发言名单将在“确定议题”结束后自动开启: (1)主席将随机点出愿意发言的国家代表进入发言名单;主席助理将记录此发言名单;

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法定国家数,即该会场应出席人数的简单多数。

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(2)每位代表发言完毕之后,其代表国家将被从发言名单中的划除 (3)不在发言名单中的代表(包括已经发言结束的代表)可通过提交意向条的方式向主席申请 加入发言名单,主席助理将把这些国家依据提交意向条的顺序添加到发言名单的末尾。 6. 正式辩论中,每位代表的初始发言时间为 120 秒; (1)代表可通过动议改变正式辩论的发言时间,具体方法请参见“动议与问题”一节。 (2)若代表发言结束后的剩余时间大于等于十秒,则此剩余时间可以用来让渡;否则,此剩余 时间将被自动让渡给主席; (3)让渡的对象包括: 让渡给主席,即主席可自行处理剩余时间; 让渡给代表,即被让渡的那一位代表将利用剩余时间进行发言; 让渡给评论, 即由主席随机选择另一位代表利用剩余时间对发言做出评价, 被评论的代表 无权继续发言; 让渡给问题, 即由主席随机选择另一位代表对发言代表提出一个问题, 该问题不占用剩余 时间,被提问的代表将只被允许在剩余时间内回答这一个问题。 经由让渡所剩余的时间不可二次让渡。 7. 在以下情形下正式辩论将暂停或被结束: (1)一个有主持核心磋商或自由磋商的动议被通过时,正式辩论将被暂停; (2)一个问题被提出时,正式辩论将被暂停; (3)一个暂时休会的动议被通过时,正式辩论将被暂停; (4)当大会组委会或主席团认为必要时,正式辩论将被暂停。 (5)一个结束辩论动议被通过时,正式辩论将结束; (6)当正式辩论发言名单中的最后一位代表发言完毕,并没有代表希望继续发言时,正式辩论 将自动结束。

第三节 非正式辩论
8. 非正式辩论是指打断正式辩论而进行的磋商,包括有主持核心磋商和自由磋商两种。 (1)有主持核心磋商指代表们在主席的主持下,按照主席随机点出的并由主席助理记录的发言 顺序,在规定的时间内依次进行发言; (2)自由磋商指在一定时间内,代表们可以离开座位或会场以交换观点; (3)非正式辩论期间所使用的语言均须为工作语言。

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(4)有主持核心磋商或自由磋商的动议需要表决通过。 (5)当且仅当一个有主持核心磋商或自由磋商的动议被通过后,会议才从正式辩论过渡至非正 式辩论。

第四节 动议和问题
9. 动议是在前一位代表结束正式辩论的发言后或在后一位代表开始正式辩论的发言前(动议确 定议题、动议结束正式辩论和动议更改投票顺序除外),在主席询问所有在场代表是否希望提出 改变会议进程的方案的前提下,代表提出具体方案的一种形式。其中,提出方案的过程和方案的 内容,称之为动议。 10. 动议包括动议确定议题、动议修改正式辩论发言时间、动议进行有主持核心磋商、动议进行 自由磋商、动议延置决议草案、动议取消延置决议草案、动议结束正式辩论、动议更改投票顺序 和动议暂时休会,共计九种: (1)动议确定议题是指在正式辩论尚未开始但本委员会有两个或两个以上议题时,代表为设定 本次会议优先讨论的议题而提出的方案, 这一方案应包括该代表所选择的希望优先得到讨论的议 题; (2)动议修改正式辩论发言时间是指当代表认为正式辩论当前的发言时间过长或过短而要求对 其进行修改时所提出的方案,这一方案应包括该代表所建议的修改后的发言时间; (3)动议进行有主持核心磋商是指当代表认为有必要对当前议题范围下某一特定问题进行深入 讨论时所提出的方案, 这一方案应包括本次有主持核心磋商的主题、 总持续时间和每位代表发言 时间; 一般情况下,一个有主持核心磋商的总时间与每位代表发言时间应成整数倍关系,但有主 持核心磋商的发言名额不固定,结束以总时间为准; 在有主持核心磋商中,发言时间不得让渡。 磋商的主题应该符合所讨论议题,且更详细与具体,或与议题的某一个方面紧密相关。 对同一主题的有主持核心磋商可以通过再次动议进行。 一个有主持核心磋商的总时间不得超过 20 分钟。 (4)动议进行自由磋商是指当代表认为有必要与其他代表交流意见或进行文件阅读及起草等其 他工作时所提出的方案,这一方案应包括本次自由磋商的总时间,在这一总时间内,代表们将被 允许自由的进出会场,但当时间用尽之后代表们须尽快回到会场;

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(5)动议延置决议草案是指当一份决议草案已被介绍之后,代表为搁置对其的讨论所提出的方 案,这一方案应包括代表要求延置的决议草案的编号;当此动议被通过后,所有对该决议草案进 行讨论的动议将不再被允许, 同时不能对这该决议草案提出修正案或进行投票, 直到一个取消延 置该决议草案的动议被通过; (6)动议取消延置决议草案是指在一份决议草案已被延置的情况下,代表为重新开始对其的讨 论、修正和投票而提出的方案,这一方案应包括代表要求取消延置状态的决议草案的编号; (7)动议结束辩论是指当代表认为关于当前议题的讨论已经足够充分而应进入到对目前所有决 议草案及其非友好修正案进行投票的阶段时所提出的方案: 一旦一个结束辩论的动议被提出并得到附议后,主席将邀请两位赞成此动议及两位反对此 动议的代表交替发言阐述理由,由赞成该动议的第一位代表首先发言,发言时间为九十秒,发言 时间不能让渡; 若其中一方不足两位代表,将遵守发言双方人数对等的原则调整发言人数; 当所有代表均已阐述己方的理由之后,将自动进入对该动议的投票阶段; 一旦该动议获得通过, 将结束当前议题的正式辩论 (且不能再次回到对此议题的正式辩论) , 进入对决议草案和修正案的投票阶段; 在投票结束后,会议将进入下一个议题的讨论。 (8)动议更改投票顺序是指当一个结束辩论的动议被通过后,代表为了更改决议草案的投票顺 序而提出的方案,这一方案应包括新的决议草案的投票顺序;一旦此动议获得通过,所有未被延 置的决议草案将按照这一新的顺序被表决;至多只能有一个更改投票顺序的动议被通过。 (9)动议暂时休会是指在某一阶段会议按照日程接近尾声时,代表为暂时结束会议所提出的方 案,当此动议通过后,会议将暂时中止,直到下一阶段开始; 11. 任何动议都必须首先获得附议,才能被表决。 12. 只有在一项动议未获附议,或未获通过,或其过程进行完毕之后,才可以出现下一项动议。 13. 对动议的投票,请参考本规则第二章“投票”一节的内容。 14. 提出问题是代表在提出动议、投票之外的另一项权利。问题不允许与议题或其他代表的发言 内容相关。问题包括程序性问题、咨询性问题和个人特权问题: (1)程序性问题是指代表认为会议进程不符合既定的规则程序时,为进行纠正所提出的问题。 程序性问题可随时提出; (2)咨询性问题是指当代表对于会议的程序存在疑问时,为获得解答所提出的问题。如“是否已 经收到决议草案?”、“该有主持核心磋商的主题是什么?”此时,主席团将暂停一切当前的活动

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并回答代表的问题,包括当下代表的发言。出于礼节的考虑,建议代表通过传递意向条的方式提 出咨询性问题; (3)个人特权问题是指当代表在会场产生某种不适,需要大会组织者提供帮助,为寻求改善所 提出的问题。 如投影字体过小, 话筒声音过小、 会场空调温度过低等。 代表自己可以解决的问题, 如去洗手间等,不必向主席团提出。 (4)任何问题均无需附议或投票。

第五节 投票
15.投票分为程序性投票和实质性投票。 16 程序性投票是指对所有动议的投票,只能投赞成或反对。 选择议题动议、修改正式辩论发言时间动议、进行有主持核心磋商之动议、进行自由磋商之 动议、取消延置决议草案之动议、更改投票顺序之动议及暂时休会之动议需得到简 单 多 数 位 代表的赞成才可获得通过;延置决议草案之动议、结束辩论之动议需获得三 分 之 二 多 数 代表 的赞成才可获得通过。 17. 实质性投票是指针对文件的投票,即对非友好修正案和决议草案的投票: (1)此一投票过程发生在正式辩论结束后,并且只对此时已被提交并审阅通过且不处在延置状 态的决议草案和非友好修正案进行表决; (2)在表决前,委员会需要闭门并禁止任何代表进出会场,并由主席助理进行重新点名,以确 认需要通过相关文件的“文件三分之二多数”; (3)首先表决非友好修正案: 非友好修正案将按照编号顺序进行逐条表决; 非友好修正案将按照赞成、反对或弃权的顺序举牌逐条表决;主席助理将会记录每一次投 票的结果并确定该条修正案是否被加入相应的决议草案; (4)其次表决决议草案: 决议草案将按照编号顺序进行表决;如若一个更改投票顺序的动议通过,将按照新的顺序 进行表决; 决议草案将采取两轮唱名表决:在第一轮投票中,所有的代表均需投票,可以投赞成、反 对、弃权或过;在第二轮投票中,所有第一轮投“过”的代表需重新投票,但只能投赞成或 反对; 主席助理将记录每一位代表的投票选择;

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对于一个议题,一个委员会在本次会议中只能通过一份决议草案;当一份决议草案获得通 过时,不再对剩余的决议草案进行表决。 当一份决议草案获得通过或无一份决议草案获得通过时,由于正式辩论已结束,会议将自 动进入下一议题的讨论,除非一个暂时休会的动议被通过。 (5)任何对会议文件的表决都需要得到“文件三分之二多数”的赞成票才能通过: “文件三分之二多数 ”是指在一次对文件的表决中,赞成票与反对票之总数乘以二除以三 并向上取整后所得的数; 弃权票不计入三分之二多数的计算过程。 (6)安全理事会及历史安全理事会、未来安全理事会中被表决的决议草案、修正案、指令草案 等,当至少 9 票为“赞成”,且其中包括五个常任理事国的赞成票时,方可通过: 五个常任理事国,即中华人民共和国、法兰西共和国、俄罗斯联邦、大不列颠及北爱尔兰 联合王国以及美利坚合众国; 这一要求不适用于程序性投票。

第六节 观察国
18. 观察国是指非委员会成员国,但因其与本委员会议题关系紧密等原因而被邀请参加委员会会 议的国家代表; 19. 观察国得与本委员会会员国行使同等权利并具有同等义务,但是: 观察国代表无权起草决议草案及指令草案,及其修正案; 观察国代表无实质性投票权力。

第三章 代表权利与义务
1. 任何一个代表在会场上都应当着正装。 2. 代表们在会场内的交流需通过意向条实现。意向条是指各国代表之间或代表与主席之间在会 议过程中出于互相交流及沟通的目的而撰写的纸条;对于其内容和格式均无特殊要求,但其 语言必须符合本委员会的工作语言;会场志愿者将会帮助代表或主席传递意向条。

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3.代表享有答辩权,即用于保护一个国家的名誉与权利,特别是在会议中出现特别情况,如出现 不负责任的指控、干涉内政的行为或者一个代表(团)在会议上的权利得到损害或剥夺时。 代表须通过意向条向主席团申请使用这项权利,由主席团决定是否给予提出国一定的发言机 会以阐述或反驳。这一时间长短由主席团控制。 4. 除自由磋商外的正式会议期间,不允许代表在会场内使用笔记本电脑。 5. 正式会议中手机必须保持静音。 6. 禁止将非经组委会允许的食物或饮料带入会场。 ? ?

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)议事规则 示意图 ?

注:“设定议题”环节已于 2011 年取消。 ?

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)用语范例 ?
1.点名
主席助理:“中国?” 中国代表:“出席!” *说 明 : 对 于 点 名 , 代 表 仅 需 回 答 “ 出 席 ” 即 可 。 ?

2. 动议
主席:“请问场下有无问题或动议?” ? 中国代表:“中国代表动议…… ? 1. 进行一个有主持核心磋商,其主题为‘出口食品的安全保证’,总时长为十分钟,每位代表 发言时间一分钟。” ? 2. 进行一个自由磋商。总时长为十分钟。” ? 3. 更改正式辩论发言时间为一分钟。” ? 4. 延置决议草案 1.1。” ? 5. 取消对决议草案 1.1 的延置。” ? 6. 结束辩论。” ? 7. 更改决议草案投票顺序。新顺序为决议草案 1.2、决议草案 1.3、决议草案 1.1。” ? 8. 暂时休会。” ? *说 明 : 对 于 动 议 , 代 表 应 首 先 说 明 动 议 的 类 型 , 再 给 出 这 项 动 议 所 包 含 的 全 部 要 素 。 ? ?

3. 问题
主席:“请问场下有无问题或动议?” ? 中国代表:“问题! ? 9. 程序性问题。根据规则流程,动议延置决议草案 1.1 应需要绝对多数赞成票;但投票结果仅 达到简单多数,因而该动议不能被通过。” ? 10. 咨询性问题。请问动议延置决议草案所需的赞成票为简单多数还是绝对多数?” ? 11. 个人特权问题。中国代表无法看清屏幕上的投票结果。能否调大屏幕字体? ?

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*说 明 : 对 于 问 题 , 代 表 应 首 先 说 明 是 何 种 问 题 , 再 具 体 阐 释 问 题 。 ? ?

4. 让渡
主席:“中国代表,您的发言时间仍剩余一分钟。请问您将如何让渡?” ? 中国代表:“中国代表希望将时间让渡给主席/评论/问题/俄罗斯代表。” ? *说 明 : 对 于 让 渡 时 间 , 代 表 仅 需 给 出 让 渡 的 对 象 即 可 。 ? ?

5. 投票 ——唱名表决
主席助理:“中国?” ? 中国代表:“赞成/反对/弃权/过!” ? *说 明 :在 唱 名 表 决 阶 段 ,代 表 们 只 需 给 出 本 国 的 决 定 即 可 。注 意 ,“ 过 ”仅 能 在 对 决 议 草 案 和 指 令 草 案 的 第 一 轮 投 票 中 使 用 ;在 第 二 轮 投 票 中 ,只 能 选 择“ 赞 成 ”和“ 反 对 ”。

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)快速规则 流程参考 ?
快速规则流程索引 ?
规 则 ? 个人特权问题 ? 程序性问题 ? 咨询性问题 ? 动议有主持核心磋商/自由磋商 ? 动议结束辩论 ? 动议更改发言时间 ? 动议暂时休会 ? 表 决 ? 无需表决 ? 无需表决 ? 无需表决 ? 简单多数 ? 三分之二多数 ? 简单多数 ? 简单多数 ? 说 明 ? 随时提出,当代表感觉在会议中有所不适时 ? 随时提出,当会议不符合既定进程时 ? 仅在发言权处于开放状态下允许,对规则提问 ? 需要说明主题(有主持核心磋商)和时间限制 ? 关闭主发言名单并进入投票阶段 ? 更改正式辩论的发言时间 ? 按照日程会议时间临近结束时提出,暂时中止 这一阶段的所有辩论 ? 在一份决议草案被介绍之后;通过后此份决议 草案不能被讨论、修正与表决 ? 取消延置动议的所有效果 ? 在正式辩论被关闭后可提出,通过后将按新的 顺序表决决议草案;只能通过一次更改顺序 ? 两分钟阅读、两分钟介绍;无格式要求 ? 三分钟阅读、三分钟介绍、三个语法问题;只 能通过一份决议草案 ? 友好修正案直接引入;非友好修正案一分钟阅 读、一分钟介绍;逐条举牌表决 ? 只有正式辩论的剩余时间可被让渡;不可二次 让渡;让渡选项:主席、代表、问题、评论 ? 通过向主席团传递意向条以申请这项权利。主 席决定是否赋予代表发言时间。 ?

动议延置决议草案 ? 动议取消延置决议草案 ? 动议更改投票顺序 ? 工作文件 ? 决议草案 ?

三分之二多数 ? 简单多数 ? 简单多数 ? 无需表决 ? 文件的三分 之二多数 ? 文件的三分 之二多数 ? 自动 ?

修正案 ?

让渡 ?

答辩权 ?

自主 ?

? 说明:主席对于所有程序性问题均有最终的决定权。主席可采取在规则流程中未包括、但他认为 适当的措施以推动会议的进程。 ? ?

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则 ?

Rules and Procedures
All rights reserved. This publication should not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Organizing Committee of PKUNMUN 2015. The rules and procedures contained herein are applicable to English committees of PKUNMUN 2015 except the EC, ICJ, UN-ENERGY, UNICEF and the MPC. The Organizing Committee of PKUNMUN has the final interpretation right to the rules and procedures.

Introduction to the Staff
1. Director The committee Director is the substantive expert on the issues. The Director acts as an impartial observer of documents to be discussed and of the proceedings as a whole. Because of their knowledge, all Draft Resolutions and Amendments in committee must be approved and signed by the Director to be presented to the committee as a whole. As the substantive leader of the committee, the Director also has the discretion to rule on all points and motions brought before the committee. Any questions about substantive issues should be raised with the Director. 2. Chair While the Director is the substantive expert, the Chair is the procedural expert who chairs the committee when it is in formal session. The Chair has a full understanding of the rules of procedure, and it is his/her responsibility to facilitate the committee’s work by ensuring that the sessions run smoothly. Though the Chair runs the business of the committee, the Director retains the ultimate power to rule any motions out of order. Any questions about procedural issues should be raised with the Chair. 3. Rapporteur During the conference, the Rapporteur is in charge of recording for the meeting and calculating (numbers of countries present or countries in favor of a certain motion or document). Besides, the

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Rapporteur is responsible for arranging the Roll Call in each session and assisting the Chair throughout the conference. 4. Assistant Director Before the conference, the Assistant Directors prepare the updates to the background guide, as well as the summaries of the position papers that delegates have submitted. During the simulation, their job is to aid the Director by answering delegates’ questions and by monitoring blocs during caucuses, and to provide ‘sounding boards’ for delegate ideas, solutions and concerns. If the committee is producing a large amount of paperwork at some point in the course of discussing a topic, Directors will often rely on the Assistant Directors to work directly with delegates on preparing and revising Draft Resolutions. The Assistant Directors also help keep track of the Speakers’ List, votes, and other procedural matters. Delegates should feel free to approach the Assistant Directors at any time with questions about the substance or procedure of the committee. ?Courtesy: Delegates will show courtesy and respect to the Committee staff and to other delegates. 1. Formal dressing is kindly required in the committee room. 2. Always keep the cell phone power-off or on silent mode during the conference. caucus. 4. No talking is allowed in the committee room. The ? Chair will immediately call to order any delegate who fails to comply with this rule, often using the term “Decorum.” 5. Pages can be used to communicate with the chair and other delegates with the help of volunteers. The content and format of the pages are not specially required but the official language of the committee should be used. 6. Delegates need to address each other in the Third ? Person at all times. Insulting and abusive words are strictly forbidden. Delegates are always encouraged to use “honorable speaker” or “fellow delegates,” never “you” or “I”. Delegates should stand when addressing themselves.

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The Process: Committee Session
1.Roll Call First of all the rapporteur will do the Roll Call in alphabetic order. Delegates should raise their placards and answer “present” when their country’s name is called. After the roll call, the rapporteur will declare

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the simple majority, the two-thirds majority and 20% of the number. The debate will not be permitted to proceed unless at least a simple majority of the members of the Committee are present. A simple majority: the number of the countries present multiplies 1/2 and adds 1 (rounded down). A two-thirds majority: the number of the countries present multiplies 2/3 (rounded up).

Delegates who are late forthe Roll Call should send a page to the Dais to show the presence. The absence of a delegate or delegation (which means both delegates are absent) will be considered as forfeiting their time and abandoning their rights to debate and vote. 2. Formal Debate During the formal debate, delegates have the opportunity to share their views with the entire committee. In the formal debate, delegates make speeches, answer questions, introduce and debate Resolutions as well as Amendments. ?Setting up a speaker’s List Speakers’ List will be established continuously for the purpose of formal debate. This Speakers’ List will be followed for all debate on the Topic Area, except when interrupted by procedural motions, discussion of Amendments, or the introduction of a resolution. Speakers may speak generally on the Topic Area being considered and may address any resolution currently on the floor. A country may add its name to a Speakers’ List by handing in a page to the Chair, provided that the nation is not already on the Speakers’ List or it wishes to be re-added to the list after finishing its speech. ?Speeches The Chair of the committee will then call on the delegates on the Speakers’ List (in the order they were placed on the list). The initial time for each speaker in the formal debate is 120 seconds, which can be yielded and changed. A motion to extend or shorten the speaking time requires a simple majority of the committee’s members to pass. ?Yields After being recognized from the general Speaker’s List, a delegate may yield any or all of his or her time left (which is at least 10 seconds) in one of four ways: to another delegate, to questions, to comments or to the Chair. Please note that only one yield is allowed. A delegate must declare any yield at the conclusion of his/her speech. (1) Yield to another delegate: His/her remaining time will be offered to that delegate. If the delegate accepts the yield, the Chair shall recognize the delegate for the remaining time. The delegate may NOT make any further yields. (2) Yield to questions: Questioners will be selected by the Chair and limited to ONE question each. Follow-up questions will not be allowed (at the discretion of the Chair). The Chair will have the right to call to order any delegate whose question is, in the opinion of the Chair, rhetorical, leading, or not

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designed to elicit information. Only the speaker’s answers to questions will be deducted from the speaker’s remaining time. (3) Yield to comments: This allows other delegates to convey their thoughts regarding a policy or point mentioned in a speech. (4) Yield to the chair: Such a yield means that the delegate forfeits his/her time. The Chair will then moves on to the next speaker or invite other delegates to comment. Formal debate can be interrupted either by caucuses (see below) or through points or motions on the floor. A full explanation of all points or motions is included later in this document.

3. Informal Debate

? Points Points of Personal Privilege: Whenever a delegate experiences personal discomfort which impairs his/her ability to participate in the proceedings, he or she may rise to a Point of Personal Privilege to request that the discomfort be corrected. While a Point of Personal Privilege may interrupt a speaker, delegates should use this power with the utmost discretion. Points of Order: During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may rise to a Point of Order to indicate an instance of improper procedure. Points of Order will be immediately decided by the Chair in accordance with these rules of procedure. The Chair may rule out of order those points that are dilatory or improper. A representative rising to a Point of Order may not speak on the substance of the matter under discussion. A Point of Order may only interrupt a speaker if the speech is not following proper procedure. Points of Inquiry: When the floor is open, a delegate may rise to a Point of Inquiry to ask the Chair a question regarding the rules of procedure. A Point of Inquiry may NEVER interrupt a speaker. Delegates with substantive questions should not rise to this Point, but should rather approach the committee staff during caucus or send a note to the dais. ? Motions concerning an un-moderated caucus or a moderated caucus Motions for an Un-moderated Caucus: A motion for an un-moderated caucus is in order at any time when the floor is open, prior to closure of debate. The delegate making the motion must specify a time limit for the caucus. The motion will

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immediately be put to a vote barring any other motions that take precedence. A simple majority of members is required for passage. The Chair may rule the motion out of order. Motions for a Moderated Caucus: In a moderated caucus, the Chair will temporarily depart from the Speakers’ List and call on delegates to speak at his or her discretion. A motion for a moderated caucus is in order at any time when the floor is open, prior to closure of debate. The delegate making the motion must briefly explain its purpose and specify a time limit for the caucus as well as the time limit per speech. Once raised, the motion will be voted on immediately, with a simple majority required for passage. The Chair may rule the motion out of order.

?Un-moderated Caucus During the formal debate, delegates may motion for an un-moderated caucus of a fixed period of time. The caucus serves as a temporary suspension of the rules of procedure and the formal debate. During this time, delegates can meet ?informally with one another and the committee staff to discuss Working Papers, Draft Resolutions, Amendments, and other relevant issues. Often a great deal of resolution writing and compromise is accomplished during caucuses, and delegates are encouraged to use the entire duration of the un-moderated caucus to the best of their advantages. ?Moderated Caucus The purpose of the moderated caucus is to facilitate substantive debate at critical junctures in the discussion. Delegates can also motion for moderated caucuses on specific topics to focus the debate of the committee on issues that they feel are of particular relevance. When a motion for moderated caucus is passed, the committee moves away from the speakers’ list and delegates raise their placards to be recognized to speak immediately. ? Documents During the process of the debate, the floor is open for documents including working papers, draft resolutions and amendments. Working Paper Delegates may propose Working Papers for committee consideration. Working Papers are intended to aid the Committee in its discussion and formulation of Draft Resolutions and need not be written in draft resolution format. Working papers are not official documents, but do require the signature of the Director to be approved and distributed. Amendments cannot be made to Working Papers. Once distributed, delegates will be given 2 minutes to read, after which the sponsors will have 2 minutes to introduce their working paper.

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Draft Resolutions (1)Brief introduction: The final results of discussion and negotiation are Draft Resolutions — a committee’s written suggestions for addressing a specific problem or issue. Draft Resolutions are all resolutions that haven’t been yet voted on. Each resolution should deal specifically with the topic area currently under discussion by the committee. (2)Responsibility of Dais: While the Director will not advocate a particular solution, it is his/her responsibility to ensure that the committee has fulfilled its responsibilities and adequately addressed the entire topic before it can be introduced as a resolution. Our Directors are trained to be very discriminating in accepting Draft Resolutions, and delegates should not be surprised or offended if the dais staff sends a proposal for a resolution back to the committee for revision before approving it. (3)Sponsors and signatories: To be a signatory of a draft resolution does not necessarily mean fully supporting the resolution, but the sponsors of a draft resolution should be those who totally agree with what is written in the resolution. A sponsor may NOT be the sponsor or signatory of any other draft resolution. A motion to introduce a draft resolution will be in order when it receives the approval of the Director and is signed by 20 percent of the members in the committee. (4)Introducing draft resolutions: Once a draft resolution has the requisite number of signatories, has been approved by the Director, and has been distributed and read for 3 minutes, the sponsors will have 3 minutes to introduce the resolution, which needs no procedural vote. More than one Draft Resolutions may be on the floor at any one time, but at most ONE resolution may be passed per Topic Area. After 3 minutes’ introduction, delegates who are not introducing or committee staffs may raise 3 questions concerning grammar mistakes. ? Motions to postponement and resumption of Draft Resolution: After a draft resolution has been introduced to the committee, a delegate may motion for the postponement of debate on the draft resolution. The motion, otherwise known as “tabling,” will require a two-thirds vote to pass. Once the motion passes, no debate or action, including voting, will be allowed on the draft resolution. A motion to resume debate on a draft resolution on which debate has been postponed will require a simple majority to pass. Resumption of draft resolution will cancel the effects of postponement of it.

Amendments Delegates may amend any resolution which has been introduced. An amendment must have the approval of the Director. After an amendment is delivered to the committee, delegates have 1 minute to read it and then the sponsors is entitled 1 minute to introduce it. (1) An amendment is considered unfriendly if NOT all the sponsors in the resolution to be amended sign on the amendment. Unfriendly Amendment should be signed by at least 20 percent of the delegates present. The Unfriendly Amendments will be voted after the roll call and the reading of Friendly Amendments.

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(2) An amendment is considered friendly only if ALL the sponsors in the resolution to be amended agree with this amendment, which means they must sign on the amendment. (3) Amendments to Amendments are out of order; however, an amended part of a resolution may be further amended at a later time. 4. Closure of Debate When the floor is open, a delegate may move to close debate on the substantive or procedural matter under discussion. The Chair might rule such a motion dilatory. When closure of debate is moved, the Chair may recognize up to two speakers for and two against the motion. Closure of debate requires the support of two-thirds of the committee. If the Committee is in favor of closure of debate, the Chair will declare the closure of the debate and move the committee to immediate voting procedure. If a given speaker’s list is exhausted, debate will automatically be closed.

5. Procedure of substantive voting The substantive voting at PKUNMUN will be voting on Draft Resolutions, Unfriendly Amendments and Draft Directives. (1) Reading friendly amendments (2) Voting on unfriendly amendments In the vote on unfriendly amendments, the Chair will call countries in alphabetical order, and delegates may vote “Yes,” “No,” “Abstain,” or “Pass.” A two-thirds majority is required for the amendments to be passed (3)Voting on draft resolutions ? Reorder draft resolutions The vote on Draft Resolutions will follow the order in which the Draft Resolutions were introduced. But after debate is closed (the Unfriendly Amendments have been voted), a motion to change the order of voting on Draft Resolutions currently on the floor will be in order. There will be no debate on this motion, and it will require a simple majority to pass. Only one such motion can pass in the voting procedures. ? Roll call voting The roll call voting will be voting on Draft Resolutions, Draft Directive and Unfriendly Amendments. In a roll call vote, the Chair will call countries in alphabetical order. In the first round, delegates may vote “Yes,” “No,” “Abstain,” or “Pass.” A delegate who passes during the first round of the roll call must vote “Yes” or “No” in the second round.

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After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting, no delegate can interrupt the voting except on a Point of Personal Privilege or a Point of Order in connection with the actual conduct of voting. The rooms are also sealed. A two-thirds majority is required for a resolution to be passed. Once a resolution has been passed, the voting procedure is closed as only one resolution may be passed on a topic area.

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Quick Reference Guide
RULES OF PROCEDURE: QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE
RULE Point of Personal Privilege VOTE No Vote COMMENTS In order at any time; used when a delegate is unable to participate in committee business. In order at any time; but able to interrupt Point of Order Point of Inquiry Motion for Moderated Caucus Motions for Unmoderated Caucus Motion to Close the Speakers’ List Motion to Suspend the Meeting No Vote No Vote 1/2+1 a speaker only when the speech itself is not in order. In order only when the floor is open. Motion requires purpose and time limit for caucus. Maximum time, including extensions, 15 minutes 1/2+1 2/3 Motion requires time limit for caucus. Same as Motion to Close the Debate When the scheduled time of a committee session has elapsed This motion will be in order after a resolution has been introduced to the Motion to Postpone a D.R.

1/2+1

2/3

committee. And once it passes, no debate or action, including voting, will be allowed on the resolution. This motion will cancel the effects of postponement. This motion will be in order after the closure of debate. Once it passes, the vote will follow the new order. Only one such motion can pass in the voting procedures. No multiple yields. May yield to 1)

Motion to Resume a D.R.

1/2+1

Motion to Reorder D.R.(s)

1/2+1

Yield

another Provided PKUNMUN 2015

delegate, your

2)

questions, or

3)

comments, 4) chair Right to Reply 28 personal national

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 integrity has been impugned, you may use the right by sending a page to the dais on which you write down your reply. The Chair may grant you the right to read it or not.

Note: All procedural matters in committee are subject to the discretion of the chairperson. The Chair may undertake any action that is not covered in the Rules of Procedure in order to facilitate the flow of debate at the conference. ?

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事 规则示意图 ?

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)用语 范例 ?
1. Roll Call
Rapportuer: Algeria Delegate of Algeria: Present. Rapportuer:Delegate of Algeria is present.

2. Deliver a Speech
Delegate: Honorable chair and distinguished delegates… thank you.

3. How to Raise a Motion?
Delegate: Delegate of Japan would like to shorten/ lengthen the speaking time to 2min. Delegate: Delegate of Russia would like to close the debate/ suspend the meeting/ adjourn the meeting. Delegate: Delegate of South Africa would like to motion for a moderated caucus. The subject is private sector’s duty to cope with climate change. The total time should be ten minutes and each speaker is entitled one minute. Delegate: Delegate of China would like to motion for an un-moderated caucus lasting five minutes. Delegate: Delegate of United States motions to postpone/ resume Draft Resolution 1.1. Delegate: Delegate of Denmark motions to reorder the three Draft Resolutions. The new order for voting is 1.2, 1.3 and then 1.1.

4. How to Raise a Point?
Chair: Are there any points or motions on the floor? Delegate: Point! Chair: The chair recognizes delegate of Brazil. What is your point? Delegate: Delegate of Brazil would like to point for personal privilege, for I haven’t got the printed Draft Resolution. Chair: Thank you. I will have our staff get down to that.

5. Yield Time
Chair: Delegate of Algeria, you have 30 seconds left, how would you like to yield your time? Delegate of Algeria: I would like to yield the time to chair/ delegate of…. / question/ comment.

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会特殊委员会学术标准 ? 一、联合国历史安全理事会(HSC)特殊规则说明
联合国历史安全委员会的议事规则及文件写作将按照一般规则(参见中文版一般规则) 进行。 考虑到在历届 PKUNMUN 会议中代表对安理会成员权利及投票的掌握都存在一些常见问 题,现做几下特别说明: 1、联合国安理会五个常任理事国对于联合国决议拥有一票否决权;否决权传递的是大 国对联合国安理会决议的强烈抗议及其执行力的严重怀疑, 但同时不恰当行使否决权会对大 国声誉造成恶劣影响; 在往届会议中出现部分代表受个人感情以及利益考虑随意行使否决权 的情况,主席团在对代表做出评价时也将这点作为重要考量要素。 2、考虑到联合国安理会问题讨论的需要,安理会会设置部分观察员国家列席会议;观 察员国不具有决议投票权及起草权, 但可参与工作文件的起草及签署; 观察员国往往为事件 利益牵涉国但又不为联合国安理会成员国, 观察员国代表可通过发言及工作文件写作等方式 传达自身诉求,推动会议进程,起到积极作用 3、联合国安理会决议草案通过的两个特殊必要条件: l? l? 五常任理事国不行使否决权 获得至少 9 票赞成

二、联合国儿童基金会 (UNICEF)特殊规则说明

UNICEF Executive Board i. Introduction of UNICEF

The UNICEF Executive Board is the governing body of UNICEF, providing intergovernmental support and oversight to the organization, in accordance with the overall policy guidance of the United Nations General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council. The Executive Board reviews UNICEF activities and approves its policies, country programmes and budgets. Since 1994, the Executive Board has been operating in its current structure, comprising 36 members, elected to three-year terms by the Economic and Social Council, with the following regional allocation of seats: 8 African States, 7 Asian States, 4 Eastern European States, 5 Latin American and Caribbean States and 12 Western European and other States (including Japan). ii.
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a)

Board Members

The right of the board members is the same as the delegates in normal committees. Specifically, they will be divided to five groups according to the region: African regional group, Asian regional group, Eastern European regional group, Latin American and Caribbean regional group and Western European regional group. Specifically, there will be five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups. They serves as a governing council of the Executive Board, dealing primarily with liaison, administrative and functional matters, such as facilitating the negotiation of decisions at the session, to enhance the effectiveness of the Executive Board. The officers also coordinate informal consultations within their respective regional groups. The officers of the meeting are from the following countries: Kenya, Bulgaria, Denmark, Haiti, and Pakistan. b) Observers

In this year’s special meeting on Early Child Development, besides the 36 members of the Board, several observers will be attending. As the experts in some areas of ECD, they are able to assist the members in promoting ECD programmes and offers advice in specific areas. The observers of the meeting include: UN Agencies World Health Organizations United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Development Programme The United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS Institutions/NGOs Childfund International Plan international Action Contrela Faim (ACF) International the Save the Children Fund Aid At Action Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood Arab Resource Collective The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF) The observers do not have the right to vote. However, they have the right to draft working papers and sign (not sponsor) the final report. iii. The Process: Committee Session
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Please refer to “Rules and Procedures” of normal committees. iv. Documents

Position Paper Before the meeting, each member of the Board should submit a position paper. It should include a Country Case Study Report to analyze the situation of ECD in your own country (it is recommended to follow the format of the example in the Background Guide) and some advice for future actions. Each observer should submit a position paper analyzing your distinctive role in ECD, the programmes you have launched and future programmes to launch. Working Paper Both the members of the Board and observers could submit working papers during the session. Please refer to the section of Working paper in the normal committees. Programme Design During the sessions, each region should design a programme and submit a programme design. The programme should be focused on promoting ECD in the region and its feasibility, target population, cost and other factors should be considered. It is recommended that the programme design follow the format of the programme case study in the background guide. The programme design should be signed by all the board members in the region. It is acceptable for two regions to design a joint programme. However, the joint programme should consider many other factors and it should be signed by all the board members of the two regions. Delegates will have time to introduce the programme design once it is submitted and approved by the Director. Delegates will have 3 minutes to introduce the design, which needs no procedural vote. Please note that no amendment is allowed for the design. design is submitted and approved, it could not be revised. Once the programme

In the end of the meeting, all the programmes will be voted. The three programmes that get the highest votes will be approved and will be put into action the following year. The rest will be postponed. Final Report The final report is a document that drafted by the Executive Board to raise the awareness of ECD to the public, introduce several programme to be launched, and give some advice on related areas of ECD.
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In the end of the meeting, a final report should be drafted. The final report is similar to a draft resolution, however, it should be signed by all of the board members to show their approval and determination to promote ECD in his country and carry out the clauses included. No vote will be conducted here. In order to achieve the eventual unity, not only the approved programme designs should be included in the final report, but also the postponed one with reasons stated and outlook of next round discussion included.

? 三、国际法庭 ( International Court of Justice)特殊规则说明

Rules and Procedures of International Court of Justice
I. Composition of the Court and the Secretariat

I.1 The Court shall be composed of one Chair, one Rapporteur, nine Judges, five Advocates for each Party. The Chair, Rapporteur, Directors and Assistant Directors shall form the Secretariat. I.2 The Chair shall preside over the proceedings and ensure the implementation of the Rules and Procedures. All points and objections shall be raised to the Chair. I.3 The Rapporteur is responsible for conducting the roll call, calculating, and recording the court proceedings. I.4 The Directors and Assistant Directors are responsible for ensuring the academic acceptability of the court proceedings. They may speak at any time during the proceedings to comment on the academic performance of the Members of the Court, and interrupt a speaker if it is deemed by them to be necessary. They are also responsible for instructing Members of the Court and answering questions using pages. I.5 The Judges shall determine the applicable law and reaching a verdict. The verdict will be written by the Judges and read to the Court. Each Judge shall have one vote in any procedural and substantive votes. Judges may raise points and motions during the proceedings, and may raise questions, make comments and interrupt a speaker at any phase of the proceedings except for otherwise stated. I.6 The Advocates are representatives of the Parties and are expected to defend their best interest in the court proceedings. They are expected to submit memorial and counter-memorial in written form to the Secretariat before the commencement of the proceedings. Advocates may raise points, motions and objections during the
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proceedings, but are not allowed to vote. II. Oral Proceedings
Roll ?Call

Opening ?Statements

S7pula7on ?Wri7ng ?& ? Delibera7on

Presentaion ?of ?Evidence

Selec7ng ?Legal ?Issues ?& ? Delibera7on

Announcing ?Adopted ? Evidence ?and ?Legal ?Issues ?

Argument ?

Closing ?Statements

Delibera7on

Reading ?of ?the ?Verdict

II.1 Roll Call a) The roll call shall be conducted by the Rapporteur at the beginning of each session. The Rapporteur shall call on the Judges first, followed by the Applicant Party and then the Respondent Party. The Judges and the Parties shall each choose a Member to report to the Secretariat the number of their respective Members who are present. b) The quorum is met when the majority of Members of the Judges and both Parties are present. c) Members who are late for the roll call shall pass pages to the Rapporteur to indicate their presence. II.2 Opening Statements a) The opening statements shall be delivered first by one Advocate of the Applicant Party, then by one Advocate of the Respondent Party. Each Party has 30 minutes to deliver their opening statement. b) The opening statements should include brief summaries of the arguments mentioned in the memorial and the counter-memorial, and the arguments that the
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Parties wish to put forth in the oral proceedings. c) At the end of each opening statement, the Judges may raise questions to the Party who has just delivered their Statement. d) No points or objections, except for points of personal privilege, can interrupt the opening statements. II.3 Stipulation a) After the delivery of the opening statements and the questions of the Judges, the Court will automatically enter into a 20-minute-recess, during which the Advocates of both Parties shall retire to write a stipulation, while the Judges shall enter deliberation. b) The stipulation is a document containing the facts that both Parties agree on, and must be signed by both Parties before being submitted to the Secretariat. Should a Party challenge a fact mentioned in the stipulation, an objection of immaterial shall be in order. The Parties may fail to produce a stipulation. c) The Judges are recommended to go through the arguments of both Parties during the deliberation. II.4 Presentation of Evidence a) The evidence shall include international conventions, bilateral and multilateral agreements, reports and resolutions of international organizations, diplomatic documents of States, news articles, and visual and audio files that the Parties deem to be helpful in supporting their arguments in essence. b) All evidential materials shall be listed in annexes of the memorial and counter-memorial, or in the Amendments thereof. c) They Applicant Party will be the first to present their evidence. After all the evidence of the Applicant Party is presented, the Respondent Party will present their evidence. d) Before the discussion begins, the Court shall have 2 minutes to read the evidential material, or as otherwise determined by the Chair according to the length of the material. The reading time will not be counted in the total discussion time. e) There shall be 15 minutes for the Court to discuss each piece of evidence, which can be prolonged by the motion of the Party presenting the evidence. f) The Party presenting the evidence shall have 5 minutes to introduce the evidential material, after which the opposing Party may make rebuttals on the evidential material and the interpretation provided by the other Party. The scopes of the rebuttals are limited to the evidential material under discussion and other issues directly linked to it. The rebuttals shall be limited within 5 minutes, and the Judges shall raise questions concerning the evidential material thereafter. The Judges may speak at any time during the discussion. g) After the discussion of all evidential materials the Court will automatically be in recess, during which the Judges will proceed with deliberation to determine the evidence to be admitted. The Parties shall retire to list the legal issues each Party wish to debate on in later sessions, and submit the list to the Secretariat. The Judges shall choose the legal issues to be discussed in later sessions.
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h) If a piece of evidence is not admitted, it cannot be referred to in later proceedings. i) A Party may raise an objection of immaterial when the opposing Party is presenting the evidence, which shall be put to vote by the Judges. If the objection is granted by the Judges, the piece of evidence shall be immediately deemed unacceptable, and shall not be admitted by the Judges. The discussion on this piece of evidence shall be immediately terminated. II.5 Argument a) This phase will be divided into debate on various legal issues which include the existence and applicability of certain rules and principles of the law relevant to the case. They are expressed in the form of questions, which the Judges are expected to answer in their verdict, or give explanation if they refuse to give an answer. b) The Judges shall select the legal issues from the lists submitted by the Parties, and determine the order. c) The Parties shall have 20 minutes to debate on each legal issue. The Applicant Party shall be the first to speak in the first legal issue, and the two Parties shall have the chance to speak first alternately. In the debate of each legal issue, the speech of one speaker must be followed by the speech of a speaker from the opposing Party. Each speech can be no longer than 4 minutes The Judges may raise questions to each Party during the interval of their speeches. d) All arguments in this phase must be based on evidence adopted by the Judges. The presentation of new evidence is strictly prohibited. II.6 Closing Statements a) The closing statements follow the same rule, except concerning the content, as the opening statements. b) The closing statements are expected to contain brief summaries of what the Parties managed to prove in the previous proceedings. New arguments and new evidence should not be presented in this part. c) The Court shall be automatically in recess after the closing statement of the Respondent Party, and the Judges shall proceed with deliberation to compose the verdict. II.7 One of the Judges shall read the majority opinion of the verdict after the deliberation following the closing statements. Dissenting Judges shall read their respective dissenting opinions. II.8 Deliberations a) During deliberations, the Parties shall retire out of the courtroom, where the Judges shall proceed with private discussion. b) No communication shall take place between the Parties and the Judges during the deliberation. If the Parties have documents to submit, the Secretariat shall pass the documents to the Judges. c) The Judges may, after notifying the Chair, decide to enter deliberation during the
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interval of the speeches of the Members in any phase of the proceedings, if the majority of the Judges agree to do so. II.9 Voting The Judges may vote on procedural matters, i.e. the motions and objections, and other issues as explicitly stated, at the presence of the Advocates. When the Judges are voting on substantive matters, i.e. the verdict and other issues as explicitly stated, the Advocates are required to retire out of the courtroom. III Incidental Proceedings III.1 Points a) Personal privilege: Members of the Court may raise a point of personal privilege when there are discomforts hindering their participation in the conference which they wish to be corrected. Points of personal privilege are in order at any time. b) Order: Members of the Court may raise a point of order when they deem an act to be violating the procedures. The Chair shall then decide whether the said act constitutes a violation according to the rules and procedures. The subject of the point of order has to be strictly procedural. The point of order can only interrupt a speech when the speech is deemed not in order. c) Inquiry: Members of the Court may raise a point of inquiry when they have a question concerning the procedures. The question shall be answered by the Chair. A point of inquiry is in order at the interval of speeches. III.2 Objections a) If any of the situations listed in this section emerges in a Party’s actions or statements, as a general rule, the opposing Party shall have the right to raise an objection stating its ground as listed below. The Chair shall announce the outcome of the objection as either granted or overruled, except for when an objection of immaterial is raised. If an objection is granted, the subject of the objection shall immediately be abandoned and removed from Court records. The decision of the Chair is not open to appeal. The Chair, upon their own discretion, may consult the judges for granting or overruling the objection. Objections may interrupt the speaker. b) Compound Question: Parties may ask one question at a time. Should any Party combine multiple questions, objection shall be in order. c) Immaterial: An objection of immaterial may be raised if a Party presents any piece before the Court that aims to prove some fact which lacks any logical connection with the consequential facts or whose authenticity is not proven. d) Irrelevant: All asseverations of Parties shall be relevant to the case at hand. e) Prejudicial: Should an assertion harm the personal integrity of a Court member, an objection may be raised by the Court member whose integrity has been harmed. III.3 Motions a) The Members of the Court can only motion to readjust the time limits of speeches,
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to prolong the time allotted for a single speech, or to terminate discussion on an evidential material or a legal issue. b) When a Member tables a motion, the motion shall be put to vote by the Judges. A simple majority is required for the motion to pass. c) A motion is in order during the interval of speeches, and cannot interrupt a speech. IV. Written Proceedings IV.1 the Memorial and Counter-Memorial a) The Applicant Party shall submit a memorial to the Secretariat before a designated date prior to the commencement of the oral proceedings. The memorial should contain summary of issues presented before the Court, statement of facts concerning the case, argument, and submissions. An annex listing the evidential material is required. b) The Respondent Party shall submit a counter-memorial to the Secretariat after the Respondent Party receives copies of the memorial, and before a designated date prior to the commencement of the oral proceedings. The content of the counter-memorial follows the same rule as the memorial, and rebuttals of the arguments put forward in the memorial are expected to form part of the argument in the counter-memorial. c) Submissions in the memorial and counter-memorial should contain suggestions on how the Judges should adjudge the case. IV.2 the Verdict a) The Judges are required to write a verdict during the last deliberation on the merits of the case. b) The verdict should contain summary of issues presented before the Court, statement of established facts, submissions of the Parties, and the applicable law. The Judges are expected to give their opinions on important legal issues that arose in the previous proceedings. c) The verdict requires a simple majority to be passed. Judges who are in the minority may submit their dissenting opinions in group or individually. d) The exact format of the verdict shall be contained in future updates.

四、联合国能源机制 ( UN-?‐ENERGY) 特殊规则说明 ?

Rules and Procedures for UN-ENERGY
I. Delegates

Delegates in this committee will be divided into two groups. The division will be done before the distribution of delegate roles.
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The first group of delegates is chief officials of 22 member agencies in the UN-Energy system, While the second group of delegates refers to leaders and professionals in the field of energy or related.
II.Pre-papers

The first group of delegates is supposed to submit Working Reports to the Dais before the sessions, which address their essential views. As for the second kind of delegates, they must submit Investigation Reports to the Dais before the committee, in which their own investigate and survey on this issue are stated from their professional perspective.

III. Procedures 1. Roll Call

First of all the rapporteur will do the Roll Call in alphabetic order. Delegates should raise their placards and answer “present” when their country’s name is called. After the roll call, the rapporteur will declare the simple majority, the two-thirds majority and 20% of the number. The debate will not be permitted to proceed unless at least a simple majority of the members of the Committee are present.
2. Formal Debate

During the formal debate, delegates have the opportunity to share their views with the entire committee. Every delegate is supposed to give a speech no longer than 3 minutes. There is no yield of time in the formal debate.
?Setting up a speaker’s List

Speakers’ List will be established for the purpose of formal debate. The speakers’ list in this committee consists of two parts: the speakers from the first group and the speakers from the second group. These two parts are set separately and the speeches from the second group will be delivered after the first part of the speakers’ list is finished. Speakers may speak generally on the Topic Area being considered and may address any resolution currently on the floor.
?Speeches

The Chair of the committee will then call on the delegates on the Speakers’ List (in the order they were placed on the list). The initial time for each speaker in the formal debate is 120 seconds, which can be yielded and changed. A motion to extend or shorten the speaking time requires a simple majority of the committee’s members to pass. The speeches are encouraged to be presented in different forms with the help of multimedia devices.
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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 3. Setting Ten Sub-topics of Discussion

Alternative topics should be submitted before the committee. After all the delegates present their views in the formal debate, they vote on the sub-topics and choose the top ten. These ten topics have to be discussed in order of votes. During the procedure, it needs a two-thirds majority to complete the discussion of a topic as well as changing the order of topic discussion. Not all chosen sub-topics need to be discussed during the meeting. But the list gives a clear clue of the whole discussion of the committee.
4. Informal Debate ?Un-moderated Caucus

During the informal debate, delegates may motion for an un-moderated caucus of a fixed period of time. An un-moderated caucus requires 20% majority. The caucus serves as a temporary suspension of the rules of procedure and the formal debate. During this time, delegates can meet informally with one another and the committee staff to discuss relevant issues. Often a great deal of resolution writing and compromise is accomplished during caucuses, and delegates are encouraged to use the entire duration of the un-moderated caucus to the best of their advantages.
?Moderated Caucus

The purpose of the moderated caucus is to facilitate substantive debate at critical junctures in the discussion. Delegates can also motion for moderated caucuses on specific topics to focus the debate of the committee on issues that they feel are of particular relevance. A moderated caucus requires 20% majority. When a motion for moderated caucus is passed, delegates raise their placards to be recognized to speak immediately.
? Documents

During the process of the debate, the floor is open for documents including proposals, memorandums and declarations.
Working papers

Working papers are intended to aid the Committee in its discussion and appendixes of Declarations and need not be written in any kind of format. Working papers are not official documents, but do require at least two sponsors. Once passed, delegates will be given 2 minutes to read, after which the sponsors will have 2 minutes to introduce their working papers. Then other delegates can raise three questions, followed by a free debate without leaving the seats. Working Papers in this committee only include two forms:
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Only the first group of delegates may propose memorandums for committee consideration, which keep the staged achievements in their minds.
Proposals

Only the second group of delegates may propose proposals for committee consideration, which contain their suggestions, summaries and expectation for the committee.
Declarations (1)Brief introduction: The final results of discussion and negotiation are Declarations,

which will provide directions and suggestions for the post-2015 work of UN-Energy. (2)Sponsors and signatories: To be a signatory of a declaration does not necessarily mean fully supporting the declaration, but the sponsors of a declaration should be those who totally agree with what is written in the declaration. A sponsor may NOT be the sponsor or signatory of any other. (3)Negotiating on proposals and memorandums: All the sponsors of the proposals and memorandums should negotiate and vote to decide which proposals or memorandums can be the appendixes of the declarations. (4)Voting on declarations: The voting is also divided into two parts. A two-thirds majority in the first group is required for a follow-up vote in the second group which also requited a two-thirds majority. Amotion to postpone a declaration will be in order after a declaration has been introduced to the committee. And once it passes, no debate or action, including voting, will be allowed on the resolution. A motion to resume a declaration will cancel the effects of postponement. Both kinds of motions require simple majority. A motion to reorder of declarations requires simple majority. Such motion can only be raised after the closure of the debate and the new order will not be changed again once it passes. Once a declaration has been passed, the voting procedure is closed. The only declaration will direct the future work of UN-Energy. (5)Voting on proposals and memorandum: Once the declaration passed, the proposals and memorandums, which apply to be adopted as appendixes shall be voted.

五、欧洲理事会( European Council)特殊规则说明 ? ?
委 员 会 介 绍 : 欧盟在推动外交和防务一体化的过程中一直遭遇诸多困窘,CFSP 机制的发 展终于形成了支撑欧盟的三大支柱。 目前所发生的乌克兰危机正是对于这一机制的挑战和考 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015 43

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 验,例如 CFSP 能否整合内部的意见防止分裂;是否能够快速反应并有效地发挥作用;它能 在多大程度上摆脱北约的控制以独立行动等等。本次会议中代表们将分别扮演欧盟成员国、 欧盟委员会(European Commission)以及欧洲议会(European Parliament)中的领导人,为 CFSP 机制的调整方向指明道路。 1. 代表身份:参会代表在本次会议中将分别扮演欧盟成员国元首或政府首脑、欧盟委员会 主席与秘书长、以及欧洲议会议长等角色,除了其国家属性以外,代表还将具有其角色 属性。 2. 角色权限:本次会议中,仅欧盟成员国代表享有决议权,可以对会议决议草案、指令草 案及修正案进行表决;欧盟委员会及欧洲议会代表则仅享有建议权,对会议决议草案、 指令草案及修正案只能附议,且不能表决。 3. 表决程序:共同外交和安全政策的决定原则上由理事会以全体一致决议,任何一个打算 投弃权票的成员国均应向会议提供正式的声明以取得弃权资格。在这种情况下,该成员 国可不承担执行决定的义务,但应承认此项决定对联盟有约束力,其他成员国也应尊重 该有关成员国的弃权立场。如果具有弃权资格的理事会成员国超过了建立欧洲共同体条 约第 148 条所指加权票的三分之一,则有关决定不得通过。 4. 立场文件:代表应在正式会议召开之前的指定时间范围内上交立场文件; 工作文件:代表可在正式辩论环节结束之后向主席团提交工作文件; 指令草案:当会议议程中出现危机时,代表可在与其他代表及有关方面及充分交流的基 础上,提交本组织应对此危机的行动方案。危机行动方案只能在危机处理期间被提交, 一经主席团批准即自动生效; 决议草案:决议是由被投票通过的决议草案自动升级而成的,是针对一个议题的讨论结 果,是欧盟正式的、具有法律效力、各国应当遵守的官方文件。 修正案:是指由一位或多位代表起草的,按照决议文件格式对当前会议的某份决议草案 提出修正意见,包括友好修正案和非友好修正案。

六、联合国新闻部/非政府组织年度会议(DPI/NGO)特殊规则 说明 ?
委员会介绍:自杀已经成为了严重的社会问题,每天因自杀而死亡的人数接近八十万;代表 们将扮演来自世界各地的不同的非政府组织, 在这个平台上可以对自杀的成因、 对自杀的干 预与防治作交流。这次会议的定位是一次学术交流会议,希望在此汇集代表们的智慧,对此 议题做详尽讨论。 会议流程 第一部分:自愿性报告 (1) 代表于 PKUNMUN 正式会议召开前某一特定时间4向主席团申请进行自愿性报告; (2) 正式会议 session 1 中,点名流程结束后自动进入自愿性报告环节; (3) 每组报告人员共拥有 20 分钟时间,若报告时间不足 20 分钟,将自动进入对该组报 告的提问(Q&A)环节,提问者高举 NGO 代表牌以示意愿,由报告人员自行挑选 提问者,只有回答时间计入总时长,提问时间不计入总时长。
4

该日期由 DPI NGO 根据大会召开时间制定

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 第二部分:正式辩论 1、结束后自动进入第一轮正式辩论; 2、会议主席宣布进入正式辩论阶段后,主发言名单将自动开启。主席将随机点出全部愿意 发言的代表; 3、被加入主发言名单的每位代表自动拥有两分钟发言时间; 4、正式辩论中代表发言剩余时间多于 10 秒时允许让渡,让渡规则同常规委员会; 5、在正式辩论进行期间,仅有结束辩论的动议可被提出并表决通过。结束正式辩论的动议 需要三分之二多数通过; 6、当主发言名单结束时,该轮正式辩论即自动结束。 第三部分:非正式辩论 1、第一轮正式辩论结束后自动进入非正式辩论环节; 2、非正式辩论由代表动议推动,代表可在进入非正式辩论环节后提出以下各项动议; a)动议进行有主持核心磋商 b)动议进行自由磋商 c)动议进行双边辩论 i. 此动议应由至少两位代表共同提出,需简单多数通过,其具体操作为,由一名代表 动议且至少一名代表附议(此时视作共同动议)时此动议方有效 ii. 代表需要在提出动议的同时设定双边辩论的主题及总时长,此主题应包括正反双 方立场,动议之提出者(动议者及附议者)按意愿首先进入正/反方发言名单 iii. 在动议通过后,其他希望代表正/反方发言的代表应高举国家牌,主席将一一点出 发言代表 iv. 由正方首先发言,之后双方交替发言,首先发言的应为动议之提出者 v. 双边辩论之总时长不应超过 20 分钟 vi. 双边辩论中一方单次发言时长不得超过 120 秒 vii. 在双边辩论进行过程中及结束后, 会议指导得在不打断代表发言的前提下向代表 提出问题,提问及回答时间不计入总时长 viii. 如辩论总时长未超过设定之总时长,而双方代表均表示不愿继续辩论,则此双 边辩论将自动结束 ix. 双边辩论进行期间,不得提出动议,但允许提出问题 d)动议进行多边辩论 i. 此动议应由至少三位代表共同提出, 需简单多数通过, 由一或二名代表所提出的动 议无效。其具体操作为,由一名代表动议且至少两名代表附议(此时视作共同动议)时此动 议方有效 ii. 代表需要在提出动议的同时设定多边辩论的主题及总时长,此主题无需包括各方 具体立场 iii. 由全部动议提出者首先依次发言,之后各代表可在无其他代表发言时任意发言 iv. 多边辩论之总时长不得超过 20 分钟 v. 多边辩论中一方单次发言时长不得超过 120 秒 vi. 在多边辩论进行过程中及结束后,会议指导得在不打断代表发言的前提下向代表 提出问题,提问及回答时间不计入总时长 vii. 如辩论总时长未超过设定之总时长,而各方代表均表示不愿继续辩论,则此多边 辩论将自动结束 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015 45

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 viii. 多边辩论进行期间,不得提出动议,但允许提出问题 e)动议暂时休会 f)动议结束辩论 第四部分:会议文件 1、立场文件:代表应在正式会议召开之前的指定时间范围内上交立场文件; 2、发布申请:代表应在正式会议召开前指定日期向主席团提交自愿性报告发布申请; 3、工作文件:代表可在正式辩论环节结束之后向主席团提交工作文件; 4、危机行动方案:当会议议程中出现危机时,代表可在与其他代表及有关方面及充分交流 的基础上,提交本组织应对此危机的行动方案。危机行动方案只能在危机处理期间被提交, 一经主席团批准即自动生效; 5、共同宣言与个别宣言:NGO 宣言作为与会非政府组织及国际组织针对此次议题的讨论总 结以及对未来行动的长期规划,代表着 NGO 与国际组织在相关议题上的共识或个别立场; 共同宣言的通过无需投票, 一经主席团审核及起草、 附议代表数量超过代表总数的 1/2, 在向委员会全体与会代表介绍后即自动生效。对起草及附议 NGO 的规定与对常规委员会决 议草案的相关规定相同; 未起草或附议任一共同宣言的代表可选择自行发表个别宣言表明本方立场, 此项宣言需 在共同宣言被介绍给全体代表之后提出; 6、 修正案: 对共同宣言可提出友好修正案, 不得提出非友好修正案。 个别宣言无需修正案。

? ?

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会危机处理学术标准 ? 一、危机的定义与特点
定义
在国际关系中,危 机 ( Crisis) 是走向战争或和平的转折关头。导致危机的冲突要是得 不到解决,就会升级为更严重的冲突甚至战争。 ? 在北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会中,为模拟更加真实的国际社会,特别设立“危 机”,指不同于本委员会所讨论的议题,但又迫切需要得到该委员会处理的突发事件,其优 先性高于当前议题的讨论。 ?
5

特点 6
国际危机的基本特点主要表现在以下几个方面: ? 第一,不确定性。国际危机是处于战争与和平之间的一个特殊阶段,危机管理成功,则 恢复和平,不确定性消失;处理失败,不确定性增加,危机上升为局部甚至 全面战争; ? 第二,突发性。国际危机是出乎危机一方甚至双方预料的,其突发性给决策者造成强烈 震撼。 如何适应国际危机的突发性, 快速将国家决策体制转成危机决策机制, 进行有效的信息沟通,是国际危机成功管理的关键; ? 第三,可管理性。国际危机的管理过程就是尽量避免自身出现无意识的行为(无意识的 行为可能引起危机的紧张局势加剧),同时准确判断对方的能力和意志,并 准确将自己的判断传递给对方,减少对方出现鲁莽行为的可能性,并竭力约 束对方不发生鲁莽的行为; ? 第四,可沟通性。在国际危机管理中,信息沟通的过程是危机双方互动的过程。通过有 效的信息沟通, 可以清楚地了解对方的意图, 并使对方不要误判自己的意图。 有效的信息沟通是国际危机可“管理”的必要条件。 ?

二、总则
5

【美】詹姆斯·多尔蒂、小罗伯特·普法尔茨格拉夫:《争论中的国际关系理论》,阎学通、陈寒溪等

译,世界知识出版社 2003 年版,第 622 页。
6

主要参考:郑伟:《国际危机管理与信息沟通》,中央编译出版社 2009 年版,第 18-19 页。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 1. 本议事规则由二零一五年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会制定,适用于“ 二 零一五年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会” 所有出现危机的委员会。 2. 本规则流程在其所适用的范围内具有约束力。 3. 本规则流程最终解释权属于北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会。

三、人员及职责
1. 组 委 会 : 学术总监分管和协调相关危机事务。 2. 主 席 团 :涉及危机的委员会各设一名危机负责人,负责掌控本委员会危机处理情况、撰 写危机处理报告等;其余主席团成员配合危机负责人处理好相关事务。 3. 代 表 : 对危机做出及时有效的应对。涉及联动危机时需要与相关委员会的本国代表进行 合作。 4. MPC 记 者 : 报道危机相关内容。具体职责将在主新闻中心的背景文件中说明。

四、危机内容与流程
危机共分为两类,分别是委员会内部危机以及联动危机。 二零一五年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会将对危机内容将有所创新, 具体内容将 在下一轮更新中发布。 ? ? ?

?

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015

第二部分 ? 会议文件 ?

一、 立 场 文 件 Position Paper 1、 写 作 指 导 : 一篇优秀的立场文件不仅可以让阅读的代表和主席了解国家的基本立场, 对过去的措施 和议题的发展进行梳理,更能使代表在写作的过程中激发出正式会议中的思维火花。 其中,本国立场及对相关议题提出的建议、措施是立场文件的重要组成部分。希望代表 们在仔细阅读“背景指导集”的基础上,梳理议题脉络,查阅可靠的相关资料,对议题进行 完整了解,从多种角度提出相关建议和解决措施,力图真实、完整地反映模拟国家的立场。 必要时可以举出实例、提供数据或援引相关决议、规定讲话及声明。 在立场文件的写作过程中, 应避免立场与所代表国家的不符甚至相悖、 建议及措施过于 空泛、笼统(比如“加强国际合作” 、 “增加对教育方面投入” ,忽视了对国际合作的多种类 型及进行具体的选择和分析,如双边多边,何种国际组织参与,是联合国框架内的还是地区 性组织等) 、概念模糊(体现了对背景文件的阅读及学术准备存在不足) 、表述不清(不阐明 行为主体等) 、对所在委员会职责缺乏了解等问题。我们鼓励代表在立场文件中提出新颖、 可行的设想,但是设想需要有合理依据并具体。 代表们需要注意一些基本的文件写作规范,如国家名首次出现使用全称,括号内简称, 后可用简称代替;作为一国的外交代表,行文中应谨慎使用文学修辞,选词中要避免非书面 语的出现; 同时应避免使用对他国进行威胁或命令的词句。 对资料的引用需用脚注或尾注标 明来源,严禁抄袭。 在立场文件的写作中, 代表需要进行背景文件阅读及自身国家调研。 前者对于代表了解 议题要讨论的范畴及基本知识掌握十分必要, 代表可从中总结出会议可能的争论焦点及有价 值的议题。后者则是代表针对每个可能的问题提出本国立场及措施的依据;与会国众多,代 表将全部国家研究透彻是十分费时费力的, 而立场文件的作用之一则是汇总每个代表对本国 有价值的研究,从而为其它代表提供便利。因此,文章虽小,功夫却多。PKUNMUN 为立场文 件设单项奖,也是鼓励代表扎扎实实进行会前学术准备,从而为会上表现打下基础。 2、 中 文 范 例 委员会:世界卫生组织 议题:青少年艾滋病的预防 国家:德意志联邦共和国 代表: 艾滋病是人类面临的共同挑战。自 1981 年首次发现至 今,这一病魔已经吞噬了 2500 万人的生命。由于不断变化 的生活方式,青少年(15-24 岁)已成为艾滋病传播的易感 人群。青少年艾滋病问题主要表现为以下几个方面。第一, 近年来全球几乎一半的新增艾滋病病例是 15-24 岁的青少 年;第二,艾滋病患者的羞耻感和人们对于艾滋病病人及病 毒携带者的歧视十分严重;第三,由艾滋病引申出来的其他 疾病(如恐艾症)同样困扰着全世界的青年人;第四,虽然 各国欲进一步完善青少年艾滋病预防体系, 但由于国家之间 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015 49
第一部分表需运用自己的语言对议题进 行归纳概括。也可在其中表达出本国代 表基本立场态度。本文作者开门见山, 并将主要表现归纳成四个方面(通过整 体阅读背景文件和综合已经查找资料获 得) 言简意赅是判断一篇立场文件的 立场文件在格式上没有特殊要求,开篇 左上角标明委员会,议题和代表国家即 可。

重要标准之一。

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 的政治、经济和社会文化差异,依然无法形成协力抗击艾滋 病的统一战线。对于广大发展中国家来说,社会动荡,经济 落后,资源匮乏等问题影响了青少年艾滋病防控工作的开 展。 对此,国际社会采取了如下行动:第一,将与艾滋病病 毒 /艾滋病、疟疾和其他疾病斗争作为联合国千年发展目标 中的第六个总体目标;第二,设立联合国艾滋病规划署整合 各个联合国机构的资源共同在全球开展艾滋病防治工作; 第 三。联合国儿童基金会致力于“携手儿童青少年,携手抗击 艾滋病”行动;第四,2001 年由世卫组织与广泛的利益相 关方进行磋商,制定了控制艾滋病毒 /艾滋病的战略,作为 联合国系统抗击流行病整体行动的一部分。 德国重视艾滋病防治工作, 并致力于加强青少年艾滋病 的预防。在医疗技术方面,德国注重在艾滋病防治方面的科 研及资金投入,近年来已有较成熟的药物遏制疗法,使患者 的生活状况得到极大改善;在教育方面,德国重视艾滋病预 防知识的普及和青少年性教育;在对外援助方面,德国向中 非共同体国家提供资金防治艾滋病。 德国在此提出以下建议: 1. 呼吁各国政府重视青少年艾滋病的预防, 加强公共 卫生干预,在经济调控、技术支持和宣传教育方面 承担起责任; 2. 呼吁各国出台并完善相关法律, 以保障艾滋病人及 病毒携带者的正当权利, 规范艾滋病病人及病毒携 带者应尽义务; 3. 号召各国制定适于自己国家的具有可行性的防治 艾滋病规划,普及艾滋病知识,面向民众尤其是青 少年进行艾滋病及艾滋病预防教育; 4. 5. 希望各国完善社会保障体系, 确保父母因艾滋病致 死的儿童受教育的权利; 德国将在青少年艾滋病预防方面继续给予发展中 国家帮助, 并呼吁各发达国家以及有能力的发展中 国家本着人道主义精神在资金, 技术等方面对发展 中国家进行适当援助; 而发展中国家应积极借鉴国 际社会的有效经验, 探索适合自己国情的艾滋病防 治方式; 6. 世界卫生组织应统一艾滋病治疗标准, 规范艾滋病 用药。 国际社会要加强艾滋病领域的科研合作和攻 关,加强艾滋病疫苗和抗病毒药物研发,进一步优 化治疗方案。 德国希望与各国加强合作,联合抗击艾滋病,共同致力于青 少年艾滋病预防事业。 注:本立场文件作者为 2010PKUNMUN,世界卫生组织德 50 PKUNMUN 2015
对于立场文件的首要要求就是表达出和 国家实际情况相符的立场和有可操作 性、值得继续探讨的具体措施,作为和 同会场代表沟通交流的第一个正式文 第四段为本国立场表述和希望采取的措 施。 第三段代表需着眼于本国在议题下已采 取行动和成果。一般按照时间顺序或者 是地域、领域分别进行表述。 第二段代表简要回顾国际社会对议题所 述问题采取的措施和效果(本文作者对 于已取得成果涉及得较少,基本局限于 联合国所采取措施,代表们在撰写立场 文件时应兼顾措施和成果两方面内容, 但也可以就实际情况进行调整) 。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 国代表方圆、孙涤,文章有删改,仅供参考。 3、 英 文 范 例 Committee: Topic: United Nations Security Council The Security Situation of Democratic People’s
英文立场文件写作格式、内容结构与中文文件 基本一致,字体建议使用 Times New Roman。 在写作过程中,需要注意语言的规范化和严谨 性,避免模棱两可、主观化和过分的文学化。 件,是之后会议讨论的基础。

Republic of Korea Country: The Republic of France Delegates: Chen Meng,Siyu Jiang

Since 1990 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) has built up a clandestine nuclear program, whose exclusively military aims are evident. DPRK has also developed a ballistic missile program that increases its nuclear threat. DPRKis also under the suspicion of spreading extremely sensitive technology to other countries such as Iran and Pakistan, thus threatening the security of the whole world. In doing so, DPRK has repeatedly violated the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, from which it has declared its withdrawal. It has used its dangerous programs to demand benefits in exchange for its commitment to dismantle its program. Thus, France condemns in the strongest terms DPRK’s nuclear weapons development and withdrawal from NPT, and demands its immediate cessation. DPRK has long taken American hostile foreign policy and alliance with South Korea as a major threat to its national security. Its economic and industrial backwardness contributed to its possible devotion to extremism. However, as the United States of America (USA) further responded by practicing joint military exercises with Republic of Korea(ROK), DPRK’s nuclear issue is mired ina vicious cycle, exacerbating the tension on the Korean Peninsula. Nonetheless, the long-term development of DPRK depends more on its domestic economic growth, and protection of citizens’ rights rather than use productive resources to develop nuclear weapons and military power. In the last decade, United Nations Security Council has passed Resolutions 1695, 1718, 1874 and 2087 in response to DPRK’s three nuclear tests. Although these resolutions failed to reach the final goal of denuclearization on the Korean Peninsular, they did slow down DPRK’s nuclear weapons development and acted as a deterrent. France proactively worked with other nations and organizations for the goal of a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula. For example, France created a panel of experts to assist the implementation of dispositions of Resolution 1718. In September Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015

本段回顾了议题相关情况,着重阐述了其重要 性并提出国家基本立场。

本段对当前局势进行了分析,指出了解决问题 的关键。

本国就议题在国内采取的相关政策措施及其效 果。可以在回顾过去成果的内容中加入本国赞 成以及签署的相关国际协议, 参与的国家会议、 发起或参与的国际行动与合作,并可适当对过 去采取的措施加以评价。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 2010, France co-chaired a ministerial conference in New York with Morocco aiming for a further implementation of the CTBT.[2] In this conference, France will foster the establishment of a special regulation institution in the Korean Demilitarized Zone under the name of Security Council. This institution is devoted to promote and supervise dialogues between North and South Korea, and help form formal diplomatic relations between DPRK the United States. If DPRK abandons its nuclear program, this institution would realize DPRK’s economy takeoff and protection of human rights, and coordinate its agricultural activities and technical industries through the cooperation of all member states’ talents. France is willing to organize this institution and initiate the technical support such as energy generation for DPRK. By bringing DPRK back to the negotiation table, this institution is aimed to gainits promise to denuclearize step by step. France proposes the following four detailed steps towards the realization of denuclearization in DPRK: ? France appeals DPRK to return to Six-Party Talks and NPT to show its positive attitude towards addressing this issue through multilateral talks, and fulfill the international obligation as a sovereign state. ? France encourages regular bilateral talks between DPRK and USA, DPRK and ROK to build up trust to prevent conflicts and stabilize the regional security situation. ? France condemns cooperation including providing financial transfers or loans, nuclear material or technological information that could be used to aid the nuclear weapons development of DPRK. ? France suggests DPRK to increase media transparency and improve media delivery efficiency to express its true voice to the international community and rebuild its diplomatic image with credit and respect. In short, France, as a permanent member state of United Nation Security Council, is willing to contribute to the denuclearization of DPRK and will strive to stabilize the security situation of Korean Peninsula with all member states together. [1]http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8853.doc.htm [2]http://www.franceonu.org/france-at-the-united-nations/press-roo m/speaking-to-the-media/remarks-to-the-press/article/12-june-2009 -north-korea-adoption 52 PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook
对于引用的文献、联合国文件进行注释标注体 现了一个代表的学术规范意识和对于原作者的 尊重。 本国立场总结。特别地,提出了议题解决的分 步措施。

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 注:本立场文件作者为 2014PKUNMUN UNSC 法国代表孟辰、 本篇立场文件较好地参考了网络学术资源和联 姜思宇,文章有删改,仅供参考。
合国官方资源以表达己方观点,然而单纯凭借 网络搜索并不能完全触及事件本质,获得更加 丰富客观的学术资料。 PKUNMUN 建议代表们 通过不同渠道的信息检索,经过自己的判断分 析,形成更优秀的立场文件。

二 、 工 作 文 件 Working Paper 1、 写 作 指 导 : 工作文件是一个或多个拥有共同意见的国家代表,即国家集团在会议中起草的一种重要 文件。 当对某一特定问题产生了初步的解决方案, 或认为有必要阐明本国或本国家集团的立 场时,可以起草工作文件。 工作文件对于会议进程的推动及最终决议草案的写作具有重要作用。工作文件可以是对 过往会议讨论的阶段性总结, 可以是对未来需要关注问题的提出, 可以是对某问题解决方案 的提出。 对于工作文件的写作代表需要重点关注: ( 1) ( 2) 工作文件只需有起草国,无需附议国 工作文件内容没有特定的格式要求, 但是代表仍然需要注意排版合理, 关

注缩进、加重符号使用、编号统一有序的问题。这样既有助于其它代表快速阅 读,也有助于主席审阅 ( 3) 工作文件应措辞恰当,详略得当,基于已经讨论过或正在讨论的分议题, 在恰当的时间提交并值得讨论。 过分简略或繁杂、 包含太多过去已经提到的条 款的工作文件,主席团有权不予以通过 ( 4) 工作文件无需起草国签字, 如起草国有误, 代表可通过问题向主席团提出 由于工作文件是贯穿模联正式会议的主要文件。一份工作文件的产生会经过文件写作、 主席审阅、交付印刷、下发、介绍及讨论六个主要步骤。文件起草写作与会场发言磋商都是 出色的会场表现不可或缺的部分, 代表需要注意文件写作与会场内发言的平衡, 而文件的内 容也需要与会场磋商密切相关;USB 存储传递过程中可能存在的技术问题(建议将需要提 交的文件命名清楚,切忌单纯以“立场文件” ,”working paper”等命名,单独存放在一个文 件夹内) ;如对主席团审阅进度及结果有疑问,请传递纸条或利用自由磋商向主席团提出, 及时反映。 2、 中 文 范 例 工作文件 1.1 联合国气候变化框架公约成员方会议 面对关于《京都议定书》的分歧,如何努力抑制全球气候变 暖 起草国:中国、印度 1. 要求有关国家以全人类的福祉为依归,承担起应负 的责任,放弃与全世界对抗的立场,改变目前短视 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015
尽管对工作文件的格式没有固定要 第一行:文件类型及编号,编号由主 席团决定 第二行:委员会 第三行:议题 第四行:起草国(无数量要求,无附 议国)

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 错误的做法,为全人类计,为子孙后代计,切实努 力,克服困难,在促成京都议定书的通过方面发挥 积极作用。 2. 3. 要求国际社会在促使某些国家改变消极态度方面坚 定立场,坚持努力,发挥整体的作用。 建议考虑对某些不负责任的国家采取一致的行动, 以改变目前议定书暗淡的前景,以减少并最终杜绝 此类事件的再次发生。这些行动的范围应该较为广 泛,并应在此过程中强调联合国的作用。 4. 决定所有议定书缔约方皆应: a) 无论是发展中国家还是发达国家,都应承诺在 现在的基础上加大对环境保护的投入,包括发 展环保产业、增加对环境保护的研究经费、对 民众进行环境教育等。 b) 加强环境保护技术的研究、转让和共享。尤其 是有利于温室气体排放减少和降解的技术,对 这方面的技术保护应当给以不同与一般的特殊 对待。 5. 提议由各国派代表设立专门的机构和专家顾问委员 会,以专门讨论实施联合国气候变化框架公约及京 都议定书的具体措施。 6. 鼓励发展中国家积极采取措施减少二氧化碳的排 放,在进行工业生产,日常生活中尽量考虑到环境 保护的因素。

求,但是希望代表在书写工作文件时 能尽量“小题小做” ,更详细、具体地阐 述某一特定问题,以体现在该问题讨 论上各成员国的进展。

每一条目应以动词开头,以表明具体 行动和措施。

“有关国家”一词既可以适当点明行为 主体,也可以避免过于主观、缺乏实 际依据的指控要求。

3、 英 文 范 例 WORKING PAPER 1.1 UN Conference on Trade and Development Generalized System of Preferences Sponsors: Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador believe that a GSP should be set up so that Lesser-Developed Countries (LDCs) receive preferential treatment from Developed Countries (DCs). To that end we propose: 1. Each DC reduces their tariffs to the lowest level possible. This level will be determined by the below created subcommittee. 2. 54 Bilateral trade agreements should be pursued for further reductions in tariffs. PKUNMUN 2015
同样,对于工作文件中的措施的阐述 工作文件在整个会议中起到了总结 会议已取得成果以及引出会议新发 展方向的作用。因此,一篇优秀的工 作文件不仅是逻辑严谨,表意清楚的 会议阶段性总结稿,更应作为推动会 议进程的重要工具而被发放全场。 第一行: 标题大写, 编号由主席决定; 第二行:委员会名称; 第三行:议题全称; 第四行:起草国

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3.

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 Trade preferences should be granted in the following 应尽量做到具体翔实,切莫泛泛而 areas: Agriculture, Manufactures, Semi-manufactures, Raw materials.
谈,难以深入。

4.

Decisions on product coverage by preference giving nations must be made in consultation with the affected LDC. Annual re-evaluation of coverage shall take place with the LDC with disputed going to the below-created subcommittee.

在会场上应尽量避免在工作文件中 大段出现已进行会议中完全没有涉 及或者代表国家在会议中没有表达 的立场、措施和建议,应避免直接运 用会议前直接草拟好的文件呈交主 席团。注意,工作文件是对已进行和 正在进行的会议进程所得出的初步 解决方案。

5.

A subcommittee of UNCTAD should be created with equal membership of developed and developing countries. This subcommittee would have the following powers: a) To mediate disputes between preference givers and receivers b) Make recommendations that all countries should follow c) Serve as a forum for airing grievances relating to the GSP d) Report regularly to the Secretary-General Membership should be as follows: a) Five permanent nations from the DCs b) Five permanent nations from the LDCs and LLDCs c) Ten members elected annually by UNCTAD

二、 1.

决 议 草 案 Draft Resolution 决议是由被投票通过的决议草案自动升级而成的, 是针对一个议题的讨论结果, 是 联合国正式的、具有法律效力、各国应当遵守的官方文件。尚未被通过,但按照决 议格式书写的正式文件就是决议草案:

( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) 2.

决议草案的起草国数量无固定要求, 但起草国和附议国的总数必须达到百分之 一份决议草案的起草国无法起草或附议另一份决议草案; 一份决议草案的附议国可以附议多份决议草案; 一个介绍决议草案的动议需得到主席团同意及百分之二十多数;

二十出席数;

中文范例
与立场文件和工作文件不同, 决议草 案有着明确的格式要求。

决 议 草 案 1.1 联合国大会第一委员会——裁军与国际安全委员会 无核国家的核威胁

标题加粗,编号由主席决定;

起 草 国 : 阿根廷、中国、法国、德国、印度、美国 附 议 国 :巴西、匈牙利、日本、科威特、黎巴嫩、马其顿、

委员会名称加粗; 议题名称,加粗;

起草国和附议国顺序按照字母顺

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 纳米比亚、阿曼、巴拿马、波兰、罗马尼亚、南非、越南、

序排列; 起草国和附议国要留出空白签字处,

坦桑尼亚、津巴布韦
联合国大会, 深信核武器对人类和对文明的存续造成最大的威胁, 认为在全球实现核裁军之前,国际社会必须制定有效措施和安 排,以确保任何方面不使用或威胁使用核武器危害无核武器国 家的安全, 回顾裁军谈判会议提交大会第十五届特别会议,又回顾载于 1980 年 12 月 3 日第 35/46 号决议附件内的 《宣布 1980 年代为 第二个裁军十年宣言》第 12 段, 注意到裁军谈判会议及其保证部队无核武器国家使用或威胁 使用核武器的有效国际安排特设委员会为了就这项问题达成 协议而进行的深入谈判, 回顾其历年通过的有关决议, 特别是 1990 年 12 月 4 日第 45/54 号、 1993 年 12 月 16 日第 48/73 号、 1994 年 12 月 15 日第 49/73 号、 1998 年 12 月 4 日第 53/75 号和 2003 年 12 月 8 日第 58/35 号决议, 第一条 重申 需要早日就保证不对无核武器国家使用或威胁使 用核武器的有效国际安排达成协议; 第二条 满意地注意到 裁军谈判会议中原则上没有人反对缔结 一项国际公约以保证不对无核武器国家使用或威胁使用核武 器的设想,尽管也有人指出在研拟各方可以接受的共同办法方 面存在着困难; 第三条呼吁所有国家,特别是核武器国家,就共同办法,特别 是可载入具有法律约束力的国际文书的共同方案,积极努力争 取及早达成协议; 第四条建议进一步加紧努力,寻求这种共同办法或共同方案, 并建议进一步探讨各种不同的备选方法,包括特别是在裁军谈 判会议上审议的那些办法,以克服各种困难; 第五条又建议裁军谈判会议继续积极加紧谈判,以求早日达成 协议并缔结关于保证不对无核武器国家使用或威胁使用核武 器的有效国际安排,同时考虑到对缔结一项国际公约的广泛支 持和未达成这项目标所提出的任何其他提案。

国家名称加粗、斜体;在实际中,起 草国和附议国需要在本国家名称下 签字。 决议正文开头写明委员会全称, 逗号 结束。

序言性条款: 动词开头,加下划线, 每一条逗号结尾。

行动性条款:动词开头,斜体,每一 条以分号结束,最后一条以句号结 尾。

中文决议草案标号需逐条用数字表 明,如“第一条” , 如需多级层次,第 一层用汉字,如“ (一) ”表明,第二层 用汉字,如“ (子) 、 (丑) 、 (寅) ”…… 并保持一定缩进。

3.

英文范例(节选)
标题大写,加粗; 编号由主席决定

DRAFT RESOLUTION 1.1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 56 PKUNMUN 2015

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 Post-Kyoto Policy Choices and Framework Sponsors: Japan, Rep. of Korea, Canada, US, Viet Nam Signatories:Germany, Kazakhstan, Russian Fed., Switzerland, Denmark, Netherlands, Italy, UK, France, Indonesia, Finland, Australia
委员会名称,加粗 议题名称,加粗; 起草国和附议国顺序按照字母顺序 排列; 起草国和附议国要留出空白签字处,国 家名称加粗、斜体;在实际中,起草国 和附议国需要在本国家名称下签字。

The United Nations Framework on Climate Change, Acknowledging that climate change is unequivocal, and that delay in reducing emissions significantly constrains opportunities to achieve lower stabilization levels and increases the risk of more severe climate change impacts, fully respecting the contributions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Reaffirming the principle of ensuring the environmental sustainability and targets set up by the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Noting that one hundred and eighty-nine States and one regional economic integration organization have ratified the Convention, Resolving to urgently enhance implementation of the

决议正文开头写明委员会全称,逗号结 束。

序言性条款:动名词开头,加下划线, 以逗号结尾。

序言性条款不涉及具体、实质性的陈 述,而是阐述议题的基本情况和回顾已 经采取的行动。

Convention in order to achieve its ultimate objectives in full accordance with its principles and commitments, Stressing the significance of the participation of all countries in the Post-Kyoto Framework, PART I Improvements of the Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading (ET) 1. Reevaluates the limits of party’s commitment period reserve (CPR), which is the minimum domestic quantity that a Party must hold in its national efforts on reducing GHG emissions, while such reevaluations can be carried out by scientific organizations or facilities, provided IPCC as a good example; 2. Regulates the carbon market by setting carbon price range on a scientific basis, and fluctuation of prices within the range is acceptable; 3. Claims that reassessment of the carbon price should be done timely;
行动性条款构成了决议草案的主体部 行动性条款:动词第三人称单数开头, 斜体,每一条分号结尾;逐条用阿拉伯 数字表明,如需多级层次,第一层用圆 括号加小写字母,如(a),第二层用圆 括号加小写罗马数字,如(i),并保持 一定缩进。

Joint Implementation (JI) Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015

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4.

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 Recommends all parties to take Track two procedures for their higher value, which requires that each project under JI be reviewed by an accredited independent entity to determine whether the project meets the requirements established under Article 6 of Kyoto Protocol;

每一条行动性条款原则上只能有一个 动词,阐述一条针对议题具体且有实际 操作性的措施。

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 5. Addresses the importance of accuracy of emission data collection, which is achieved through all possible means of observation programs, such as an integrated observation network, employing satellites and oceanic and land systems; 6. Facilitates the ratification procedures of CDM, urging CDM Executive Board to essentially optimize efficiency of approval of projects; 7. Stresses the critical role of private sectors in CDM, with incentives from governments and organizations as follows: (a) Appealing to energy-efficiency labeling around the globe; (b) Further encouraging financial assistance subsidized to companies and factories with respect to their efforts in combating climate change; (c) Facilitating government loan to those private sectors lacking necessary financial support which are willing to take direct measures in response to the climate change issue;
联合国决议的重点用词是序言性条款 和行动性条款的谓语动词,这些谓语动 词从某种程度上说都比较简单,并形成 了一个常用的“词库” , 代表们应学会应 用。

Supervision system 1. Emphasizes the diversity of countries taking part in the supervision process, in which developed countries and developing countries have the same status; 2. Emphasizes the importance of transparency actions by governments in maintaining the normal functioning of the supervision system with the assistance of public media; 3. Sets on the agenda the establishment of a supervision mechanism mechanisms; Assessment System 1. 2. 58 Affirms the importance of links between supervision and assessment departments; Insists that the responsibilities of different countries vary, PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook based on the experience of existing

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 and that responsibilities can't be clear-cut, and that specific measures are necessary while dealing with specific situations with respect to relative fairness; 3. 4. Emphasizes that rights of survival and development are of fundamental concern in the process of assessment; Urges wider involvement of the existing assessment agencies, with closer connection between the assessment teams and relevant councils locally and systematically with respect to self-evaluation; Adaptation Fund 1. Fully assessesthe Adaptation Fund provided to the countries in need on a regular basis, evaluating the basic needs of each nation under UNFCCC/IPCC; 2. Encourages all nations which have capacities to provide fund accordingly to assist other nations in climate change combating in all field; 3. Calls private sectors withcapacityto provide investment related to combating climate change home and abroad; PART II New mechanisms to be integrated into the Framework Emission Reduction Plan 1. Appreciates the sincerity of all parties endeavoring to reduce GHG emissions, especially those that have successfully fulfilled their emission targets; 2. Strongly recommends the participation of all countries in the process of tackling the climate change, regardless of their economic basis; 3. Urges relevant organizations such as IPCC to carry out the scientific and specific plan of GHG emissions reduction of Annex-I parties, with detailed numbers expected; 4. Urges Annex-I parties to assume their responsibilities with the greatest possible efforts; Education and public awareness: 1. Calls for every country to encourage education institutions to put climate issue into the mandatory curriculums, through a series of initiatives for primary and lower secondary education, youth education programmes and relevant tertiary education; Cooperation with United Nations Agencies 1. Draws attention to the cooperation between environmental PKUNMUN 2015 59

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 organization and other committees as UNEP, UNDP, WB, etc.; 2. Calls for cooperation with UNESCO: (a) Designates the function and influence of technological statistic group affiliated to UNESCO: (ⅰ) Report the detailed working situation timely; (b) Assists developing countries with related education; Prevention of improper land use 1. Calls for mitigation of deforestation around the globe by: (a) Initiating interactions between environmental organizations and countries; (b) Encouraging all countries to work out a shared voluntary “code of conduct” to halt the import and marketing of illegally harvested wood and wood products; (c) Promoting assistance a of comprehensive the timber approach producing for the countries,

supporting activities of the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO); 2. Mitigates impacts of desertification caused by warming temperature through in the ways that: (a) Deeply concerns that many Middle East countries, African American countries, countries Asian have Countries suffered and from Latin the

desertification, since it has affected the quality of people’s life, as well as the prosperity of their economies; (b) Urges the importance of tree planting movement. The key point is each planner receives the small compensation for seedling planted only after it has nurtured and protected to have an excellent chance of surviving on its own;

Something about a Resolution “A resolution is the most appropriate means applying political pressure on member states, expressing an opinion on an important issue, or recommending action to be taken by the United Nations. Most UN resolutions are not binding ‘law’; the only body that may produce resolutions that are binding upon the member states of the United Nations is the Security Council.” -------- TEIMUN Guide to Resolution Writing Lists of verbs used in Preamble Clauses 60 Lists of verbs used in Operative Clauses PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook

Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Believing Bearing in mind Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply convinced Deeply conscious Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Further deploring Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered Having devoted attention Having examined Having heard Having received Having studied Keeping in mind Noting with regret Noting with satisfaction Noting with deep concern Noting further Noting with approval Observing Realizing Recalling Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 Accepts Affirms Approves Authorizes Calls Calls upon Condemns Confirms Considers Declares accordingly Deplores Designate Draws attention Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further recommends Further reminds Further requests Further resolves Has resolved Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Regrets Reminds Requests Resolves Solemnly affirms Supports Takes note of Urge

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Welcoming

三、 指 令 草 案 Draft Directive 1、指令草案是指针对危机的解决方案,一般要求内容具体,简洁明了,所提措施具有 较强的时效性和可操作性。 2、 英 文 范 例 ( 节 选 ) Draft Directive 4.1 Executive Council of Organization of Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
起草国和附议国加粗,留签 编号加粗, 由主席规定顺序。 委员会名称加粗

Sponsors: United Kingdom, The United States of America Signatories: Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Italy The OPCW, 1. Requests the government of India and Pakistan to fully cooperate with the OPCW in the following: a. Find out the modus operandi of the terrorist groups; b. Allow full-fledged inspections of the region of Kashmir, where chemical materials are suspected to have been tested. 2. Urges cooperation among security and intelligence related bodies to prevent terrorist attacks that involve chemical agents.

字空白处,起草国和附议国 按字母或拼音音序顺序排列

每一项内容以动词第三人称 单数起始,以句号结尾。编 号规则同工作文件和决议草 案。

注意,危机的指令草案是处 理一项特定突发事件的解决 方案,不需要加入与该突发 事件无关的其他内容。危机 文件书写需要注意时效性和 可操作性,应为解决问题的 最迅速和有效的方法。

四、 1.

修 正 案 Amendment 修正案是指由一位或多位代表起草的, 按照联合国决议文件格式对当前会议的某 份决议草案提出修正意见,包括友好修正案和非友好修正案: (1) 友好修正案是指获得原决议草案所有起草国同意并附议的修正案(需 在该份友好修正案的附议国处签字)将被直接添加到其所修正的决议 草案中; (2) 非友好修正案是指未获元决议草案所有起草过同意并附议,且起草国 与附议国数量之和达到百分之二十出席数的修正案,该份修正案将会 在对决议草案的投票表决前被逐条投票决定是否加入其所修正的决议 草案; (3) 对非友好修正案的投票为实质性投票;

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 (4) 无法对修正案提出修正案; (5) 一国代表可起草或附议多分修正案,但决议草案的起草国不能对自己 的决议草案提出修正案,只能附议非起草国撰写的修正案。 (6) 可对指令草案提出修正案

2.

中文范例
标题、委员会名称、议题名称加 粗;

联合国大会第一委员会——裁军与国际安全委员会 无核国家的核威胁 起 草 国 : 中国

起草国和附议国名称加粗、斜体

附 议 国 : 德国,巴基斯坦,孟加拉国 1. 删除行动性条款第三项中语句: “特别是核武器国家” ; 2. 加入行动性条款: “倡议所有核武器国家,以全球利益为先, 积极寻求可行性途径,力求与无核国家达成共识。 ”

并留出签字空白处。

各条内容以动词开头并斜体表 示。

3.

英文范例
标题、委员会名称、议题名称加 粗;

Amendment 1.1.1 Security Council Reactivating the Peace Talks Process Concerning Palestinian and Israeli Situation Sponsors: India, Thailand Signatories: Togo, Fiji, Antigua and Barbuda, Kuwait, Argentina, Indonesia, Poland, Uganda, Nigeria

起草国和附议国名称加粗、 斜体 并留出签字空白处。

各条内容以动词开头并斜体表

1. 2. 3.

Change the word “immediately” to “gradually” in operative clauses No.6. Delete the operative clause No.7 Add as the final operative clause: Decides to remain seized of the matter.

示。

?
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第三部分 ? ? 模拟联合国会议学术准备指南 ? 第一节准备阶段 ?
?

一.
?

背景指导文件阅读指导 ?

1.背景指导文件 ? ? 每份背景指导文件都包括以下几个方面: ? ?委员会简介 ? Description ?of ?the ?Committee ? 介绍委员会的历史,使命,和运作方式 ? Explanation ?of ?the ?committee’s ?history, ?mandate ?and ?operation ? ?议题介绍 Introduction ?to ?the ?Topic ? 委员会讨论议题的简要介绍 ? A ?brief ?introduction ?of ?the ?topic ? ? ?背景 ? Background ? 关于议题各个方面的详尽介绍,包括其历史,起因,现状,国际社会(组 织或地区)采取过的行动及可能的解决方案 ? A ? detailed ? introduction ? of ? the ? topic, ? including ? its ? history, ? causes, ? current ? situation, ? actions ? taken ? by ? international ? society(or ? a ? certain ? district ? or ? an ? organization) ?and ?possible ?solutions ? ?案例 Cases ? 与议题各方面相关的案例,囊括历史,现状及可供参考的解决方案等 ? Cases ? related ? to ? all ? aspects ? of ? the ? topic, ? including ? its ? history, ? current ? situation ?and ?solutions ?to ?relate ?to, ?etc. ? ?值得思考的问题 ? Questions ?to ?consider ? 提出在会议中希望代表讨论的重点问题,以及阅读背景指导文件时代表 应该重点注意思考的部分 ? Questions ?raised ?to ?bring ?up ?major ?problems ?to ?discuss ?during ?the ?meeting. ? The ? delegates ? should ? also ? pay ? more ? attention ? to ? the ? questions ? while ? reading ? a ?Background ?Guide ? 在背景指导文件中,该部分也可能被称为批判性思考 ? Also ?known ?as ?Critical ?thinking ?in ?a ?Background ?Guide ? ?参考文献 ? References ? 背景指导文件中引用的参考文献 ? Sources ?the ?Background ?Guide ?referred ?to ? ? 2.背景指导文件目录范例 ? 下面给出的 2014 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会(PKUNMUN ?2014)联合国新闻部/ 非政府组织年度会议(NGO)背景文件的目录。 ? ?

?
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目录 ?
欢迎辞 ? 联合国新闻部/非政府组织年度会议 ? 非政府组织——概念及定义 ? 议题介绍 ? 1. ? 粮食——界定与分类 ? 2. ? 粮食安全——概念与内容 ? 2.1 ? 粮食产量与供给 ? 2.2 ? 粮食可靠性 ? 2.3 ? 粮食可获得性 ? 3. ? 世界粮食安全——问题与困境 ? 3.1 ? 人口增长 ? 3.2 ? 资源与技术 ? 3.3 ? 农业结构、规模与农业市场、政府调控 ? 3.4 ? 国际贸易 ? 3.5 ? 生物制能 ? 3.6 ? 危机应对 ? 4. ? 民间社会组织/非政府组织的参与与责任 ? 分地区粮食安全现状 ? 1. ? 北美洲 ? 2. ? 拉丁美洲 ? 3. ? 欧盟国家 ? 4. ? 俄罗斯 ? 5. ? 大洋洲 ? 6. ? 撒哈拉以南非洲 ? 7. ? 近东与北非 ? 8. ? 亚洲 ? 粮食安全问题应对实例 ? 1 ? 直接粮食援助 ? ? 2 ? 资金供给 ? ? 3 ? 食品质量问题监管 ? ? 4 ? 应用科技发展 ? ? 5 ? 政府应对政策实例 ? ? 5 ? 政府应对政策实例 ? ? 5.1 ? 优惠价格收购政策 ? ? 5.2 ? 农业补贴 ? ? 5.3 ? 粮食储备 ? ? 5.4 ? 农业生产集中化 ? ? 5.5 ? 重视农业科研和农业技术推广 ? ? 5.6 ? 以经济发展带动农业生产 ? ? 6 ? 国际组织应对粮食危机的行动——朝鲜粮食危机 ? ? 文件撰写建议 ? ? 1 ? 自愿性报告 ? ?
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2 ? 立场文件 ? ? 3 ? 工作文件&共同宣言 ?
? 3.基 于 背 景 指 导 文 件 的 学 术 准 备 ? 背景指导文件为代表提供了关于委员会和议题最基本的信息, 基于背景指导文件, 代表 可以根据自己的国家立场和关注重点进行进一步的研究。 ? 背景指导文件的立场是中立的,通常,主席团书写的基调是客观、描述性的。限于立场 和篇幅, 主席团在背景指导文件中无法囊括所有的信息。 这就需要代表在理解背景指导文件 的基础上继续进行学术准备。 ? b) 委 员 会 简 介 ? 委员会简介常常为代表所忽略, 却是背景指导文件不可或缺的一部分。 联合国各机构及 其他国际组织的职能有所不同,职能的区别对于代表是很重要的,比如说,安理会的代表能 够启动制裁,军事打击等手段,环境署的代表则不能,这些区别能够在会前帮助代表了解自 己在会议中能够提出的解决方案的范围。 同样, 委员会的运作方式对于一些特殊委员会也很 重要,如联合国新闻部非政府组织年度会议(DPI/NGO)仅仅是作为沟通与交流的平台,其 共同宣言的签订并不需要绝对多数才能通过。 ? c) 主 体 部 分 ? 背景指导文件的主体部分为代表提供着手了解委员会和议题的信息和范围。 代表可根据 文件中提供的信息进行进一步的资料检索, 立场确定, 以及通过文件中所给出的案例对整个 问题解决过程中,委员会的职责,权限和解决方式有更为直观和清晰的了解。 ? d) 问 题 部 分 ? 非常值得注意的是问题部分, 问题是主席团引导代表深入思考的手段, 是对主体部分的 信息进行挖掘与补充的方式。 如果代表能够站在代表国家的立场上完整的回答出主席团在背 景指导文件中提出的问题,那么他的会前准备至少成功了一半。 ? e) 参 考 文 献 ? 背景指导文件中的参考文献部分则是进一步资料检索的开始,参考文献中列出的网站, 书籍及研究者都是议题相关学科的重要资源。关于资料检索的具体问题,将在第二部分,资 料检索中具体指导。 ? ?

二.资料检索指导
1、 撰 写 目 的 在模拟联合国会议的准备过程中, 学术资源检索是极为重要的一个环节, 同时也是代表 国家立场逐渐形成的过程。代表在会场的表现,一部分取决于现场发挥能力,另有很大程度 上取决于会前学术“功课”的准备情况。代表在会前所要考察的,是所代表国家在联合国体 系内,或者是其他场合已经承认的某些事实、原则,而这些都反映在协定、条约或者国内的 法令中, 这需要代表在会前进行完备的学术资源检索。 在没有进行完整的研究准备下进行的 讨论就是完全脱离实际的行为,不符合北大模联对于会议学术性和严谨性的定位。 在检索资料的过程中, 也应注意资料本身的可信度和权威性, 并不是通过任何检索渠道 获得的材料都值得参会代表采用。 只有资料来源和资料本身可信, 代表的立场和阐述才因基 于事实而更有说服力。 这也是为什么我们致力于会议的学术化和规范化, 撰写有关学术检索 来源和方式的内容。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 2、 学 术 检 索 内 容 及 方 式 1) 学 术 检 索 内 容 : 此 处 仅 罗 列 学 术 检 索 内 容 一 个 可 能 的 分 类 方 式 , 代 表 需 要 根 据 自 身需要、议题等灵活选择与调整。 表格 1 学术准备内容分类 ?

背景文件

委员会

联合国网站 相关新闻事件 背景文件
相关会议及文件 具有法律约束力 普通 专题报告

联合国

议题内容
学术机构分析

论文 调研报告 报道

新闻报道
评论 地理位置 经济数据

基本概况
政治体制

代表国家

外交风格 参与的国际会议 及表态

议题相关
国内相关

立场相近/左

利益攸关国

地区性组织 贸易、军事 等 方面联系

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 2) 、资料权威性 右表罗列了模拟联合国筹备中涉 及的学术资料权威程度的一般性有限 级别。 以下为几点说明: l? 权威程度往往与易理解程度 成反相关。最丰富的联合国 资源仍然主要以英语为呈现 语言,这对于以中文为母语 的代表而言往往会构成阅读 障碍。考虑到代表的时间、 精力等问题,主席团在背景 资料的撰写中对于学术资料 已经进行了大量的阅读与筛 选。因此一种建议的方式从 背景文件入手,背景文件中 包含的内容是会议召开每个 代表需要掌握的最基本内容, 然后通过媒体报道、 百科 (中 文即可)等了解概况,在针
其它 主流媒体 国家 联合国

表格 2 权威程度一般性优先级别 ?
??会议记录、文件 ??数据库

??政府声明 ??元首 ??外长 ??大使 ??国内如议会、政党等的表态 ??档案 ??出版物

??学术机构 ??科研机构、智库 非政府组织 ??非政府国际组织

??新闻通讯社 ??发行的报刊杂志

??百科 ??纪录片 ??电影、视频 ??自媒体:博客、社交网络

对几个具体的问题深入挖掘权威性较高的学术资料。 l? 主权国家与国际组织都为国际社会的参与主体。二者的权威性先后是值得斟酌与 加以进一步细分的。联合国作为世界上最具影响力的政府组织,且发展至今已基 本摆脱了受少数几个国家控制的局面,在会议记录、报道、组织调研等方面已发 展出一套广受认可的体系,因此此处列入权威性的最高级别。主权国家出于自身 立场进行表态,有可能会有对事实真相的掩盖与误读;一般性国际组织因为自身 资金来源等问题,其表态可能也只代表一部分利益集团,因此需要加辨析。对于 代表而言,国家表态是角色扮演的基本依据,通过表态背后理解其深层次的合理 性为代表在会场上的良好发挥提供基础。 l? 此处将百科的权威级别放在较低位置,理由主要是百科是可更改的。一个典型案 例便是清华大学学生捍卫 PX 词条事件。因此,百科是不作为可靠的学术证明依 据的。但是百科对于个人快速掌握事件来龙去脉有很大帮助,找到初步的研究思 路有很大帮助。 ( 3) 、具体资源 1)、 联 合 国 资 源 探索联合国系统, 充分了解所联合国大会以及各委员会的历史议题和决议, 是准备会议 的基本步骤。这也需要各位代表在会前充分利用联合国的电子资源,而不是简单地进行“百 度”或者“维基” 。 ?联 合 国 电 子 资 源 联合国网站:http://www.un.org 68 PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 联合国文件中心:http://www.un.org/zh/documents/ 联合国新闻中心:http://www.un.org/News/ 联合国正式文件系统:http://documents.un.org/ 联合国书目信息系统 (UNBISnet):http://unbisnet.un.org/ 联合国信息查询系统(UN-I-QUE)):http://libunique.un.org/lib/unique.nsf 联合国新闻稿资料库:http://www.un.org/en/unpress/index.asp (1995 年 10 月以来印发的新 闻稿全文) 联合国成员国代表团活动记录 http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/unms/ 联合国条约汇编高级搜索:http://treaties.un.org/Pages/AdvanceSearch.aspx?tab=UNTS

? ( 1) 联 合 国 文 件 中 心 ( UN Document Centre)
联合国文件中心集合了所有文件搜索的链接, 以及主要委员会文件的分类链接, 界面比较友 好。从这个界面可以链接到主要的联合国文件系统,同时还有联合国主要委员会页面:

?
以联合国安理会的英文界面为例:

?
Resolutions: 决议,也就是会议的成果,会议最重要的内容; Mission Reports: 特派团报告,事件相关区域情况的直接反映; SG’s Reports: 秘书长报告,秘书长关于该委员会处理中的事项及其审议达到的阶段的简要 说明,比较宏观但是能够指出目前问题的关键; Meeting Records:会议记录,其内容包括会议记录,会议决议,主席的声明和新闻稿。 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015 69

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(2) 联 合 国 新 闻 中 心 ( UN News Centre)
联合国的国际时事、行动进展和会议进程都会发表官方的声明、新闻稿等文件。这些文 件可以在联合国新闻中心系统的数据库中检索到。

?
注 意 : 搜索格式可以参考search tips, 联合国很多的信息都可以通过Email发到你的邮箱,比如:

? ?
( 3) 联 合 国 三 大 检 索 系 统
开始检索之前: l? l? 联合国文件原文主要是英文,因此建议大家在检索的时候使用英式英文进行,中文委员 任何数据库都提供专业主题词的叙词表,对于不确定的专业名词等可以进行检测。联合 会再在检索结果中选择中文文件; 国书目信息系统叙词表:http://lib-thesaurus.un.org/LIB/DHLUNBISThesaurus.nsf;

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例1:人权(human rights)相关的专业表述。 l? 明确自己的检索词,以及检索字段(标题,主题词,还是标签)。变换检索策略达到最

佳检索效果。 【检索指南】 在介绍三大搜索系统之前,首先推荐Research Guides(http://research.un.org/):其 主页综合了各类检索信息,包括文件查找、分学科类查找、检索资源等板块 。同时还包括 新近出版的指南,帮助浏览者了解联合国实时动态。

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【 UNBISNET 联合国书目信息系统】

UNBISNET是达格·哈马舍尔德图书馆提供的网上书目系统,是一个比较重要和好用的 文件检索系统,提供以下三类文件的检索: Bibliographic Records:联合国书目信息系统网络版的检索范围主要始于1979年。也包括自 1946年以来,大会、经社理事会和安理会所通过的决议的全文; Voting Records: 包括大会第一届起(1946年-)和安全理事会第一年起(1946年-)以不表 决、唱名表决和记录表决等方式通过的所有决议的表决记录。提供决议全文的链接; Index to Speeches: 会议发言记录。提供发言全文的链接。 提供的检索方式: ?Browse List Search 浏览搜索:便于了解单个问题按照时间排序的文件信息;

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例2对“forced labor”进行title字段的精确检索

Keyword Search 关 键 词 搜 索 : 对于某一问题所有相关的问题。

提 供 多 种 字 段 检 索 的 关 键 字 检索。

字 段 逻 辑 关 系 选择

对 以 的 索 件 一 进 搜 比 文

于 上 检 条 进 步 行 索 如 件
例:对“forced labour”进行关键词检索

限制,

种类, 语言, 发 布 时 间 等。

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文件信息,以 及相关主题 词。

可以选择若干文件,点击右下角“Add to my list”,将文件打包通过邮件发送。

【 UNODS 联合国正式文件系统】
正式文件系统中收录联合国会议文件全文(包括决议和决定) ,其中含1993年以来印发 的文件。1946年以后大会、安全理事会、经济及社会理事会和托管理事会所通过的决议, 在此数据库中可采用下列方式和不同方式的组合进行搜索:按文号,按印发日期,按标题, 用语,按主题,按工号。总的来说搜索联合国决议和文件的时候可以使用ODS,不支持对 新闻稿一类的文件的搜索。

【 UN-I-QUE 联合国资料文号数据库】
这是一个全英文的检索数据库, 提供对1946年后联合国文件材料文号和文件标题的检索。 总的来说这个数据库功能比较单一也比较局限, 对于搜索的要求也比较高。 为了实现有效的 检索也要阅读一下Search Tips。

三大检索总结: 74 PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 联合国的这三个检索系统各有特色, 要根据其特点进行使用。 注意在检索遇到困难时调整检 索策略或者关键词的使用, 有时使用一些通配符可以起到比较好的效果。 但是不同的检索平 台认可的通配符可能有差异,因此更不要拘泥于某个固定的检索思维。 2). 其 它 资 源 声 明 :以 下 网 站 和 书 籍 只 是 我 们 的 一 部 分 建 议 ,并 不 代 表 所 有 权 威 资 料 的 来 源 ,也 不 是 必 须 使 用 的 。我 们 鼓 励 代 表 们 通 过 多 种 渠 道 收 集 与 委 员 会 、国 家 以 及 议 题 相 关 的 资 料,拓宽自己的知识面和思路,同时增进自己对于联合国的理解。 ( 1) 国 家 情 况 检 索 资 源 :

Country ?Information: ? ?
3. permanent ?mission: ?http://www.un.int/index-?‐?en/webs.html; ? ? 4. UN ?Members ?On ?the ?Record: ?http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/unms/ ? 5. CIA ?Factbook: ?http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook; ? ? 6. The ? UN’s ? National ? Government ? Information ? Page: ? www.un.org/esa/national.htm ? ? 7. UN ?CyberschoolBus ?Country ?At ?A ?Glance: ? ? www.cyberschoolbus.un.org/information.index.asp ? ? 8. BBC ? News ? Country ? Profiles: ? news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country ? profiles/default.stm ? ? 9. Country ?Watch: ?www.countrywatch.com ? ? 10. Country ?Reports: ?www.countryreports.org ? ? 11. The ?Economist ?Country ?Briefings: ?www.economist.com/countries ? ? 12. Governments ?on ?the ?World ?Wide ?Web: ?www.gksoft.com/govt/en ? ? 13. Infoplease ?Country ?Information: ?www.infoplease.com/countries.html ? ? 14. One ?World-?‐?Nations ?Online: ?www.nationsonline.org/oneworld ? ? 15. Political ?Resources: ?www.politicalresources.net/index2.htm ? ? ( 2) 议 题 调 查 电 子 资 源 :

Topic ?Research: ? ?
1. ?UN ?Peace ?and ?Security ?Page: ?www.un.org/peace; ? ? 2. ?UN ?Human ?Rights ?Page: ?www.un.org/rights; ? ? 3. ?UN ?Economic ?and ?Social ?Development ?Page: ?www.un.org/esa; ? ? 4. ?UN ?Humanitarian ?Affairs ?Page: ?www.un.org/ha; ? ? 5. ?UN ?International ?Law ?Page: ?www.un.org/law. ? 6. ?Databases: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Pro ?Quest ? (全文数据库平台) ? PQDT ?(Pro ?Quest ?Dissertations ?& ?Theses) ? Web ?of ?Science, ?SCI (科学引文) ,SSCI (社会科学引文) , ?AHI (艺术和人文引文) , 参考数据库平台 ? OCLC ? (参考数据库平台) ? EBSCO ? (全文数据库平台) ? JSTOR(免费西文过刊数据库) ? PKUNMUN 2015 75

Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 ? 中国知网 ? ? ? 注:检索平台是数据库的集合,如OCLC ? 包括 ? FirstSearch参考数据库、papers ?first会议论 文数据库等,Pro ?Quest包括 ? ABI商业信息数据库等。使用时可选择特定数据库检索,也可 在平台对所有数据库库同时进行检索。但 由 于 绝 大 部 分 优 质 数 据 库 需 购 买 才 可 使 用 ,可 能 大 部 分 代 表 都 无 法 使 用 该 方 式 进 行 检 索 , 故 在 此 不 做 过 多 阐 述 。 ? ? ( 3) 纸 质 资 料 检 索 一般图书: 一般图书包含许多比较成型的、 广泛被接受的学术观点, 以及一些从学科内基本原理出 发,对社会现象的阐释等。代表可从作者所属学术机构、出版年月、出版机构等判断图书的 学术价值。 工具书: 通常只有图书馆中会有完备的书目, 如 《大英百科全书》 《辞海》 《当代西方政治学词典》 等。目前有很多工具书都已经被电子化,网上可以查询。此外,以维基百科为代表的具有一 定学术严谨度的免费互联网百科的出现,方便了事实型数据的查找。当然,对于此类网络百 科提供的内容,代表应对其真实性加以甄别。 政 府 、 非 政 府 间 组 织 ( NGO) 出 版 物 : 机构制作的法令、议案、公报等,具有一定权威性。另还有一些政府对某些领域的发展 规划等。此类资源电子版更易获得,如:Norway?s Strategy for Sustainable Development: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FIN/rapporter/R-0617E.pdf 【相关参考书目】 声 明 :以 下 书 目 是 北 大 模 联 的 前 辈 通 过 多 年 国 际 关 系 学 习 经 验 积 累 的 书 单 ,其 中 的 书 籍 能 帮 助 大 家 加 深 对 于 联 合 国 历 史 和 制 度 的 了 解 ,以 及 对 于 国 际 关 系 的 了 解 。阅 读 这 些 书 籍 并 不 是 必 须 的 会 议 准 备 ,但 是 对 于 代 表 学 术 水 平 的 提 高 有 一 定 的 帮 助 ,可 以 借 鉴与参考。 梁西《国际组织法》(第四版),武汉大学出版社,1998年 王杰《联合国遭逢挑战》,中央编译出版社,1995年一月 王杰《大国手中的权杖:联合国形势否决权纪事》,当代世界出版社,1998年 李铁成《联合国历程》,语言出版社,1996年 李铁成《世界之交的联合国》,人民出版社,2002年 张树德《中国重返联合国纪事》,黑龙江人民出版社,1999 徐光健《联合国宪章诠释》,山西教育出版社,1999 王铁崖《联合国基本文件集》,中国政法大学出版社,1991 袁士槟,钱文荣主编,《联合国机制与改革》,北京语言学院出版社,1995 李铁城,《联合国五十年》,中国书籍出版社,1995 郭隆隆著《联合国新论》,上海教育出版社,1995 《联合国及其专门机构概述》,2002 76 PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook 谷歌学术搜索 ?

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 王杏芳主编《联合国重大决策》,当代世界出版社2001

第二节 ? 会议阶段 ?
在进行了充分的学术准备后,代表们就要面对紧张的会期了。在会议阶段,代表们的各 类会议技巧将在学术准备的支撑下推动整场会议。 a) 角色扮演

角色扮演是所有技巧中的重中之重。 在模拟联合国会议中, 从开始的点名到最 后的表决,无时无刻不渗透着角色扮演。要真正做好角色扮演并非易事。最重要的 是,代表们应该广泛而深入地了解所代表国的历史、文化和政策、外交方针。唯有 在真正理解国家政策的产生原因和历史背景的基础上, 代表们方能将该国立场阐述 得清晰而具有说服力。例如,当一个国家面临未解决的边界问题,种族冲突或国际 争端时,其政策中常常会含有许多对自身安全的关切。 代表们应当牢记:在角色扮演中不应该体现个人观点。从某种意义上来说,在 模拟联合国的会场上, 一名令人信服的国家代表就是一位出色的演员, 他应该很好 的体现出代表国的意志,使别人确信,他对此是完全赞同的。代表们必须注意的一 点是, 针对同一个问题有许多不同的观点, 认同与否与观点是否有价值是不划等号 的。 在2015年的大会中,多个会场中的代表所面临的角色扮演将与传统不同,这 两个会场中,除了常规的学术准备之外,代表将分别对司法、社会工作等理论知识 有一定了解,只有在拥有充分的理论支持的情况下,角色扮演才能顺利进行。 b) 游说与谈判

游说与谈判的技巧在人们的工作和生活中发挥着重要的作用, 但学习并掌握它 们并不是一件容易的事。 谈判并不仅仅意味着说服他人接受自己的观点, 还包括听 取他人的意见, 进行思考和反复的协商, 找到自己的落脚点, 从而得到想要的结果。 在模拟联合国中,谈判从委员会成员聚集一堂的那一刻,也许更早就开始了,直到 最后通过决议才能宣告结束。 游说与谈判的重点 ?熟知代表国的政策与目标 ? 在谈判中, 如果作为外交官的代表都不清楚自己的国家期望达成的目标是什么, 又如何能说服别的代表来支持你的国家呢?因此, 全面的了解自己的国家是十分重 要的。 在会议的准备阶段列出的本国基本政策和在会议上希望达成的目标在这时就 能够帮助代表更好的完成游说和谈判的工作。 同时, 代表还应该了解哪些国家和本 国属于同一集团,哪些国家与本国有着根本冲突,与哪些国家则有着求同存异,进 一步合作的可能。 ? ?进行合理的妥协 ? 熟悉代表国的政策底线是成功谈判的基础。 最理想的情况是用最少的付出换来 最令人满意的结果。 然而在实际情况下, 代表往往需要做出一定程度的让步来达成 目的。 ? 在参加会议之前, 代表应该思考在哪些领域可以调整自己的政策进行妥协。 但 必须明确的是,这些妥协不可对本国造成伤害,构成威胁,更不可随意更改确定的 立场。在会议进程中,如果某些国家支持的提议有害本国利益,代表必须提出,积 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2015 77

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 极寻找解决方案。在谈判的过程中,代表应该时刻牢记,既要尊重他人,又要坚守 原则。 ? 妥协的时机把握也是值得思考的一点。 如果太早就提出了妥协, 将会给其他代 表留下无需与这位代表认真商讨的印象, 从而在往后的讨论中忽略与你交流的重要 性。因此即使最终妥协,也应该让其他代表知晓,你是出于集团利益的考虑,为了 让这个措施能够争取到更广泛的支持而做出妥协的。 ? ? 关 于 谈 判 的 技 巧 ? ?听取他人意见 ? 许多代表认为, 听取他人的意见是一种相对被动的态度和做法。 在会议进程中, 往往出现意向条代替磋商的现象,这是一种不明智的做法。积极的了解你的盟友, 你的游说对象,能够让你掌握许多有用的信息,找到说服他人的方法和关键。不要 一味的急于表现,在协商中倾听他人的想法,往往能得到更令人满意的协商结果。 ? ?寻求双赢 ? 成功的谈判能够让双方都成为赢家。 因此代表应该学会营造合作的气氛, 这更 有利于一个集团的长久发展。得到尊重和欣赏会让每一位代表更努力参与会议。 ? ?询问而非命令 ? 在谈判过程中, 你期望从对方那里得到你所想要的信息, 比如他对你的支持态 度。 一个合作的气氛比起灌输的气氛更能够达到预期的效果。 与其不厌其烦的重复 本国的立场和态度, 不如认真听取对方的想法, 在能够合作的部分的基础上扩大共 识,商讨合作事宜。这样会让谈判的双方都感到最后的共识是符合自己需求的,实 现了双赢的目的。 ? ?了解谈判对象 ? 知彼知己,方能百战不殆。对于本国立场熟练掌握的代表,也应该对对方的立 场,动机和代表的集团利益了如指掌。这位代表是否能够果断的做出决定,是否会 坚定的站在一个立场不再更改,这都是需要代表注意的特征。 ? ?解决方法多样 ? 在谈判中要学会灵活应对,随机应变,其中很重要的一点是要明确,对于某个 问题的解决,并非只有一条正确的途径。很多事情都是可以商榷的,代表的做法也 并非是唯一正确的。谈判过程中,当一个新的想法被提出是,要积极思考它是否与 你代表的国家政策目标一致, 去寻找别人想法中的可行之处, 通过协商修改来达成 共识。 做好用其他方法解决问题的准备, 你就能更好的面对会场上瞬息万变的情形。 ? ?必要时请说不 ? 拒绝对很多人来说难以启齿,代表必须注意的是,拒绝并不是针对个人的,而 是出于对于国家立场或者解决方案的维护。有些时候“不”是唯一合适的回答。 ? ?寻找最佳集团 ? 同一个国家可能同时从属于若干个不同的集团, 在结成同盟的时候, 就要选择 最利于实现本国利益的集团。 在选定集团之后, 代表应该努力在该集团中确立本国 的地位,是自己的发言有力,想法有操作性,使自己的盟国团结在一起共同成功。 ? ?有效利用自由磋商和意向条 ? 自由磋商是进行游说和谈判的最佳时机, 选取合适的游说和磋商对象, 短短的 五分钟也可以有丰硕的成果。当然,意向条也是重要的工具,但需要注意的是,意 向条的作用是在不方便语言交流时起到实时通讯的作用, 而非取代有组织核心磋商 的作用,直接成为会议最重要的交流方式。 ? 78 PKUNMUN 2015 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2015 ? 演 讲 技 巧 ? 扮演外交官意味着代表们在发言时应该表现的自信而睿智, 发言内容清晰, 直 截了当,符合逻辑,各个观点间相互关联并且可行可用。 ? 会议中涉及到的通常有两类发言: ? 有准备发言——有准备发言往往有事先写好的发言稿, 这样可以清楚高效地发 表演说, 但如果代表为了准备演讲而耽误了宝贵的磋商和文件写作时间, 就得不偿 失了。 ? 另外, 在会议中发言时限和重点往往会有所改变, 事先准备好的讲稿很可能已 经不能符合但当时的需求,这时候,我们就需要第二种发言了。 ? 即兴发言——即兴发言往往更切中主题, 使听者的注意力更为集中。 但在此过 程中,发言中可能限于语言能力和思路的清晰程度对观点有多遗漏或者表述不清。 因此即兴发言者可以准备一个发言提纲,选择最重要的内容进行表达。 ? 需要注意的是,无论哪种发言,都不应该手持讲稿一字不拉的朗诵,这样会使听众 失去兴趣,也不利于观点的传递和眼神的交流。 ?

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