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名词在句中可以充当什么成分


Noun Clause:
Functions as a NOUN in a sentence.

Question:
What is the function of a noun in a sentence? 名词在句中可以充当什么成分? 名词在句中可以充当什么成分?

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主语从句
subject clause

宾语从句
object clause

名词性从句 noun clause
表语从句
predicative clause

同位语从句
appositive clause

主语从句
在复合句中作主句的主语.引导词有连词 在复合句中作主句的主语 引导词有连词that (that 引导词有连词 不可省),whether; 代词有 代词有who, what ,which;副 不可省 副 词 when ,where, how, why 等.如: 如

1.That he is a famous singer is known to us. (It is known to us that he is a famous singer.) 2.When he will go to America is not yet fixed. (It is not yet fixed when he will go to America.)

宾语从句
宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的 名词性从句, 及物动词) 名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词 或介词之后。 及物动词 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语

She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me.
2. 作介词的宾语

Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another.
3. 作形容词的宾语

I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.

表语从句
在复合句中作主句的表语.引导词有连词 在复合句中作主句的表语 引导词有连词that (that 引导词有连词 不可省),whether; 代词有 代词有who, what ,which;副 不可省 副 词 when ,where, how, why 等.如: 如

The problem is that we didn’t get in touch with him. This is how Henry solved the problem. It looks as if it is going to rain.

同位语从句
在句中起同位语的作用. 在句中起同位语的作用.一般放在名词 fact , news , 等之后, idea , promise, thought , suggestion 等之后, 用以说明或解释前面的名词. 用以说明或解释前面的名词.引导词有连词 that ;少 数情况下也可用连接副词等. 数情况下也可用连接副词等.如 :

1.The thought that we might success excited us. 2.The idea that they should try a second time is worth considering. 3.The suggestion that the plan (should) be delayed will be discussed tomorrow.

Tell the function of the following sentences.

a. subject (主语从句) 主语从句) 主语从句 b. object (宾语从句) 宾语从句) c. predicative(表语从句) (表语从句) d. appositive(同位语从句) (同位语从句)

1.The idea that England stands for Fish& Chips,Speakers’ Corner ,Big Ben and the Tower of appositive London is past. 2.The result of so much French influence was that the English language ended up with many French words such as table, animal and age.

predicative

3.Some people feel that Wales is an ancient fairy land. 4.That most of these are now threatened and may disappear is a serious matter to the people in Britain.

object

subject

5.They realize that it is of great value to record and teach them to the younger generation. object

陈述语序 B (1) They want to know _____ do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they B (2) These photographs will show you _____. A.what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like C (3) Can you make sure _____ the gold ring? A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put

A (4) No one can be sure _____ in a million years. A.what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like D (5) Someone is ringing the garbed. Go and see _____. A.who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is (6) —We haven't heard from Jane for a long time. C —What do you suppose _____ to her. A.was happening B. to happen C. has happened D. having happened

1. that 与whether / if 的选择: 的选择:
是否用whether /if 肯定用 that, 是否用

(1) _____ knowledge comes from practice is known to all A. What B. Where C. If D. That (2) It makes no difference _____ our sports meet will be held this week or next week. A. that B. either C. whether D. when whether / if (3) I doubt _____________ he will come soon. (4) I do not doubt _____________ he will come soon. that that (5) Do you doubt ____________ he will come soon?

2. 表示“是否”可用 whether/ if, 但在下列情况下用 表示“是否” whether , 不用 不用if a) 在表语从句和同位语从句中

The question is whether the film is worth seeing.
b) 在主语从句中,如果用 作形式主语,whether 在主语从句中,如果用it 作形式主语, 都能引导主语从句,否则只能用 否则只能用whether 和 if 都能引导主语从句 否则只能用

Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn't been decided yet. It hasn't been decided whether (if) we shall attend the meeting.

c) 在介词之后

It all depends on whether they will support us.
d) 后面直接跟动词不定式

He doesn't know whether to stay or not
e) 后面紧接 not 时 后面紧接or

We didn't know whether or not she was ready. What the woman said suggested that he hadn't decided whether to go or not.

A. whether B. if 1.I don’t know _______ I’ll be free tomorrow. A/ B
A 2. I don’t know _______ or not I’ll be free tomorrow. A 3. The question is ______ this book is worth writing. A 4. It depends on ______ we will have enough money. A 5. ______ they can do it matters little to us. B 6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you.

3. that, what引导名词性从句的区别 , 引导名词性从句的区别 1)____ you don’t like him is none of my business. ) A. What B. Who C. That D. Whether 2)____ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. A. What B. That C. The fact D. The matter 3) There’s a feeling in me ___ we’ll never know what a UFO is --- not ever. A. that B. which C. of which D. what

4._________ I can’t understand is why he has What changed his mind. 5.___________ the earth is round is known to us all. That 6. __________ we can’t get seems better What than _________ we have. what what 7. ______ he won the race was ______ we expected. That

归纳 that: what:
只起连接作用,在从句中不充当任何成分, 只起连接作用,在从句中不充当任何成分,没有词义 起连接作用,且在从句中充当主语,宾语或表语, 起连接作用,且在从句中充当主语,宾语或表语, 表示“ 表示“所……的”。 的

4. what & whatever 引导名词性从句的区别 who & whoever which & whichever Whatever 1.___________ is worth doing is worth doing well. What 2. __________we need is more time. Who 3.___________ made the long distance call to him is not important. 4.___________ breaks the law will be punished. Whoever whatever/whoever/whichever等引导的名词性从句 等引导的名词性从句 不含有疑问意义,相当于名词后加一个定语从句,而 相当于名词后加一个定语从句, what/who/which等引导的名词性从句都 等引导的名词性从句都 含有疑问意义。

1. It's generally considered unwise to give a child _______ he or she wants. A. which B. that C. whatever D. all what 2. These wild flowers are so special that I would do _______ I can to save them. A. which B. that C. whatever D. all what 3. _____ kills, sells or eats wild animals or birds, is to blame. A. Anyone B. Anyone who C. Those who D. Those 4. —How can we ______ with the coming flood? —Take ______ measures you consider best. A. do; whichever B. do; whatever C. deal; whatever D. deal; whichever

1. “it”作形式主语或形式宾语: 作形式主语或形式宾语: 作形式主语或形式宾语
A 1.I hate ____ when people talk with their mouths full. . A. it B. that C. these D. them B 2. I feel ____ strange that he should be so careless. A. / B. it C. that D. how B 3. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey. A.while B. that C.if D.for . . . 4 Will you see to ____ that the luggage is brought back? C A. we B. yourself C. it D. them D 5 It's well known ____ the earth mores round the sun. A. / B. why C. what D. that

(1) It is pity that you missed such a good chance. (2) It's certain that his invention will lead to the development of production. (3) It is said that there is another good harvest this year. (4) It makes no difference whether our sports meet will be held this week or next week. (5) I don't think it true that he came to the concert yesterday. (6) We think it important that collage students should master at least me foreign language.

2. 主语从句中的“主谓一致”: 主语从句中的“主谓一致” 1.主语从句通常被看作一个整体 主句的谓语动词用单数 主语从句通常被看作一个整体,主句的谓语动词用单数 主语从句通常被看作一个整体 形式. 形式

That they will come is certain.
2. What 引导主语从句时 主句谓语动词的单复数由 引导主语从句时,主句谓语动词的单复数由 表语的单复数决定. 表语的单复数决定

What he wants are these books. What he wants is some water.

3. 宾语从句中的“时态呼应”与“否定转移” 宾语从句中的“时态呼应” 否定转移” 时态呼应

he told me that he had been working there for five years.
否定转移 若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, 若主句谓语动词为 expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含 等 有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上, 有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句 谓语用肯定式。例如: 谓语用肯定式。例如:

I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。) (我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。)

4. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气: 名词性从句中的虚拟语气:

He suggested that a meeting (should) be held immediately. It was suggested that a meeting (should) be held immediately. His suggestion was that a meeting (should) be held immediately. He made a suggestion that a meeting (should) be held immediately.

1. 表示建议 请求 命令 要求 坚持等的宾语从句 表示建议 请求, 命令, 要求,坚持等的宾语从句, 建议, 坚持等的宾语从句 表语从句,同位语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气 表语从句 同位语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气. 同位语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气 2.在主语从句中用来表示惊奇, 不相信 惋惜 理应如此等, 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇 不相信,惋惜 理应如此等 惋惜,理应如此 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇 谓语动词用虚拟语气( 谓语动词用虚拟语气 should ) + do,常用句型有 常用句型有 1)It is necessary( important, natural, strange, etc) …… that…… 2) It is a pity( a shame, no wonder etc,) ……that…… It is strange that she (should) think so.

同位语从句与定语 从句的相似之处
1、两种从句都可以译成定语 、

The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. (同位语从句) 同位语从句) 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞 消息令人鼓舞。 我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞。 The news that you told us is really encouraging. 定语从句) (定语从句) 你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞 消息真的令人鼓舞。 你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。

2、两种从句都可以用that引导 、两种从句都可以用 引导

The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering.
(同位语从句) 同位语从句) 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑 建议值得考虑。 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。

The suggestion that is worth considering is that the students should learn something practical.
(定语从句)值得考虑的建议是学生应该学些实用的 定语从句)值得考虑的建议是学生应该学些实用的 东西。 东西。

同位语从句与定语 从句的不同之处
1、从句的作用不同: 、从句的作用不同: 同位语从句用来进一步说明前面名词的内容; 同位语从句用来进一步说明前面名词的内容; 定语从句用来修饰、限定前面的名词。 定语从句用来修饰、限定前面的名词。

The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. The news that you told us is really encouraging
从句对“消息”加以限定: 你告诉我们的, 从句对“消息”加以限定:是你告诉我们的, 而非来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。) 而非来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。) (从句说明“消息”的内容:我们队取得了决赛胜 从句说明“消息”的内容: 利。)

2、引导从句的关联词that的功能不同: 、引导从句的关联词 的功能不同: 的功能不同 that引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词,不充当任何成 引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词, 引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词 分引导定语从句的that是关系代词,既指代先行词又 是关系代词, 分引导定语从句的 是关系代词 须在从句中充当成分。 须在从句中充当成分。

1)Dad made a promise that he would buy me CD player if I passed the English test.
不充当任何成分) (that 不充当任何成分)

2) Dad made a promise that excited all his children
指代promise,又在从句中充当主语。) (that指代 指代 ,又在从句中充当主语。)

1.The question is ____the film is worth seeing. A. if B. what C. whether D. how 2.They received orders _____ the work be done at once. A .which B. when C. / D .that 3.The reason ____ I have to go is ____ my mother is ill in bed. A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because

4. ___ I can’t understand is ___ she wants to change her mind. A. What; why B. Which; how C. That; why D. What; because 5. ____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if 6. It is known to us ___ where there is pollution, there is harm. A. which B. where C. what D. that

7. I have the information ____. A. of what he’ll come soon B. that he’ll come soon C. of that he’ll come soon D. his coming soon 8. --- I saw your neighbor break your window with a basketball. --- ____ it made me nearly mad. A. That he broke B. What he broke C. He broke D. His break

9.It remains a question ____ we can get so much money in such a short time. A. how B. that C. when D. what 10.--- Can I help you? --- Yes, do you know ____? A. when comes the bus B. when will come the bus C. when does the bus come D. when the bus comes

11. He made a promise ___ anyone set him free he would make him very rich. A. that B. if C. what D. that if 12. They lost their way in the forest and ____ made matters worse was ___ night began to fall. A. what; that B. it; that C. what; when D. which; what


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